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A new species of Hemiphyllodactylus Bleeker, 1860 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from western Yunnan, China

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A new species of the genus Hemiphyllodactylus is described from mountainous area of Changning County, Yunnan Province, China. Hemiphyllodactylus changningensis sp. nov. is distinguished from all other congeners by morphology and a significant genetic divergence of greater than 17% (ND2 gene). The new species from Changning is characterized by the following features: a maximum SVL of 40.1 mm in males and 43.8 mm in females; 11-15 dorsal scale rows; 6-8 ventral scale rows; a forefoot lamellar formula of 3-3/4-3/4-3; a hindfoot lamellar formula of 3-4-4-4 or 3-3-3-3; precloacal and femoral pore series continuous; cloacal spurs present in both sexes; dark dorsal transverse blotches; dark postorbital stripe; a brown postsacral mark bearing anteriorly projecting arms; and unpigmented caecum and gonads. The new species occurs also in Longyang District of Baoshan City, Yunnan Province, China.
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... Despite this broad distribution, however, their relatively small size (SVL< 45 mm), low densities, localized distributions, and cryptic coloration, render them inconspicuous components of the microenvironments they inhabit. Additionally, with the exception of the wide-ranging parthenogenetic species H. typus Bleeker their distributions are generally circumscribed and restricted to tropical and sub-tropical montane regions or islands (Zhou et al. 1981;Zug 2010;Grismer et al. 2013Grismer et al. , 2014aGrismer et al. , b, 2017Grismer et al. , 2018Ngo et al. 2014;Nguyen et al. 2013Nguyen et al. , 2014Sukprasert et al. 2018;Guo et al. 2015;Cobos et al. 2016;Yan et al. 2016;Sung et al. 2018;Agarwal et al. 2019;Elides et al. 2019). As noted by Grismer et al. (2017), these factors, coupled with data gathering inconsistencies among researchers, misidentifications, and the construction of classifications based on morphological similarity rather than common ancestry, resulted in a convoluted nomenclatural history (see Zug 2010 for review). ...
... This baseline molecular phylogeny delimited two major monophyletic lineages: the harterti group of Peninsular Malaysia and the typus group composed of seven different clades that encompassed the entire range of the genus. Subsequent works continued to build upon that taxonomy with the descriptions of recently discovered species (Grismer et al. 2013(Grismer et al. , 2014a(Grismer et al. , b, 2017(Grismer et al. , 2018Nguyen et al. 2013Nguyen et al. , 2014Sukprasert et al. 2018;Guo et al. 2015;Cobos et al. 2016;Yan et al. 2016;Sung et al. 2018;Agarwal et al. 2019;Elides et al. 2019). Among these later works were the first descriptions of new species from Myanmar (Grismer et al. 2017(Grismer et al. , 2018. ...
... Color pattern characters evaluated were the presence or absence of dark pigmentation in the gonadal tracts and caecum; configuration of the dark markings on the dorsum (dorsal pattern); presence or absence of a dark pre-and/ or postorbital stripe extending to at least the neck; the presence or absence of a linear series of white postorbital and dorsolateral spots on the trunk; and the presence or absence of light-colored, anteriorly projecting arms of the light-colored postsacral marking. Some of the information on character states and their distribution in other species was obtained from Guo et al. (2015), Cobos et al. (2016), Yan et al. (2016), andSukpraset et al. (2018). LSUHC refers to the La Sierra University Herpetological Collection, La Sierra University, Riverside, California, USA. ...
Article
An integrative taxonomic analysis based on morphology, color pattern, and the mitochondrial gene ND2 recovered four new species of Hemiphyllodactylus Bleeker that are endemic to the Shan Plateau or Salween Basin in eastern Myanmar. Hemiphyllodactylus ngwelwini sp. nov. from the Shan Plateau is part of the earlier described “eastern Myanmar clade” renamed herein as the north lineage and H. kyaiktiyoensis sp. nov. and H. pinlaungensis sp. nov. of the Shan Plateau and H. zwegabinensis sp. nov. of the Salween Basin compose an entirely new Burmese clade herein referred to as the south lineage. Although the north and south lineages come within 46 km of one another on the Shan Plateau, they are not sister lineages but sequentially separated by two lineages from Yunnan, China and another from northwestern Thailand. Hemiphyllodactylus zwegabinensis sp. nov. is the first species of this genus to be recorded from the Salween Basin and is known only from a wind-blown cloud forest on the top of the insular, karstic mountain Zwegabin in Kayin State. All other Burmese species except for H. typus, are endemic to the various localities throughout the Shan Plateau. These four new species bring the total number of Hemiphyllodactylus in Myanmar to at least 10 which is certainly an extreme underestimate of the diversity of this genus given that we discover new species at every upland locality we survey.
