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Abstract

In the framework of the EU EPHECT project (Emissions, Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products in the EU), irritative and respiratory effects were assessed in relation to acute (30-min) and long-term (24-h) inhalation exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. A detailed Health Risk Assessment (HRA) was performed for five selected pollutants of respiratory health relevance, namely acrolein, formaldehyde, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene. For each pollutant, the Critical Exposure Limit (CEL) was compared to indoor air concentrations and exposure estimates for the use of 15 selected consumer products by two population groups (housekeepers and retired people) in the four geographical regions of Europe (North, West, South, East), which were derived previously based on microenvironmental modelling. For the present HRA, health-based CELs were derived for certain compounds in case indoor air quality guidelines were not available by the World Health Organization for end-points relevant to the current study. For each pollutant, the highest indoor air concentrations in each microenvironment and exposure estimates across home microenvironments during the day were lower than the corresponding acute and long-term CELs. However, considerable contributions, especially to acute exposures, were obtained in some cases, such as formaldehyde emissions resulting from single product use of a floor cleaning agent (82% CEL), a candle (10% CEL) and an electric air freshener (17% CEL). Regarding multiple product use, the case of 30-min formaldehyde exposure reaching 34% CEL when eight product classes were used across home microenvironments, i.e. all-purpose/kitchen/floor cleaning agents, furniture/floor polish, combustible/electric air fresheners, and perfume, needs to be highlighted. Such estimated values should be evaluated with caution, as these may be attributed to the exposure scenarios specifically constructed for the present study, following a 'most-representative worst-case scenario' approach for exposure and health risk assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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... During the summer and winter campaigns, the median and maximum acrolein concentrations were below the Critical Exposure Limit (CEL) of 21 μg m −3 for short-term effects, derived within the EPHECT (emissions, exposure patterns and health effects of consumer products in the EU) project based on sensory irritation as the critical effect, and the CEL of 10 μg m −3 for long-term effects based on lesions in the nasal respiratory epithelium (Trantallidi et al., 2015). Nevertheless, elevated maximum concentrations were reported, reaching 26% CEL (short-term) and 55% CEL (long-term) during summer and 37% CEL (short-term) and 77% CEL (long-term) during winter. ...
... The 5-day median and maximum concentrations reported during the summer and winter campaign were considerably below the shortterm CEL of 45 mg m −3 developed within the EPHECT project based on sensory irritation as the critical effect (Trantallidi et al., 2015). For the evaluation of long-term effects of α-pinene exposure, a comparison with the Guide Value II of 2 mg m −3 set by the German Indoor Air Hygiene Commission for respiratory tract inflammation (Sagunski and Heinzow, 2003) can be performed but only in terms of order of magnitude. ...
... Median D-limonene concentrations during the summer (4 μg m −3 ) and winter (13 μg m −3 ) were well below the short-term CEL of 90 mg m −3 derived in the framework of the EPHECT project based on sensory irritation (Trantallidi et al., 2015). Similarly, this conclusion can be stated for the maximum concentrations of 34 and 81 μg m −3 reported for the summer and winter campaign, respectively. ...
Article
The European project OFFICAIR aimed to broaden the existing knowledge regarding indoor air quality (IAQ) in modern office buildings, i.e., recently built or refurbished buildings. Thirty-seven office buildings participated in the summer campaign (2012), and thirty-five participated in the winter campaign (2012-2013). Four rooms were investigated per building. The target pollutants were twelve volatile organic compounds, seven aldehydes, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5μm (PM2.5). Compared to other studies in office buildings, the benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene concentrations were lower in OFFICAIR buildings, while the α-pinene and d-limonene concentrations were higher, and the aldehyde, nitrogen dioxide and PM2.5 concentrations were of the same order of magnitude. When comparing summer and winter, significantly higher concentrations were measured in summer for formaldehyde and ozone, and in winter for benzene, α-pinene, d-limonene, and nitrogen dioxide. The terpene and 2-ethylhexanol concentrations showed heterogeneity within buildings regardless of the season. Considering the average of the summer and winter concentrations, the acetaldehyde and hexanal concentrations tended to increase by 4-5% on average with every floor level increase, and the nitrogen dioxide concentration tended to decrease by 3% on average with every floor level increase. A preliminary evaluation of IAQ in terms of potential irritative and respiratory health effects was performed. The 5-day median and maximum indoor air concentrations of formaldehyde and ozone did not exceed their respective WHO air quality guidelines, and those of acrolein, α-pinene, and d-limonene were lower than their estimated thresholds for irritative and respiratory effects. PM2.5 indoor concentrations were higher than the 24-h and annual WHO ambient air quality guidelines.
... Various projects have highlighted concentrations of VOCs in both homes and workplaces (e.g. [8,[18][19][20][21][22], and that VOC concentrations in new or renovated buildings can be several orders of magnitude higher than those in older buildings [23][24][25][26]. ...
... Various monitoring and modelling studies have considered emissions from consumer products [12,18,[58][59][60]. [18]; as part of the Europe-wide 'Emissions, Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products in the EU-funded (EPHECT) project [18] completed detailed health risk assessments on VOCs from consumer products, to establish critical exposure limits (CELs). ...
... Various monitoring and modelling studies have considered emissions from consumer products [12,18,[58][59][60]. [18]; as part of the Europe-wide 'Emissions, Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products in the EU-funded (EPHECT) project [18] completed detailed health risk assessments on VOCs from consumer products, to establish critical exposure limits (CELs). These CELs represent a healthbased inhalation limit for a specific pollutant and are generally applicable either where no national or international guidelines (e.g. ...
Article
Poor indoor air quality, can cause a variety of adverse health effects. Pollutant exposure levels inside buildings are likely due to pollutants from both indoor and outdoor sources. Although there are many indoor airborne pollutants, the current review focusses on Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), and considers the current Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) standards alongside other guideline values, to control levels within the indoor environment. We reviewed the current scientific data showing the occurrence of various VOCs in buildings internationally, and the available toxicological reviews for the individual VOCs with potential for adverse health effects that require attention. We considered available health-based general population indoor guidelines for long and short-term exposure in respect of individual compounds, including acetaldehyde, α-pinene, d-limonene, formaldehyde, naphthalene, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene and xylenes (mixture). We conclude individual VOC guidelines are the most appropriate way forward and that TVOC can be used as an indicator for indoor air quality. This study highlights which compounds should be prioritised for monitoring purposes. Our findings inform discussions around the improvement of general population health, source control and the need to raise awareness of the potential impacts of pollutants in the home.
... hairstyle products, perfumes), and scented candles, e.g. Bartsch et al. (2016), Petry et al. (2014), and Trantallidi et al. (2015). The number of fragrances is about 3000 (Groot and Frosch, 1997). ...
... Temporary activity-dependent high concentrations may occur, e.g. after spray of an air freshener or use of burning lavender oil; this is in part reflected in the reported maximum concentrations. For instance, the European EPHECT testing program of 16 product categories of selected consumer products for household use modeled maximum microenvironmental concentration in a house over 30 min; simultaneous use of a plug-in air freshener, hairstyle product, deodorant spray, and a perfume amounted to 1400 μg/m 3 of LIM at an air exchange rate of 0.1 h −1 that dropped to 200 μg/m 3 over 24 h (Trantallidi et al., 2015). Personal high concentrations may also be expected from fragranced toys (Masuck et al., 2011), but real life concentrations caused by toys have not been reported. ...
... and Trantallidi et al. (2015). f Squeeze bottle exposure, where 31% of the subjects did not respond(Cometto-Muñiz et al., 1998). ...
Article
Full-text available
Odorous compounds (odors) like fragrances may cause adverse health effects. To assess their importance by inhalation, we have reviewed how the four major abundant and common airborne fragrances (α-pinene (APN), limonene (LIM), linalool (LIL), and eugenol (EUG)) impact the perceived indoor air quality as odor annoyance, sensory irritation and sensitization in the airways. Breathing and cardiovascular effects, and work performance, and the impact in the airways of ozone-initiated gas- and particle phase reactions products have also been assessed.
... In the framework of the EU EPHECT Project, a detailed health risk assessment was performed and health-based Critical Exposure Limits (CELs) were derived for five selected pollutants of respiratory health relevance, including d-limonene and α-pinene [49]. Regarding d-limonene, a shortterm CEL of 90 mg/m 3 was established for sensory irritation, whereas the long-term limit of 9 mg/m 3 was derived by extrapolation from short-term data, applying an assessment factor of 10, following a conservative based-approach. ...
... In the framework of the EU EPHECT Project, a detailed health risk assessment was performed and health-based Critical Exposure Limits (CELs) were derived for five selected pollutants of respiratory health relevance, including d-limonene and α-pinene [49]. Regarding d-limonene, a short-term CEL of 90 mg/m 3 was established for sensory irritation, whereas the long-term limit of 9 mg/m 3 was derived by extrapolation from short-term data, applying an assessment factor of 10, following a conservative based-approach. ...
... Regarding d-limonene, a short-term CEL of 90 mg/m 3 was established for sensory irritation, whereas the long-term limit of 9 mg/m 3 was derived by extrapolation from short-term data, applying an assessment factor of 10, following a conservative based-approach. For α-pinene, the short-term and long-term CELs were established to be 45 mg/m 3 and 4.5 mg/m 3 , respectively [49]. Also in this case, the concentration values obtained in our study for both compounds were well below the proposed CELs. ...
Article
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Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) represent one of the most important categories of pollutants, influencing the air quality and human health and well-being in indoor environments. In the present study, 12 selected VOCs were sampled using Tenax TA tubes and analyzed by thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography and a flame ionization detector (TD-GC-FID). The TD-GC-FID method was optimized to obtain the separation of all the analytical peaks (including m-and p-xylene) and a satisfactory sensitivity, with low detection (between 0.14 and 0.31 ng) and quantification (between 0.47 and 1.02 ng) limits. The whole procedure was firstly assessed with the analysis of four co-located tubes exposed at an outdoor monitoring site, with results that revealed a very low inter-tubes variability (relative standard deviations of parallel measurements <5%). Then, the measurement protocol was used to quantify the indoor concentrations of the target VOCs in nine different homes during the dishwasher washing cycle. The most abundant detected VOC in all dwellings was d-limonene (mean: 231 µg/m 3 ; maximum: 611 µg/m 3). All the other compounds were monitored at concentration levels one or two orders of magnitude lower than d-limonene, and were generally comparable with those found in the scientific literature. In terms of health concerns, the measured concentrations were always well below the safe levels established for the protection of the general population in living environments.
... The function of surfactants is to enhance the effect of the cleaning agent by lowering the surface tension of water. In contrast, acids and bases can be used as active compounds as they enhance the dissolution of specific stains and improve the performance of surfactants by regulating the pH of the solution (Wolkoff et al. 1998;Steinemann et al. 2011;Trantallidi et al. 2015). ...
... Household products may contain chemical constituents that might affect human health. Reported symptoms are related to respiratory difficulties and allergies attributed to contact and exposure to hazardous compounds (Lassen et al. 2008;Trantallidi et al. 2015). Exposure is defined as the contact time with a specific concentration of a chemical and is estimated from several key drivers. ...
... However, when using spray products, most of the population does not exceed 3 sprays per cleaning process. Depending on the mechanism of the spray system, the mass distributed can range from 0.39 to 1.5 g per spray (Wolkoff et al. 1998;Dimitroulopoulou et al. 2015a;Trantallidi et al. 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Essential oils are frequently used as natural fragrances in housecleaning products and air fresheners marketed as green and healthy. However, these substances are volatile and reactive chemical species. This review focuses on the impact of essential oil-based household products on indoor air quality. First, housecleaning products containing essential oils are explored in terms of composition and existing regulations. Specific insight is provided regarding terpenes in fragranced housecleaning products, air fresheners, and pure essential oils. Second, experimental methodologies for terpene monitoring, from sampling to experimental chambers and analytical methods, are addressed, emphasizing the experimental issues in monitoring terpenes in indoor air. Third, the temporal dynamics of terpene emissions reported in the literature are discussed. Despite experimental discrepancies, essential oil-based products are significant sources of terpenes in indoor air, inducing a high exposure of occupants to terpenes. Finally, the fate of terpenes is explored from sorptive and reactive points of view. In addition to terpene deposition on surfaces, indoor oxidants may induce homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions, resulting in secondary pollutants, such as formaldehyde and secondary organic aerosols. Overall, essential oil-based products can negatively impact indoor air quality; therefore, standard protocols and real-scale approaches are needed to explore the indoor physics and chemistry of terpenes, from emissions to reactivity.
