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Jeffreys I (2007) Warm-up revisited: The ramp method of optimizing warm-ups. Professional Strength and Conditioning. (6) 12-18

  • Setanta College


While some elements of the strength and conditioning portfolio have yet to achieve acceptance in the preparation of athletes in all sports, one area of practice which is almost universally accepted is the principle of the warm-up. Today, few athletes at any level train or compete without some attempt at a " warm-up ". However, while the general principles surrounding the need to warm-up remain valid, a large body of evidence is building up which both questions some of our current practices, and provides possible opportunities to improve practice. This article looks at current practice, and presents a model around which to construct effective warm-ups.
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While some elements of the strength and conditioning portfolio have
yet to achieve acceptance in the preparation of athletes in all sports,
one area of practice which is almost universally accepted is the
principle of the warm-up. Today, few athletes at any level train or
compete without some attempt at a “warm-up”. However, while the
general principles surrounding the need to warm-up remain valid, a
large body of evidence is building up which both questions some of
our current practices, and provides possible opportunities to improve
practice. This article looks at current practice, and presents a model
around which to construct effective warm-ups.
Why do we warm-up?
An important starting point in examining optimal application of warm-
up is to examine the rationale behind why we warm-up. In its
simplest terms, the goal of the warm-up is to prepare the athlete
mentally and physically for exercise or competition.21 A well designed
warm-up can increase muscle temperature, core temperature, blood
flow26 and also disrupt transient connective tissue bonds.13 These
effects can have the following positive effects on performance:
• Faster muscle contraction and relaxation of both agonist and
antagonist muscles.21
• Improvements in rate of force development and reaction time.1
• Improvements in muscle strength and power.5,13
• Lowered viscous resistance in muscles.13
• Improved oxygen delivery due to the Bohr effect where higher
temperatures facilitate oxygen release from haemoglobin and
• Increased blood flow to active muscles.26
• Enhanced metabolic reactions.13
Additionally, a common reason given by coaches for a warm-up is a
reduction in the risk of injury. Whilst the influence of a warm-up on
injury prevention is unclear, the evidence suggests a positive
A well designed warm-up can clearly have a positive effect on
subsequent performance, and a useful way of looking at warm-up is
as “performance preparation”, enabling an athlete to perform
maximally in their workout/competition. With this performance
preparation approach, the methods used in warm-up can be selected
and evaluated to provide optimal effect on performance.
A coaching opportunity
One of the challenges facing a strength and conditioning coach is
limited time, and the need to include a range of training stimuli to
the athlete. A well planned warm-up can provide an ideal opportunity
to include a range of stimuli in the training programme, without
creating an additional work load on the athlete. Ideally, a warm-up
should be an integral part of the training session, providing for
optimal performance preparation but also contributing to the overall
Warm up revisited – the
‘ramp’ method of optimising
performance preparation
Ian Jeffreys BA(Hons), MSc, CSCS*D, ASCC, NSCA-CPT*D
Ian Jeffreys is currently Director
of Athletics and Athletic
Performance at Coleg Powys in
Brecon, Wales. He is the
Strength and Conditioning Coach
for the Welsh Schools Rugby
Union National team at Under 16
A registered Strength and
Conditioning Coach with the
British Olympic Association, an
NSCA Coach Practitioner, and a
Board Member of the United
Kingdom Strength and
Conditioning Association, Ian was
voted the NSCA High School
Professional of the Year in 2006.
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training effect. To this end, planning of the warm-
up is as important as planning the main session
itself. By carefully selecting activities, the warm-
up can contribute greatly to the overall training
programme, and should be in balance with the
aim of the session, and the aim of the
programme. To facilitate this, activities can be
chosen which contribute to the aims of the overall
session, and contribute to the aims of the given
training cycle. In this way, a well planned warm-
up is an extremely time effective method of
including a number of key elements within a
training programme, elements which may not be
able to be included if they have to entail their
own specific time frame. Most warm-ups will last
from 10-30 minutes. Over a training cycle, that
contributes a massive amount of training time,
which, with effective planning, can be used to
work productively on a range of areas, without
increasing the overall training load.
Traditional components of a
If the aim of a warm-up is to prepare for
competition or practice, the the optimal warm-up
is likely to vary between sports, and warm-ups
need to be constructed that address the
specific needs of both the athlete and
sport. These need to take into account
the physiological and biomechanical
requirements of the sport, as well as the
technical requirements of the sport itself.
While warm-up has traditionally focussed
on energy system and muscular aspects
of the physiological processes, the
neurological aspects of warm-up have
often been overlooked. For optimal
effectiveness, a warm-up needs to
provide optimum preparation in all
aspects of performance. Indeed
Gambetta19 argues that the stimulation of
the nervous system is the most important
part of the warm-up.
However, despite this need for specificity,
a number of key phases have traditionally
been identified, a general warm-up and a
specific warm-up.22. The general phase
has been associated with increases in
heart rate, respiration rate, blood flow,
and joint fluid viscosity,12 and normally
consists of light activities such as jogging.
The specific phase has traditionally
consisted of stretching and sport specific
The use of stretching
Perhaps the greatest debate regarding
warm-up at present is the use of static
stretching. Static stretching has become
an integral part of many warm-up
routines, with injury prevention and
performance enhancement being given as
justifications for its inclusion. However,
there is little, if any, evidence that stretching pre
or post participation prevents injury.20,29,33,34,37
Similarly, in terms of the performance
enhancement elements, research suggests that
rather than enhance subsequent performance,
static stretching can compromise muscle
In terms of performance decrements after static
stretching, research has indicated potential
decrements in force production,3,9,10,11,14,30 power
performance,8,40,43 running speed,16 reaction time,4
and strength endurance.28 PNF7(Proprioceptive
Neuromuscular Facilitation) and ballistic
stretching27 have also been shown to have
detrimental effects of performance. While some
studies have found that static stretching has no
effect on subsequent performance,25,38,41 there is
sufficient evidence to question the use of static
stretching in warm-up, and the justification to
look at other methods which do not have the
potential to reduce performance, and which may
offer more functional methods of enhancing
Dynamic stretching on the other hand does not
seem to cause the performance reduction effects
There is little, if any, evidence that stretching pre or post
participation prevents injury.
