Article

Common Types of Reading Problems and How to Help Children Who Have Them

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Abstract

Patterns of reading difficulty provide an educationally useful way to think about different kinds of reading problems, whether those problems are mainly experiential in nature (e.g., those common among English learners) or associated with disabilities (e.g., those typical of children with dyslexia). This article reviews research on three common patterns of poor reading: specific word-reading difficulties, specific reading-comprehension difficulties, and mixed reading difficulties. The purpose of the article is to explain how teachers can use assessments to identify individual struggling readers’ patterns of reading difficulties, and how this information is valuable in differentiating classroom instruction and planning interventions.

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... In sum, a cursory evaluation of the reading comprehension results obtained by English language learners from primary through to tertiary as discussed above reveals the need to rethink ways, as highlighted by Swan and Walter (2017), on how the teaching and learning of reading as practiced in Malaysia can produce more proficient readers over average readers. Swerling (2015) for example, advocates that recognizing the underlying patterns of poor reading is especially helpful in understanding the needs of the readers and in providing effective interventions and differentiation of classroom instruction. ...
... Studies on patterns of difficulties in reading have yield interesting findings and have been helpful in assisting teachers in the classroom to plan literacy intervention and support programmes for their students. Swerling (2013Swerling ( , 2015 for example, have come up with a matrix, based on a review done on previous studies and classroom observations. Through the matrix, readers can be categorized into three groups: 1. Readers who require specific word reading difficulties (SWRD); 2. Readers who have problems with specific reading comprehension difficulties (SRCD) and 3. Readers who have mixed reading difficulties (MRD). ...
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Current understanding of the psychological mechanisms underlying reading comprehension among multilinguals are typically limited to external observations of their ability to read and comprehend text. Additionally, descriptions of the nature of comprehension processes relied perilously on the use of memory taken after the reading process. In this article we introduce the potential of using eye tracking as a tool in collecting internal attention data for a deeper understanding of EFL text processing among multilinguals. The eye tracking procedures will enable researchers to combine perspectives collected from internal and external observations, to explicate and elucidate the complex cognitive processes of the multilingual when involved in reading. Since the use of the eye-tracking in reading research methodology is fairly new, particularly in multilingual contexts such as Malaysia and Nusantara in general, we will emphasize how progress has been achieved elsewhere in understanding text processing through the use of eye-tracking. The article will introduce relevant research projects that can be conducted using eye-tracking, after sketching the historical progression of eye-tracking research in the field. It concludes by suggesting that eye-tracking can provide a framework for studying the full range of the multilingual readers' competencies in reading while expanding related theories about EFL reading.
... Individuals who struggle with reading vary greatly in the specific skills they are lacking (Moats & Hancock 2012). However, while each individual is unique, certain problems commonly occur (Spear-Swerling 2015). Assessment systems that can identify missing reading literacy building blocks early and prevent later reading failure need to be in place. ...
... Research generally finds that there are three distinct subgroups of learners with reading problems: those with significant weaknesses in phonological processing and word-reading skills that depend on phonological processing; those with slow or dysfluent printed word recognition, most likely related to a specific problem with orthographic processing; and those with oral and written language comprehension (cf. Spear-Swerling 2015). The existence of these major types of reading problem areas indicates that the emphasis of instruction should vary according to the nature of a learner's problem. ...
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Making decisions about English reading instruction is as core a component to teaching as providing the instruction itself. When providing support to learners at risk for poor reading outcomes, for which currently there is a large percentage in South Africa, it is especially important to ensure that the decisions that are made have the highest likelihood of accuracy as possible and they lead to improving those reading outcomes. The learners with the greatest needs require the most accurate and effective decisions. Now more than ever, effective use of reading literacy assessment data to plan and critically review instruction is a fundamental competency for good teaching. The purpose of this article is to provide districts, schools and teachers with a blueprint for data-based English reading literacy instructional decision-making at a system-wide level.
