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Jeffreys I (2007) Warm-up revisited: The ramp method of optimizing warm-ups. Professional Strength and Conditioning. (6) 12-18

  • Setanta College


While some elements of the strength and conditioning portfolio have yet to achieve acceptance in the preparation of athletes in all sports, one area of practice which is almost universally accepted is the principle of the warm-up. Today, few athletes at any level train or compete without some attempt at a " warm-up ". However, while the general principles surrounding the need to warm-up remain valid, a large body of evidence is building up which both questions some of our current practices, and provides possible opportunities to improve practice. This article looks at current practice, and presents a model around which to construct effective warm-ups.
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While some elements of the strength and conditioning portfolio have
yet to achieve acceptance in the preparation of athletes in all sports,
one area of practice which is almost universally accepted is the
principle of the warm-up. Today, few athletes at any level train or
compete without some attempt at a “warm-up”. However, while the
general principles surrounding the need to warm-up remain valid, a
large body of evidence is building up which both questions some of
our current practices, and provides possible opportunities to improve
practice. This article looks at current practice, and presents a model
around which to construct effective warm-ups.
Why do we warm-up?
An important starting point in examining optimal application of warm-
up is to examine the rationale behind why we warm-up. In its
simplest terms, the goal of the warm-up is to prepare the athlete
mentally and physically for exercise or competition.21 A well designed
warm-up can increase muscle temperature, core temperature, blood
flow26 and also disrupt transient connective tissue bonds.13 These
effects can have the following positive effects on performance:
• Faster muscle contraction and relaxation of both agonist and
antagonist muscles.21
• Improvements in rate of force development and reaction time.1
• Improvements in muscle strength and power.5,13
• Lowered viscous resistance in muscles.13
• Improved oxygen delivery due to the Bohr effect where higher
temperatures facilitate oxygen release from haemoglobin and
• Increased blood flow to active muscles.26
• Enhanced metabolic reactions.13
Additionally, a common reason given by coaches for a warm-up is a
reduction in the risk of injury. Whilst the influence of a warm-up on
injury prevention is unclear, the evidence suggests a positive
A well designed warm-up can clearly have a positive effect on
subsequent performance, and a useful way of looking at warm-up is
as “performance preparation”, enabling an athlete to perform
maximally in their workout/competition. With this performance
preparation approach, the methods used in warm-up can be selected
and evaluated to provide optimal effect on performance.
A coaching opportunity
One of the challenges facing a strength and conditioning coach is
limited time, and the need to include a range of training stimuli to
the athlete. A well planned warm-up can provide an ideal opportunity
to include a range of stimuli in the training programme, without
creating an additional work load on the athlete. Ideally, a warm-up
should be an integral part of the training session, providing for
optimal performance preparation but also contributing to the overall
Warm up revisited – the
‘ramp’ method of optimising
performance preparation
Ian Jeffreys BA(Hons), MSc, CSCS*D, ASCC, NSCA-CPT*D
Ian Jeffreys is currently Director
of Athletics and Athletic
Performance at Coleg Powys in
Brecon, Wales. He is the
Strength and Conditioning Coach
for the Welsh Schools Rugby
Union National team at Under 16
A registered Strength and
Conditioning Coach with the
British Olympic Association, an
NSCA Coach Practitioner, and a
Board Member of the United
Kingdom Strength and
Conditioning Association, Ian was
voted the NSCA High School
Professional of the Year in 2006.
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training effect. To this end, planning of the warm-
up is as important as planning the main session
itself. By carefully selecting activities, the warm-
up can contribute greatly to the overall training
programme, and should be in balance with the
aim of the session, and the aim of the
programme. To facilitate this, activities can be
chosen which contribute to the aims of the overall
session, and contribute to the aims of the given
training cycle. In this way, a well planned warm-
up is an extremely time effective method of
including a number of key elements within a
training programme, elements which may not be
able to be included if they have to entail their
own specific time frame. Most warm-ups will last
from 10-30 minutes. Over a training cycle, that
contributes a massive amount of training time,
which, with effective planning, can be used to
work productively on a range of areas, without
increasing the overall training load.
Traditional components of a
If the aim of a warm-up is to prepare for
competition or practice, the the optimal warm-up
is likely to vary between sports, and warm-ups
need to be constructed that address the
specific needs of both the athlete and
sport. These need to take into account
the physiological and biomechanical
requirements of the sport, as well as the
technical requirements of the sport itself.
While warm-up has traditionally focussed
on energy system and muscular aspects
of the physiological processes, the
neurological aspects of warm-up have
often been overlooked. For optimal
effectiveness, a warm-up needs to
provide optimum preparation in all
aspects of performance. Indeed
Gambetta19 argues that the stimulation of
the nervous system is the most important
part of the warm-up.