... We exa mined morphological cha racters of the specimens from Dupangling and compared them with 2-5FingLm 4-5-5-4 4-4-5-4 4-4-5-4 4-4-5-4 4-4-5-4 / 2-5ToeLm 4-5-5-5 4-5-5-5 4-5-5-5 5-6-6-4 4-5-5-5 / (Zug, 2010;Aga rwal et al., 2019), H. banaensis (Ngo et al., 2014), H. bintik (Grismer et al., 2015), H. changningensis (Guo et al., 2015), H. chiangmaiensis (Grismer et al., 2014b), H. cicak (Cobos et al., 2016), H. dushanensis (Zhou et al., 1981;Grismer et al., 2013), H. engganoensis (Grismer et al., 2014a), H. flaviventris (Sukprasert et al., 2018), H. ganoklonis (Zug, 2010), H. harterti (Zug, 2010;Grismer et al., 2013), H. hongkongensis (Sung et al., 2018), H. huishuiensis (Yan et al., 2016), H. indosobrinus (Eliades et al., 2019), H. insularis (Zug, 2010;Grismer et al., 2013), H. jinpingensis (Zhou et al., 1981;Grismer et al., 2013), H. jnana (Agarwal et al., 2019), H. khlonglanensis (Sukprasert et al., 2018), H. kiziriani (Nguyen et al., 2014), H. kolliensis (Agarwal et al., 2019), H. larutensis (Zug, 2010;Grismer et al., 2013), H. linnwayensis (Grismer et al., 2017), H. longlingensis (Zhou et al., 1981;Grismer et al., 2013), H. margarethae (Zug, 2010;Grismer et al., 2013), H. montawaensis (Grismer et al., 2017), H. serpispecus (Eliades et al., 2019), H. tehtarik (Zug, 2010;Grismer et al., 2013), H. titiwangsaensis (Zug, 2010;Grismer et al., 2013), H. tonywhitteni (Grismer et al., 2017), H. typus (Zug, 2010;Grismer et al., 2013), H. uga (Grismer et al., 2018), H. yunnanensis (Zhou et al., 1981;Grismer et al., 2013), H. ywanganensis (Grismer et al., 2018), and H. zugi (Nguyen et al., 2013). ...
... All the individuals were found on the walls of human houses-that were surrounded by evergreen broad-leaf forests. (Grismer et al., 2013;Guo et al., 2015;Yan et al., 2016;Sung et al., 2018) Chin 9-11 7-10 8-10 5-6 8-10 6-9 7 6-11 9-12 Postmentals distinctly enlarged (1) or not (0) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 CircNa 3 or 4 3 3 or 4 3 or 4 3 4 3 2-4 2 or 3 SnS 2 or 3 4-11 2 or 3 3 or 4 2 or 3 2 or 3 2 2-5 3-5 ...
... In China, only H. hongkongensis lives in a lower island ha bita t (Sung et al., 2018). Other Hemiphyllodactylus species are all restricted to high elevation habitats (> 900 m) (Zhou et al., 1981;Guo et al., 2015;Yan et al., 2016), which represent mid-to high-elevation taxa. However, the type locality of H. dupanglingensis sp. ...
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A new species of gekkonid, Hemiphyllodactylus dupanglingensis sp. nov., is described based on six specimens from Hunan Province, China. The new species is phylogenetically close to H. zugi, H. hongkongensis, H. dushanensis, and H. huishuiensis, and can be distinguished from its congeners by the following combination of characters: 9–11 chin scales; postmental scales enlarged; 9–12 infralabials, 11–14 supralabials; 14–16 dorsal scales and 10–11 ventral scales longitudinally arranged at the midbody contained with one eye diameter; a manual lamellar formula of 4–4–5–4 or 4–5–5–4 and a pedal lamellar formula of 4–5–5–5 or 5–6–6–4; 21–25 continuous precloacal and femoral pores in males.
... At present, 12 described species of Hemiphyllodactylus are found in South China: i.e., H. changningensis Guo, Zhou, Yan & Li, 2015;H. dupanglingensis Zhang, Qian & Yang, 2020; H. dushanensis Zhou & Liu, 1981;H. ...
... nov. and its congenersValues for H. jinpingensis were obtained fromGuo et al. (2015), H. montawaensis and H. tonywhitteni were fromGrismer et al. (2017), and H. ngwelwini was fromGrismer et al. (2020a). See text for abbreviations. ...