... They contain different natural and synthetic compounds that deliver fragrance using different methods. Most of the air fresheners contain five basic ingredients: formaldehyde, phthalate, parabens, petroleum distillates, and p-dichlorobenzene that impose serious health hazards like nausea, infertility, neurological dysfunction, leukemia and cancer [13]. Many air fresheners do not even disclose their chemical constituents [12]. ...
... The band observed between 3150 and 3000 cm -1 are indicative of unsaturation (C = C-H) and/or aromatic rings and their absence in the IR spectrograph obtained shows the absence of aromatic compounds. Carbonyl compounds lie between 1825 and 1575 cm -1 [13]. A band of 2850-2960 (alkyl group) is also present in the spectra. ...
Article
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p> In this work, air freshening spongey 3D nanofibrous membrane of nylon-6 (N6) is fabricated via electrospinning process. Viscous N6 solution dissolved in formic acid/acetic acid solvent system was allowed for electrospinning to obtain 2D membrane. As-fabricated 2D membrane is converted into 3D one by using gas foaming technique. Lemon grass essential oil as a fragrance was incorporated through 2D and 3D porous membrane by evaporating essential oil at 60°C for 5 hours. The morphology of different membranes was examined from FE-SEM images which showed that 3D membrane is far porous than 2D one. The control fragrance release from the 3D spongy membrane was evaluated from the weight loss of oil-loaded membrane for 60 days which showed that the 3D membrane had more oil uptake and the controlled release of oil over the studied time. FT-IR spectra of oil-incorporated 3D membrane at different interval of times indicated the presence of fragrance even after the 60 days. The result showed that as-fabricated sponge 3D membrane may be a potential candidate for the future air freshening materials. Journal of the Institute of Engineering , 2018, 14(1): 14-21</p
... In addition, Guo and Kannan [18] reported human exposure to phthalates and parabens in personal care products. In Europe, the EPHECT project determined the exposure and risks of formaldehyde, d-limonene, α-pinene, and naphthalene in 15 consumer products [19,20]. In Korea, Kim et al. [21] determined the exposure levels and health risks of substances in deodorants. ...
... Deterministic methods use point estimates of input parameters to provide a single worst-case value [39]. Previous studies have used deterministic methods to screen consumer products exposure levels [18,20,21,40]. To use this method to assess exposure to chemicals in consumer products, information on exposure factors, such as frequency of use, amount of use per application, as well as information about the circumstance of use, are required [41]. ...
Article
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Public concern regarding the use of products with chemicals has increased in Korea, following reports indicating that hazardous chemicals in products, such as disinfectants, can cause fatal lung disease. Despite the widespread use of car colorant products, little is known regarding their potential health risks. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential health risks of substances that exist in car colorant products. Thirteen car colorant products were purchased from the Korean market and 15 commonly used chemicals were analyzed. Exposure and risk assessments were conducted in two assessment stages (screening and refined). The analysis showed that all of the examined products contained toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene. The maximum concentration of toluene was 52.5%, with a median concentration of 10.8%. Tier 1 (screening) assessment showed that four chemicals (toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and 2-butoxyethanol) may pose health risks, but tier 2 (refined) assessment showed that these chemicals do not pose any risk. However, these chemicals were present in all of the examined products, and government regulations did not control their concentrations in these products. Therefore, we suggest that levels of toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene in car colorant products should be regulated to protect public health.
... f AER = 1 h −1 . g Value for sensory irritation (Nielsen, 2018;Trantallidi et al., 2015;Wolkoff, 2013;Wolkoff and Nielsen, 2010;Wolkoff et al., , 2014. h Reference value for airflow limitation . ...
... Fadeyi (2015). Indoor concentrations of the most common terpenes are generally in the low μg/m 3 range; except for acute activity-related actions resulting in brief peak exposures or continuous use of high-emitting air fresheners (Geiss et al., 2011;Glas et al., 2015;Mandin et al., 2017;Nørgaard et al., 2014a) or simultaneous multi-use of consumer products (Trantallidi et al., 2015). These compounds, in the absence of ozone, are not considered by inhalation indoors to cause sensory irritation effects in the eyes and airways or sensitizing effects in the airways in the general population (Wolkoff and Nielsen, 2017;Basketter et al., 2019;Johnson et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Reactive chemistry is ubiquitous indoors with a wealth of complex oxidation reactions; some of these are initiated by both homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction of ozone with unsaturated organic compounds and subsequent the hydroxyl radical, either in the gas-phase or on reactive surfaces. One major focus has been the reaction of common and abundant terpene-based fragrances in indoor air emitted from many wood-based materials , a variety of consumer products, and citrus fruits and flowers. Inhalation of the terpenes themselves are generally not considered a health concern (both acute and long-term) due to their low indoor air concentrations; however, their gas-and surface reactions with ozone and the hydroxyl radical produce a host of products, both gaseous, i. a. formaldehyde, and ultrafine particles formed by condensation/nucleation processes. These reaction products may be of health concern. Human cell bioassays with key reaction products from ozone-initiated ter-pene reactions have shown some inflammatory reactions, but results are difficult to interpret for human exposure and risk assessment. Acute effects like sensory irritation in eyes and airways are unlikely or present at very low intensity in real life conditions based on rodent and human exposure studies and known thresholds for sensory irritation in eyes and airways and derived human reference values for airflow limitation and pulmonary irritation. Some fragrances and their ozone-initiated reaction products may possess anti-inflammatory properties. However, long-term effects of the reaction products as ultrafine particles are poorly explored. Material and product surfaces with high ozone deposition velocities may significantly impact the perceived air quality by altered emissions from both homogeneous and heterogeneous surface reactions.
... Short-term critical exposure limits (CELs) for α-pinene and d-limonene were developed within the EPHECT project based on sensory irritation as the critical effect, and the values were 45 mg/m 3 for α-pinene and 90 mg/m 3 for d-limonene (Trantallidi et al. 2015). Long-term CELs of 4.5 mg/m 3 for α-pinene and 9 mg/m 3 for d-limonene were derived, through extrapolation, from short-term data (Trantallidi et al. 2015). ...
... Short-term critical exposure limits (CELs) for α-pinene and d-limonene were developed within the EPHECT project based on sensory irritation as the critical effect, and the values were 45 mg/m 3 for α-pinene and 90 mg/m 3 for d-limonene (Trantallidi et al. 2015). Long-term CELs of 4.5 mg/m 3 for α-pinene and 9 mg/m 3 for d-limonene were derived, through extrapolation, from short-term data (Trantallidi et al. 2015). Although variation occurs among different building types, countries, and seasons, measured indoor air concentrations consistently have been significantly lower than these CEL values (Schlink et al. 2004;Geiss et al. 2011;Krol et al. 2014;Cometto-Muniz and Abraham 2015;Wang et al. 2017;Mandin et al. 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental issues and health-benefitting design strategies have raised interest in natural and renewable building materials, resulting in an increased focus on the use of wood in built environment. The influence of wooden materials on measured and perceived indoor environment quality (IEQ) has gained attention during the past few decades, with a growing number of studies having explored the issue. This review was conducted to examine and summarise the body of research on the influence of wooden interior materials on IEQ, with an emphasis on the following themes: emissions of chemical compounds, moisture buffering of indoor air, antibacterial effects, acoustics, and psychological and physiological effects. This review found that wooden interior materials exert mainly positive or neutral effects on IEQ, such as moderating humidity fluctuations of indoor air, inducing positive feelings in occupants, and inhibiting certain bacteria. Negative effects on IEQ are limited to volatile organic compounds emitted from wood. The odour thresholds of some aldehydes and terpenes are low enough to affect the perceived IEQ. Additionally, concentrations of formaldehyde and acrolein may under certain conditions cause adverse health effects. Further studies are needed to better understand these phenomena and take advantage of the beneficial effects while hindering the unpleasant ones.
... Some chemicals commonly found in personal care products, household items, food vessels, cosmetics, and other consumer products are potentially harmful either through direct exposure during use or indirectly via subsequent environmental emissions. Several reviews of epidemiological studies have suggested an association between the exposure to some consumer products and respiratory diseases, skin sensitization, and reproductive system problems [1,2]. For example, isothiazolinones which are used as biocides may cause skin irritation and/or eye irritation. ...
... 1 BCS represents biopharmaceutics classification system that classifies the drugs/chemicals on the basis of their solubility and permeability. 2 The expected permeability values of reference chemicals were provided by the supplier of PAMPA. 3 The measured permeability values in this study were generated from three different experiments. ...
Article
Some chemicals commonly used in personal care products, household items, food vessels, cosmetics, and other consumer products are potentially harmful, and several reviews of epidemiological studies have suggested the associations between the chemical exposure from consumer products, and respiratory diseases, skin sensitization, and reproductive problems. Therefore, risk assessment is essential for management of consumer products safety. Necessarily, the estimation of human exposure is an essential step in risk assessment, and the absorption rate of those chemicals via the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, and skin are very critical in determining the internal dose of the exposed chemicals. In this study, parallel artificial membrane permeability assays (PAMPA) for the gastrointestinal tract and skin were performed to evaluate the permeability of parabens (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, methyl-, propyl-, and butyl paraben), bisphenols (bisphenol A, bisphenol F, and bisphenol S), isothiazolinones (methyl-, chloromethyl-, benz-, octyl-, and dichlorooctyl isothiazolinone), and phthalates [diethyl-, dibutyl-, Di-isononyl-, and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate]. Lipid solubility of test chemicals indicated by log P values was shown as the most critical factor and showed a positive association with the permeability of parabens, bisphenols, and isothiazolinones in PAMPA assay. However, phthalate showed a reverse-association between lipophilicity and permeability. The permeability of all the tested chemicals was higher in the gastrointestinal tract membrane than in the skin membrane. The pH in donor solution did not show significant effects on the permeability in all the chemicals, except the chemicals with a free hydrophilic moiety in their chemical structures.
... VOCs can be considered as carbon-based chemicals with a relatively high vapor pressure at room temperature; i.e., greater than 0.01 kPa at 20 C [50]. Major indoor sources of VOCs include consumer products and building materials [16,20,61,69,70]. Fragranced consumer products, for instance, emit numerous VOCs such as terpenes (e.g., limonene and a-pinene) which can generate secondary pollutants such as formaldehyde [48,59]. ...
Article
This study investigates volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at a large Australian university, within locations of campus services, restrooms, renovated offices, a green building, meeting areas, and classrooms. Analysis of 41 VOCs across 20 locations reveals indoor concentrations higher than outdoor concentrations for 97% of all VOC measurements (493 unique comparisons). Hazardous air pollutants (formaldehyde, benzene, toluene, and xylenes) were up to an order of magnitude higher indoors than outdoors, and at the highest combined geometric mean concentrations in classrooms (51.6 μg/m³), renovated offices (42.8 μg/m³), and a green building (23.0 μg/m³). Further, d-limonene, ethanol, hexaldehyde, β-pinene, and isobutane were up to two orders of magnitude higher indoors than outdoors. The most prevalent VOCs (e.g., ethanol, d-limonene, and formaldehyde) have links with building materials, furnishings, and fragranced consumer products such as air fresheners and cleaning supplies. Highest indoor to outdoor concentration (I/O) ratios of formaldehyde (27), toluene (9), p-xylene (12), and m-xylene (11) were in a green building; highest of benzene (6) in renovated offices; and highest of o-xylene (9) in meeting areas. Results from this study are consistent with findings from similar international studies and suggest that university indoor environments may be important sources of pollutants.
... Household products that fall under these regulations are required to be assessed for exposure and risk in order to evaluate the health and environmental hazards associated with their use. Exposure and risk assessment involves the systematic scientific characterization of potential adverse health effects resulting from human exposure to hazardous chemicals or situations [12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. ...
Article
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Understanding how indoor-air contaminants affect human health is of critical importance in our developed society. We assessed the combined exposure by inhalation of preschool children and children to household products. A total of 1175 families with 72 infants, 158 toddlers, 230 children, and 239 youths were surveyed to determine the combined respiratory exposure concentrations and amounts associated with 21 substances in eight household product groups. We determined the mean concentrations of these substances in each product, and derived reference toxicity values based on the information gathered in order to identify respiratory health risks. On average, cleaners were used at a rate of 1.0 × 103 g/month, while coating agents and other substances were used at 43 g/month. The combined inhalation exposure concentrations of methanol to infants and toddlers were 5.1 and 4.2 mg/m3 per month, respectively, with values of 2.1 and 1.7 mg/m3 for isopropanol, respectively. Risks to preschool children and children should be assessed on the basis of the toxicity values of combined exposed hazardous substances, as well as their combined concentrations and amounts. This exposure assessment approach can be used to establish improved guidelines for products that may pose inhalation hazards to preschool children and children.