However, despite this need for specificity,
a number of key phases have traditionally
been identified, a general warm-up and a
specific warm-up.22. The general phase
has been associated with increases in
heart rate, respiration rate, blood flow,
and joint fluid viscosity,12 and normally
consists of light activities such as jogging.
The specific phase has traditionally
consisted of stretching and sport specific
The use of stretching
Perhaps the greatest debate regarding
warm-up at present is the use of static
stretching. Static stretching has become
an integral part of many warm-up
routines, with injury prevention and
performance enhancement being given as
justifications for its inclusion. However,
there is little, if any, evidence that stretching pre
or post participation prevents injury.20,29,33,34,37
Similarly, in terms of the performance
enhancement elements, research suggests that
rather than enhance subsequent performance,
static stretching can compromise muscle
In terms of performance decrements after static
stretching, research has indicated potential
decrements in force production,3,9,10,11,14,30 power
performance,8,40,43 running speed,16 reaction time,4
and strength endurance.28 PNF7(Proprioceptive
Neuromuscular Facilitation) and ballistic
stretching27 have also been shown to have
detrimental effects of performance. While some
studies have found that static stretching has no
effect on subsequent performance,25,38,41 there is
sufficient evidence to question the use of static
stretching in warm-up, and the justification to
look at other methods which do not have the
potential to reduce performance, and which may
offer more functional methods of enhancing
Dynamic stretching on the other hand does not
seem to cause the performance reduction effects
There is little, if any, evidence that stretching pre or post
participation prevents injury.
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of static and PNF stretching16 and has been shown
to improve subsequent running performance.16,25,41
Additionally, the dynamic nature of dynamic
stretching is more functional than static
stretching given the need for active and dynamic
methods to be used in functional warm-ups.19
Effective dynamic stretches also require that the
muscle is activated through the range of
movement, which contributes to the neural
activation requirements of effective warm-ups.
Given this, dynamic stretching may be the most
suitable method of mobilization during warm-up
for a number of sports. It is important to note
however, that static stretching before activity
might increase performance in sports that require
an increased range of motion, such as
Towards a new classification of
Given the opportunity to use warm-ups as part of
the training process and the evidence questioning
many current practices in warm-up, it may be
prudent to develop a new classification of warm-
up phases. This would help remove some of the
key “grey areas” of current practice, and also
provide a framework around which to build
effective warm-ups. In this way the effectiveness
of warm-up practices can be evaluated in terms
of its effect on performance and its effectiveness
as part of the training process. This would be
similar to the approach taken by Verstegen39 who
has re-termed warm-up as movement
preparation, which reflects the approach he takes
to effective warm-up.
To this end the following “RAMP” system may
provide a method by which warm-up activities
can be classified and constructed. This system
identifies three key phases of effective warm-ups.
1. Raise
2. Activate and Mobilise
3. Potentiate
This phase has the aim of elevating body
temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, blood
flow and joint fluid viscosity via low intensity
activities. Whilst this is common practice, the
methods used to achieve it often represents
perhaps the biggest waste of valuable training
time in many programmes, with the common jog
around a field still a common sight. Given the
limited training time a strength and conditioning
coach has with the athletes, and the contribution
that warm-up can play in the training process,
this phase can be dedicated to movement skills
and/or sport skills. Over a training year these
activities can contribute a massive amount of
time dedicated to developing these key elements.
By identifying elements such as key movement
patterns or techniques involved in a sport, the
strength and conditioning professional can
construct routines that develop and hone these
effectively whilst still providing for the elevation
elements needed within the warm-up.
Activate and mobilize
This phase has two key aims
1. To activate key muscle groups.
2. To mobilize key joints and ranges of motion
used in the sport.
In terms of specific activation, the inclusion of
this will depend upon the needs of the athlete
and/or the sport. In some instances, where key
muscle groups may need to be stimulated,
exercises can be selected that target these key
muscles. This can often involve exercises
traditionally associated with prehab such as mini
band routines, rotator cuff exercises, glute
bridges, overhead squats etc. This is a time
efficient method of including these exercises in
the training programme, and the extent of this
phase will depend upon the individual sport and
the individual athlete’s needs.
The achievement of the mobilization phase of the
warm-up takes a radically different approach than
the traditional static stretching approach. Rather
than focus on individual muscles, the approach is
to work on movements. This has a number of key
advantages. First, the dynamic nature contributes
to maintaining the elevation effects of the first
period. Secondly the movements are more
specific to those found in the sport, and thirdly it
is extremely time efficient. Additionally, it has a
physiologically different approach. Whilst static
stretching involves a relaxation of the muscle, the
activation and mobilization approach involves
actively working a muscle through its range of
motion, which has the effect of activating all of
the key muscles involved both directly in the
movements and also in the stabilsation of the
body through the movements. In this way
preparation for activity is enhanced, as muscles
are activated, as well as mobilized through key
In designing the activate and mobilization phase,
the strength and conditioning professional needs
to identify the key movement patterns involved in
the sport, together with key muscles that need to
be activated in order to produce these
movements. A series of dynamic stretches can
then be selected which provide for the activation
and mobilization needed for effective sports
performance. This type of approach helps
maintain the beneficial effects of the elevation
section of the warm-up, and can also be
extremely time efficient, as by focusing on
movements, many muscle groups can be
activated and mobilized with the same
movement, rather than with the single muscle
approach of traditional static stretching routines.