Article
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Karst habitats are hotspots of diversity and endemism. Their naturally fragmented distributions across broad geographic landscapes have led to the complex array of smaller evolutionary ecosystems that present unique challenges from a conservation perspective. Comprehensive biodiversity assessments of karst habitats have revealed that these ecosystems contain an almost unparalleled level of endemism, and many site-restricted species remain undescribed, thus posing considerable challenges for effective conservation management. Small rock-dwelling species, such as geckos, may be particularly prone to such isolation. In this paper, we discuss one such genus, i.e., Hemiphyllodactylus, and explore its diversity across karst landforms in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. Based on morphological and genetic data, we describe two new species of Hemiphyllodactylus from karst habitats in Simao District and Yanshan County. A phylogenetic tree for Hemiphyllodactylus was constructed using 1 039 base pairs (bp) of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene ( ND2). The Simao and Yanshan specimens can be distinguished from all other congeners within their respective subclades based on uncorrected genetic pairwise distances greater than 6.3% and 4.3% respectively, as well as significant morphological differences. The discovery and description of these two new species brings the total number of described Hemiphyllodactylus species in China to 14 and indicates many more undescribed species from unsurveyed karst regions await discovery. Our findings suggest that karst ecosystems in Yunnan support a higher diversity of Hemiphyllodactylus than previously known. This study also highlights the importance of karst ecosystems as refugia for site-specific endemic species and the need for heightened conservation efforts.
... The gekkonid genus Hemiphyllodactylus Bleeker, 1860 is a widely distributed taxon that ranges from southern India and Sri Lanka, across Southeast Asia to the western Pacific (Zug 2010;Grismer et al. 2013Grismer et al. , 2018Agarwal et al. 2019). This nocturnal genus of gecko usually occurs in low densities with typically small range sizes and a high degree of endemism, with most of the members in the genus being restricted to tropical and subtropical montane regions and islands (Zhou et al. 1981;Zug 2010;Grismer et al. 2013Grismer et al. , 2014aGrismer et al. , b, 2017Grismer et al. , 2018Grismer et al. , 2020aNguyen et al. 2013Nguyen et al. , 2014Sukprasert et al. 2018;Guo et al. 2015;Cobos et al. 2016;Yan et al. 2016;Sung et al. 2018;Agarwal et al. 2019;Eliades et al. 2019). All Hemiphyllodactylus are small (SVL < 63 mm), forest-dwelling, scansorial species that are generally well camouflaged, with cryptic coloration. ...
... Due to lack of individual measurements for H. longlingensis Liu, 1981, andH. zalonicus Grismer, Chit, Pawangkhanant, Nazarov, Zaw &Poyarkov, 2020, we only compared the specimens from Zhutangxiang town to H. changningensis (raw data were obtained from Guo et al. 2015) as these were recovered as the closest relatives from the same clade. Prior to analysis, we corrected for the effects of body size on mensural characters using the following equation: Xadj = X -β(SVL -SVLmean), where Xadj = adjusted value; X = measured value; β = unstandardized regression coefficient for each OTU; SVL = measured SVL; SVLmean = overall average SVL of all OTUs (Thorpe 1975(Thorpe , 1983Turan 1999;Lleonart et al. 2000). ...
Article
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A new species of the gekkonid genus Hemiphyllodactylus is described from forested karst hills near Zhutangxiang town, Lancang Lahu Autonomous County, Yunnan, China. Hemiphyllodactylus zhutangxiangensis sp. nov. is distinguished from all other congeners in morphology and an uncorrected pairwise sequence divergence of greater than 14% based on 1039 base pairs of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene (ND2). The new species is defined by the following characters: a maximum SVL of 44.42 mm; 7–9 chin scales; enlarged postmentals; five circumnasal scales; 2–4 internasal scales; 8–11 supralabial scales; 8–11 infralabial scales; subdigital lamellae on fingers II–V (3–5)-(4–6)-(4 or 5)-(4 or 5); subdigital lamellae on toes II–V (4 or 5)-(4 or 5)-(4–6)-(4 or 5); dorsal scales 11–15; ventral scales 5–7; 20–23 continuous femoroprecloacal pores; having pale-grey base color on the body with various darker transverse dorsal blotches; a dark postorbital stripe extending to at least to the base of the neck; no dark dorsolateral or ventrolateral stripe on trunk; and postsacral marking bearing a dark fork-like pattern with anteriorly projecting arms. The new species brings the species total of Hemiphyllodactylus in China to 11.