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of static and PNF stretching16 and has been shown
to improve subsequent running performance.16,25,41
Additionally, the dynamic nature of dynamic
stretching is more functional than static
stretching given the need for active and dynamic
methods to be used in functional warm-ups.19
Effective dynamic stretches also require that the
muscle is activated through the range of
movement, which contributes to the neural
activation requirements of effective warm-ups.
Given this, dynamic stretching may be the most
suitable method of mobilization during warm-up
for a number of sports. It is important to note
however, that static stretching before activity
might increase performance in sports that require
an increased range of motion, such as
Towards a new classification of
Given the opportunity to use warm-ups as part of
the training process and the evidence questioning
many current practices in warm-up, it may be
prudent to develop a new classification of warm-
up phases. This would help remove some of the
key “grey areas” of current practice, and also
provide a framework around which to build
effective warm-ups. In this way the effectiveness
of warm-up practices can be evaluated in terms
of its effect on performance and its effectiveness
as part of the training process. This would be
similar to the approach taken by Verstegen39 who
has re-termed warm-up as movement
preparation, which reflects the approach he takes
to effective warm-up.
To this end the following “RAMP” system may
provide a method by which warm-up activities
can be classified and constructed. This system
identifies three key phases of effective warm-ups.
1. Raise
2. Activate and Mobilise
3. Potentiate
This phase has the aim of elevating body
temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, blood
flow and joint fluid viscosity via low intensity
activities. Whilst this is common practice, the
methods used to achieve it often represents
perhaps the biggest waste of valuable training
time in many programmes, with the common jog
around a field still a common sight. Given the
limited training time a strength and conditioning
coach has with the athletes, and the contribution
that warm-up can play in the training process,
this phase can be dedicated to movement skills
and/or sport skills. Over a training year these
activities can contribute a massive amount of
time dedicated to developing these key elements.
By identifying elements such as key movement
patterns or techniques involved in a sport, the
strength and conditioning professional can
construct routines that develop and hone these
effectively whilst still providing for the elevation
elements needed within the warm-up.
Activate and mobilize
This phase has two key aims
1. To activate key muscle groups.
2. To mobilize key joints and ranges of motion
used in the sport.
In terms of specific activation, the inclusion of
this will depend upon the needs of the athlete
and/or the sport. In some instances, where key
muscle groups may need to be stimulated,
exercises can be selected that target these key
muscles. This can often involve exercises
traditionally associated with prehab such as mini
band routines, rotator cuff exercises, glute
bridges, overhead squats etc. This is a time
efficient method of including these exercises in
the training programme, and the extent of this
phase will depend upon the individual sport and
the individual athlete’s needs.
The achievement of the mobilization phase of the
warm-up takes a radically different approach than
the traditional static stretching approach. Rather
than focus on individual muscles, the approach is
to work on movements. This has a number of key
advantages. First, the dynamic nature contributes
to maintaining the elevation effects of the first
period. Secondly the movements are more
specific to those found in the sport, and thirdly it
is extremely time efficient. Additionally, it has a
physiologically different approach. Whilst static
stretching involves a relaxation of the muscle, the
activation and mobilization approach involves
actively working a muscle through its range of
motion, which has the effect of activating all of
the key muscles involved both directly in the
movements and also in the stabilsation of the
body through the movements. In this way
preparation for activity is enhanced, as muscles
are activated, as well as mobilized through key
In designing the activate and mobilization phase,
the strength and conditioning professional needs
to identify the key movement patterns involved in
the sport, together with key muscles that need to
be activated in order to produce these
movements. A series of dynamic stretches can
then be selected which provide for the activation
and mobilization needed for effective sports
performance. This type of approach helps
maintain the beneficial effects of the elevation
section of the warm-up, and can also be
extremely time efficient, as by focusing on
movements, many muscle groups can be
activated and mobilized with the same
movement, rather than with the single muscle
approach of traditional static stretching routines.
Coaches should be encouraged to develop a
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range of dynamic movements that can activate
key areas and which contribute to the overall
session aims. In this way, they can bring variety
to the warm-up routines, and also provide for the
variability which can contribute to training gains.
The term ‘potentiation’ refers to activities that
improve effectiveness, and in the case of the
warm-up involves the selection of activities that
will improve the effectiveness of subsequent
performance. This phase of the warm-up will see
a gradual shift towards the actual sport
performance or workout itself, and will normally
involve sport specific activities of increasing
intensity. Including these high intensity dynamic
exercises can facilitate subsequent
performance,6,15,42 and is the essence of the
potentiation phase of the warm-up. The nature of
the activities will depend upon the specific nature
of the activities to perform, e.g. a sprint workout
will comprise of sprint drills and sprints of
increasing intensity. Additionally, they may also
comprise of activities that increase elements of
physical performance that may contribute to
higher levels of subsequent performance.
The potentiation phase of the warm-up can have
two aims.
1. The first, and most common aim, is to increase
the intensity of exercise to a point at which
athletes are able to perform their
training/match activities at their maximal
2. The second, and least common application, is
to select activities that may contribute to a
super-maximal effect, where the activities
chosen contribute to an enhanced performance
effect, via the utlilisation of the post-activation
potentiation (PAP) effect.
For the former aim, what is important is that a
series of activities are engaged in that allow the
athlete to achieve their peak performance when
the workout or competition begins. For running
workouts, speed and agility drills are ideal at this
time, in that they provide for a progressive
potentiation effect, which at the same time
provides a very real training benefit. The
performance of speed/agility drills in this section
of the warm-up can be a very time efficient way
of ensuring athletes receive regular doses of
progressive speed and agility training, at the
optimal time in any workout. Using speed and
agility type drills at this time ensures that the
athlete undertakes these when they are fresh,
and when the training will result in the greatest
For resistance training workouts, plyometric,
medicine ball, and lighter or explosive resistance
exercises can be used which provide a progression
towards the workout itself, and which provide a
stimulus to allow maximal effort on the first sets.