Coaches should be encouraged to develop a
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range of dynamic movements that can activate
key areas and which contribute to the overall
session aims. In this way, they can bring variety
to the warm-up routines, and also provide for the
variability which can contribute to training gains.
The term ‘potentiation’ refers to activities that
improve effectiveness, and in the case of the
warm-up involves the selection of activities that
will improve the effectiveness of subsequent
performance. This phase of the warm-up will see
a gradual shift towards the actual sport
performance or workout itself, and will normally
involve sport specific activities of increasing
intensity. Including these high intensity dynamic
exercises can facilitate subsequent
performance,6,15,42 and is the essence of the
potentiation phase of the warm-up. The nature of
the activities will depend upon the specific nature
of the activities to perform, e.g. a sprint workout
will comprise of sprint drills and sprints of
increasing intensity. Additionally, they may also
comprise of activities that increase elements of
physical performance that may contribute to
higher levels of subsequent performance.
The potentiation phase of the warm-up can have
two aims.
1. The first, and most common aim, is to increase
the intensity of exercise to a point at which
athletes are able to perform their
training/match activities at their maximal
2. The second, and least common application, is
to select activities that may contribute to a
super-maximal effect, where the activities
chosen contribute to an enhanced performance
effect, via the utlilisation of the post-activation
potentiation (PAP) effect.
For the former aim, what is important is that a
series of activities are engaged in that allow the
athlete to achieve their peak performance when
the workout or competition begins. For running
workouts, speed and agility drills are ideal at this
time, in that they provide for a progressive
potentiation effect, which at the same time
provides a very real training benefit. The
performance of speed/agility drills in this section
of the warm-up can be a very time efficient way
of ensuring athletes receive regular doses of
progressive speed and agility training, at the
optimal time in any workout. Using speed and
agility type drills at this time ensures that the
athlete undertakes these when they are fresh,
and when the training will result in the greatest
For resistance training workouts, plyometric,
medicine ball, and lighter or explosive resistance
exercises can be used which provide a progression
towards the workout itself, and which provide a
stimulus to allow maximal effort on the first sets.
In terms of the PAP effects, the application of
post-activation potentiation research may provide
an avenue by which to enhance the overall
effectiveness of the warm-up, especially in sports
requiring high force and power outputs. Force and
power production is dependent upon both the
muscles and tendons capacity, and the ability of
the neural system to activate the muscles. As
Gandevia18 asserts, “muscles are the servants of
the brain”. In studying the force output of a
muscle, it is important to note that motor units
are capable of firing at different frequencies, and
that the activation depends upon the level of
excitation of the motoneurones by the CNS.31
Thus there are subtle changes that take place in
the neural control of sports based movements,
and in the muscle tendon characteristics during
different activities. What is important is to
determine whether these can be influenced by
potentiating exercise. In this way PAP type
activities could have a beneficial effect on
subsequent performance.
However, post-activation potentiation in human
performance is a relatively new field of study, and
thus definitive conclusions as to its effectiveness,
and the most efficacious methods of eliciting
performance enhancement through PAP is very
limited.32 Hopefully, further research into this area
will highlight areas which can optimize the
potentiation of performance through the use of
PAP type activities.
The “RAMP” approach provides a framework
around which to construct effective warm-up
procedures for both competition and the workout.
At all times the aim of the warm-up must always
be kept in mind, that is to ensure optimal
preparation for performance, and activities should
be selected that provide for raising, activation,
mobilisation and potentiation, but without the
development of undue fatigue.
Additionally, effective planning of warm-up
periods through the training week can provide for
ergonomically effective workouts. Effective
movement/skill based elevation sections allow for
a great deal of skill or movement development
activity, but with no additional time load on the
athlete. Similarly, effective activation &
mobilization activities allow for the effective
deployment of mobility and prehab training, with
again no additional time requirement.
The potentiation sector also provides an ideal
time to carry out activities such as speed and
agility work, and again can provide a very time
efficient method by which to ensure athletes have
controlled doses of this type of training
throughout the training year. Additionally, as
research on the effects of PAP becomes available,
this may provide a framework around which to
maximize this effect for specific sports.