... All are small nondescript species which in Indochina are generally restricted to circumscribed upland areas (see Grismer et al. 2013;2014a, 2020aEliades et al. 2019;Sukprasert et al. 2018, and references therein). Hemiphyllodactylus species are elusive and generally difficult to find in their native environments and as such, many species descriptions are based on a single or just a few specimens (Cobos et al. 2016;Eliades et al. 2019;Grismer et al. 2013;2014bGrismer et al. 2018a;2020a, 2020bGuo et al. 2015). On the other hand, lizards may be incredibly dense in rural situations where they are human commensals (Mohapatra et al. 2020;Grismer et al. 2020a). ...
... Meristic, mensural (in mm) and colour pattern data from the type series of Hemiphyllodactylus zalonicus sp. nov., H. longlingensis and H. changninensis of clade 3. Data for latter two species come from(Zhou et al. 1981) andGuo et al. (2015), respectively. Values in bold are potentially diagnostic with respect to Hemiphyllodactylus zalonicus sp. ...
Article
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Phylogenetic analyses of the 49 nominal species of the gekkonid genus Hemiphyllodactylus based on the mitochondrial gene NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 and its flanking tRNAs resulted in a strongly supported tree composed of a number of regionally localised mono-phyletic lineages consistent with previous genus-wide analyses. One such lineage from Western Indochina is composed of three previously recognised clades plus an additional species from southern Thailand. An integrative taxonomic analysis of one of these clades (clade 3 from Western Yunnan, China) recovered a new species from the Mangin Mountain Range that represents the third independent origin of Hemiphyllodactylus in Myanmar (not counting the widespread parthe-nogenetic H. typus). Hemiphyllodactylus zalonicus sp. nov. from Mt. Zalon, Sagaing Region, is the first species of Hemiphyllodactyus known from the northern part of Ayeyarwady Basin and bears a 15.0-18.9% uncorrected sequence divergence from other clade members as well as having discretely non-overlapping meristic and mensural differences. This discovery brings the total number of Hemiphyllodactylus in Myanmar to at least 11 species.
... Comparisons: We compared the new species from northern Vietnam with all other members of the genus Hemiphyllodactylus from Vietnam, Laos, and China based on examination of specimens (see Appendix) and data obtained from the literature (Boulenger 1903;Barbour 1924;Smith 1935;Taylor 1963;Zhou et al. 1981with English translation of Ota 1996Bourret 2009;Zug 2010;Grismer et al. 2013Grismer et al. , 2014aGrismer et al. ,b, 2015Grismer et al. , 2018aGrismer et al. ,b, 2020Nguyen et al. 2013Nguyen et al. , 2014Nguyen et al. , 2020Ngo et al. 2014;Guo et al. 2015;Cobos et al. 2016;Yan et al. 2016;Sukprasert et al. 2018;Sung et al. 2018;Eliades et al. 2019;Agarwal et al. 2019Agarwal et al. , 2020. For comparisons with other species of Hemiphyllodactylus see Table 3. ...
... Hemiphyllodactylus ; from H. kiziriani by having more scales between supranasals (4-6 versus 2-3 in H. kiziriani), fewer subdigital lamellae 3 (1FingLm) and 3 (1ToeLm) (versus 5 and 5, respectively, in H. kiziriani), digital lamellae formula 3454 (forefoot) and 4-5-5-5 (hindfoot) (versus 3-4-4-4 and 4-4(5)-4(5)-4, respectively, in H. kiziriani), and more precloacal and femoral pores in males (22-24 versus 10-13 in H. kiziriani); from H. ngocsonensis by having more scales between supranasals (4-6 versus 3 in H. ngocsonensis), fewer subdigital lamellae 3 (1FingLm) and 3 (1ToeLm) (versus 4-5 and 5-6, respectively, in H. ngocsonensis), digital lamellae formula 3454 (forefoot) and 4555 (hindfoot) (versus 3-4-4-4 and 4-5-5-4, respectively, in H. ngocsonensis), and more precloacal and femoral pores in males (22-24 versus 20 in H. ngocsonensis); from H. serpispecus by having more scales between supranasals (4-6 versus 2 in H. serpispecus), fewer dorsal scale rows (18-23 versus 26 in H. serpispecus), fewer subdigital lamellae 3 (1FingLm) and 3 (1ToeLm) (versus 4 and 4, respectively, in H. serpispecus), digital lamellae formula 3-4-5-4 (forefoot) and 4-5-5-5 (hindfoot) (versus 3-4-4-4 and 3-4-4-5, respectively, in H. serpispecus), and more precloacal and femoral pores in males (22-24 versus 11 in H. serpispecus); from H. zugi Nguyen, Lehmann, Le, Duong, Bonkowski & Ziegler by having fewer ventral scales (9-13 versus 14-16 in H. zugi), fewer subdigital lamellae 3 (1FingLm) and 3 (1ToeLm) (versus 4-5 and 4-5, respectively, in H. zugi), digital lamellae formula 3-4-5-4 (forefoot) (versus 3-4-4-4 in H. zugi), and more precloacal and femoral pores in males (22-24 versus 18-21 in H. zugi). (Boulenger 1903;Barbour 1924;Smith 1935;Taylor 1963;Zhou et al. 1981with English translation of Ota 1996Bourret 2009;Zug 2010;Grismer et al. 2013Grismer et al. , 2014aGrismer et al. ,b, 2015Grismer et al. , 2018aGrismer et al. ,b, 2020Nguyen et al. 2013Nguyen et al. , 2014Nguyen et al. , 2020Ngo et al. 2014;Guo et al. 2015;Cobos et al. 2016;Yan et al. 2016;Sukprasert et al. 2018;Eliades et al., 2019;Agarwal et al., 2019Agarwal et al., , 2020. Characters: 1: maximum SVL; 2: Chin scales; 3: Postmentals distinctly enlarged (1) or not (0); 4: Circumnasal scales; 5: Scales between supranasals; 6: Supralabials; 7: Infralabials; 8: Dorsals; 9: Ventrals; 10: 1FingLm; 11: 1ToeLm; 12: 2-5FingLm; 13: 2-5ToeLm; 14: Pore/PoreC; 15: Precloacal and femoral pore series separate (1) (1) ...