In terms of the PAP effects, the application of
post-activation potentiation research may provide
an avenue by which to enhance the overall
effectiveness of the warm-up, especially in sports
requiring high force and power outputs. Force and
power production is dependent upon both the
muscles and tendons capacity, and the ability of
the neural system to activate the muscles. As
Gandevia18 asserts, “muscles are the servants of
the brain”. In studying the force output of a
muscle, it is important to note that motor units
are capable of firing at different frequencies, and
that the activation depends upon the level of
excitation of the motoneurones by the CNS.31
Thus there are subtle changes that take place in
the neural control of sports based movements,
and in the muscle tendon characteristics during
different activities. What is important is to
determine whether these can be influenced by
potentiating exercise. In this way PAP type
activities could have a beneficial effect on
subsequent performance.
However, post-activation potentiation in human
performance is a relatively new field of study, and
thus definitive conclusions as to its effectiveness,
and the most efficacious methods of eliciting
performance enhancement through PAP is very
limited.32 Hopefully, further research into this area
will highlight areas which can optimize the
potentiation of performance through the use of
PAP type activities.
The “RAMP” approach provides a framework
around which to construct effective warm-up
procedures for both competition and the workout.
At all times the aim of the warm-up must always
be kept in mind, that is to ensure optimal
preparation for performance, and activities should
be selected that provide for raising, activation,
mobilisation and potentiation, but without the
development of undue fatigue.
Additionally, effective planning of warm-up
periods through the training week can provide for
ergonomically effective workouts. Effective
movement/skill based elevation sections allow for
a great deal of skill or movement development
activity, but with no additional time load on the
athlete. Similarly, effective activation &
mobilization activities allow for the effective
deployment of mobility and prehab training, with
again no additional time requirement.
The potentiation sector also provides an ideal
time to carry out activities such as speed and
agility work, and again can provide a very time
efficient method by which to ensure athletes have
controlled doses of this type of training
throughout the training year. Additionally, as
research on the effects of PAP becomes available,
this may provide a framework around which to
maximize this effect for specific sports.
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... Warm-up routines are important in sports. Warm-ups are usually performed to stimulate physiological responses such as increasing blood flow to active muscles, metabolic reactions, nerve conduction velocity, enzymatic activity, body temperature, and power output (Erkut, Gelen, & Sunar, 2017;Hoffman, 2014;Jeffreys, 2007). The role of stretching is important for warm-up. ...
... Previous studies indicate that dynamic stretching should be preferred due to the fact that it does not compromise acute performance pre-activity (Amiri-Khorasani, Abu Osman, & Yusof, 2011;Behm & Chaouachi, 2011;Hough, Ross, & Howatson, 2009;Opplert & Babault, 2018;Richman, Tyo, & Nicks, 2019). On the other hand, static stretching is preferable to increase range of motion and prevent from injuries (Herbert & Gabriel, 2002;Jeffreys, 2007;Samson, Button, Chaouachi, & Behm, 2012). Studies have indicated that static stretching compromises jumping performance (Jeffreys, 2007;Samuel, M. N., Holcomb, W. R., Guadagnoli, M. A., Rubley, M. D., & Wallmann, 2008;Unick, Kieffer, Cheesman, & Feeney, 2005). ...
... On the other hand, static stretching is preferable to increase range of motion and prevent from injuries (Herbert & Gabriel, 2002;Jeffreys, 2007;Samson, Button, Chaouachi, & Behm, 2012). Studies have indicated that static stretching compromises jumping performance (Jeffreys, 2007;Samuel, M. N., Holcomb, W. R., Guadagnoli, M. A., Rubley, M. D., & Wallmann, 2008;Unick, Kieffer, Cheesman, & Feeney, 2005). However, static stretching is commonly used in training sessions and programs and there are also a few studies indicating that static stretching has no adverse effect on acute performance (Bazett-Jones, Gibson, & Mcbride, 2008;De Oliveira & Rama, 2016;Unick et al., 2005). ...
Full-text available
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of static stretching on squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) in diurnal variation. Fifty-three male collegiate athletes (age=21.9±2.6 years; height=179.7±8.1cm; body-mass=75.3±8.6kg; mean±SD) completed the SJ and CMJ tests either after static stretching or no stretching protocols at two times of the day (07:00h and 17:00h) in random order on non-consecutive days. After warming-up for 5 minutes with low-intensity jogging, participants walked for 2 minutes before performing one of the two stretching protocols (static stretching or no stretching) then 4-5 minutes of additional rest was given before SJ and CMJ performances were measured. Jump heights were analyzed using the two-way ANOVA with repeated measures (2[stretching]×2[time-of-day]). No stretching protocol caused better jump heights in both SJ and CMJ (p< .01). SJ heights were higher at 17:00 compared to 07:00 in both static stretching (8.8%) and no stretching (9.1%) protocols (p< .01). Similarly, CMJ heights were higher at 17:00 compared to 07:00 in both static stretching (10.6%) and no stretching (5.8%) protocols (p< .01). Static stretching adversely influenced jump heights both in the morning and evening. However, it caused less negative effect in the evening.
... In preparation for physical activity, athletes will typically undertake a "warm-up" to physically and mentally ready themselves to perform (16). The mental preparation will typically involve the implementation of cognitive and behavioral techniques. ...
... Seventy-one were male, 18 were female, and one subject did not identify their sex. There was a median age of 28  7.47 (24-33) years and a median training age in their sport of 11  7.57 (8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18). Subject's ability levels ranged from those that did not compete in sport (n = 7, 7.9%), to amateur (n = 54, 60.7%), semi-professional (n = 17, 19.1%), and professional (n = 11, 12.4%). ...
... From the 9 subjects that used strategies through their coach, motivational statements were the most frequently used (n = 6, 54.5%), followed by motivating team talks (n = 3, 27.3%), and listened to the coach's choice of music (n = 2, 18.2%). Of the subjects that used music themselves, the genres listened to were: rap (n = 9, 18.8%), hip hop (n = 8, 16.7%), rock (n = 4, 10.4%), metal (n = 4, 10.4%), rhyme and blues (n = 4, 8.3%), dance (n = 3, 6.3%), general high-tempo (n = 3, 6.3%), instrumental (n = 3, 6.3%), house (n = 2, 4.2%), music related to motivational films (n = 2, 4.2%), pop (n = 2, 4.2%), electronic (n = 1, 2.1%), and techno (n = 1, 2.1%). ...