... In sum, a cursory evaluation of the reading comprehension results obtained by English language learners from primary through to tertiary as discussed above reveals the need to rethink ways, as highlighted by Swan and Walter (2017), on how the teaching and learning of reading as practiced in Malaysia can produce more proficient readers over average readers. Swerling (2015) for example, advocates that recognizing the underlying patterns of poor reading is especially helpful in understanding the needs of the readers and in providing effective interventions and differentiation of classroom instruction. ...
... Studies on patterns of difficulties in reading have yield interesting findings and have been helpful in assisting teachers in the classroom to plan literacy intervention and support programmes for their students. Swerling (2013Swerling ( , 2015 for example, have come up with a matrix, based on a review done on previous studies and classroom observations. Through the matrix, readers can be categorized into three groups: 1. Readers who require specific word reading difficulties (SWRD); 2. Readers who have problems with specific reading comprehension difficulties (SRCD) and 3. Readers who have mixed reading difficulties (MRD). ...
Article
Full-text available
Current understanding of the psychological mechanisms underlying reading comprehension among multilinguals is typically limited to external observations of their ability to read and comprehend text. Additionally, descriptions of the nature of comprehension processes relied perilously on the use of memory taken after the reading process. In this article we introduce the potential of using eye tracking as a tool in collecting internal attention data for a deeper understanding of EFL text processing among multilinguals. The eye tracking procedures will enable researchers to combine perspectives collected from internal and external observations, to explicate and elucidate the complex cognitive processes of the multilingual when involved in reading. Since the use of the eye-tracking in reading research methodology is fairly new, particularly in multilingual contexts such as Malaysia and Nusantara in general, we will emphasize how progress has been achieved elsewhere in understanding text processing through the use of eye-tracking. The article will introduce relevant research projects that can be conducted using eye-tracking, after sketching the historical progression of eye-tracking research in the field. It concludes by suggesting that eye-tracking can provide a framework for studying the full range of the multilingual readers' competencies in reading while expanding related theories about EFL reading.
... As Cain & Oakhill [1] described 'good' reading comprehension depends on good language understanding in general, Spear-Swerling [15] found out that learners had trouble in reading comprehension. He found out that factors such as: weak decoding skills, slowness in comprehending multisyllabic words; poor sight word vocabulary; poor oral reading, lack of fluency; good oral self-expression but essentially poor in writing. ...
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This descriptive-correlative study found out the relationship between reading comprehension and attitude towards solving word problems of Grade VI learners in Kiamba District II as well as their error patterns in solving word problems in mathematics. Fifty learners from randomly selected schools were the respondents of this study who answered the instrument which was divided into three parts: (1) test of reading comprehension; (2) word problem solving; and (3) questionnaire on the learners' attitude towards solving word problems. Rate and percentage revealed that Grade VI learners are Frustration-level readers. The same treatment was also used to present that learners are in the middle of positive and negative attitude towards problem solving. It was also found out that learners had the highest degree of difficulty in the formulation of equations and its analysis from the given data of the word problems. Pearson r finally revealed that there is a significant relationship between the reading comprehension and attitude of the learners towards solving word problems. Given with the above-mentioned evidences, the study concluded that the learner cannot comprehend what he is reading if he does not have positive attitude towards it.
... In a study by Spear-Swerling (2016), it was noted how reading difficulty patterns lead to education-based approaches when it comes to various forms of reading problems. ...
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This paper attempts to investigate the student-teacher ratio of various Southeast Asian nations and each country’s reading performance through the lens of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) scores. This paper employed a purely secondary analysis using data available online. The first phase of the research involved revisiting online documents about the student-teacher ratio in the classroom among selected Southeast Asian nations. In the second phase, reading test scores presented in this study are sourced from PISA. The last phase is the comparison and contrast of the data through a tabular presentation. Findings reveal that the countries with a ratio having the least number of students per teacher ranked higher compared with those with a nation having the greatest number of students per teacher. Singapore, Malaysia, and Brunei Darussalam with a ratio ranging from 8 to 11.6 per teacher scored 408-549 points in the PISA Reading Test while Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines with a ratio ranging from 15 to 36 students per teacher scored 340-393 points. It is undeniable that the student population in the classroom positively impacts the teaching and learning processes, particularly in reading as contextualized in this study. The government should recognize the dire need for schools to be provided with appropriate funds to sustain the public education system. Careful analysis of the presented data shows the connection between student-teacher ratio and reading performance as manifested by test scores. It is undeniable that the student population in the classroom positively impacts the teaching and learning processes, particularly in reading as contextualized in this study.