... In the framework of the EPHECT project (Emissions, Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products in the EU) several household and consumer products (cleaning agents air fresheners, polish, perfume) were selected and studied in test chambers [96,97]. On the basis of determined emission rates Trantallidi et al. [98] calculated exposure scenarios for different population groups in four geographical regions of Europe. A study on personal care products and cosmetics was performed by Lefebvre et al. [99]. ...
Article
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A literature study was carried out with respect to the release and accumulation of formaldehyde indoors. With reference to representative emission data, exposure scenarios were calculated on the basis of the European Reference Room with the aid of Monte-Carlo methods. Furthermore, data concerning formaldehyde concentrations in indoor and outdoor air, as well as data on air exchange, were collected for the European region. Various permanent, intermitting and temporary emission sources were compared under the specified conditions of the Reference Room. It was thereby necessary to bear in mind that, for example, the emission tests for raw wood-based materials and mineral wool do not take place under realistic conditions, as these products are not applied open in indoor areas. It is demonstrated that coatings and coverings drastically reduce the release of formaldehyde into the room air. Moreover, it becomes clear that the Reference Room concept allows a comparison of emission sources but also greatly overestimates the formaldehyde concentrations in indoor areas when diverse sources are simply added together. In view of the discussed aspects, as well as taking into account outdoor air conditions and diverse secondary sources, the potential problem of exposure to high formaldehyde concentrations in indoor areas can therefore not be solved through the further tightening of already existing regulations, in particular because peak concentrations and therefore high exposures would remain largely uninfluenced. Due to the fact that formaldehyde is a compound with a threshold effect, this aspect is of considerable importance. Consequently, an appropriate risk management option would be to primarily address the peak concentrations originating from temporary and intermitting sources.
... Several studies on exposure information associated with household products were conducted. A European household product database for domestic use of 15 products was established to provide information that would enable exposure and risk assessment of the chemicals included in common household products (Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015a;Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015b;Trantallidi et al., 2015). In the USA, the study of use of products and exposure-related behaviors project provided data on usage patterns for many household products (Bennett et al., 2010). ...
... In Europe, the Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products (EPHECT) project was set up as a European consumer product database [11]. The EPHECT conducted exposure and risk assessments for chemicals contained in consumer products [12,13]. In the USA, the Study of Use of Products and Exposure-Related Behaviors (SUPERB) project provided data on usage patterns for many consumer products [14]. ...
Article
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Reliable exposure factors are essential to determine health risks posed by chemicals in consumer products. We analyzed five risk-concerned product categories (anti-fogging, dye, disinfectant, repellent, and preservative products) for 13 products (three car anti-fogging products, a lens anti-fogging product, two car dye products, two drain disinfectants, an air conditioner disinfectant, a chlorine-based disinfectant, a fabric repellent, an insect repellent for food, and a wood preservative) considered to be of high risk in order to determine exposure factors via web surveys and estimation of amount of product. Among the 3000 participants (1482 (49%) men) aged ≥19 years, drain disinfectants were used most frequently (38.2%); the rate of usage of the other products ranged between 1.1–24.0%. The usage rates for the consumer products differed by sex, age, income, and education. Some consumer products such as car and lens anti-fogging products, chlorine-based disinfectants, fabric repellents, and drain disinfectants were regularly used more than once a month, while car dye products, air conditioner disinfectants, insect repellents for food, and wood preservatives were not regularly used owing to the specific product purposes and seasonal needs. Our results could be used for managing or controlling chemical substances in consumer products and conducting accurate exposure assessments.
... Fang et al. [24], Zhang et al. [25], Masih et al. [26] and Hadei et al. [27] revealed that the health risks of formaldehyde, BTEX, etc., exceed acceptable levels in indoor air. The odor nuisances and hazards of VOCs in indoor environments are not only due to their volatility but also to their wide use in household products [28][29][30][31]. For example, Marchand et al. [32] found that the main sources of indoor aldehydes included hardwoods, plywood, laminate flooring, etc. Jiang, Li, Zhang, Li, Wang and Yu [21] found that the emissions of HCHO and 44 VOCs were identified with their dependence on temperature, while n-hexane and formaldehyde were most concentrated among the 45 compounds detected from particleboard. ...
Article
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As one of the major sources of volatile pollutants in indoor air, gaseous emissions from adhesives during interior decoration have attracted increasing concern. Identifying major volatile pollutants and the risk in adhesive gaseous emissions is of great significance, but remains rarely reported. In the present research, we assessed the major volatile pollutants emitted from white emulsion adhesive and silicone adhesive samples (n = 30) from three aspects: chemical composition, odor and health risk contributions. The results showed that a total of 21 volatile pollutants were detected. Significantly, xylene was the most concentrated compound from white emulsion adhesives, accounting for 45.51% of the total concentrations. Butanone oxime was the most concentrated compound in silicone adhesives, accounting for 69.86% of the total concentrations. The trends in odor concentration (evaluated by the odor activity value method) over time were well correlated with the total chemical concentrations. Xylene (58.00%) and butanone oxime (76.75%) showed the highest odor contribution, respectively. Moreover, from an integrated perspective of chemical emissions, odor and health risk contributions, xylene, ethylbenzene, ethyl acetate and benzene were identified as the key volatile pollutants emitted from the white emulsion adhesives, while butanone oxime, butanone, and ethanol were the key volatile pollutants emitted from the silicone adhesives. This study not only identified the key volatile pollutants but also provided characteristics of odor and health risks of gas emitted from adhesives.
... Secondary air pollutants include gaseous ozone (a major component of photochemical smog) formed from nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons, and particulate sulfate (e.g., sulfuric acid) and nitrate (e.g., ammonium nitrate) aerosols created in the atmosphere from sulfur and nitrogen oxide gases, respectively [1,2]. Different sources may also emit pollutants in indoor environments [3][4][5]. Furthermore, due to the presence of this number of sources and the confined air volume, the indoor air concentrations in some environments, such as homes, offices, schools, and public buildings, can be higher than in the outdoor air [6]. Obviously, the issue of air quality is also relevant in terms of occupational exposure: in occupational settings-such as industrial or productive work environments (characterized by the presence of specific pollutants sources), as well as environments in which the professional use of chemicals occurs-the inhalation exposure is generally considered the prevalent route of exposure. ...
Article
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The increased occurrence of serious health effects, mortality, and morbidity, as well as shortened life expectancy have been related to exposure to ambient air pollution [...]
... Different sources may emit pollutants in indoor environments, directly (eg, emissions from consumer products, building materials, indoor combustion sources, etc) or indirectly (ie, primary pollutants may react with each other, with pollutants from other sources, or with surface materials, creating secondary compounds). [1][2][3] Further, due to the presence of these numbers of sources and the confined air volume, the indoor air concentrations in some microenvironments such as homes, offices, schools, and public buildings can be higher than in the outdoor air. 4 The indoor environmental quality, which is related both to indoor air quality (IAQ), and to other environmental characteristics such as temperature, noise, and light, may affect worker's health, comfort, and well-being. 5 Indoor exposures have been estimated to cause a substantial loss of health in Europe, representing ca. 2 million healthy life years. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to identify determinants of aldehyde and volatile organic compound (VOC) indoor air concentrations in a sample of more than 140 office rooms, in the framework of the European OFFICAIR research project. A large field campaign was performed, which included (i) the air sampling of aldehydes and VOCs in 37 newly built or recently retrofitted office buildings across 8 European countries in summer and winter, and (ii) the collection of information on building and offices’ characteristics using checklists. Linear mixed models for repeated measurements were applied to identify the main factors affecting the measured concentrations of selected indoor air pollutants (IAPs). Several associations between aldehydes and VOCs concentrations and buildings’ structural characteristic or occupants’ activity patterns were identified. The aldehyde and VOC determinants in office buildings include building and furnishing materials, indoor climate characteristics (room temperature and relative humidity), the use of consumer products (e.g., cleaning and personal care products, office equipment), as well as the presence of outdoor sources in the proximity of the buildings (i.e. vehicular traffic). Results also showed that determinants of indoor air concentrations varied considerably among different type of pollutants.
... The composition of emissions from household products has been associated with health hazards for indoor occupants. [9]- [13] Nevertheless, limited information is available about composition and emissions associated to housekeeping activities in confined environments. The available scientific data are for most cases incomparable due to the wide variety in evaluation protocols. ...
Article
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As society has become aware of health hazards related to the exposure to chemicals, major efforts have been made to address indoor air current problematic. Consequently, popularity of “green” cleaning products has upsurge. These products are formulated with essential-oils relying on their anti-bacterial properties to improve indoor air quality. Indeed, essential oils might contain a hundred of odorous molecules, mainly terpenes and terpenoids (TerVOCs) which acts as antibacterial agents. Nonetheless, do essential-oil-based products really contribute to indoor air quality improvement? This study is addressed to evaluate emissions from the use of essential-oils-based cleaning products by various scale experiments. Firstly, a correlation of liquid composition from 7 natural cleaning products with their emission potentials has been investigated. Volatile fractions are evaluated by using micro-chamber testing. A total of 28 terpenes are quantified among products in the liquid form. Nevertheless, only 22 species are detected in gas samples with a yield ranking from 9.1 % to 99.8 %. Results do not verified a direct correlation between liquid mass and emitted concentrations of terpenes. Indeed, chemical affinities between terpenes and solvent matrix in product formulation are evidenced. Then, 4 products from different cleaning purposes have been selected for emission evaluation in a test chamber of 1-m3. Product application process are correlated to real case scenario regarding applied quantity and loading factor. Emitted terpenes and carbonyl compounds are quantified by off-line and on-line chromatography measurements. Results evidenced that peak concentrations from terpenes reached up to 1.5 h after cleaning activity. Major compound emitted concentration range from 121 to 152 μg/m3, in the test chamber, for different product categories. Specific emission dynamic is evidenced for formaldehyde, in where continuous increasing concentration is revealed due to the presence of formaldehyde releasers. This study contributes to further assessment of exposure hazards related to cleaning activities.
... In the frame of the European EPHECT project (Emissions, Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products in the EU), the use of cleaning agents, air fresheners, personal care products and other fragranced consumer products was investigated in emission test chambers [89]. A health risk assessment was subsequently carried out and revealed that indoor air pollutant concentrations were below the critical exposure levels but could still be considerable, especially for short-term exposure [90]. The study of room fragrances in emission test chambers also revealed high concentrations of solvents such as ethanol or 2-propanol from both passive and active diffusers [91]. ...
Thesis
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While technological improvements enable the production of a myriad of new products, assuring consumer safety has become an essential preoccupation for authorities. Indeed, consumers are potentially exposed to chemical risks with health consequences upon product usage. Polymer-based products have proliferated around the globe in the last decades and are appreciated for their cheap and flexible usage. However, they also often release hazardous substances that may be ingested, dermally absorbed or inhaled. This thesis focuses on the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plastic-based and wooden consumer products such as toys. Exposure data to apprehend the risks arising from such articles are scarce although the affected consumer group of children represent a vulnerable population. This data gap on exposure assessment is largely due to a lack of adequate analytical methods. Strategies existing for emission measurements from construction products are unsuitable for consumer products: Large emission test chambers (50 L to 20 m3) are not adapted to consumer product size. Alternative and more economical methods such as dynamic headspace (DHS, 20 mL or 1 L), microchambers (44 or 114 mL), glass chambers (24 L) and the flask method were investigated in this thesis. DHS sampling allowed semi-quantitative emission results and was further used for sample pre-selection. Both microchambers and 24 L glass chambers provided results that correlate with bigger emission test chambers: These devices would be suitable for market surveillance. The standardized flask method for formaldehyde emissions from wooden toys was not appropriate for exposure assessment. Furthermore, an assessment of the potential exposures from polymer-based consumer products was carried out. First, the samples were selected via DHS sampling and the constituting polymers were characterized. Then, the high-emitting samples were studied in conventional emission test chambers, 24 L glass chambers or microchambers. An exposure assessment was performed considering indoor air scenarios for short-term (a few hours) to long-term (28 days) exposure. Results were compared to existing toxicologically based guideline values. Emitted concentrations from single products do not typically exceed thresholds. However, scenarios with numerous products or smaller breathing zones are more concerning. Indeed, the cyclohexanone guideline value was exceeded during the study of the exposure from costume masks investigated with a doll’s head setup. This work is the first to systematically examine strategies for inhalation exposure assessment in official control laboratories. The exposure assessment data generated in the frame of this thesis give insights in the possible health risks associated with the use of polymer-based consumer products.