Article
A new species of the gekkonid genus Hemiphyllodactylus is described from limestone karst forest of Tuyen Quang Province, northern Vietnam based on morphological differences and molecular divergence. Hemiphyllodactylus nahangensis sp. nov. is distinguished from the remaining congeners by having the unique combination of the following characters: a bisexual taxon; SVL of adults 41.4-43.6 mm; dorsal scale rows 18-23; ventral scale rows 9-13; chin scales bordering mental and first infralabial distinctly enlarged; 22-24 pore-bearing femoral and precloacal scales, in a continuous row, absent in females; digital lamella formula 3-4-5-4 (forefoot) and 4-5-5-5 (hindfoot); cloacal spur single, present in both sexes; dark lateral head stripe indistinct; postsacral mark cream and bearing anteriorly projecting arms. In phylogenetic analyses, the new species is placed in a clade that includes H. dushanensis, H. hongkongensis, H. huishuiensis, H. ngocsonensis and H. zugi. In terms of pairwise genetic distance, the new species is at least 5.9%-6.6% divergent from other congeners based on a fragment of the mitochondrial gene ND2.
... Morphological comparisons. We compared two undescribed gecko species from northern Vietnam with all other members of the genus Hemiphyllodactylus based on examination of specimens (see Appendix) and data obtained from the literature (Boulenger 1903;Barbour 1924;Smith 1935;Taylor 1963;Zhou et al. 1981with English translation of Ota 1996Bourret 2009;Zug 2010;Grismer et al. 2013Grismer et al. , 2014aGrismer et al. , 2014bGrismer et al. , 2015Grismer et al. , 2018aGrismer et al. , 2018bGrismer et al. , 2020Nguyen et al. 2013Nguyen et al. , 2014Ngo et al. 2014;Guo et al. 2015;Cobos et al. 2016;Yan et al. 2016;Sukprasert et al. 2018;Sung et al. 2018;Eliades et al. 2019;Agarwal et al. 2019Agarwal et al. , 2020. ...