... Additionally, Norton & Wolf (2012) and Kirby, Georgiou, Martinussen, & Parrila (2010) stated that "reading problems or reading difficulties can be performed in many aspects of concurrent and future reading ability (word reading and text comprehension, accuracy and fluency) in typically developing readers and those with reading difficulties." Figure 1 shows that there are three common patterns of poor reading ability involving specific wordreading difficulties (SWRD), specific reading comprehension difficulties (SRCD), and mixed reading difficulties (MRD) (Spear-Swerling, 2016). So, when a student is faced with these problems, they affect reading ability as well. ...
... Effective methods of intensified instruction have been designed for responding to students' needs within these tiers (e.g. Jaeger, 2016;Mokhtari et al., 2010;Spear-Swerling, 2016). However, it remains the case that schools are often better equipped to intervene in constrained, code-based aspects of reading. ...
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In this article, we discuss tensions that emerged as we collaborated with teachers to iteratively design and refine an afterschool reading intervention approach that emphasizes inquiry and disciplinary learning for upper elementary readers positioned as struggling in school. Our findings are organized around four design tensions that help us consider what it takes to re-imagine the ‘ofcourseness’ that dominates traditional approaches to tiered intervention in schools. These design tensions are: (1) competing priorities in student learning; (2) compromised forms of inquiry-based instruction; (3) negotiating how texts are chosen; and (4) complexities of responsiveness. These tensions underscore the messy challenges that must be addressed in school reform efforts related to reading intervention for older elementary readers.
... Without understanding the meaning of a word before decoding it, a child may think of the word as a nonsense word, rather than a real word with meaning and context. Assessing a student using nonsense words is a useful strategy to determine whether children know how to decode (Spear-Swerling, 2016), but providing meanings for words is a stronger strategy when teaching decoding. Thus, each TRI teacher was trained to assist the student during a TRI session in understanding a word's meaning prior to decoding the word. ...
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Students most at risk for reading-related disabilities frequently struggle with word recognition and oral language, including, in the earliest grades, specific skills related to phonological awareness and vocabulary. Classroom teachers’ delivery of high-quality differentiated supplemental instruction may promote reading acquisition for these students. The current study examined whether the Targeted Reading Intervention, a webcam-coaching literacy professional development program for kindergarten and first grade classroom teachers, was more effective in producing reading gains for students who had the lowest scores on fall measures of phonological awareness and/or vocabulary as compared with students with higher scores. Findings revealed that students who participated in the Targeted Reading Intervention and who scored lowest on the fall vocabulary measure had the highest scores on spring decoding measures.
... Research on understanding reading processes, especially on meaning construction through reading patterns with monolingual and bilingual students and adults in a variety of languages, has also been conducted (Brown et al., 1996). Additionally, scholars found out three common patterns which are the specific wordreading difficulties, specific reading comprehension difficulties, and mixed reading difficulties in reading patterns among students (Spear-Swerling, 2015). In the Malaysian context, studies on students' reading patterns helped in identifying proficient and less proficient readers (Adeena & Shamala, 2014). ...
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This paper reviews reading attempts made by students at the lower secondary -- level in oral reading and retelling to understand literary texts. The study involved a qualitative research method in collecting data, which relates to the students’ reading patterns in understanding literary texts and the impact of students’ reading patterns on literary texts comprehension. The sample in this study comprised six average ability Form One (i.e. seventh grade) students from a secondary school. Data collection techniques included content analysis of students’ oral reading and retelling. Students’ oral reading and retelling were centred in the literature textbook currently used in lower secondary school. Data collected were subsequently analysed by using frequency counts in the form of percentages. The findings from oral readings show that students formed their own mental framework to guide them through in text comprehension, and the results of retellings analysis suggest that the literary texts were readable and were within the students’ comprehension level. However, none was able to infer beyond the text and to relate the text to one’s own life. This did not influence students’ text comprehension. The study indicates that different forms of patterns arose during oral reading among students in ways how they connected the ideas on the page to comprehend the literary texts. This aided teachers in their choices of classroom instructions that best fit the students’ reading ability.