... In developing countries, about 46% of the employed work in the tertiary sector (while 19% work in industry and 35% in agriculture). Different sources may emit pollutants in office indoor environments directly (e.g., emissions from consumer products, building materials, office equipment, indoor combustion sources, etc.) or indirectly (i.e., primary pollutants may react with each other, with pollutants from other sources, or with surface materials, creating secondary compounds) (Trantallidi et al. 2015). IAQ in office buildings can be affected by several parameters such as inappropriate selection of indoor materials, emissions from electronic equipment and performance of the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, the use of carpets as floor covering, recently painted walls, and is related with other workplace conditions (crowded offices and presence of unpleasant odors, dust, and dirt). ...
Chapter
Since multiple studies have addressed IAQ and associated exposure-related symptoms in office workers, a careful assessment and management of indoor air quality (IAQ) in office-like environments is important for the protection of human health and to ensure optimal comfort and well-being for office workers. For this purpose, the development of appropriate monitoring strategies is crucial to properly characterize the chemical and physical complexity of IAQ dynamics and subsequent potential impacts on office occupants. To obtain comprehensive and representative conclusions about IAQ problems in office-like environments, and to prioritize the order of management interventions, a multilevel approach should be implemented. The assessment process should include a general survey of the building and of the offices, occupants’ questionnaire surveys (concerning IAQ, symptoms, and psychosocial working aspects), and environmental mea�surements. IAQ monitoring and assessment, combined with source identification and control and adjustment of ventilation rates, has been recognized as the prioritized strategy for improving IAQ in office-like environments and reducing the combined health risks associated with indoor exposures.
... [18][19][20][21] Collectively, the chemicals present in cleaning solutions, as well as the reactions caused by solutions interacting with surfaces, can cause negative health effects in building occupants, especially those with close or frequent contact to the products. 14,[21][22][23] Similarly, microorganisms can either process VOCs to create microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) or independently produce MVOCs (Figure 1). Microorganisms can subsist off organic material found in dust, especially sloughed human cells, 24,25 and their production of ammonia and volatile fatty acids can be sufficient to spur odor complaints. ...
Article
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Since the advent of soap, personal hygiene practices have revolved around removal, sterilization, and disinfection ‐ both of visible soil and microscopic organisms – for a myriad of cultural, aesthetic, or health‐related reasons. Cleaning methods and products vary widely in their recommended use, effectiveness, risk to users or building occupants, environmental sustainability, and ecological impact. Advancements in science and technology have facilitated in‐depth analyses of the indoor microbiome and studies in this field suggest that the traditional “scorched‐earth cleaning” mentality ‐ that surfaces must be completely sterilized and prevent microbial establishment ‐ may contribute to long‐term human health consequences. Moreover, the materials, products, activities, and microbial communities indoors all contribute to, or remove, chemical species to the indoor environment. This review examines the effects of cleaning with respect to the interaction of chemistry, indoor microbiology, and human health. Simple interventions, such as hand washing, can dramatically improve health and reduce infectious disease. Chemical intervention, while effective, may encourage the development of microbial resistance over time if not implemented properly. Microbial communities adapt, reassemble, and persist, and recent theory in microbial ecology suggests that curating microbial communities may be more sustainable than perpetually attempting to remove them. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Furthermore, 45% of the households reported the combined use of air fresheners and candles/incense. Emissions from fragranced consumer products can impair indoor air quality and consequently human health, workplace productivity, and quality of life (Steinemann, 2017(Steinemann, , 2018Trantallidi et al., 2015). In particular, air fresheners can emit over 100 different chemicals, including potentially hazardous VOC (such as terpenes, terpenoids, ethanol, formaldehyde, benzene, toluene, and xylene), semi-VOC (such as phthalates), and indoor oxidants (such as ozone (O 3 ), hydroxyl radicals (OH), and nitrate radicals (NO 3 )) (Steinemann, 2017). ...
Article
Conducting epidemiological and risk assessment research that considers the exposome concept, as in the case of HEALS project, requires the acquisition of higher dimension data sets of an increased complexity. In this context, new methods that provide accurate and interpretable data summary on relevant environmental factors are of major importance. In this work, a questionnaire was developed to collect harmonized data on potential pollutant sources to air in the indoor environment where children spend an important part of their early life. The questionnaire was designed in a user friendly checklist format to be filled out at the maternity in ten European cities. This paper presents and discusses the rationale for the selection of the questionnaire contents and the results obtained from its application in the households of 309 HEALS-enrolled families with babies recently born in Porto, Portugal. The tool was very effective in providing data on the putative air pollution sources in homes, with special focus on the bedroom of the newborns. The data collected is part of a wider effort to build the databases and risk assessment models of the HEALS project. The results of the analysis of the collected data suggest that, for the population under study, the main concerns on early life exposures at home can be related to emissions from the use of household solid fuels, indoor tobacco, household cleaning products, fragranced consumer products (e.g. air fresheners, incense and candles), moisture-related pathologies and traffic-related outdoor pollution. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the tool can be a valuable means to empower citizens to actively participate in the control of their own exposures at home. Within this context, the application of the checklist will also allow local stakeholders to identify buildings presenting most evident IAQ problems for sampling or intervention as well as to guide them in preparing evidence-based educational/awareness campaigns to promote public health through creating healthy households.
... More than 65% of formaldehyde production goes to produce synthetic resins used in building materials [1]. For example, interior decoration materials such as wood, wallpaper, paint, and household consumer products like floor cleaning agents, candles, and electric air fresheners [5] would release formaldehyde into the indoor environment. Meanwhile, formaldehyde has been detected in exhaled air using modern analytical techniques and has even been linked to various diseases. ...
... The evaporation of components, such as organic solvents, results in emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily in indoor environments 1 . Direct exposure to these VOCs can result in adverse health effects, including mucosal irritation, endocrine disruption, asthma and non-specific symptoms such as headache [2][3][4][5][6] . Furthermore, these VOCs escape into ambient air, where they contribute to the formation of criteria pollutants such as fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ozone (O 3 ) 1 , imposing further risks to public health [7][8][9] . ...
Article
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Consumer, industrial and commercial product use is a source of exposure to potentially hazardous chemicals. In addition, cleaning agents, personal care products, coatings and other volatile chemical products (VCPs) evaporate and react in the atmosphere, producing secondary pollutants. Here, we show that high air emissions from VCP use (≥14 kg per person per yr, at least 1.7× higher than current operational estimates) are supported by multiple estimation methods and constraints imposed by ambient levels of ozone, hydroxyl radical reactivity and the organic component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Pasadena, California. A near-field model, which estimates human chemical exposure during or in the vicinity of product use, indicates that these high air emissions are consistent with organic product use up to ~75 kg per person per yr, and the inhalation of consumer products could be a non-negligible exposure pathway. After the PM2.5 yield is constrained to 5% by mass, VCPs produce ~41% of the photochemical organic PM2.5 (1.1 ± 0.3 μg m⁻³) and ~17% of the maximum daily 8 hr average ozone (9 ± 2 ppb) in summer in Los Angeles. Therefore, both toxicity and ambient criteria pollutant formation should be considered when organic substituents are developed for VCPs in pursuit of safer and more sustainable products and cleaner air.
... A European research project found that both acute (high-level, short-term) and chronic (low-level, long-term) exposure to certain VOCs were related to irritative and respiratory health effects 115,116,117 . This includes acrolein, formaldehyde, benzene, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene. ...
Chapter
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Air pollution is the environmental public health problem of our time. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child sets out clear guidance to protecting the rights of children and young people, including a child's right to the best possible health (Article 24) and the right to a good standard of living. Unicef also consider that clean air is a right for all children. The UK Royal Medical Colleges vigorously advocate for a healthy environment at the population level and in local communities, especially where socio-economic circumstances limit the choice of where people can live, and which school children attend. Despite substantial progress in understanding outdoor air pollution, the potential risk to health, especially that of children and young people, from the indoor air has been largely overlooked, yet in modern times, the indoor environment has never been more important as lockdown with the Covi-19 virus pandemic has shown us. Here we provide an abridged version of the RCPCH/RCP Report The inside story: Health effects of indoor air quality on children and young people but without the section on recommendations. The full Report along with recommendations, released on 28 January 2020, can be accessed at https://www.rcpch.ac.uk/resources/inside-story-health-effects-indoor-air-quality-children-young-people. While we recognise that some aspects of this commentary are UK specific, much of the content has wide implications.
... VOCs can be considered as carbon-based chemicals with a relatively high vapor pressure at room temperature; i.e., greater than 0.01 kPa at 20 C [50]. Major indoor sources of VOCs include consumer products and building materials [16,20,61,69,70]. Fragranced consumer products, for instance, emit numerous VOCs such as terpenes (e.g., limonene and a-pinene) which can generate secondary pollutants such as formaldehyde [48,59]. ...
Article
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are pervasive indoor air pollutants. This paper systematically evaluates 25 years (1991–2016) of investigations of VOCs within indoor environments in Australia. Among 31 papers evaluated, the most frequently studied environment was domestic housing (61%), and the most frequently quantified compound was formaldehyde (81%). Active sampling techniques were used in 82% of studies of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX), and in 38% of studies of formaldehyde and other carbonyls. New homes had the highest VOC levels among all studies of domestic housing. For nearly all pollutants, indoor levels were several times higher than outdoor levels. Among the most prevalent compounds indoors were terpenes, such as d-limonene and α-pinene. All studies were conducted at a regional or local level, and no study reported statistically representative indoor VOC data for the Australian population. The evaluation revealed a diversity of sampling approaches and techniques, pointing to the importance of a standard approach for collecting and reporting data.
... Because the chemical compounds in air freshener have a content that is harmful to health if used in the long run. Although the short-term effects of the disease cannot be seen, the long-term effects of the use of these chemicals will be felt later (Kim et al., 2018;Trantallidi et al., 2015). ...
Article
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- This research is motivated by the poor air quality in the room at home that can cause Sick Building Syndrome (SBS). The purpose of this research is to increase public awareness of the environment through indoor air quality workshops, with a Pre-Experimental method and One Group Pre-Test Post-Test research design. The sample in this study was Pasteur RW6, Sukajadi District at Bandung City, which was selected based on criteria including non slum areas, as well as high community participation. The results showed that the level of public awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and actions on air quality in the room before the Workshop was in the medium category. Then it increased after the Workshop, which was on a relatively moderate increase in knowledge. This can be seen from the majority of people who already know the importance of indoor air quality, but the knowledge of specific components that affect indoor air quality is still not understood. Whereas attitudes and actions experienced a relatively small increase due to the knowledge gained in the Workshop not being implemented in the form of real attitudes and actions in daily life because people's habits are difficult to change. Keywords – Environmental Awareness, Indoor Air Quality, Workshop, Community Awareness
... It has been established that some NMVOCs contained in aerosols products are toxic (Dales et al., 2013) and extensive studies are available in the literature to this effect (Comiskey et al., 2015, Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015a, Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015b, McDonald et al., 2018, Rahman and Kim, 2014, Steinemann, 2016, Trantallidi et al., 2015, Wieck et al., 2018, Wolkoff and Nielsen, 2017, Zota et al., 2017. The concentration measurements of the NMVOCs from aerosols at the indoor interface (Bartzis et al., 2015, Batterman et al., 2012, Pelletier et al., 2017, Wieck et al., 2018 and their outdoor impacts in terms of secondary ozone formation (Atkinson and Arey, 2003, Carter, 1994, Dinh et al., 2015, Li et al., 2020, Niu et al., 2017, Rohr, 2013, Yan et al., 2017 have also been highlighted. ...
Article
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Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs) from domestic aerosol sprays are emerging pollutants and have substantial negative effects on human health and the environment. This study, for the first time, carried out quantification of the NMVOC emissions from off-the-shelf domestic aerosol sprays, at "source" in the UK. These aerosol sprays contain harmful organic compounds as propellants and products. The results showed that the cosmetic category (i.e. body sprays) have higher concentrations of NMVOCs with 93.7 wt% per can compared to households (i.e. air fresheners) with 62 wt%. Also, water-based products showed less NMVOCs in all analyses compared to solvent-based formulations. Direct replacement of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) propellants from conventional products with 'clean air' (i.e. nitrogen) showed the potential emission reduction of 50%. Hair spray products, however, have the highest ozone forming potential with about 105.1 g of Ozone per litre of the product compared to other domestic aerosol sprays. The level of global warming contribution of the selected aerosol sprays in the UK was measured to be 129.8 ktCO2e in 2018 and globally, this can be projected to be 3154.6 ktCO2e in 2020. Furthermore, NMVOC emissions contribution from the domestic aerosol sprays in the UK was measured as 61.2 kt in 2018 based on annual consumption of 520 million cans. Globally this can equate to 1437.6 kt based on the projected usage of 17.5 billion cans. Therefore, it is vital to expedite replacing LPG propellant with nitrogen in a drive for a 'near-zero' emission in aerosol industry. The results presented in this study can also be used to steer policy makers to the potentially brewing danger from an otherwise passive emission source.