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... All participants in the intervention group undertook a 12-week, twice-weekly recreational football for health programme based on those previously used [25] and following recommended guidelines for administration of recreational football for heath programmes in older adult groups [26]. Each session comprised a 15 min warm up using a RAMP (Raise, Activate and Mobilise, Potentiate, [27]) protocol, followed by a series of six four-minute small-sided games comprising 4 × 4, or 3 × 3 participant numbers with a fourminute rest period between games and a five-minute cool down for a total of 60 min per session. The rules of the small-sided games were modified to include no placing the foot on top of the ball and no physical contact between players (tackling and pushing) as per guidelines for this form of physical activity [27]. ...
... Each session comprised a 15 min warm up using a RAMP (Raise, Activate and Mobilise, Potentiate, [27]) protocol, followed by a series of six four-minute small-sided games comprising 4 × 4, or 3 × 3 participant numbers with a fourminute rest period between games and a five-minute cool down for a total of 60 min per session. The rules of the small-sided games were modified to include no placing the foot on top of the ball and no physical contact between players (tackling and pushing) as per guidelines for this form of physical activity [27]. There were no throw ins within the smallsided games, with restarts taking place via a pass into the playing area. ...
... The intervention took place on an artificial macadam surface measuring approximately 30 × 15 metres. During each session, at the end of each small-sided game, individual exercise intensity was assessed using the Borg 6-20 rating of perceived exertion (RPE [27]) scale and following recommended guidelines for administration and collation of exercise intensity data [28]. ...
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There is growing evidence that recreational football offers health benefits for older adults and an important pathway for physical activity for older adult groups. Despite anecdotal evidence that recreational football is beneficial for older adults, no empirical data are available to support this assertion. This study addressed this issue and examined the effects of a 12-week recreational football intervention on the functional fitness of older adults. Using a pre–post case–control design, thirteen males, aged 61–73 years (mean age ± SD = 66 ± 4 years) undertook a twice-weekly, 12-week recreational football for health intervention, and were matched with a control group, comprising thirteen males, aged 62–78 years (mean age ± SD = 66 ± 4 years) who maintained their typical exercise habits during the intervention period. Pre- and postintervention, participants underwent assessment of functional fitness, using the Rikli and Jones functional fitness battery as well as an assessment of body fatness, via bioelectrical impedance analysis and dominant handgrip strength using handgrip dynamometry. Results from a series of 2 (pre–post) X 2 (intervention vs. control) repeated-measures ANOVAs indicate significant pre–post X group interactions for the 30-second chair stand (p = 0.038, Pƞ2 = 0.168), 8-foot timed up and go (p = 0.001, Pƞ2 = 0.577) and 6 min walk test (p = 0.036, Pƞ2 = 0.171). In all cases, performance improved significantly after the intervention for the football intervention group but not the control group. There were no significant differences in the 30 s arm curl test or dominant handgrip strength (p > 0.05). There was a non-significant trend (p = 0.07, Pƞ2 = 0.127) towards a pre–post X group interaction for body fatness, showing a decreased percent body fat for the intervention group over the control group. The results of the present study demonstrate the utility of recreational football as a physical activity intervention in older adults to improve functional movement.
... Participants were advised to wear jerseys, shorts, and sneakers, and consumed their main meals not less than 3 hours before testing. A 10-minute standardised Raise, Activate, Mobilize, Potentiate warm-up was provided (Jeffreys, 2007). It included 2 minutes of jogging at a self-selected pace, 4 minutes of activation and mobilisation exercises of the lower limbs and 4 minutes of progressive forward and backward with and without COD runs, at 60%, 80% and 100% of perceived maximum. ...
ABSTRACT Successful athletes are better at performing efficiently than the inferior in particular sports scenarios, while most existing performance tests in the field do not cover the sport-specific context fully. There were two purposes in this study: 1) to evaluate the reliability and validity of a novel Sector Reactive Agility Test (SRAT) which mimicked a reactive-agility defensive scenario in Touch, and 2) to determine the relationships between Touch players' agility and sprint performance. Twenty male Touch players from the elite division and another 20 from the amateur division were invited to participate in this study. They performed SRAT and a 20-m sprint test in two days. Excellent reliability and high precision were found in SRAT (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.97) and 20-m sprint test (ICC = 0.91). The time of completion in SRAT of the elite Touch players (23.93 s) was 2.95 s significantly shorter than that of the amateur players with a large effect size. Elite Touch players also demonstrated moderately faster (0.11 s) than the amateur Touch players in the 20-m sprint test. SRAT demonstrated high test-retest reliability and accuracy in measuring reactive-agility performance in Touch. The minimal detectable changes in SRAT and 20-m sprint test were 1.04 s and 0.13 s respectively. Furthermore, the speed of the 20-m sprint test and playing experience were associated with the time of completion of SRAT, explaining 56% of its variance (p < 0.001). Other factors, such as cognition and the ability to control own central gravity, are deemed possible to influence Touch players' agility. Therefore, SRAT should be adopted in Touch player selection and training monitoring.
... The RAMP structure addresses previous shortcomings and enables the planning and execution of targeted actions throughout the warm-up sequence. RAMP's effect on performance improvements prior to the specific Judo fitness test (SJFT) is an exciting topic [21][22][23]. ...