... Dyslexia is a disability label applied to individuals with a particular profile of reading difficulty (Spear-Swerling, 2016). In a related study, we used framing theory (Benford & Snow, 2000;Coburn, 2006;Woulfin, 2015) to investigate how testimonials for dyslexia-specific legislation differed from those submitted for other bills aimed at increasing reading achievement or supporting students with reading difficulties (Gabriel & Woulfin, 2017). ...
Article
In this study, I analyze written testimony submitted to the state legislature regarding Connecticut’s 2015 Act Concerning Students With Dyslexia (PA-15-97), in order to engage with the discourse and rhetoric occasioned by the policy-making process and investigate the phenomenon of dyslexia in contemporary education policy. Drawing on critical discursive psychology, positioning theory, and narrative policy analysis. I examine how dyslexia advocacy discourse forms a cohesive, compelling policy narrative. I argue that this narrative can be understood as a conversion narrative, which drives a privatization agenda in which public schools become mandated consumers for a growing dyslexia industry, and in which the nature of instruction for students with reading difficulties is narrowly prescribed.
... Using the SVR as a theoretical framework, students who are unable to develop adequate reading comprehension skills can be categorised into three main groups: (1) students with dyslexia are those who show significant word reading difficulties, in the absence of language comprehension problems; (2) students with specific comprehension difficulties are those who show adequate word recognition skills, but significant language comprehension difficulties; (3) students with a mixed reading difficulties profile (in the past referred to as garden variety poor readers) are those who show weaknesses across word recognition and language comprehension (Spear-Swerling, 2016). These three reader groups are discussed in a little more detail below: ...
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... Research results demonstrate the importance of phonological awareness to ongoing literacy development (Hagtvet, 1997;Lundberg, Frost & Petersen, 1988). Also the importance to work in a structured way to develop phonological awareness in children at risk of having future reading and writing difficulties is stressed (Spear-Swerling, 2015). ...
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Educators have growing concerns about students who learn to read proficiently by third grade but fall behind in later grades. This study investigates the prevalence of “late-emerging” reading difficulties among English language learners (ELLs) and native English speakers from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, using longitudinal data on a nationally representative sample of U.S. students. Results indicate that substantial proportions of both groups develop difficulties during the upper elementary and middle school grades. ELLs and students from low socioeconomic backgrounds are at significantly elevated risk for late-emerging difficulties; ELLs and non-ELLs from similar socioeconomic backgrounds are at similar risk.
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This study examines children's uses of reading resources in neighborhood public libraries that have been transformed to "level the playing field." Through Foundation funding (US$20 million), the public library system of Philadelphia converted neighborhood branch libraries into a technologized modern urban library system, hoping to improve the lives of disadvantaged children and their families by closing the achievement gap. Using a mosaic of ethnographic methodologies, four studies examined children's uses of library resources in low-income and middle-income neighborhood libraries, prior to renovations and technology, right after, and once the novelty had worn off a year later, for preschoolers, elementary, and teens. Results indicated that despite heavy library use across low-income and middle-income children, quality differentials in the way resources were used appeared at all age levels, prior to, immediately after, and stronger still following technology renovations. Taken together, these studies suggest equal resources to economically unequal groups did not level the playing field. Instead, it appeared to widen the knowledge gap between low-income and middle-income children.