... 17 Limonene in particular has been reported previously by Carslaw and Shaw (2019) 18 to be one of the most relatively impactful VOCs on indoor chemistry due to its high potential for SOA and formaldehyde formation. [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27] World Health Organization Guidelines 28 for Indoor Air Quality determine the exposure limit for formaldehyde to be 0.1 mg/m 3 (30-min average concentration) and name HCPs and cosmetics among indoor sources, along with textiles, insulating materials, and other consumer items. ...
Article
Full-text available
An increasing fraction of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions come from the domestic use of solvents, contained within myriad commonplace consumer products. Emission rates are often poorly characterized and depend significantly on individual behavior and specific product formulation and usage. Time‐concentration profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) arising from the use of a representative selection of personal care products (PCPs) during showering are generated, and person‐to‐person variability in emissions calculated. A panel of 18 participants used a standardized set of products, dosages, and application times during showering in a controlled indoor bathroom setting. Proton transfer mass spectrometry was used to measure the in‐room VOC evolution of limonene (representing the sum of monoterpenes), benzyl alcohol, and ethanol. The release of VOCs had reproducible patterns between users, but noticeable variations in absolute peak concentrations, despite identical amounts of material being used. The amounts of VOC emitted to air for one showering activity were as follows: limonene (1.77 mg ± 42%), benzyl alcohol (1.07 mg ± 41%), and ethanol (0.33 mg ± 78%). Real‐world emissions to air were between 1.3 and 11 times lower than bottom‐up estimates based on dynamic headspace measurements of product emissions rates, likely a result of PCPs being washed away before VOC evaporation could occur.
... 28 Similar conclusions have been reached in other studies examining VOC emissions and indoor air exposures that were below critical exposure limits. 29 An area of uncertainty has been the potential for these classes of relatively reactive VOCs to degrade to form secondary pollutants through indoor oxidation with ozone. Ozone can be drawn indoors from outside, and other possible oxidation routes include reactions with OH, Cl, and NO 3 radicals that can be generated indoors. ...
Article
Full-text available
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a key class of atmospheric emission released from highly complex petrochemical, transport and solvent sources both outdoors and indoors. This study established the concentrations and speciation of VOCs in 60 homes (204 individuals, 360 × 72 h samples, 40 species) in summer and winter, along with outdoor controls. Self-reported daily statistics were collected in each home on the use of cleaning, household and personal care products, all of which are known to release VOCs. Frequency of product use varied widely: deodorants: 2.9 uses home per day; sealant-mastics 0.02 uses home per day. The total concentration of VOCs indoors (range C2-C10) was highly variable between homes e.g. range 16.6-8150 μg m-3 in winter. Indoor concentrations of VOCs exceeded outdoor for 84% of households studied in summer and 100% of homes in winter. The most abundant VOCs found indoors in this study were n-butane (wintertime range: 1.5-4630 μg m-3), likely released as aerosol propellant, ethanol, acetone and propane. The cumulative use VOC-containing products over multiday timescales by occupants provided little predictive power to infer 72 hour averaged indoor concentrations. However, there was weak covariance between the cumulative usage of certain products and individual VOCs. From a domestic emissions perspective, reducing the use of hydrocarbon-based aerosol propellants indoors would likely have the largest impact.
... Consumer products such as cleaning agents, air fresheners and personal care products contain terpene species, such as limonene, α-pinene or α-terpinolene [50]. Emissions of such species and subsequent chemical reactions indoors can allow the formation of numerous multifunctional and sometimes harmful secondary pollutants [51] such as VOCs which have low enough vapour pressures such that they partition to the particle phase to form secondary organic aerosols (SOA) [52,53]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs size < 100 nm) in life and work environments can contribute to adverse health effects also in terms of health burden of related diseases over time. The choice of parameters which better characterize UFPs is challenging, due to their physical-chemical properties and their variable size. It is also strictly related to the availability of different instrumental techniques. In the present study we focus on real time high frequency (1 Hz) UFPs particle size distribution (PSD) and their relationship with total particle number concentration (TPNC) and mean particle diameter (Davg) as a contribution characterizing by size the human exposure to UFPs in an indoor site of the University of Rome “Sapienza” (Italy). Further considerations about UFPs contribution to nucleation mode (NM) and accumulation mode (AM) have been highlighted, also in order to investigate the contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) surface-adsorbed on indoor air particles (pPAHs). High indoor TPNC values were registered during the rush hours (early morning and mid/late afternoon) according to the outdoor influences originated from anthropogenic activities. AM mainly contribute to the indoor TPNC during working days showing high correlation with pPAHs. These findings may provide useful indications in terms of occupational exposure to UFPs since there are many evidences that indoor exposures to such pollutants may be associated with adverse health effects also in working environments.
... Our findings indicate that Oklahoma ECE programs routinely use cleaning products and air fresheners that release potentially harmful chemicals known to trigger asthma symptoms and cause adverse respiratory-related health outcomes [10,[66][67][68][69][70][71]. Similar to findings from another study in Washington D.C. [8], most ECE programs in our study reported using bleach to clean their facilities. ...
Article
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Little is known about the environmental health-related policies and practices of early care and education (ECE) programs that contribute to childhood asthma, particularly in Oklahoma where child asthma rates (9.8%) and rates of uncontrolled asthma among children with asthma (60.0%) surpass national rates (8.1% and 50.3%, respectively). We conducted a cross-sectional survey with directors of Oklahoma-licensed ECE programs to assess policies and practices related to asthma control and to evaluate potential differences between Centers and Family Childcare Homes (FCCHs). Surveyed ECEs (n = 476) included Centers (56.7%), FCCHs (40.6%), and other program types (2.7%). Almost half (47.2%) of directors reported never receiving any asthma training. More Center directors were asthma-trained than FCCH directors (61.0% versus 42.0%, p < 0.0001). Most ECEs used asthma triggers, including bleach (88.5%) and air fresheners (73.6%). Centers were more likely to use bleach daily than were FCCHs (75.6% versus 66.8%, p = 0.04). FCCHs used air fresheners more than did Centers (79.0% versus 61.0%, p < 0.0001). The majority of ECEs (74.8%) used pesticides indoors. Centers applied indoor pesticides more frequently (i.e., monthly or more often) than did FCCHs (86.0% versus 58.0%, p < 0.0001). Policy, educational, and technical assistance interventions are needed to reduce asthma triggers and improve asthma control in Oklahoma ECEs.
... The participants were exposed to either 7.4 mg/m 3 of limonene or 1.6 mg/m 3 of pyridine while seated in a windowed exposure chamber. These concentrations were chosen to be clearly detectable, thus above the odor-detection threshold of 0.21 mg/m 3 for limonene and 0.20 mg/ m 3 for pyridine (Nagata, 2003), yet below the threshold for sensory irritation of above 450 mg/m 3 for limonene (Trantallidi, Dimitroulopoulou, Wolkoff, Kephalopoulos, & Carrer, 2015) and 90 mg/m 3 for pyridine (Ruth, 1986). The concentrations of the two substances were also chosen to evoke similar perceived intensities based on pilot testing and to be far below the Swedish limit values for occupational health purposes (AFS, 2011) for limonene of 150 mg/m 3 and pyridine of 7.0 mg/m 3 to ensure ecological validity. ...
Article
The aim was to gain understanding for the impact of negative affectivity (NA) and odor valance on perceptual aspects during low-level odorous exposure. Fifty-five young adults who were either relatively low or high in NA (anxiety, depression, and somatization) were randomized for exposure to either limonene (pleasant odor) or pyridine (unpleasant odor). In an exposure chamber, they took part in baseline, blank and stable exposure sessions, during which they rated odor intensity, impact on ability to focus on an imagined cognitive task, and intensity of symptoms. The results showed higher ratings of negative impact on ability to focus during exposure to the unpleasant odor compared with the pleasant odor, and an association between NA and symptom intensity, with 18% of the variance in symptom intensity explained by somatization. The association between NA and symptom intensity was found to be driven by the factor sex. These results imply (a) that prior findings of odorous exposure that interfere negatively with work performance may be due to impact of an unpleasant odor on ability to focus on cognitive tasks and (b) that there are associations between NA, sex, and symptoms that may partly be referred to attentiveness to and interpretation of bodily sensations.
... Nell'ambito di EU_LCI è stato effettuato un censimento di circa 100 sostanze chimiche prioritarie usate nei materiali di costruzione e, quindi, ne sono stati definiti i relativi livelli massimi consentiti in termini di emissione, affinché il materiale non sia da classificare come pericoloso in relazione alla potenziale esposizione in ambienti indoor (EU-LCI Working group). Nel progetto EPHECT sono stati invece valutati i principali prodotti di consumo e le relative sostanze chimiche prioritarie che hanno un impatto sulla esposizione in ambienti indoor (Trantallidi M. et al., 2015) Idrocarburi et al., 2014), riscaldamento domestico (Marchand N. et al., 2004), incenerimento di rifiuti (Harrison R.M. et al., 1996), attività industriali, produzione di asfalti, combustione di biomasse e di legname, combustione di oli pesanti (Masiol M. et al., 2012). Tra le tipiche sorgenti indoor, una delle fonti prevalenti è sicuramente il fumo di tabacco (Castro D. et al., 2011), seguita da: sistemi di riscaldamento domestici, specialmente stufe e caminetti (Ozgen S. et al., 2014), cottura di alimenti (Zhu L.Z. and Wang J., 2003), combustione di gas naturale (Mitra S. and Ray B., 1995) e sorgenti più sporadiche come l'uso di candele (Derudi M. et al., 2012Derudi M. et al., , 2014), incensi e repellenti per insetti (Ohura T. ). ...