This study aimed to examine the frequency and modes of psychological priming techniques and strategies being implemented by athletes of a variety of performance levels. A 15-question, anonymous questionnaire was developed and shared via social media sites. The survey implemented a quantitative method approach to collect background information (e.g., demographics, competition, and training history), the prevalence of priming, and the methods used. Ninety subjects met the inclusion criteria (71 men, 18 women, 1 subject did not identify their sex), with a median age of 28 ± 7.47 (24-33) years and training age of 11 ± 7.57 (8-18) years. Self-selected participation level accounted for 11 professional, 17 semi-professional, and 54 amateur level athletes. Priming strategies were implemented by 79% of subjects without the use of a coach, 10% used strategies with their coach, and 11% did not prime. For athletes, music was the preferred choice (27%), followed by instructional self-talk (24%), motivational self-talk (23%), applied physical actions (20%), and watching videos clips (6.3%). Coaches preferred motivational statements with 55% implementing this technique, followed by 27% utilizing inspiring team talks, and only 18% playing music. Of those that implemented a priming strategy, 66% found them to be either “very” or “extremely effective”. With 38% of subjects feeling priming accomplished this through increased motivation, 22% felt it reduced their fear and anxiety, 21% thought it improved their intensity, 15% felt it increased strength and power, and 2% felt it improved endurance. The chi-square test also found a significant (jc = 0.27; p = 0.011) relationship with the use of priming to increase motivation. These results demonstrate priming strategies are being used irrespective of coach intervention, therefore educating coaches and athletes on the implementation of priming techniques has its place when aiming to improve athlete performance.
... However, despite the mix and unclear definitions found in the literature, it is not very difficult to determine the inclusion of general motor abilities such as power, speed, endurance and flexibility in each movement. However, there is no clearly defined mobility; a skill that can be defined as the ability to move actively through a range of motions [3,4]. This means that mobility is a way of functional flexibility . ...
... However, execution of the routines, which includes coordination, means inclusion of both mobility, flexibility and other motor abilities [8]. Furthermore, execution of the elements such as a side split, forward-backward split, or arm trunk angle, require flexibility [2,3]. On the other hand execution of the elements such as a straddle jump, wolf jump, stag leap, split leap, turn variations, etc., require high active flexibility at the same time when force is the dominant skill in a certain movements. ...
... This fact is based on different research that can be found in the literature. The focus on PEDAGOGY mobility, or actively moving through a range of motions, requires a combination of motor control, stability and flexibility, and more closely relates to the movement requirements an athlete will face [3,4]. Thus, explaining the involvement of flexibility, especially active flexibility, to the movements that require mobility such as a trunk bent forward, leg raises forward, leg raises sideward, etc., which may increase the gymnast's performance. ...
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Background and Study Aim The purpose of the study is a biomechanical examination of the inclusion of active flexibility in artistic gymnastic movements requiring mobility (muscles' ability to stretch), flexibility and other motor abilities such as force, power, etc. Material and Methods The study included 17 girl gymnasts aged 7-9 years old, with a body height of 140.7±10.2, weight of 34.1±6.4, and a body mass index of 17.6±3.0. Data collection in the study was made by using performance tests developed by FIG such as a Forward-Backward Split, Side Spit, Arm-Trunk Angle Backward, Trunk Bent Forward, Leg Raise forward, Leg Raise Sideward, Bridge, Standing long Jump, Lift Trunk Forward-60secs, Angle Degree of the Leg Split Position in Cartwheel, and Arm-Upper Body Angle Backward in Bridge Technique. The Kinovea 0.8.15 program was used in the data analysis of the variables in the study. The SPSS 24 software program was used for the data analysis. Percentages of the angle degree calculated by the formula "%= (angle 0 of the mobility in functional movement / angle 0 of the active flexibility) *100" were found. Results Results indicate that active flexibility was 90% functional in the leg raise sideward, 90% in the leg split during execution of the cartwheel, 17.5% in the bridge technique, and completely functional for the flexibility ratio expressed in the leg raise forward technique. In the analysis of the various elements of the similar biomechanics, the anatomic structure and similar body planes, it was concluded that active flexibility expressed in the movements required a mobility of around 65-75%. Conclusions: It was determined that the functionality rate of the techniques requiring active flexibility and requiring mobility of the same biomechanical and anatomical structure was around 65-75%. Therefore, to execute 100% of the flexibility in action (during active elements) as it is in a passively or actively, it may significantly increase force, motor control, dynamic balance, coordination etc., in the large range of motion.
... The objective of this study was to statistically analyse data from gymnastics clubs to identify if there was a correlation between coaching positions, club location and the delivered warm up protocol in relation to Jeffreys (2007) 'RAMP' principle which aims to 'raise', 'activate and mobilise' as well as 'potentiate' the body ready for performance. By inviting all eligible Scottish Gymnastics Clubs to participate in the research the chance of gathering an appropriate and detailed spread of data was increased. ...
... Warm-ups are said to have a more crucial benefit other than decreasing the likelihood of injuries (Radu 2017), however the true impact of a warm-up on injury prevention is clouded (Jeffreys 2007). A warm-up engages the body's metabolism, heats muscles, aids the transportation of oxygen to organs and working muscles, and mentally optimize the athlete for activity-increasing concentration, alertness, and composition. ...
... When aiming to increase the range of motion within a hip flexion, an essential contributor to the performance of the splits (BBC 2019), passive stretching was identified as the most effective (Russell N.D). Jeffreys (2007) expresses that the 'activation and mobilisation' phase require muscles to be worked actively through their range of motion. Jeffreys (2019) states that the short-term goal of this phase is to prepare the gymnast for the session, whereas the long-term aim is to enhance the gymnast's ability to perform by assisting with the development of key movement patterns and required ranges of motion for performance. ...