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Background: A number of specific tests are used to standardize competition performance. Specific Judo fitness test (SJFT) can be applied by considering the start of the competition qualifiers in the morning and the continuation of the final competitions in the evening. The improvement of test performances can be achieved with warm-up for elevating heart rate (HR) and muscle temperature such as raise, activate, mobilise, potentiate (RAMP) protocols. Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of different warm-up protocols on SJFT at different times of the day in female judokas. Methods: Ten volunteer women participated in this study, who regularly participated in judo training for more than 5 years and actively competed in international competitions. Judokas completed SJFT, either after no warm-up, or RAMP protocols like specific warm-up (SWU), and dynamic warm-up for two times a day in the morning: 09:00-10:00 and in the evening: 16:00-17:00, with at least 2 days between test sessions. The following variables were recorded: throws performed during series A, B, and C; the total number of throws; HR immediately and 1 min after the test, and test index after different warm-ups. Results: When analyzed evening compared to the morning without discriminating three warm-up protocols, evening results statistically significant number of total throws performed during series A, B, and C, the total number of throws; HR immediately and 1 min after the test, and test index than morning results (p < 0.01). Moreover, RAMP protocols interaction with time have demonstrated an impact on SJFT for index [F(2) = 4.15, p = 0.024, ηp2: 0.19] and changes after 1 min HR [F(1.370)= 7.16, p = 0.008, ηp2: 0.29]. HR after 1 min and test index results were statistically significant in favor of SWU (p < 0.05). Conclusions: In conclusion, SJFT performance showed diurnal variation and judo performances of the judokas can be affected more positively in the evening hours especially after RAMP protocols.
... Warm-up is usually performed by targeting four physiological phases (raise, activate, mobilise, and potentiate) and sport-specific drills [5][6][7]. The "raise phase" increases muscle and body core temperatures. ...
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With this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of different warm-up intensities on counter-movement jump (CMJ) performance over time under cold conditions. Eleven male collegiate athletes volunteered. The participants performed high-intensity warm-up (HWU) at 80% VO2max and moderate-intensity warm-up (MWU) at 60% VO2max for 15 min on a bicycle ergometer in a laboratory room at 10 °C. CMJ height, vastus lateralis muscle temperature, heart rate, and perceived fatigue were measured before warm-up (Pre), immediately after (Post 0), 10 min after (Post 10), and 20 min after (Post 20). Significant main effects and interactions were found for CMJ height (time, p < 0.001 and ηp2 = 0.859; interaction, p = 0.007 and ηp2 = 0.327). HWU significantly increased CMJ height at Post 0 to Post 20 compared to that at Pre (p < 0.01), whereas MWU increased CMJ height at Post 0 only compared to that at Pre (p < 0.001). The results indicate that HWU achieved an increase in CMJ height for 20 min. MWU changed CMJ height instantly, but the change did not last compared to HWU in a cold environment.
... 59 Although exact protocols and approaches differ, most warm-ups aim to improve performance and reduce risk of injury by raising body and muscle temperature, and by activating, mobilising, and potentiating relevant musculature. 30,44 A recent systematic review highlighted several considerations for developing warm-up protocols for golfers. 26 Firstly, warm-ups that prioritise static stretching should not be prioritised before golf, as studies have demonstrated that intensive static stretching can reduce metrics of golf performance. ...
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Historically, golf is not a sport that has a strong tradition of strength and conditioning (S&C). However, a greater understanding of the health and performance-related benefits of S&C training has resulted in players starting to take their physical fitness much more seriously. As a result, professional players are hitting the ball much further than 20 years ago, primarily due to increases in club head speed (CHS). Owing to the unique nature of the sport, it is not always entirely obvious how S&C practitioners can impact golf performance. This article aims to provide practitioners with an overview of the biomechanics associated with golf, common sites of injury, required physical capacities and proposed recommendations for testing and training the golf athlete.
... At the second day of the assessments, an aerobic capacity test was applied under the following conditions: 04:00 p.m., 23 degrees Celsius, and 38% relative humidity. Neuromuscular performance and aerobic capacity tests were performed on artificial turf after a standardized warm-up protocol based on the RAMP method [28,29]. ...
The aim of this study is to examine how physical performance has changed after 15 weeks (109 days) long-term absence of organized training in youth soccer players imposed by the stay at home orders. A total of sixty-eight young male soccer players from different age categories (U15, U16, U17 and U19) voluntarily participated in the prospective cohort study. Body fat percentage (BF%), counter-movement jump (CMJ), 30 m sprint, change-of-direction (COD) and yo-yo intermittent recovery test level-1 (YYIRTL-1) were evaluated twice (before and after the detraining period). Subsequently, 2 × 2 repeated measures ANOVA was used to investigate group and time differences in repeated measurements. A significance level of p < 0.05 was implemented. CV and SWC values were calculated to test the reliability of the tests performed at different times. Statistical analysis was performed using the IBM SPSS statistics software (v.25, IBM, New York, NY, USA). Significant increments in BF%, 30 m sprint, and COD (left and right), and also significant decrements in CMJ and YYIRTL-1, were found after the detraining period. A long-term detraining period due to the stay at home orders has a detrimental effect on body composition, neuromuscular performances, and aerobic capacity in youth soccer players.