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Introduzione Con l'espressione ambiente indoor ci si riferisce agli ambienti chiusi di vita e di lavoro non industriali, e in particolare quelli adibiti a dimora, lavoro, trasporto e svago. Alcune indagini condotte a livello europeo hanno evidenziato che la popolazione dei centri urbani trascorre in media il 95-97% del tempo in ambienti indoor, il 2-4% nei mezzi di trasporto e solo l'1% nell'ambiente esterno (Fuselli S. et al., 2013a). Studi analoghi sono stati condotti in Italia sulla popolazione residente in alcune aree urbane per acquisire informazioni sugli stili di vita; i risultati di questi studi hanno mostrato come la popolazione italiana trascorra all'interno di ambienti indoor una percentuale media dell'89% del tempo con valori che oscillano tra l'84% e il 93%. In questa percentuale sono altresì compresi i lavoratori che operano nel settore terziario (uffici, commercio, banche, ospedali, scuole ecc.), e che rappresentano più del 67% della popolazione lavorativa italiana (e il 70% del totale dei lavoratori occupati in Europa) (Bastone A. et al.; 2006; Fuselli S. et al., 2013b). Considerando la grande quantità di tempo che la popolazione trascorre in questo tipo di ambienti, l'inquinamento degli ambienti indoor derivante dalla presenza, spesso concomitante, di agenti fisici (radiazioni ionizzanti e non ionizzanti), chimici (composti organici e inorganici, sotto forma di gas, vapori o materiale particolato) e biologici (microrganismi, muffe e acari) rappresenta dunque una questione ad oggi molto rilevante. Per quanto riguarda gli agenti chimici in particolare, nel corso degli ultimi decenni, la qualità dell'aria indoor è andata incontro ad un progressivo cambiamento sia dal punto di vista qualitativo che quantitativo, con un aumento di alcune sostanze inquinanti e dei relativi livelli in aria. A tal proposito, diversi studi hanno evidenziato la presenza negli ambienti indoor di numerosi agenti inquinanti (come ad esempio biossido d'azoto, biossido di zolfo, composti organici volatili, idrocarburi policiclici aromatici e particolato atmosferico aerodisperso) che, anche per esposizioni croniche a basse concentrazioni, possono determinare effetti sulla salute non ancora completamente noti (Sarigiannis D.A. et al., 2011). È da notare poi che alcuni studi hanno messo in evidenza che, in presenza di fonti interne e bassi livelli di ricircolo dell'aria, le concentrazioni di inquinanti rilevabili negli ambienti indoor, possono essere di molto superiori rispetti a quelli rilevati all'esterno (Salthammer T. et al., 2010). In definitiva, gli inquinanti chimici indoor, agendo singolarmente o in combinazione con altri fattori, possono determinare una diminuzione del comfort ambientale e, in alcuni casi, rischi per la salute umana. L'esposizione agli inquinanti presenti nell'aria indoor può essere infatti responsabile dell'insorgenza di specifiche patologie o dell'aggravamento di patologie già esistenti, con particolare riferimento alle fasce di popolazione più vulnerabili, in relazione anche alla suscettibilità individuale (Franchi M et al., 2006). Oltre a queste patologie ben definite possono manifestarsi sintomatologie " caratterizzate da effetti neurosensoriali che determinano condizioni di malessere, diminuzione del comfort degli occupanti e percezione negativa della qualità dell'aria " (sindrome dell'edificio malato o Sick Building Syndrome) (Bastone A. et al., 2006). L'interesse per la qualità dell'aria indoor in Europa è in crescita per le misure in atto di contenimento dei consumi energetici e per i rischi correlabili agli inquinanti secondari di reazione (Wolkoff P. et al., 2013). In questo contesto, e considerando l'enorme interesse in termini di impatti sulla salute umana, durante gli ultimi anni sono stati promossi diversi progetti di ricerca europei finalizzati allo studio dell'esposizione a inquinanti in ambienti indoor e alla gestione di tali ambienti. Tuttavia, l'incidenza e le cause di sintomi e di patologie potenzialmente correlabili all'inquinamento dell'aria indoor, in particolare agli inquinanti secondari di reazione, non sono ancora completamente note, così come le più efficaci misure per la loro prevenzione. Considerata l'ampiezza della tematica, e la grande numerosità degli agenti di rischio chimici legati agli ambienti indoor, il presente contributo intende presentare una breve discussione di alcuni agenti chimici che tipicamente possono essere presenti negli ambienti indoor, fornendo indicazioni utili allo studio dell'esposizione della popolazione generale negli ambienti indoor, quale contributo all'esposizione giornaliera ad agenti chimici potenzialmente pericolosi per la salute.
... Consumer products such as cleaning agents, air fresheners and personal care products contain terpene species, such as limonene, α-pinene or α-terpinolene (Nazaroff and Weschler, 2004;Singer et al., 2006). Emissions of such species and subsequent chemical reactions indoors can negatively impact indoor air quality through the formation of numerous multifunctional and sometimes harmful secondary pollutants (Weschler, 2006;Waring and Wells, 2015;Trantallidi et al., 2015). Some species formed indoors following the oxidation of terpenes and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have low enough vapour pressures (Vp) such that they partition to the particle phase to form secondary organic aerosols (SOA) (Sarwar et al., 2004;Waring, 2014). ...
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Technical Report
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INTRODUCTION Each human activity is related to emissions of chemicals into the air. In an industrialized society, the majority of the population spends more than 90% of the time indoors. Indoor air pollution may be becoming worse due to certain recent initiatives to conserve energy. One common method is to make buildings more energy-efficient to "weatherize" them by sealing them off, as tightly as possible. Preliminary research suggests that concentrations of at least some indoor air pollutants vary proportionately with the ventilation rate; thus, decreasing the ventilation rate by a factor of five may increase concentrations of indoor air pollutants by the same factor. Given these increased concentrations, the current trend towards sealing off homes in order to conserve energy, may have serious health consequences. Even this estimate is subject to significant variations based on the chosen lifestyle of the population groups, climatologically determined constrictions, and, most importantly, the age and health status of the individuals. Elderly with poor health and very young children spend virtually most of their time indoors. In some cases, a further complicating factor is that they may live in certain restricted localities within the dwelling more than the healthy persons do. The sources of indoor contaminants that may affect human health could be divided into three general categories which, in turn, could be further subdivided. The general source categories are: (1) infiltration of outdoor air (2) indoor human activities, and (3) building materials and furnishing. Regarding category (2), contaminants emitted by human activities, include many classes of consumer products used for personal care, cleaning, deodorizing, pest management, building maintenance and office work. Furthermore, devices, such as gas stoves, furnaces and fireplaces, commonly present in residents, are known as emitters of air pollutants, such as VOCs, CO and NOx [COSI, 2005]. To assess the population exposure to indoor sources, additional information is needed, such as duration of daily use of a product, duration of contact-time, frequency of use, and percentage of prevalence [COSI, 2005]. Generally, exposure assessment for consumers aims at two groups: - those who use these products and experience the highest exposure and - those who are exposed after application (e.g. children and especially the youngest ones may be relatively high exposed, due to their specific time-activity pattern like crawling on treated surfaces, hand-to-mouth contact, and relatively low body weight). The ability of organic chemicals to cause health effects varies greatly, from those that are highly toxic (e.g. benzene and formaldehyde), to those with no known health effects. As with other pollutants, the extent and nature of the health effects will depend on many factors including level of exposure and length of exposure duration. There are indications that the reaction products of organic pollutants (e.g. terpenes) may have an impact on comfort and health, but the magnitude of these effects and their frequency need to be elucidated (ECA, 2007). In addition, a number of studies in indoor environments suggest that such oxidative reactions may be associated with adverse health effects (Weschler et al., 2006; Wolkoff et al., 2006). The sensory irritation (eyes and airways) and inflammation potential of the ozonolysis products has been studied using a mouse bioassay (Clausen et al., 2001; Rohr et al., 2002; Wilkins et al., 2001; Wolkoff et al., 1999) and a human eye exposure model (Nøjgaard et al., 2005). This report aims at the formulation of an inventory of the necessary scientific basis on the main consumer product categories, needed to make an estimate of the exposure risks for the consumer due to using products. https://esites.vito.be/sites/ephect/
Technical Report
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The present report seeks to meet the objectives fixed under EPHECT Project in Work Package 8: Risk management guidance and policy options. The current policies related to indoor air emissions from the consumer products in EU MS are reviewed, and some proposals on exposure reduction strategies, for consumers, manufacturers as well as policy makers, are formulated. The expected health promotion outcomes of EPHECT, i.e. recommendations for policy makers and risk management for users, are formulated in order to achieve intermediate health outcomes in time, when guidelines and recommendations will be implemented by European citizens. This healthy lifestyle will then induce a reduction of the user's exposure to consumer product emissions, and thus it will lead to an improvement of the quality of life. In what regards the review, presented in Part I of the report, they are presented the measures currently in place in the EU related to consumer products and, more specifically, to those which put limits on chemical emissions or on the contents of some chemical contaminants in the product composition. To note that not all consumer products are within the scope of EPHECT project. Only the consumer products known as potential sources of hazardous and other health relevant air pollutants in dwellings, e.g., products that emit pollutants to the indoor air and which major exposure route is by inhalation. The primary focus of the review is on European Union level policies (directives, codes, regulations and international agreements) with impact on the utilization of some substances as ingredients of consumer products either by the prohibition of using certain substances, or by imposing restrictions on the used amounts: EU policies on chemicals (REACH), consumer products (GPSD), dangerous substances (CLP/GHS) and use of biocides (BPD). More specific regulations on consumer products are also assessed: cosmetics, detergents and toys. It can be observed that the limits imposed are specified in terms of the content and never in terms of emission, which can be explained by the absence of specific standards. There is also an important lack on toxicological data. There is a wide quantity of ingredients that were not yet evaluated in terms of toxicology, and are in consequence not covered by the regulations. The new Consumer Product Safety Regulation and Market Surveillance Regulation launched in February 2013 and currently under discussion seem to be promising and some progress is expected. Voluntary European Actions as the European EcoLabel and Green Public Procurement GPP) are also referred in the review. A particular but important aspect to be highlighted is the fact that the EcoLabel and GPP criteria concerning fragrances refer to IFRA (International Fragrance Association), but it should be noted that IFRA limits were based only on risk assessments for dermal sensitization. The exposure by inhalation was not considered. An overview of what was and is actually been performed by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) in what concerns consumer products is included in the review. As CEN is a major provider of European Standards and technical specifications, it is important to obtain this information in order to identify possible fields of intervention as, in fact, the number of Technical Committees dedicated to consumer products within EPHECT scope is very small. CEN appears as a window of opportunity for the creation of Working Groups dedicated to emissions measurements of consumer products. The review focuses also on national policies on consumer products in European Member States which are not simply the transposition of European Directives or Regulations to the national laws. This chapter is without doubt the least accomplished, caused by difficulties in obtaining information. Finally, the review focuses on voluntary actions such as industry standards, product labelling schemes and professional good practices applied to consumer products. It can be seen that the industry is quite active in the field of the safety of products and in communicating this message to the consumers. However, much more might be even required if a deeper knowledge of the risk associated with the use of consumer products is obtained. Part II of the report focuses in the risk management guidance in using consumer products, and some possible recommendations to policy-makers and consumers. It will be best to remember the strategies previously proposed to a better IAQ and widely accepted, that form the basis of the recommendations. The EC project EnVIE (Oliveira Fernandes et al., 2008), sponsored by the DG Research made a major contribution in this context proposing a framework to address and organize the IAQ management issue from the Policy perspective. From EnVIE one could dress two main principles or lines for action: 1. The first strategy to manage the IAQ is the ‘source control’ strategy, meaning that what is not emitted or diluted indoors does not affect the IAQ status; 2. The second and, in fact, the ultimate strategy is ventilation as an ‘exposure control’ strategy and not as a panacea for every IAQ problem; The first option is in the hands of the manufacturers and policy makers that can force to decrease the contaminants present in the consumer products. Another way considered to control exposure was the restriction of the time spent in a particular contaminated space and, as the ultimate solution, the dilution with increased ventilation, which can be implemented by the consumer. Some recommendations under this context are presented in Part II of the report. To finish, in Annex are presented the results of a survey undertaken at the final stage of the final event of the EPHECT project, that took place in 18th of September at the European Parliament in Brussels, with the objective to present the outcomes of the project . The survey aimed to collect the opinion of the audience, using an electronic voting system. There were six multiple choice questions to which the responses were particularly relevant and supportive of the EPHECT objectives and respective follow-up. The audience had a quite good representation of industry (34%) and the majority recognized the importance of most of choices of potential policies (low emitting products, guidelines for indoor air pollutants), reinforcing the importance of legislative labelling (40%), supporting initiatives towards reducing primary emissions (source control) and labelling (55%). https://esites.vito.be/sites/ephect/
Technical Report
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CHAPTER 1 Product testing strategy 1.1. Structure of the report “Part II product testing experiments” 1.2. Test chamber experiments of the 15 product classes CHAPTER 2 Assessment of the composition of selected consumer products (TUM) 2.1 Information on product composition 2.1.1 Information on product label 2.1.2 Information directly by company 2.1.3 Information available online 2.1.4 Consumer product composition analysis in EPHECT 2.1.5 Sample and compound selection for (TUM) laboratory studies 2.1.6 Sample preparation and solid phase micro extraction (SPME) method 2.1.7 Analytical method 2.1.8 Terpenoid and Aromate Determination 2.1.9 Open access data on consumer product composition versus analysis CHAPTER 3 consumer product emission testing 3.1 Emission testing at VITO 3.1.1 Laboratory facilities 3.1.2 Test Conditions 3.1.3 Use scenario simulations 3.2 Emission testing at NRCWE 3.2.1 Laboratory facilities 3.2.2 Use scenario simulations 3.3 Emission testing at IDMEC 3.3.1 Laboratory facilities 3.3.2 Test conditions 3.3.3 Use scenario simulations 3.4 Emission testing at UOWM 3.4.1 Laboratory facilities 3.4.2 Test conditions 3.4.3 Use scenario simulations CHAPTER 4 Intercomparison experiment and QA/QC in EPHECT 4.1 Intercomparison of the consumer product emission tests 4.1.1 Introduction 4.1.2 Experimental test conditions 4.1.3 Specific emission rate calculations based on test chamber concentrations 4.1.4 Emissions behaviour in the intercomparison studies (first preliminary report – UOWM) 4.2 Quality assurance and quality control in EPHECT 4.2.1 Introduction 4.2.2 Quality Control of the analytical system of VOCs and aldehydes– 1st Phase, Autumn 2011 3.4.1 Quality Control of the analytical system of VOCs and aldehydes– 1st Phase 3.4.2 Quality Control of the analytical system of VOCs and aldehydes – 2nd phase CHAPTER 5 EPHECT consumer product emission tests 5.1 Calculating the SER of the tested consumer products 5.2 Consumer product emissions, beyond EHPECT key compounds CHAPTER 6 Conclusion quantification of product emissions by laboratory testing References Annex 1 Source strength determination (NRCWE) 87 Annex 2 Specific emission rate calculations based on test chamber concentrations (VITO) Annex 3 Specific emission rate calculations of EPHECT consumer products, based on test chamber concentrations Annex 4 Comparison of the A.I.S.E. candle emission test protocol (in 0.913 m³) with the EPHECT candle emission test at VITO (0.913 m³), at IDMEC (0.05 m³) https://esites.vito.be/sites/ephect/Pages/documents.aspx