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The purpose of this study was to statistically analyse survey data submitted by Scottish Gymnastics clubs (n = 25) to determine whether or not coaching position, coaching qualifications, type of club (recreational or competitive) and location influenced whether the general children’s gymnastics warm-up delivered at each club was in line with Jeffreys (2007) ‘RAMP’ principle. Clubs were asked to complete a 14-question online survey including a copy of their current general children’s gymnastics warm-up protocol. The survey included questions relating to coaching position, club name, whether the club class themselves as rural or city, age of club (years), type of club (recreational, Competitive), number of coaches and position (full-time paid, part-time paid, volunteer), length of typical warm-up component, level of qualification of the person who designed the warm-up and whether or not this warm-up deviated much from the one provided. The researcher then scored the warm-ups of each club compared to the ‘RAMP’ protocol as either following or not following the ‘RAMP’ research. Four Chi-square (C2) statistical tests were carried out testing for significant differences (p < 0.05) between the ‘RAMP’ score as awarded by the researcher and club personnel, coach qualification, region and whether clubs were recreational or competitive. The only statistical significance was observed between coach’s qualification and the ‘RAMP’ score (p = .041). A Chi-square statistical test, Appendix 5, evidenced that 100% of Level 1-2 coaches (n = 10) were statistically less likely to meet research than 33.3% of level 3 and above coaches (n = 5), C2(1, N =25) = 4.2, p < 0.05. Concluding that coaches who hold a lower qualification were statistically less likely to deliver a warm-up in line with current recommendations.
... Coaches and practitioners regularly utilise the pre-competition warm-up to acutely enhance neuromuscular performance [1][2][3]. The use of a warm-up is thought to influence performance through several temperature-related (decreased resistance of muscles and joints, increased nerve conduction rate and thermoregulatory strain, greater release of oxygen from haemoglobin and myoglobin, and speeding up of metabolic reactions) and non-temperature-related (increased blood flow, elevation of baseline oxygen consumption and psychological effects) mechanisms [3]. ...
... An element that has often been ignored in the pre-post study designs is the effect of the warm-up on the apparent PAPE effect. The many benefits of a warm-up to athletic performance has been established previously [1][2][3]. If it is currently accepted that the mechanisms of warm-up and PAPE are similar [5], then it is difficult to isolate the two elements and correctly attribute a performance enhancement in prepost study designs, in the absence of a control trial. ...
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Background Research on post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE) is dominated by lower-body conditioning activities/performance test complexes. Despite the contribution of the upper body to many sporting actions, no review on upper-body PAPE currently exists. Objectives The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to provide a synthesis of the available research on the inclusion of upper-body PAPE conditioning activities to improve athletic performance. Methods A review of the literature was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analyses guidelines, including a literature search of EBSCOhost, SPORTDiscus, PubMed and Google Scholar databases. A total of 127 studies were identified through database searches, and were assessed against the following criteria: (1) randomised controlled trial or pre-and-post study design; (2) studies explored the effects of prior voluntary muscle activity, and not electrically induced contractions, (3) evidence, or lack thereof, of PAPE was quantified by the monitoring of individual performance to commonly applied physical tests or sport-specific tasks; (4) conditioning activities and performance tests were primarily upper-body; (5) detailed description of a standardised warm-up; and (6) full-text versions of studies could be accessed in English language peer-reviewed journals. Studies were quality assessed for methodological quality via the PEDro scale and ranked accordingly. Results Thirty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies were classified into different conditioning activity modes: bench press variations, sport-specific (modified implement throws, swing-specific, cable pulley, elastic resistance, combination) and bodyweight activity. Acute performance enhancement in several movement-specific combinations was found. A meta-analysis revealed that bench press at ≥ 80% one repetition maximum significantly ( p = 0.03; ES = 0.31) improves subsequent power output in the ballistic bench throw at 30–40% one repetition maximum, following 8–12 min recovery. Additionally, sport-specific overweight implement throws improved subsequent throwing distance at competition weight by ~ 1.7–8.5%; ES = 0.14–0.33, following 3 min recovery. Sport-specific lighter weighted bat swings and swing-specific isometrics resulted in improved subsequent competition weight bat swing velocities, ranging from ~ 1.3–3.3%; ES = 0.16–0.57. Conclusions This review presents several upper-body movement-specific conditioning activities that could be considered by coaches and practitioners as part of complex or contrast training, or used in pre-competition warm-ups to acutely enhance performance.
... For resisted runs, a weighted sled was attached to each participant by a 3.6-m cord and waist harness to minimize lateral displacements during sprinting [42]. Prior to the commencement of trials participants completed a standardized 15-min warm-up using the RAMP protocol [51], and finished with sprints that increased in intensity, as in Jeffreys [51]. Participants were then provided with a further 5-min to complete additional self-selected warm-up exercises. ...
... For resisted runs, a weighted sled was attached to each participant by a 3.6-m cord and waist harness to minimize lateral displacements during sprinting [42]. Prior to the commencement of trials participants completed a standardized 15-min warm-up using the RAMP protocol [51], and finished with sprints that increased in intensity, as in Jeffreys [51]. Participants were then provided with a further 5-min to complete additional self-selected warm-up exercises. ...
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In this study, we assessed the acute kinematic effects of different sled load conditions (unloaded and at 10%, 20%, 30% decrement from maximum velocity (Vdec)) in different sporting populations. It is well-known that an athlete’s kinematics change with increasing sled load. However, to our knowledge, the relationship between the different loads in resisted sled sprinting (RSS) and kinematic characteristics is unknown. Thirty-three athletes (sprinters n = 10; team sport athletes n = 23) performed a familiarization session (day 1), and 12 sprints at different loads (day 2) over a distance of 40 m. Sprint time and average velocity were measured. Sagittal-plane high-speed video data was recorded for early acceleration and maximum velocity phase and joint angles computed. Loading introduced significant changes to hip, knee, ankle, and trunk angle for touch-down and toe-off for the acceleration and maximum velocity phase (p < 0.05). Knee, hip, and ankle angles became more flexed with increasing load for all groups and trunk lean increased linearly with increasing loading conditions. The results of this study provide coaches with important information that may influence how RSS is employed as a training tool to improve sprint performance for acceleration and maximal velocity running and that prescription may not change based on sporting population, as there were only minimal differences observed between groups. The trunk lean increase was related to the heavy loads and appeared to prevent athletes to reach mechanics that were truly reflective of maximum velocity sprinting. Lighter loads seem to be more adequate to not provoke changes in maxV kinematics. However, heavy loading extended the distance over which it is possible to train acceleration.