... Interestingly, although H. bonkowskii and H. ngocsonensis are both from Hoa Binh Province, they are not closely related. Instead, the latter species is grouped with a clade consisting taxa from southern China and northeastern Vietnam (Fig. 2). ) and data obtained from the literature (Boulenger 1903;Barbour 1924;Smith 1935;Taylor 1963;Zhou et al. 1981with English translation of Ota 1996Bourret 2009;Zug 2010;Grismer et al. 2013Grismer et al. , 2014aGrismer et al. ,b, 2015Grismer et al. , 2018aGrismer et al. , 2018bGrismer et al. , 2020Nguyen et al. 2013Nguyen et al. , 2014Ngo et al. 2014;Guo et al. 2015;Cobos et al. 2016;Yan et al. 2016;Sukprasert et al. 2018;Eliades et al., 2019;Agarwal et al. 2019Agarwal et al. , 2020 8-10 10 9-12 10-13 9-12 11 8-11 7 8-11 9-10 9-12 8-12 9-11 12 8-10 10-12 9-11 15 9-13 9-11 10-12 9-12 7 9-11 9-11 12 9-11 9-11 9-13 8-11 2 8 or 9 5-8 9-14 8-10 6-11 10 9-12 12 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 3-5 1-5 5 2-4 5 2-3 5 5 1-3 2-4 1-5 2 or 3 2-5 2 or 3 3-5 5 6 9-11 8 or 9 9-14 9 or 10 8-13 9 or 10 10-13 9 7 8-10 8 7-13 8-10 8-12 10 10-12 10 Characters: 1: SVL; 2: Chin scales; 3: Postmentals distinctly enlarged (1) or not (0); 4: Circumnasal scales; 5: Scales between supranasals; 6: Supralabials; 7: Infralabials; 8: Dorsals; 9: Ventrals; 10: 1FingLm; 11: 1ToeLm; 12: 2-5FingLm; 13: 2-5ToeLm; 14: Pore/PoreC; 15: Precloacal and femoral pore series separate (1) or continuous (0); 16: Cloacals on each side; 17: Subcaudals enlarged, plate-like (1) or not (0); 18: Dark postorbital stripe present (1) or absent (0); 19: Light postocular or trunk spots (1) or absent (0); 20: Dark dorsolateral stripe present (1) or not (0); 21: Dark dorsal transverse blotches (1) or not (0); 22: Longitudinal series of white (1) or yellow or red (0) dorsal spots; 23: Postsacral mark brown or orange (2), outer edge yellow or red (1), outer edge red (0); 24: Postsacral mark lacking anterior arms (1) or arms present (0); 25: Caecum pigmented (1) or not (0); 26: Gonads pigmented (1) or not (0); 27: Trunk/SVL; 28: HeadL/SVL; 29: HeadW/SVL; 30: HeadW/HeadL; 31: SnEye/HeadL; 32: NarEye/HeadL; 33: EyeD/HeadL; 34: SnW/HeadL; 35: EyeD/NarEye; 36: SnW/HeadW. ...
Article
We describe two new species of the genus Hemiphyllodactylus on the basis of a new collection of geckos from limestone karst forest of Hoa Binh Province, northwestern Vietnam. Hemiphyllodactylus bonkowskii sp. nov. from Hang Kia—Pa Co Nature Reserve and Hemiphyllodactylus ngocsonensis sp. nov. from Ngoc Son—Ngo Luong Nature Reserve can be distinguished from each other and from their congeners by genetic distinction and morphological differences in circumnasal scales, chin scales, precloacal and femoral pores, cloacal spurs, dorsal scales, ventral scales, digital lamellae formula, and color pattern. In phylogenetic analyses, both new species are nested in a clade that includes H. dushanensis, H. flaviventris, H. hongkongensis, H. huishuiensis, H. kiziriani, H. serpispecus, and H. zugi. In terms of pairwise genetic distance, the two new species are at least 7.5%–8.5% divergent from other described species based on a fragment of the ND2 gene.
... Exceptional to this is a single species treated until now as a subpopulation of "Hemiphyllodactylus titiwangsaensis Zug, 2010" herein placed in a newly named genus, which no author has yet stated an intent on naming. Relevant literature in terms of the taxonomic decisions herein include the following: Baker (2018), Barbour (1924), Bauer and Das (1999), Beddome (1870), Bleeker (1860), Bobrov and Semenov (2008), Boulenger (1885Boulenger ( , 1887Boulenger ( , 1900Boulenger ( , 1903, Brongersma (1931), Brown and Alcala (1978), Chan-ard et al. (2015), Chandramouli et al. (2012), Cox et al. (1998), Daniels (1994), Das (2004), de Rooij (1915, Gaulke (2011), Gray (1842Gray ( , 1845, Grismer (2011aGrismer ( , 2011b, Grismer, et al. (2010Grismer, et al. ( , 2013Grismer, et al. ( , 2015Grismer, et al. ( , 2017, Günther (1872), Guo et al. (2015), Koch (2012), Malkmus et al. (2002), Manthey and Grossmann (1997), Mertens (1930), Pyron et al. (2013), Röll (2006), Rösler (1995Rösler ( , 2017, Sang et al. (2009), Schröder and Röll (2004), Smith (1935), Somaweera and Somaweera (2009), Sukprasert et al. (2018), Sung et al. (2018), Taylor (1918Taylor ( , 1922Taylor ( , 1953Taylor ( , 1963, Tri et al. (2014), Werner (1900), Zhao and Adler (1993), Zhou and Liu (1981), Zhou et al. (1996), Zug (1991Zug ( , 2010, Zug and Kaiser (2014) and sources cited therein. In terms of the descriptions below the following should be noted. ...
... Distribution: South-east Asia, mainly Indonesia, but introduced elsewhere in south-east Asia and the Pacific. Content: Hemiphyllodactylus typus Bleeker, 1860 (type species); H. changningensis Guo, Zhou, Yan and Li, 2015;H. chiangmaiensis Grismer, Wood and Cota, 2014;H. ...