Technical Report
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EPHECT work package 6 (WP6) involves 4 different laboratories that will perform lab testing experiments in product test chambers of different dimensions. The main aim of this document is to tune the laboratory activities of these research institutes for obtaining meaningful emission data. Several aspects of the laboratory work are addressed and described in this document. These include: The formulation of consumer product test protocols (chapter 2) The assessment of priority compounds, studied in WP6 and further WPs (chapter 3) The detailed description of analytical methods, used by the different involved laboratories (chapter 4) The QA/QC strategy, applied in the EPHECT lab testing activities (chapter 5) The EPHECT plan of work (Chapter 6) Secondly this document may contribute to the definition and formulation of a general consumer product test protocol, to assess emissions related to the use and typical use scenarios of consumer and personal care products in households. It can be considered as a first step to obtain harmonized lab testing experiments of consumer products. Since different laboratories are involved, using emission test chambers of various dimensions, attention is also put to analyse products in more than one lab. The latter experiments will provide valuable information concerning the error of emission rates from consumer products, which are calculated based on this consumer product test protocol presented in this document. This document addresses a strategy to assess product emissions, related to the household use of consumer products. This is based on available open literature and on pre-screening experiments, performed by the laboratories involved in WP6. The strategy presented in this document is optimized, updated and fine-tuned, based on the results of the EPHECT lab experiments that are organised based on this protocol. The strategy presented here, more specifically applies to the 15 EPHECT product classes that comply with the 6 EPHECT criteria, defined in the EPHECT project proposal. These selection criteria are the following: - The product is used in households - The use of the product causes an exposure related to the use - The product emits key or emerging pollutants - The product has a considerable indicative household use frequency - The product mainly causes inhalation exposure - The use causes a health end point https://esites.vito.be/sites/ephect/Pages/documents.aspx
Technical Report
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Legal notice Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of the following information. Foreword In the past decades a large number of studies have indicated the presence of many different compounds belonging to a variety of chemical classes in indoor environments (buildings, homes). The presence of these chemicals in indoor air is the result of infiltration of polluted outdoor air and of emissions from various indoor sources, including building materials, activities of the occupants, consumer products, smoking etc. For many of these chemicals, the risk to human health and comfort is almost totally unknown and difficult to predict because of lack of toxicological data and information on the dose-response characteristics in humans or animal models. On the other hand, a full toxicological testing as requested by the " existing chemicals " legislation is difficult to accomplish for these compounds, because it would involve investigation of acute and subacute toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity according to testing protocols that are complex, time-consuming and expensive. Moreover, the EU policy on limitation of unnecessary animal testing further limits the possibility of advocating a generalized animal testing of these chemicals. The result of this situation is that there is an objective difficulty in regulating the presence of these substances in indoor air principally because of the absence of adequate hazard and risk assessment. There is therefore an urgent need to develop a strategy for the identification of priorities in testing, assessment and regulation. In the frame of the INDEX project the existing knowledge worldwide has been assessed on-type and levels of chemicals in indoor air and-available toxicological information to allow the assessment of risk to health and comfort. The collection and evaluation of the aforementioned information within the frame of the INDEX project shall contribute to develop a strategy for prioritization in assessment and regulation of chemicals in indoor environments.
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Emissions of volatile organic compounds and ultrafine particles from a kitchen cleaning agent (cream) and plug-in air freshener were investigated in a 20 m3 walk-in climate chamber at low (~ 5 ppb) and high ozone (~ 50 ppb) test concentrations and 0.6 air exchange rate. The products emitted terpenes, inter alia limonene, dihydromyrcenol, geraniol, linalool, and glycol ethers. The ozone-initiated reaction products of these compounds were measured by air sampling on Tenax TA followed by thermal desorption GC–MS and air sampling on DNPH cartridges followed by liquid extraction and HPLC–UV analysis. Particle formation was monitored simultaneously. A number of oxygenated and poly-oxygenated reaction products were identified and risk assessed for acute airway effects: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, 4-acetyl-1-methylcyclohexene, 6-methyl-5-heptene-2-one, 3-isopropenyl-6-oxo-heptanal, and 4-oxo-pentanal. These compounds generally increased initially at the high ozone concentration, while the terpenes decayed, concurrent with their consumption of ozone. At high ozone concentration, the plug-in air freshener resulted in concentrations of formaldehyde and 4-oxopentanal that may give rise to concern about sensory irritation and airflow limitation, respectively. At high ozone concentration, the kitchen cleaning agent and air freshener resulted in peak particle mass concentrations at 81 μg/m3 (8.5 × 105 #/cm3) and 24 μg/m3 (2.3 × 104 #/cm3), respectively. At low ozone concentration, the particle concentration peaked at 4 μg/m3 (1.0 × 105 #/cm3) after the application of the kitchen cleaning agent, while no increase was observed for the air freshener. The particles, in view of their organic composition and concentration, are not considered to cause acute airway effects. Testing under realistic conditions that mimic user pattern behavior is warranted to obtain acute and longer-term exposure data at realistic indoor ozone concentrations.
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Abstract Consumers using air fresheners are exposed to the emitted ingredients, including fragrances, via the respiratory tract. Several fragrances are known skin sensitizers, but it is unknown whether inhalation exposure to these chemicals can induce respiratory sensitization. Effects on the immune system were assessed by testing a selection of five fragrance allergens in the respiratory local lymph node assay (LLNA). The probability and extent of exposure were assessed by measuring concentrations of the 24 known fragrance allergens in 109 air fresheners. It was shown that the most frequently used fragrances in air fresheners were d-limonene and linalool. In the respiratory LLNA, these fragrances were negative. Of the other tested chemicals, only isoeugenol induced a statistically significant increase in cell proliferation. Consumer exposure was assessed in more detail for d-limonene, linalool, and isoeugenol by using exposure modeling tools. It was shown that the most frequently used fragrances in air fresheners, d-limonene, and linalool gave rise to a higher consumer exposure compared with isoeugenol. To evaluate whether the consumer exposure to these fragrances is low or high, these levels were compared with measured air concentrations of diisocyanates, known human respiratory sensitizers. This comparison showed that consumer exposure from air fresheners to d-limonene, linalool, and isoeugenol is considerably lower than occupational exposure to diisocyanates. By combing this knowledge on sensitizing potency with the much lower exposure compared to diisocyanates it seems highly unlikely that isoeugenol can induce respiratory sensitization in consumers using air fresheners.
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This document presents background information and justification for the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Summary of the hazard and dose-response assessment of pentachlorophenol (PCP). IRIS Summaries may include oral reference dose (RfD) and inhalation reference concentration (RfC) values for chronic and other exposure durations, and a carcinogenicity assessment. The RfD and RfC, if derived, provide quantitative information for use in risk assessments for health effects known or assumed to be produced through a nonlinear (presumed threshold) mode of action. The RfD (expressed in units of mg/kg-day) is defined as an estimate (with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude) of a daily exposure to the human population (including sensitive subgroups) that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime. The inhalation RfC (expressed in units of mg/m3) is analogous to the oral RfD, but provides a continuous inhalation exposure estimate. The inhalation RfC considers toxic effects for both the respiratory system (portal-of-entry) and for effects peripheral to the respiratory system (extrarespiratory or systemic effects). Reference values are generally derived for chronic exposures (up to a lifetime), but may also be derived for acute (≤24 hours), short-term (>24 hours up to 30 days), and subchronic (>30 days up to 10% of lifetime) exposure durations, all of which are derived based on an assumption of continuous exposure throughout the duration specified. Unless specified otherwise, the RfD and RfC are derived for chronic exposure duration. The carcinogenicity assessment provides information on the carcinogenic hazard potential of the substance in question and quantitative estimates of risk from oral and inhalation exposure may be derived. The information includes a weight-of-evidence judgment of the likelihood that the agent is a human carcinogen and the conditions under which the carcinogenic effects may be expressed. Quantitative risk estimates may be derived from the application of a low-dose extrapolation procedure. If derived, the oral slope factor is a plausible upper bound on the estimate of risk per mg/kg-day of oral exposure. Similarly, an inhalation unit risk is a plausible upper bound on the estimate of risk per µg/m3 air breathed...
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This report summarises the state of the art concerning ozone-initiated chemistry and its impact on indoor air quality and human health and recommends prioritised research goals for the future. The focus is on terpenes (e.g., limonene, α-pinene) for reasons of high chemical reactivity and abundance.
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Studies about formaldehyde (FA) published since the guideline of 0.1 mg/m(3) by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2010 have been evaluated; critical effects were eye and nasal (portal-of-entry) irritation. Also, it was considered to prevent long-term effects, including all types of cancer. The majority of the recent toxicokinetic studies showed no exposure-dependent FA-DNA adducts outside the portal-of-entry area and FA-DNA adducts at distant sites were due to endogenously generated FA. The no-observed-adverse-effect level for sensory irritation was 0.5 ppm and recently reconfirmed in hypo- and hypersensitive individuals. Investigation of the relationship between FA exposure and asthma or other airway effects in children showed no convincing association. In rats, repeated exposures showed no point mutation in the p53 and K-Ras genes at ≤15 ppm neither increased cell proliferation, histopathological changes and changes in gene expression at 0.7 ppm. Repeated controlled exposures (0.5 ppm with peaks at 1 ppm) did not increase micronucleus formation in human buccal cells or nasal tissue (0.7 ppm) or in vivo genotoxicity in peripheral blood lymphocytes (0.7 ppm), but higher occupational exposures were associated with genotoxicity in buccal cells and cultivated peripheral blood lymphocytes. It is still valid that exposures not inducing nasal squamous cell carcinoma in rats will not induce nasopharyngeal cancer or lymphohematopoietic malignancies in humans. Reproductive and developmental toxicity are not considered relevant in the absence of sensory irritation. In conclusion, the WHO guideline has been strengthened.
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We aimed to study the associations between the household use of cleaning sprays and asthma symptoms and control of asthma, in females from the Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA).Data were available for 683 females (44 years, 55% never smokers, 439 without asthma and 244 with current asthma). Both domestic exposures and asthma phenotypes (asthma symptom score, current asthma, poorly-controlled asthma (56%)) were evaluated as previously described in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Associations between the use of sprays and asthma phenotypes were evaluated using logistic and nominal regressions, adjusted for age, smoking, body mass index and occupational exposures.Significant associations were observed between the weekly use of at least 2 types of sprays and a high asthma symptom score (odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval] 2.50[1.54-4.03]) compared to a null score. Consistent results were observed for current asthma (1.67[1.08-2.56]) and poorly-controlled asthma (2.05[1.25-3.35]) compared to females without asthma. The association for current asthma was higher in females without avoidance of polluted places (2.12[1.27-3.54]) than in those reporting avoidance (0.99[0.53-1.85]).The common use of household cleaning sprays is positively associated with a high asthma symptom score, current asthma and poorly-controlled asthma in females.
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Formaldehyde is a well-studied chemical and effects from inhalation exposures have been extensively characterized in numerous controlled studies with human volunteers, including asthmatics and other sensitive individuals, which provide a rich database on exposure concentrations that can reliably produce the symptoms of sensory irritation. Although individuals can differ in their sensitivity to odor and eye irritation, the majority of authoritative reviews of the formaldehyde literature have concluded that an air concentration of 0.3 ppm will provide protection from eye irritation for virtually everyone. A weight of evidence-based formaldehyde exposure limit of 0.1 ppm (100 ppb) is recommended as an indoor air level for all individuals for odor detection and sensory irritation. It has recently been suggested by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the National Toxicology Program (NTP), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) that formaldehyde is causally associated with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) and leukemia. This has led US EPA to conclude that irritation is not the most sensitive toxic endpoint and that carcinogenicity should dictate how to establish exposure limits for formaldehyde. In this review, a number of lines of reasoning and substantial scientific evidence are described and discussed, which leads to a conclusion that neither point of contact nor systemic effects of any type, including NPC or leukemia, are causally associated with exposure to formaldehyde. This conclusion supports the view that the equivocal epidemiology studies that suggest otherwise are almost certainly flawed by identified or yet to be unidentified confounding variables. Thus, this assessment concludes that a formaldehyde indoor air limit of 0.1 ppm should protect even particularly susceptible individuals from both irritation effects and any potential cancer hazard.