... Before the test, there was a 10-min standardised comprehensive warm-up including elements to increase body temperature, muscle activation, and dynamic stretching. All participants completed a standardised warm-up protocol following the RAMP system [34]. The standardised warm-up protocols are detailed in the work of McCubbine et al. [35]. ...
... Training intervention (in weeks 1 to 4): An example of a detailed training plan is described in Table 2. All warm-ups were completed on the basis of the RAMP system [34]. Warm-up (15 min) included exercises activating the muscles of lower extremities using resistance bands-mini bands. ...
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Motor abilities, such as endurance and the optimal level of physical activity, play a fundamental role in football as they are necessary to maintain the high effectiveness of the training process. The aim of this study was the observation of the trend of changes in the level of cardiorespiratory endurance of young football players in a one-year cycle overlapping with the COVID-19 lockdown and an assessment of the impact of the training intervention during home confinement. The participants of the study were 24 young football players. We analysed the results of the study in a one-year training cycle (lockdown from 11 March 2020 to 6 May 2020). The cardiorespiratory endurance was measured using the Multistage 20 m Shuttle Run test—Beep Test. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used in the study. Detailed comparisons were made using Tukey’s HSD test. Statistically significant differences were noted in endurance in a one year cycle: F(5.115) = 22.65; p < 0.001; partial Eta-squared = 0.50. An increase in the level of endurance by mean = 179.17 m, SD ± 189.87 m was noted between T1 and T6. After the break caused by the COVID-19 restrictions, a decrease in the level of cardiorespiratory endurance was noted. Only after two training mesocycles was a significant increase in the mean value noted compared to the period before the pandemic (p < 0.05). With the negative impact of restrictions in mind, coaches and physiotherapists should exercise caution when planning training, taking into consideration the level of physical activity during the pandemic.
... Eine Übersicht der Arbeiten zur DIK Methode gibt Tabelle 4. Anmerkung: Pavg = durchschnittliche Leistung, PT = Peak Torque, Wtotal= Gesamte physikalische Arbeit3.1.1.4 Dynamisches und Ballistisches DehnenDynamische Dehnungen werden in der praxisorientierten Literatur häufig in Aufwärm-und Vorbereitungsprogramme integriert, um eine potentiell höhere Leistungsfähigkeit zu erreichen(Haff & Triplett, 2016;Jeffreys, 2007;Verstegen & Williams, 2014). Auch frühere vergleichende wissenschaftliche Arbeiten weisen auf eine Leistungsverbesserung oder unbeeinflusste Kraft-und Schnelligkeitsleistung durch dynamische Methoden hin(Behm & Chaouachi, 2011;Kallerud & Gleeson, 2013;Opplert & Babault, 2018). ...
Kurzzusammenfassung Ziele: Statisches Dehnen unterlag immer wieder starken Schwankungen in der Popularität. Im Raum stehen und standen die Fragen nach den Auswirkungen auf Verletzungsrisiko und Leistung. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird darauf eingegangen, welche Auswirkung statisches Dehnen direkt vor sportlicher Leistungserbringung im Bereich Kraft, Schnellkraft und Schnelligkeit hat. Methoden: Diese Arbeit wurde nach den PRISMA-Regeln für systematische Reviews erstellt. Randomisierte kontrollierte Studien in englischer und deutscher Sprache wurden über die Datenbanken PubMed, Sportdiscus und Cochrane CENTRAL gesucht und nach vordefinierten Inklusionskriterien ausgewählt. Die Ergebnisse wurden nach Dehnmethode, Belastungsparameter der Intervention und nach Outcome-Parametern im Bereich Kraft, Schnellkraft und Schnelligkeit aufgeschlüsselt und analysiert. Ergebnisse: Es konnten 88 Studien identifiziert werden, die den Einschlusskriterien genügen. Die Qualität der Studien wurde nach der PEDro-Skala bewertet. Die meisten Studien erreichten einen Gesamtscore von 4/10 Punkten. Die Dehninterventionen in den Primärstudien können als sehr heterogen beschrieben werden. Insgesamt zeigt sich, dass statisches Dehnen einen kurzfristigen adversen Effekt auf sportliche Leistungsfähigkeit haben kann (bis zu-15 %). Längere Dehnung, multiple Serien und kürzere Abstände zwischen Dehnung und Leistungserbringung verstärken diesen Effekt. Kürzere Dehnung (10s-30s), einzelne Serien, aktive Pausen bis zur Testung (≥ 10min) sowie Voraktivierungen negieren den negativen Effekt. Zusammengefasst kann statisches Dehnen vor komplexen Bewegungsaufgaben eingesetzt werden, wenn weitere Aufwärmstrategien vor der Leistungserbringung folgen. Bei hochspezifischen, singulären sportlichen Aufgaben, wie häufig in der Leichtathletik oder im Kraftsport, sollte wenn möglich auf statisches Dehnen kurz vorher verzichtet werden. Die Entscheidung für oder gegen Dehnen sollte auf individueller Ebene und auf Ebene der Sportartenanalyse getroffen werden. Abstract Aims: There is an ongoing debate about the use of static stretching before sports and exercise. Part of the debate is if static stretching could potentially change the risk of injury and performance in a relevant way. This thesis looks at the direct, acute effects of static stretching on sports performance concerning strength, explosiveness, and speed. Methods: This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA statement. Only randomized, controlled studies got included in English and German language and searched via PubMed, Sportdiscus and Cochrane CENTRAL. The predefined inclusion criteria were used to identify the studies. The results were analyzed separately for stretching methods, loading and outcome parameters within strength, explosiveness, and speed. Results: 88 studies got included. The quality of the studies was analyzed using the PEDro scale. Most investigations hit a score of 4/10 possible points. The stretching interventions can be described as heterogenous. In summary, static stretching may provide short term adverse effects on performance (up to-15 %). Longer stretches, multiple series and a short timeframe between the stretching and testing increases this effect. Brief stretching interventions (10s-30s), single-sets, active rest (≥ 10min) and preactivation can nullify the adverse effects. It can be concluded that short passive stretching can be implemented prior to complex sporting tasks if additional warm-up strategies are. For specific sporting tasks, like in track and field or strength-sports, passive stretching should be avoided right before the tasks. The decision around the use of passive stretching should be made on an individual and sport-specific basis.