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Literacy, language, and cognitive skills were compared for 35 4th-5th graders with early-identified reading disabilities (RD), 31 with late-identified RD (first seen after 3rd grade), and 95 normally achieving students. Late-identified reading deficits were heterogeneous; some children were weak in both comprehension and word-level processing, whereas others had deficiencies in 1 component of reading but were unimpaired in the other. Although most reading skill deficits were about as severe for late- as for early-identified RD, and profiles of associated characteristics were similar, few of the former had yet been identified by their schools. Third-grade achievement, retrospectively examined, had been higher for the group with late-identified RD, suggesting that their reading difficulties were not just late identified but actually late emerging. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Against a backdrop of research on individual differences in reading disorders, this review considers a range of effective interventions to promote reading and language skills evaluated by our group. The review begins by contrasting the reading profiles seen in dyslexia and reading comprehension impairment and then argues that different interventions will be required. It is well established that effective interventions for decoding deficits (dyslexia) involve work on letter-sound knowledge, phonological awareness and reading practice to reinforce emergent skills. In contrast, effective interventions for reading comprehension difficulties involve training to promote oral language skills and text comprehension strategies. Together the findings of controlled trials provide a robust evidence base that can be used to devise plans for the management of pre-school and school-aged children with language learning difficulties.
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This study presents a longitudinal examination of the development of reading and reading-related skills of 22 Grade 4 children identified as having reading disabilities (RD) who had been followed since kindergarten. The analyses were conducted to investigate the patterns of emergence of RD as well as reading ability and risk status across the 5 years. The findings of the study are presented with an examination of the trajectories of the children with RD as compared to Grade 4 typical readers (matched for grade, gender, language status, and school) with a similar profile on literacy skills in kindergarten. The results demonstrate the heterogeneous nature of the trajectory of RD in school-age children; although many of the children with RD were at risk in kindergarten, there was a subsample who did not demonstrate reading and phonological difficulties until the third and fourth grades.
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This study investigated reading skills in 41 children with autism spectrum disorder. Four components of reading skill were assessed: word recognition, nonword decoding, text reading accuracy and text comprehension. Overall, levels of word and nonword reading and text reading accuracy fell within average range although reading comprehension was impaired. However, there was considerable variability across the sample with performance on most tests ranging from floor to ceiling levels. Some children read accurately but showed very poor comprehension, consistent with a hyperlexia reading profile; some children were poor at reading words and nonwords whereas others were unable to decode nonwords, despite a reasonable level of word reading skill. These findings demonstrate the heterogeneous nature of reading skills in children with ASD.
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Currently, learning disabilities (LD) are diagnosed on the basis of the discrepancy between students' IQ and reading achievement scores. Students diagnosed with LD often receive remedial instruction in resource rooms. The available evidence suggests that the educational policy based on this discrepancy model has not yielded satisfactory results. This has led researchers to try other paradigms, such as the component model and response to intervention, for dealing with children with reading disabilities. The component model of reading (CMR) described in the present article identifies the reading component that is the source of reading difficulty and targets instruction at that component. Study 1 describes the CMR and reports on its validity. Study 2 describes the successful outcome of a 7-year CMR-based reading instruction program. Compared to the discrepancy model, the CMR has demonstrated several advantages.
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The reading problems addressed in this book move beyond those associated with disabilities such as dyslexia or high-functioning autism; the author also addresses reading difficulties caused primarily by inadequate instruction or limited exposure to academic language and literacy. The book presents a theoretical model for understanding a wide range of reading problems as well as an argument for using RTI both in prevention of reading difficulties and in identification of learning disabilities. Case studies and practical examples help make research findings applicable to a multidisciplinary audience, especially practitioners.
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The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of morphological instruction on language and literacy outcomes by synthesizing 92 standardized mean differences (d) from 30 independent studies. Findings show a moderate overall effect of morphological instruction ([dbar] = 0.32), suggesting that children receiving morphological instruction performed significantly better on measures of literacy achievement than comparison groups. Moderator analyses showed that intervention effect varied depending on the literacy outcome. There were significant and moderate intervention effects on morphological knowledge ([dbar] = 0.44), phonological awareness ([dbar] = 0.48), vocabulary ([dbar] = 0.34), decoding ([dbar] = 0.59), and spelling ([dbar] = 0.30) but not on reading comprehension or fluency. Results also suggested differences in effectiveness related to age and research design but not unit of intervention, scope, length, and learner type. Effect sizes decrease by school level (e.g., greater for younger students than middle school and upper elementary students). Also, there were larger effects for quasi-experimental than experimental studies and for researcher-designed measures than for standardized measures. Implications for educational settings and research agendas are discussed.