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Although cleaners represent a significant part of the working population worldwide, they remain a relatively understudied occupational group. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between cleaning work and asthma, but the risk factors are uncertain. Cleaning workers are exposed to a large variety of cleaning products containing both irritants and sensitizers, as well as to common indoor allergens and pollutants. Thus, the onset or aggravation of asthma in this group could be related to an irritant-induced mechanism or to specific sensitization. The main sensitizers contained in cleaning products are disinfectants, quaternary ammonium compounds (such as benzalkonium chloride), amine compounds, and fragrances.The strongest airway irritants in cleaning products are bleach (sodium hypochlorite), hydrochloric acid, and alkaline agents (ammonia and sodium hydroxide), which are commonly mixed together. Exposure to the ingredients of cleaning products may give rise to both new-onset asthma, with or without a latency period, and work-exacerbated asthma. High-level exposure to irritants may induce reactive airways dysfunction syndrome. Cleaning workers may also have a greater relative risk of developing asthma due to prolonged low-to-moderate exposure to respiratory irritants. In addition, asthma-like symptoms without confirmed asthma are also common after exposure to cleaning agents. In many cleaners, airway symptoms induced by chemicals and odors cannot be explained by allergic or asthmatic reactions. These patients may have increased sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin, which is known to reflect sensory reactivity, and this condition is termed airway sensory hyperreactivity.
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There is considerable recent focus and concern about formaldehyde (FA). We have reviewed the literature on FA with focus on chemosensory perception in the airways and lung effects in indoor environments. Concentrations of FA, both personal and stationary, are on average in the order of 0.05 mg/m(3) or less in Europe and North America with the exception of new housing or buildings with extensive wooden surfaces, where the concentration may exceed 0.1 mg/m(3). With the eye the most sensitive organ, subjective irritation is reported at 0.3-0.5 mg/m(3), which is somewhat higher than reported odour thresholds. Objective effects in the eyes and airways occur around 0.6-1 mg/m(3). Dose-response relationships between FA and lung function effects have not been found in controlled human exposure studies below 1 mg/m(3), and epidemiological associations between FA concentrations and exacerbation of asthma in children and adults are encumbered by complex exposures. Neither experimental nor epidemiological studies point to major differences in susceptibility to FA among children, elderly, and asthmatics. People with personal trait of negative affectivity may report more symptoms. An air quality guideline of 0.1 mg/m(3) (0.08 ppm) is considered protective against both acute and chronic sensory irritation in the airways in the general population assuming a log normal distribution of nasal sensory irritation.
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The toxicokinetics of alpha-pinene were studied in human volunteers exposed by inhalation (2 h, 50 W) in an exposure chamber on four occasions. The exposures were about 10, 225, and 450 mg/m3 (+)-alpha-pinene and 450 mg/m3 (-)-alpha-pinene. The relative pulmonary uptake was about 60% for the higher exposures, and total uptake increased linearly with increasing exposure. The total blood clearance was high, about 1.11.h-1.kg-1. After the exposure was terminated, less than 0.001% of the total uptake was eliminated unchanged in the urine and about 8% in exhaled air. A long half-time in poorly perfused tissues indicates a high affinity to adipose tissues. There was a statistically significant exposure-response relationship among five subjects who experienced irritation. Short-time exposure to alpha-pinene did not give rise to acute changes in lung function 20 min after the exposure.
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This analysis was undertaken to reduce uncertainty in acute inhalation risk assessment for mild acute effects. Applying uncertainty factors (UFs) to the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) is the primary approach used in threshold-based risk assessments. When a NOAEL is unavailable, a UF of 10 is often applied to a lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) to estimate the NOAEL. We evaluated the LOAEL-to-NOAEL relationship for mild acute inhalation toxicity for 215 data sets for 36 hazardous air pollutants. The LOAEL-to-NOAEL ratios were 2.0, 5.0, 6.3, and 10.0 for the 50th, 90th, 95th, and 99 th percentile, respectively. The 90% confidence interval for the 95th percentile was 5.0-7.5. Consequently, based on previous dose placement practice, the LOAEL-to-NOAEL UF of 6 would be protective for 95% of the responses, and a value of 10 would be protective of 99% of the responses. The ratio values were not associated with the size of the experimental group. There was little variability among species, particularly at the median. This analysis is reflective only of mild acute inhalation toxicity. For other exposure routes, exposure durations, or more severe toxicity, the distributions are likely to be different.
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We describe the successes and challenges faced by federal and local government agencies in the United States as they have attempted in recent years to connect public and environmental health, housing, community development, and building design with environmental, housing, and building laws, codes, and policies. These policies can either contribute to or adversely affect human physical and mental health, with important implications for economic viability, research, policy development, and overall social stability and progress. Policy impediments include tension between housing affordability and health investment that causes inefficient cost-shifting, privacy issues, unclear statutory authority, and resulting gaps in responsibility for housing, indoor air, and the built environment. We contrast this with other environmental frameworks such as ambient air and water quality statutes where the concept of "shared commons" and the "polluter pays" is more robust. The U.S. experiences in childhood lead poisoning prevention, indoor air, and mold provide useful policy insights. Local programs can effectively build healthy homes capacity through local laws and housing codes. The experience of coordinating remediation for mold, asthma triggers, weatherization, and other healthy housing improvements in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, is highlighted. The U.S. experience shows that policymakers should adopt a prevention-oriented, comprehensive multi-disciplinary approach at all levels of government to prevent unhealthy buildings, houses, and communities.
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Acrolein is a highly soluble and reactive aldehyde and is a potent upper-respiratory-tract irritant. Acrolein-induced nasal lesions in rodents include olfactory epithelial atrophy and inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, and squamous metaplasia of the respiratory epithelium. Nasal uptake of inhaled acrolein in rats is moderate to high, and depends on inspiratory flow rate, exposure duration, and concentration. In this study, anatomically accurate three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were used to simulate steady-state inspiratory airflow and to quantitatively predict acrolein tissue dose in rat and human nasal passages. A multilayered epithelial structure was included in the CFD models to incorporate clearance of inhaled acrolein by diffusion, blood flow, and first-order and saturable metabolic pathways. Kinetic parameters for these pathways were initially estimated by fitting a pharmacokinetic model with a similar epithelial structure to time-averaged acrolein nasal extraction data and were then further adjusted using the CFD model. Predicted air:tissue flux from the rat nasal CFD model compared well with the distribution of acrolein-induced nasal lesions from a subchronic acrolein inhalation study. These correlations were used to estimate a tissue dose-based no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for inhaled acrolein. A human nasal CFD model was used to extrapolate effects in laboratory animals to human exposure conditions on the basis of localized tissue dose and tissue responses. Assuming that equivalent tissue dose will induce similar effects across species, a NOAEL human equivalent concentration for inhaled acrolein was estimated to be 8 ppb.
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Within the framework of the EPHECT project (Emissions, exposure patterns and health effects of consumer products in the EU), irritative and respiratory health effects were assessed in relation to acute and long-term exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. In this context, inhalation exposure assessment was carried out for six selected 'target' compounds (acrolein, formaldehyde, benzene, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene). This paper presents the methodology and the outcomes from the micro-environmental modelling of the 'target' pollutants following single or multiple use of selected consumer products and the subsequent exposure assessment. The results indicate that emissions from consumer products of benzene and α-pinene were not considered to contribute significantly to the EU indoor background levels, in contrast to some cases of formaldehyde and d-limonene emissions in Eastern Europe (mainly from cleaning products). The group of housekeepers in East Europe appears to experience the highest exposures to acrolein, formaldehyde and benzene, followed by the group of the retired people in North, who experiences the highest exposures to naphthalene and α-pinene. High exposure may be attributed to the scenarios developed within this project, which follow a 'most-representative worst-case scenario' strategy for exposure and health risk assessment. Despite the above limitations, this is the first comprehensive study that provides exposure estimates for 8 population groups across Europe exposed to 6 priority pollutants, as a result of the use of 15 consumer product classes in households, while accounting for regional differences in uses, use scenarios and ventilation conditions of each region. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Consumer products are frequently and regularly used in the domestic environment. Realistic estimates for product use are required for exposure modelling and health risk assessment. This paper provides significant data that can be used as input for such modelling studies. A European survey was conducted, within the framework of the DG Sanco-funded EPHECT project, on the household use of 15 consumer products. These products are all-purpose cleaners, kitchen cleaners, floor cleaners, glass and window cleaners, bathroom cleaners, furniture and floor polish products, combustible air fresheners, spray air fresheners, electric air fresheners, passive air fresheners, coating products for leather and textiles, hair styling products, spray deodorants and perfumes. The analysis of the results from the household survey (1st phase) focused on identifying consumer behaviour patterns (selection criteria, frequency of use, quantities, period of use and ventilation conditions during product use). This can provide valuable input to modelling studies, as this information is not reported in the open literature. The above results were further analysed (2nd phase), to provide the basis for the development of 'most representative worst-case scenarios' regarding the use of the 15 products by home-based population groups (housekeepers and retired people), in four geographical regions in Europe. These scenarios will be used for the exposure and health risk assessment within the EPHECT project. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that daily worst-case scenarios are presented in the scientific published literature concerning the use of a wide range of 15 consumer products across Europe. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Article
This analysis was undertaken to reduce uncertainty in acute inhalation risk assessment for mild acute effects. Applying uncertainty factors (UFs) to the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) is the primary approach used in threshold-based risk assessments. When a NOAEL is unavailable, a UF of 10 is often applied to a lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) to estimate the NOAEL. We evaluated the LOAEL-to-NOAEL relationship for mild acute inhalation toxicity for 215 data sets for 36 hazardous air pollutants. The LOAEL-to-NOAEL ratios were 2.0, 5.0, 6.3, and 10.0 for the 50th, 90th, 95th, and 99th percentile, respectively. The 90% confidence interval for the 95th percentile was 5.0–7.5. Consequently, based on previous dose placement practice, the LOAEL-to-NOAEL UF of 6 would be protective for 95% of the responses, and a value of 10 would be protective of 99% of the responses. The ratio values were not associated with the size of the experimental group. There was little variability among species, particularly at the median. This analysis is reflective only of mild acute inhalation toxicity. For other exposure routes, exposure durations, or more severe toxicity, the distributions are likely to be different.
Article
Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein are well-known upper respiratory tract irritants and occur simultaneously as pollutants in many indoor and outdoor environments. The upper respiratory tract, and especially the nose, is the prime target for inhaled aldehydes. To study possible additive or interactive effects on the nasal epithelium we carried out 1- and 3-day inhalation studies (6 hr/day) with formaldehyde (1.0, 3.2, and 6.4 ppm), acetaldehyde (750 and 1500 ppm), acrolein (0.25, 0.67, and 1.40 ppm), or mixtures of these aldehydes, using male Wistar rats and exposure concentrations varying from clearly nontoxic to toxic. The (mixtures of) aldehydes were studied for histopathological and biochemical changes in the respiratory and olfactory epithelium of the nose. In addition, cell proliferation was determined by incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression. Effects were primarily observed after 3 days of exposure. Histopathological changes and cell proliferation of the nasal epithelium induced by mixtures of the three aldehydes appeared to be more severe and more extensive in both the respiratory and the olfactory part of the nose than those observed after exposure to the individual aldehydes at comparable exposure levels. As far as nasal histopathological changes and cell proliferation are concerned neither dose addition nor potentiating interactions occurred at no-toxic-effect levels, except for a possible potentiating effect of acetaldehyde at noneffect levels. The results did not indicate a major role for aldehyde dehydrogenases in the biotransformation of the aldehydes studied. Activities of glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase after 3 days of exposure to acrolein, alone or in combination with formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, were depressed whereas the glutathione peroxidase activity was elevated. No decrease of nonprotein sulphydryl levels were observed. These findings suggest that, for no-toxic-effect levels, combined exposure to these aldehydes with the same target organ (nose) and exerting the same type of adverse effect (nasal cytotoxicity), but partly with different target sites (different regions of the nasal mucosa), is not associated with a greater hazard than that associated with exposure to the individual chemicals.