... Warm Up. Prior to testing, participants completed a warm-up exercise following the RAMP protocol as outlined by Jeffreys [31]. This consisted of self-paced jogging for 5 min; 1 × 10 repetitions of dynamic stretches, including multi-directional lunges, hamstring 'scoop-walks', 2 × 20 m lateral shuffles, and 2 × 20 m sprint accelerations; and three practice trials of the triple hop test on each leg, as described in previous research [32]. ...
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The aims of the present study were to: 1) determine within and between-session reliability of multiple metrics obtained during the triple hop test and, 2) determine any systematic bias in both the test and inter-limb asymmetry scores for these metrics. Thirteen male youth American football athletes performed three trials of a triple hop test on each leg on two separate occasions. In addition to total distance hopped, manual detection of touch down and toe-off were calculated via video analysis, enabling flight time (for each hop), ground contact time (GCT), reactive strength index (RSI) and leg stiffness (between hops) to be calculated. Results showed all coefficient of variation (CV) values ≤ 10.67% and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) ranged from moderate to excellent (0.53-0.95) in both test sessions. Intrarater reliability showed excellent reliability for all metrics (CV ≤ 3.60%, ICC ≥ 0.97). No systematic bias was evident between test sessions for raw test scores (g =-0.34 to 0.32) or the magnitude of asymmetry (g =-0.19 to 0.43). However, 'real' changes in asymmetry (i.e., greater than the CV in session 1) were evident on an individual level for all metrics. For the direction of asymmetry, Kappa coefficients revealed poor to fair levels of agreement between test sessions for all metrics (K =-0.10 to 0.39), with the exception of the first hop (K = 0.69). These data show that given the inherent limitations of distance jumped in the triple hop test, practitioners can confidently gather a range of reliable data when computed manually, provided sufficient test familiarization is conducted. In addition, although the magnitude of asymmetry appears to show only small changes between test sessions, limb dominance does appear to fluctuate between test sessions, highlighting the value of also monitoring the direction of the imbalance.
... The WU protocol was structured according the Jeffreys [12] model. Each warm-up session began with a RAISE stage consisting of 5 or 15 min running at 70% of maximal aerobic velocity (Yo-Yo intermittent While muscle temperature elevation is requested for maximal repeated-sprint performance in soccer, it was shown that this performance deteriorates with hyperthermia even though higher muscle temperatures are reached [2,18]. ...
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Physical activity is extremely important in maintaining good health. Activity is not possible without a certain amount of flexibility. This report discusses issues related to flexibility fitness. Flexibility is a property of the musculoskeletal system that determines the range of motion achievable without injury to the joints. Static flexibility tests measure the limits of the achievable motion, but these limits are subjective. Dynamic flexibility tests are more objective and measure the stiffness of a passively stretched muscle group. However, there are no recommended field tests available at this time. Normal ranges of static flexibility are well-documented for most joints. Major deviations from the norm may be associated with a higher incidence of muscular injury. While there is theoretical association between flexibility and several musculoskeletal problems, there are few prospective studies showing significant associations. Currently, there is little scientific evidence upon which to base individual prescriptions for static flexibility development beyond the maintenance of normal levels. Any recommendation for stretching to improve flexibility should be based on a valid assessment of flexibility using sound testing procedures. Recommendations for stretching procedures based on recent reviews of the viscoelastic response of muscle to stretching are presented. (Contains 85 references.) (SM)
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Warren B. Young, PhDUniversity of BallaratBallarat, Victoria, AustraliaDavid G. Behm, PhDMemorial University of NewfoundlandSt. John’s, Newfoundland, CanadaKeywords: warm-up; static stretching; strength and power.WARM-UP BEFORE PHYSICALactivity is a universally acceptedpractice with the objective ofpreparing the athlete physicallyand mentally for optimum perfor-mance and is believed to reducethe risk of injury and enhanceperformance (15, 25). Warm-upstypically contain 3 components:• A relatively low-intensity aero-bic component that is generalin nature such as submaxi-mum running. The rationalegiven for this is that it increas-es core and muscle tempera-ture, which improves neuro-muscular function (15, 22, 28).• Some stretching of the specificmuscles involved in the subse-quent activity. Some athletesmay spend 30 minutes orlonger systematically stretch-ing each muscle group. Thereare many variations of stretch-ing protocols such as proprio-ceptive neuromuscular facili-tation (PNF), static, anddynamic methods. Thesemethods are outlined thor-oughly in texts such as Alter(1) and Norris (22) and will notbe discussed in detail in thisstudy. Although the optimummethod for increasing flexibili-ty over a relatively long timemay be debatable, passive stat-ic stretching remains a popu-lar method used in a pre-exer-cise or precompetition warm-up routine. This usually in-volves moving a limb to the endof its range of motion (ROM)and holding it in the stretchedposition for 15–60 seconds(22). The objective of stretchingin a warm-up is usually toachieve a short-term increasein the ROM at a joint (8, 15,22) or to induce muscle relax-ation and therefore decreasethe stiffness of the muscle-ten-don system (7, 22).• Rehearsal of the skill about tobe performed. This is usuallyperformed at gradually in-creasing intensities, culminat-ing in some efforts that areequal to or greater than theexpected competition intensi-ty. This type of warm-upserves to activate or recruit thespecific muscle fibers andneural pathways required toachieve optimum neuromus-cular performance (15).Although the need for a warm-up before maximum effortstrength and power exercise israrely questioned, the precise pro-tocol leading to optimum perfor-mance is not well established. Thepurpose of this article is to discusswarm-up and, in particular, to re-view recent research that ques-tions the traditional use of staticstretching in a warm-up beforestrength and power activities. Forthe purpose of this discussion,strength is defined as the maxi-mum force produced in a staticmaximum voluntary contraction,relatively slow isokinetic contrac-tion, or the maximum weight lift-ed in a 1 repetition maximum test.Power activities are considered tobe any movements requiring sig-nificant amounts of both force andspeed, such as a vertical jump.