... Moreover, there are other constraints imposed by the organizers of the events, such as long transition periods between the end of the warm-up and the start of the competition (38). Therefore, the warm-up must be designed for the specific needs of both the athlete and the sport (21). ...
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Silva, LM, Neiva, HP, Marques, MC, Izquierdo, M, and Marinho, DA. Short post-warm-up transition times are required for optimized explosive performance in team sports. J Strength Cond Res 36(4): 1134–1140, 2022—This study aimed to compare the effect of 3 different post-warm-up transition times (3, 10, and 17 minutes) on team sports performance. A randomized crossover research design was used. Fourteen university male basketball players completed the same 10-minute warm-up followed by a transition time of 3, 10, or 17 minutes until the performance assessment. In the control condition, no warm-up was performed. The performance was measured using the repeated sprint and jump ability test. Performance variables (time, jump height, and peak power) and physiological variables (lactate and tympanic temperature) were analyzed. Moderate effects were found between conditions for the best first 12.5-m sprint (F = 1.91, p = 0.17, ηp2 = 0.13), with faster times after 3-minute transition (control: 2.51 ± 0.12 vs. 3 minutes: 2.41 ± 0.15, p = 0.02, effect size [ES] = 0.74). Jump heights were higher after transitions of 3 minutes (38.55 ± 5.07 cm, p < 0.01, ES = 0.58), 10 minutes (37.69 ± 4.92 cm, p < 0.01, ES = 0.40), and 17 minutes (37.87 ± 5.33 cm, p < 0.01, ES = 0.42) compared with the control condition (35.84 ± 4.18 cm). However, no significant differences were found between resting conditions. The warm-up caused a moderate increase in lactate and temperature compared with no activity (F = 11.90, p < 0.01, ηp2 = 0.48; F = 2.56, p = 0.07, ηp2 = 0.16, respectively), but changes from preperformance to postperformance evaluation showed no differences between experimental conditions. The results showed that the warm-up maximized the performance of explosive efforts. However, no significant differences were found between transition times. Despite a trend toward optimized explosive performances after a short post-warm-up transition time (3 minutes), further research is needed.
Sporting performance is dependent upon the athlete’s readiness to act, which facilitates the strengthening of the bond between stimulus and response. Thus, an athlete is highly motivated and eager to exhibit the best performance in the modern sporting world under tremendous load. For elevating the performance in the main competition it is extremely necessary to prepare the physical, physiological, and psychological condition of an athlete before the mega- events. That is the core concept of warming up. At the end of any sporting event, it is highly recommended to maintain homeostasis by lowering the intensity and volume of the work stimulus. This is termed as cool-down in sports training. The present research article discussed various research-based scientific innovations for promoting better warming up and cool-down protocols of sports training. The means and methods of warming up and cool-down are critically discussed for the promotion of modern sports training.
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Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine the acute effects of different warm-up protocols on some physical performance parameters in the Under 11-16 (U11-16) category soccer players. Material and Methods: The participant group of the study consisted of seventy-two male soccer players who regularly train in the U11-16 category. Soccer players randomly and counterbalanced participated in the one of the warm-up protocols of FIFA 11+, HarmoKnee, Dynamic warm-up, or Mixed warm-up on non-consecutive days. After participants performed one of the protocols, their flexibility, vertical jump, 30m sprint, and agility performances were measured. Repeated measures in the ANOVA test were used to determine intra-group differences (U11-U12-U13-U14-U15-U16) and Bonferroni test was used to decide which protocol caused a significant difference. Results: In all underage categories, FIFA 11+, HarmoKnee, and dynamic warm-up caused a significant difference in flexibility, vertical jump, 30 m sprint, and agility compared to Mixed warm-up ( p < 0. 05). Conclusions: As a result of the study, it was shown that FIFA 11+, HarmoKnee, and dynamic warm-up protocols acutely caused a positive influence in flexibility, vertical jump, 30 m sprint, and agility in all underage categories. These three warm-up protocols may be used to prevent athletes from warm-up uniformity and monotony and support multidirectional development.
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Warm- up, exercises, athletics, rozcvičenie, mobility, flexibility.