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The gecko genus Hemiphyllodactylus Bleeker, 1860 as defined by most recent authors is an assemblage of Asian geckos of conservative morphological divergence. Notwithstanding this, numerous molecular studies have shown the group to consist of a number of significantly ancient divergent lineages. This warrants a split of the genus as is currently recognized in accordance with the rules of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (Ride et al. 1999). To bring the taxonomy of the group into line with other geckos, the genus Hemiphyllodactylus is divided four ways. The largest group of species remains in Hemiphyllodactylus but this is divided into two subgenera, the second formally named for the first time. The available name Cainodactylus Barbour, 1924 is resurrected for the Gehyra yunnanensis Boulenger, 1903 species group, with it also being divided into two subgenera, the second formally named for the first time. The so-called Lepidodactylus harterti Werner, 1900 group, most recently treated as part of Hemiphyllodactylus is split into two newly named genera, one split into two subgenera, all formally named for the first time. The available name Cainodactylus Barbour, 1924 is resurrected for the Gehyra yunnanensis Boulenger, 1903 species group, with it also being divided into two subgenera, the second formally named for the first time. The so-called Lepidodactylus harterti Werner, 1900 group, most recently treated as part of Hemiphyllodactylus is split into two newly named genera, one split into two subgenera, all formally named for the first time. Keywords: Geckos; Taxonomy; nomenclature; Asia; Gehyra; Hemiphyllodactylus; Lepidodactylus; Cainodactylus; new genera; Cassandracambellea; Malayacolotes; new subgenera; Ferehemiphyllodactylus; Maculacruscalotes; Titiwangsacolotes; new species; cassandracambellae. LSID urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:710D2B51-80DA-461A-9C6F-5C657B512BA6 Australasian Journal of Herpetology 39:9-19. Published 12 June 2019.
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Aims: Yunnan Province has the richest biodiversity among all administrative regions in China. Therefore, having detailed, updated checklists of different fauna and flora groups of Yunnan are particularly important for the conservation and scientific utilization of biodiversity in China. Methods: Based on published literatures and examination of relevant specimens in natural history museums in China, we update the checklist of the reptilian fauna of Yunnan. Following the update, we revised the zoogeographic division of reptilian fauna of Yunnan and compiled diversity-related statistics for each zoogeographic region. Results: As of 31th December, 2021, there are 235 recognized species of reptiles in 82 genera, 25 families, and 2 orders recorded from Yunnan Province of China, including 16 species of Testudines in 12 genera, 4 families, 72 species of Lacertilia in 20 genera, 6 families, and 147 species of Serpentes in 50 genera, 15 families. Comparing to the latest monograph, Amphibia and Reptilia of Yunnan, which was published in 2008, our updated checklist added 82 new records, retained 21 questionable records, and removed records of 23 recognized species from Yunnan. With the revised taxonomy and distribution data of Yunnan’s reptilian fauna, we continued to recognize six zoogeographic regions in Yunnan, namely Northwestern Hengduan Mountains of Yunnan, Western Hills of Yunnan, Southern Hills of Yunnan, Southeastern Hills of Yunnan, Northern and Central Yunnan Plateau, and Northeastern Hills of Yunnan; but we adjusted the ranges for four of these regions, namely Northwestern Hengduan Mountains of Yunnan, Western Hills of Yunnan, Southeastern Hills of Yunnan, and Northern and Central Yunnan Plateau. While the three southern zoogeographic regions have the highest overall diversity, the Northwestern Hengduan Mountains of Yunnan and Central Yunnan Plateau have the highest percentage of endemic species. In total, 13% of the recorded taxa are endemic to Yunnan, 33% of the taxa are only found in Yunnan within China, and 26% of the taxa have been initially described from Yunnan. Taxonomically, Lacertilia constitutes the highest percentage of endemic taxa, which is followed by Serpentes and Testudines. For conservation, about 34% of the assessed reptile species of Yunnan are considered threatened based on China’s Red List of Biodiversity•Vertebrates (Vol. III): Reptiles, and about 16% of the total species of Yunnan still lack conservation assessments. In contrast, only 12% of the recorded species are nationally protected. Of the six zoogeographic regions of Yunnan, the Southern Hills of Yunnan have the highest percentage of threatened species and the highest number of nationally protected species. Conclusion: The reptilian diversity of Yunnan is still underestimated, and the taxonomy of the recorded species is changing regularly. Taxonomy should continue to be the focus of herpetological studies in the future, and detailed distribution data at higher resolution are needed, preferably to the county level. The percentage of endemic species of Yunnan and the conservation threat of Yunnan’s reptilian fauna are both high. Habitat conservations of endemic species in northwest and central Yunnan warrants particular attention. Lastly, as taxonomy and conservation status of species are changing regularly, and given many threatened species are not currently protected by the List of Wild Animals under Special State Protection, we call for the update of the List of Wild Animals under Special Provincial Protection of Yunnan, so that the overlooked, threatened species and their habitats can have legal protection converge.