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To implement Response to Intervention with intermediate-grade struggling readers, there is a need for interventions that are responsive to individual student needs, and sufficiently comprehensive to support the many dimensions of the reading process. This research examined the efficacy of such an intervention, the Interactive Strategies Approach—Extended (ISA-X), which was provided by public school teachers in a daily, one-to-one format to grade 4 struggling readers with individualized education programs. Half the students received the intervention in the fall semester while the others served as a wait-list control group who received the intervention in the spring. After the fall intervention, struggling readers had significantly higher scores than control students on measures of reading comprehension and accuracy; effects on New York State's high-stakes language arts assessment approached significance. Regression analyses showed significant intervention effects on measures of basic reading skills and social studies vocabulary; effects on a measure of fluency were not significant.
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The purpose of this review is to synthesize the existing research on decodability as a text characteristic examining how reading decodable text impacts students’ reading performance and growth. The results are organized into two sections based on the research designs of the studies: (1) studies that described student performance when reading texts of varying decodability levels, and (2) studies that compared the reading performance of students after participation in a treatment that manipulated decodable text as an independent variable. Collectively the results indicate that decodability is a critical characteristic of early reading text as it increases the likelihood that students will use a decoding strategy and results in immediate benefits, particularly with regard to accuracy. The studies point to the need for multiple-criteria text with decodability being one key characteristic in ensuring that students develop the alphabetic principle that is necessary for successful reading, rather than text developed based on the single criterion of decodability.
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This study investigated multiple models for assessing oral reading fluency, including 1-minute oral reading measures that produce scores reported as words correct per minute (wcpm). The authors compared a measure of wcpm with measures of the individual and combined indicators of oral reading fluency (rate, accuracy, prosody, and comprehension) to examine construct, criterion, and consequential validity. Oral reading data and standardized comprehension test scores were analyzed for students in grades 2, 4, and 6. The results indicate that assessments designed to include multiple indicators of oral reading fluency provided a finer-grained understanding of oral reading fluency and fluency assessment and a stronger predictor of general comprehension. Comparisons across grade levels also revealed developmental differences in the relation between oral reading fluency and comprehension, and in the relative contributions of oral fluency indicators to comprehension. When commonly used benchmarks were applied to wcpm scores to identify students at risk of reading difficulty, both false positives and false negatives were found. This study raises issues regarding the alignment of oral reading fluency definitions and assessment. It also raises concerns about the widespread use of wcpm measures and benchmarks to identify students at risk of reading difficulty and to plan instruction.
Chapter
The Science of Reading: A Handbook brings together state-of-the-art reviews of reading research from leading names in the field, to create a highly authoritative, multidisciplinary overview of contemporary knowledge about reading and related skills. Provides comprehensive coverage of the subject, including theoretical approaches, reading processes, stage models of reading, cross-linguistic studies of reading, reading difficulties, the biology of reading, and reading instruction. Divided into seven sections:Word Recognition Processes in Reading; Learning to Read and Spell; Reading Comprehension; Reading in Different Languages; Disorders of Reading and Spelling; Biological Bases of Reading; Teaching Reading. Edited by well-respected senior figures in the field.
Chapter
This paper reports two studies investigating the nature of comprehension deficits in a group of 7–8 year old children whose decoding skills are normal, but whose reading comprehension skills are poor. The performance of these poor comprehenders was compared to two control groups, Chronological-Age controls and Comprehension-Age controls. The first study examined whether these comprehension difficulties are specific to reading. On two measures of listening comprehension the poor comprehenders were found to perform at a significantly lower level than Chronological-Age controls. However, they did not differ from a group of younger children matched for reading comprehension skills. This indicates that the observed comprehension difficulties are not restricted to reading, but rather represent a general comprehension limitation. The second study investigated whether these comprehension difficulties can be explained in terms of a memory deficit. The short-term and working memory skills of these three groups were examined. The poor comprehenders did not differ from their Chronological-Age controls on either of these tasks. In conclusion, it is argued that working memory processes are not a major causal factor in the creation of the comprehension difficulties identified in the present group of poor comprehenders.