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Physical activity is extremely important in maintaining good health. Activity is not possible without a certain amount of flexibility. This report discusses issues related to flexibility fitness. Flexibility is a property of the musculoskeletal system that determines the range of motion achievable without injury to the joints. Static flexibility tests measure the limits of the achievable motion, but these limits are subjective. Dynamic flexibility tests are more objective and measure the stiffness of a passively stretched muscle group. However, there are no recommended field tests available at this time. Normal ranges of static flexibility are well-documented for most joints. Major deviations from the norm may be associated with a higher incidence of muscular injury. While there is theoretical association between flexibility and several musculoskeletal problems, there are few prospective studies showing significant associations. Currently, there is little scientific evidence upon which to base individual prescriptions for static flexibility development beyond the maintenance of normal levels. Any recommendation for stretching to improve flexibility should be based on a valid assessment of flexibility using sound testing procedures. Recommendations for stretching procedures based on recent reviews of the viscoelastic response of muscle to stretching are presented. (Contains 85 references.) (SM)
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Warren B. Young, PhDUniversity of BallaratBallarat, Victoria, AustraliaDavid G. Behm, PhDMemorial University of NewfoundlandSt. John’s, Newfoundland, CanadaKeywords: warm-up; static stretching; strength and power.WARM-UP BEFORE PHYSICALactivity is a universally acceptedpractice with the objective ofpreparing the athlete physicallyand mentally for optimum perfor-mance and is believed to reducethe risk of injury and enhanceperformance (15, 25). Warm-upstypically contain 3 components:• A relatively low-intensity aero-bic component that is generalin nature such as submaxi-mum running. The rationalegiven for this is that it increas-es core and muscle tempera-ture, which improves neuro-muscular function (15, 22, 28).• Some stretching of the specificmuscles involved in the subse-quent activity. Some athletesmay spend 30 minutes orlonger systematically stretch-ing each muscle group. Thereare many variations of stretch-ing protocols such as proprio-ceptive neuromuscular facili-tation (PNF), static, anddynamic methods. Thesemethods are outlined thor-oughly in texts such as Alter(1) and Norris (22) and will notbe discussed in detail in thisstudy. Although the optimummethod for increasing flexibili-ty over a relatively long timemay be debatable, passive stat-ic stretching remains a popu-lar method used in a pre-exer-cise or precompetition warm-up routine. This usually in-volves moving a limb to the endof its range of motion (ROM)and holding it in the stretchedposition for 15–60 seconds(22). The objective of stretchingin a warm-up is usually toachieve a short-term increasein the ROM at a joint (8, 15,22) or to induce muscle relax-ation and therefore decreasethe stiffness of the muscle-ten-don system (7, 22).• Rehearsal of the skill about tobe performed. This is usuallyperformed at gradually in-creasing intensities, culminat-ing in some efforts that areequal to or greater than theexpected competition intensi-ty. This type of warm-upserves to activate or recruit thespecific muscle fibers andneural pathways required toachieve optimum neuromus-cular performance (15).Although the need for a warm-up before maximum effortstrength and power exercise israrely questioned, the precise pro-tocol leading to optimum perfor-mance is not well established. Thepurpose of this article is to discusswarm-up and, in particular, to re-view recent research that ques-tions the traditional use of staticstretching in a warm-up beforestrength and power activities. Forthe purpose of this discussion,strength is defined as the maxi-mum force produced in a staticmaximum voluntary contraction,relatively slow isokinetic contrac-tion, or the maximum weight lift-ed in a 1 repetition maximum test.Power activities are considered tobe any movements requiring sig-nificant amounts of both force andspeed, such as a vertical jump.
Since strength and muscular strength endurance are linked, it is possible that the inhibitory influence that prior stretching has on strength can also extend to the reduction of muscle strength endurance. To date, however, studies measuring muscle strength endurance poststretching have been criticized because of problems with their reliability. The purpose of this study was twofold: both the muscle strength endurance performance after acute static stretching exercises and the repeatability of those differences were measured. Two separate experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, the knee-flexion muscle strength endurance exercise was measured by exercise performed at 60 and 40% of body weight following either a no-stretching or stretching regimen. In experiment 2, using a test-retest protocol, a knee-flexion muscle strength endurance exercise was performed at 50% body weight on 4 different days, with 2 tests following a no-stretching regimen (RNS) and 2 tests following a stretching regimen (RST). For experiment 1, when exercise was performed at 60% of body weight, stretching significantly (p < 0.05) reduced muscle strength endurance by 24%, and at 40% of body weight, it was reduced by 9%. For experiment 2, reliability was high (RNS, intraclass correlation = 0.94; RST, intraclass correlation = 0.97). Stretching also significantly (p < 0.05) reduced muscle strength endurance by 28%. Therefore, it is recommended that heavy static stretching exercises of a muscle group be avoided prior to any performances requiring maximal muscle strength endurance.