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Zug, George R. Speciation and Dispersal in a Low Diversity Taxon: The Slender Geckos Hemiphyllodactylus (Reptilia, Gekkonidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 631, xi + 70 pages, 25 figures, 7 tables, 2010.—Hemiphyllodactylus is a genus of small geckos occurring widely, although uncommonly seen, throughout the Indo-Pacific islands and South Asia. These geckos consist of both bisexual and unisexual species. The unisexual species, Hemiphyllodactylus typus, the most widespread of these geckos, apparently attained its Polynesian to Mascarene distribution (invasion) through accidental human transport. The bisexual species have much smaller distributions, geographically restricted to island groups or limited continental areas. Until the early 1990s, most bisexual populations were considered subspecies of H. typus. In the last two decades, herpetologists have regularly used species epithets proposed for the region under their investigation. This resurrection of species names has occurred largely without explanation or taxonomic study. This study examines the morphology of Hemiphyllodactylus throughout its known range, using 13 regional samples, first examining the differentiation of unisexual and bisexual populations and individuals, then the possibility of regional differentiation among the different bisexual populations. Variation and consistency in morphology in and among the regional sample identify the existence of a wide-ranging unisexual species, H. typus, and at least eight geographically restricted bisexual species. Available museum specimens for some regions are adequate to characterize eight bisexual species, H. aurantiacus, H. ganoklonis n. sp., H. harterti, H. insularis, H. larutensis, H. margarethae, H. titiwangsaensis n. sp., and H. yunnanensis. Potentially unique bisexual populations occur in Hong Kong, southern Indochina, Borneo, and Sri Lanka, but samples are too small to adequately characterize these populations. The origins and evolution of the species are examined, and the study concludes with a taxonomy for the identified species.
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A new species of the gekkonid Hemiphyllodactylus banaensis sp. nov. is described from Ba Na-Nui Chua Nature Reserve in central Vietnam. Previously included within H. yunnanensis, the new species is distinguished from all other congeners by having the unique combination of a maximum SVL of 48.2 mm in males and 51.0 mm in females; seven chin scales extending transversely from the union of the first and second infralabials and posterior margin of mental; enlarged postmental scales; 9-12 supralabials; 9-11 infralabials; 18-20 longitudinally arranged dorsal scales at midbody contained within one eye diameter; 20-21 precloacal and femoral pore-bearing scales contiguous in males and 0-20 contiguous pore-bearing precloacal scales in females; dorsal pattern on body composed of transverse blotches and two whitish stripes across shoulder extending to sacrum; postsacral mark whitish brown and bearing anteriorly projecting arms; and caecum and oviducts unpigmented.
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Conserving the planet's biodiversity is greatly handicapped, in that only a small fraction of it (∼14–75%) has been described so far. Integrative taxonomy is making significant inroads in light of this challenge by incorporating multiple data sets across a wide range of disciplines that simultaneously elucidate phylogenetic structure and delimit species-level lineages within a unified species concept. An integrative taxonomic approach to the classifi-cation of the gekkonid genus Hemiphyllodactylus Bleeker, 1860 reveals that it is far more diverse than posited by a recent taxonomic revision based solely on morphology, and that it is composed of at least 19 species, most of which are montane upland or insular endemics. Three new species (Hemiphyllodactylus dushanensis sp. nov., Hemiphyllodactylus jinpingensis sp. nov., and Hemiphyllodactylus longlingensis sp. nov.) from southern China previously considered to be subspecies of Hemiphyllodactylus yunnanensis (Boulenger, 1903) are elevated to full species status, and 10 new species-level lineages ranging from Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Myanmar, Peninsular Malaysia, the Philippines, and Indonesia are identified. One new species, Hemiphyllodactylus tehtarik sp. nov. from Gunung Tebu, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia, is described herein, and is differentiated from all other species of Hemiphyllodactylus on the basis of morphology, colour pattern, and an 18.1–31.5% sequence divergence from all other congeners. Hemiphyllodactylus larutensis (Boulenger, 1900) is removed from the synonymy of H. harterti (Werner, 1900). Using an integrative taxonomic approach imbues the revised classification of
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