Article
A group of 35 reading disable (RD) boys and 35 matched controls were studied over a two-year period in order to evaluate the validity of traditional hypotheses about the cause of serious reading impairment in preadolescent boys for whom the common disadvantages of economic privation, bilingualism, and emotional instability were absent. The popular hypothesis of perceptual deficit was not supported by the data, although the finding that most RD boys have a short-term memory deficit was affirmed. The most important new finding was that about one-fourth of the RD boys had serious difficulty in maintaining an efficient set to process and/or evaluate information, especially when that information was contained in oral speech.
Comprehension difficulties among struggling readers
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Allington, R.L., & McGill-Franzen, A. (2008). Comprehension difficulties among struggling readers. In S.E. Israel & G.G. Duffy (Eds.), Handbook of research on reading comprehension (pp. 551-568). New York, NY: Routledge.
Literacy instruction for English language learners, pre-K-2
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Barone, D.M., & Xu, S.H. (2008). Literacy instruction for English language learners, pre-K-2. New York, NY: Guilford.
Teaching phonemic awareness and phonics: An explanation of the National Reading Panel meta-analyses
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Ehri, L.C. (2004). Teaching phonemic awareness and phonics: An explanation of the National Reading Panel meta-analyses. In P. McCardle & V. Chhabra (Eds.), The voice of evidence in reading research (pp. 153-186).
Reading and assistive technology: Why the reader's profile matters
  • Erickson
Erickson, K. (2013). Reading and assistive technology: Why the reader's profile matters. Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 39(4), 11-14.
Reading for understanding: Toward an R&D program in reading comprehension Developmental relationships between language and reading: Reconciling a beautiful hypothesis with some ugly facts The connections between language and reading disabilities
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  • Study Group
Rand Reading Study Group. (2002). Reading for understanding: Toward an R&D program in reading comprehension. Santa Monica, CA: Rand. Scarborough, H.S. (2005). Developmental relationships between language and reading: Reconciling a beautiful hypothesis with some ugly facts. In H.W. Catts & A.G. Kamhi (Eds.), The connections between language and reading disabilities (pp. 3–22). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Letting the text take center stage: How the Common Core State Standards will transform English language arts instruction
  • Shanahan
Shanahan, T. (2013). Letting the text take center stage: How the Common Core State Standards will transform English language arts instruction. American Educator, 37(3), 4-11.
Learning disabilities: The roads we have traveled and the path to the future Perspectives on learning disabilities: Biological, cognitive, contextual (pp. 159–175) Interventions for children's language and literacy difficulties
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Siegel, L.S. (1999). Learning disabilities: The roads we have traveled and the path to the future. In R.J. Sternberg & L. Spear- Swerling (Eds.), Perspectives on learning disabilities: Biological, cognitive, contextual (pp. 159–175). Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Snowling, M.J., & Hulme, C. (2012). Interventions for children's language and literacy difficulties. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 47(1), 27–34.
Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction
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Here are a few additional sources for readers interested in further information about ways to assess, differentiate instruction, or plan interventions for children with different patterns of reading difficulties
  • M J Kieffer
  • Mor E T O E X P L Or E
Kieffer, M.J. (2010). Socioeconomic status, English proficiency, and late-emerging MOR E T O E X P L OR E Here are a few additional sources for readers interested in further information about ways to assess, differentiate instruction, or plan interventions for children with different patterns of reading difficulties:
Differentiated reading instruction: Strategies for the primary grades
  • S Walpole
  • M C Mckenna
Walpole, S., & McKenna, M.C. (2007). Differentiated reading instruction: Strategies for the primary grades. New York, NY: Guilford. n Reading Rockets professional development webcasts: www.readingrockets.org/webcasts n The Iris Center: iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu reading difficulties. Educational Researcher, 39(6), 484-486.
Reader profiles and reading disabilities
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Valencia, S.W. (2011). Reader profiles and reading disabilities. In A. McGill-Franzen & R.L. Allington (Eds.), Handbook of reading disability research (pp. 25-35). New York, NY: Routledge.