This three-part text, which is concerned with human functions under stress of muscular activity, provides a basis for the study of physical fitness and athletic training. Part 1 reviews pertinent areas of basic physiology. Muscles, the nervous system, the heart, respiratory system, exercise metabolism, and the endocrine system are reviewed. Part 2 directly relates physiology to practice in physical education and discusses physical fitness, metabolism and weight control, prophylactic and therapeutic effects of exercise, electronyography in physiology of exercise, muscle soreness, and environment and age in relation to exercise. Part 3 relates the principles of physiology directly to the problems of the athletic coach and emphasizes areas of practical importance. Physiology of muscular strength, development of endurance, efficiency of muscular activity, speed, flexibility, warming-up, nutrition, special aids to athletic performance, and the female in athletics are discussed. The final chapter, entitled "The Unified Athlete: Monitoring Training Program," is a summary designed to encourage coaches to apply the principles of exercise physiology to their work on the athletic field. A bibliography is included at the end of each chapter. (PD)
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The influence of muscle temperature (Tm) on maximal muscle strength, power output, jumping, and sprinting performance was evaluated in four male subjects. In one of the subjects the electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from M. vastus lateralis, M. biceps femoris, and M. semitendinosus. Tm ranged from 30.0 degrees C to 39 degrees C. Maximal dynamic strength, power output, jumping, and sprinting performance were positively related to Tm. The changes were in the same order of magnitude for all these parameters (4-6% x degrees C-1) Maximal isometric strength decreased by 2% x degrees C-1 with decreasing Tm. The force-velocity relationship was shifted to the left at subnormal Tm. Thus in short term exercises, such as jumping and sprinting, performance is reduced at low Tm and enhanced at Tm above normal, primarily as a result of a variation in maximal dynamic strength.
The effect of changes in the muscle temperature on their ability to store elastic energy was studied by having 5 trained subjects perform maximal vertical jumps on a force platform, with and without counter movement, at muscle temperatures between about 32 degrees C and 37 degrees C. The results showed that the heights of vertical jumps were considerably reduced at lowered temperature, but the gain in height after a counter movement in the form of a jump down from a height of 0.4 m over the force platform, was significantly higher in the cold condition. T o test whether this was due to an increased stiffness of the muscles, experiments with imposed sinusoidal length variations at 14 Hz were performed. Delta force XDelta length-1 (i.e.stiffness) increased with isometric tension independent of muscle temperature. Experiments in which the rate of tension development and relaxation in voluntary maximal isometric contractions were measured at different muscle temperatures showed that maximal isometric tension changed by less than 1% per degree but the rate of tension development and relaxation by 3-5% and 5% per degree, respectively, in the temperature range studied (30 degrees to 40 degrees). These data may be explained by the hypothesis that the series elastic components of the active muscle are located in the cross-bridges between myosin and actin filaments. The storage of elastic energy would be enhanced if the rate of breaking of these bridges were decreased at lower temperatures.
To evaluate the clinical and basic science evidence surrounding the hypothesis that stretching immediately before exercise prevents injury. MEDLINE was searched using MEDLINE subject headings (MeSH) and textwords for English- and French-language articles related to stretching and muscle injury. Additional references were reviewed from the bibliographies, and from citation searches on key articles. All articles related to stretching and injury or pathophysiology of muscle injury were reviewed. Clinical articles without a control group were excluded. Three (all prospective) of the four clinical articles that suggested stretching was beneficial included a cointervention of warm-up. The fourth study (cross-sectional) found stretching was associated with less groin/buttock problems in cyclists, but only in women. There were five studies suggesting no difference in injury rates between stretchers and nonstretchers (3 prospective, 2 cross-sectional) and three suggesting stretching was detrimental (all cross-sectional). The review of the basic science literature suggested five reasons why stretching before exercise would not prevent injuries. First, in animals, immobilization or heating-induced increases in muscle compliance cause tissues to rupture more easily. Second, stretching before exercise should have no effect for activities in which excessive muscle length is not an issue (e.g., jogging). Third, stretching won't affect muscle compliance during eccentric activity, when most strains are believed to occur. Fourth, stretching can produce damage at the cytoskeleton level. Fifth, stretching appears to mask muscle pain in humans. The basic science literature supports the epidemiologic evidence that stretching before exercise does not reduce the risk of injury.
This review considers some of the adaptations which take place in the central nervous system to allow optimal performance of the musculoskeletal system for the smallest to the largest "efforts". Mental imagery of exercise helps performance but the way in which it works is multifactional: it evokes muscle contraction sufficient to activate muscle receptors. Furthermore, it is possible for subjects to focus specifically on control of particular muscles even without feedback from them. On the other hand maximal voluntary efforts, at least in isometric and in concentric contractions, can drive the motoneurones sufficiently to ensure full force production by the muscle. Many neural factors contribute to maintain force output during repetitive activity, including a feedback loop whereby increased central command during fatigue acts to enhance muscle perfusion. As peripheral muscle fatigue develops, changes occur in the excitability of the motor cortex. Recent evidence suggests that "central" factors leading to reduced drive to muscles in isometric contractions act "upstream" of motor cortical output.