Since strength and muscular strength endurance are linked, it is possible that the inhibitory influence that prior stretching has on strength can also extend to the reduction of muscle strength endurance. To date, however, studies measuring muscle strength endurance poststretching have been criticized because of problems with their reliability. The purpose of this study was twofold: both the muscle strength endurance performance after acute static stretching exercises and the repeatability of those differences were measured. Two separate experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, the knee-flexion muscle strength endurance exercise was measured by exercise performed at 60 and 40% of body weight following either a no-stretching or stretching regimen. In experiment 2, using a test-retest protocol, a knee-flexion muscle strength endurance exercise was performed at 50% body weight on 4 different days, with 2 tests following a no-stretching regimen (RNS) and 2 tests following a stretching regimen (RST). For experiment 1, when exercise was performed at 60% of body weight, stretching significantly (p < 0.05) reduced muscle strength endurance by 24%, and at 40% of body weight, it was reduced by 9%. For experiment 2, reliability was high (RNS, intraclass correlation = 0.94; RST, intraclass correlation = 0.97). Stretching also significantly (p < 0.05) reduced muscle strength endurance by 28%. Therefore, it is recommended that heavy static stretching exercises of a muscle group be avoided prior to any performances requiring maximal muscle strength endurance.
This three-part text, which is concerned with human functions under stress of muscular activity, provides a basis for the study of physical fitness and athletic training. Part 1 reviews pertinent areas of basic physiology. Muscles, the nervous system, the heart, respiratory system, exercise metabolism, and the endocrine system are reviewed. Part 2 directly relates physiology to practice in physical education and discusses physical fitness, metabolism and weight control, prophylactic and therapeutic effects of exercise, electronyography in physiology of exercise, muscle soreness, and environment and age in relation to exercise. Part 3 relates the principles of physiology directly to the problems of the athletic coach and emphasizes areas of practical importance. Physiology of muscular strength, development of endurance, efficiency of muscular activity, speed, flexibility, warming-up, nutrition, special aids to athletic performance, and the female in athletics are discussed. The final chapter, entitled "The Unified Athlete: Monitoring Training Program," is a summary designed to encourage coaches to apply the principles of exercise physiology to their work on the athletic field. A bibliography is included at the end of each chapter. (PD)
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The influence of muscle temperature (Tm) on maximal muscle strength, power output, jumping, and sprinting performance was evaluated in four male subjects. In one of the subjects the electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from M. vastus lateralis, M. biceps femoris, and M. semitendinosus. Tm ranged from 30.0 degrees C to 39 degrees C. Maximal dynamic strength, power output, jumping, and sprinting performance were positively related to Tm. The changes were in the same order of magnitude for all these parameters (4-6% x degrees C-1) Maximal isometric strength decreased by 2% x degrees C-1 with decreasing Tm. The force-velocity relationship was shifted to the left at subnormal Tm. Thus in short term exercises, such as jumping and sprinting, performance is reduced at low Tm and enhanced at Tm above normal, primarily as a result of a variation in maximal dynamic strength.
The effect of changes in the muscle temperature on their ability to store elastic energy was studied by having 5 trained subjects perform maximal vertical jumps on a force platform, with and without counter movement, at muscle temperatures between about 32 degrees C and 37 degrees C. The results showed that the heights of vertical jumps were considerably reduced at lowered temperature, but the gain in height after a counter movement in the form of a jump down from a height of 0.4 m over the force platform, was significantly higher in the cold condition. T o test whether this was due to an increased stiffness of the muscles, experiments with imposed sinusoidal length variations at 14 Hz were performed. Delta force XDelta length-1 (i.e.stiffness) increased with isometric tension independent of muscle temperature. Experiments in which the rate of tension development and relaxation in voluntary maximal isometric contractions were measured at different muscle temperatures showed that maximal isometric tension changed by less than 1% per degree but the rate of tension development and relaxation by 3-5% and 5% per degree, respectively, in the temperature range studied (30 degrees to 40 degrees). These data may be explained by the hypothesis that the series elastic components of the active muscle are located in the cross-bridges between myosin and actin filaments. The storage of elastic energy would be enhanced if the rate of breaking of these bridges were decreased at lower temperatures.
To evaluate the clinical and basic science evidence surrounding the hypothesis that stretching immediately before exercise prevents injury. MEDLINE was searched using MEDLINE subject headings (MeSH) and textwords for English- and French-language articles related to stretching and muscle injury. Additional references were reviewed from the bibliographies, and from citation searches on key articles. All articles related to stretching and injury or pathophysiology of muscle injury were reviewed. Clinical articles without a control group were excluded. Three (all prospective) of the four clinical articles that suggested stretching was beneficial included a cointervention of warm-up. The fourth study (cross-sectional) found stretching was associated with less groin/buttock problems in cyclists, but only in women. There were five studies suggesting no difference in injury rates between stretchers and nonstretchers (3 prospective, 2 cross-sectional) and three suggesting stretching was detrimental (all cross-sectional). The review of the basic science literature suggested five reasons why stretching before exercise would not prevent injuries. First, in animals, immobilization or heating-induced increases in muscle compliance cause tissues to rupture more easily. Second, stretching before exercise should have no effect for activities in which excessive muscle length is not an issue (e.g., jogging). Third, stretching won't affect muscle compliance during eccentric activity, when most strains are believed to occur. Fourth, stretching can produce damage at the cytoskeleton level. Fifth, stretching appears to mask muscle pain in humans. The basic science literature supports the epidemiologic evidence that stretching before exercise does not reduce the risk of injury.
This review considers some of the adaptations which take place in the central nervous system to allow optimal performance of the musculoskeletal system for the smallest to the largest "efforts". Mental imagery of exercise helps performance but the way in which it works is multifactional: it evokes muscle contraction sufficient to activate muscle receptors. Furthermore, it is possible for subjects to focus specifically on control of particular muscles even without feedback from them. On the other hand maximal voluntary efforts, at least in isometric and in concentric contractions, can drive the motoneurones sufficiently to ensure full force production by the muscle. Many neural factors contribute to maintain force output during repetitive activity, including a feedback loop whereby increased central command during fatigue acts to enhance muscle perfusion. As peripheral muscle fatigue develops, changes occur in the excitability of the motor cortex. Recent evidence suggests that "central" factors leading to reduced drive to muscles in isometric contractions act "upstream" of motor cortical output.