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Social Media in Crisis Communication

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Abstract

A recently emerged type of crisis, social media crisis, gathered much attention from the public for its ability to transpire actively and effectively within a short amount of time. This paper identified the importance of social media in crisis communication and how to integrate social media in a crisis communication plan. During crises, social media serves as a two-way tool of communication. On one hand, social media aids an organization’s crisis monitoring process. On the other hand, social media influences how people think about an organization and helps them to gather news on the crisis and responses from the involved organization in crisis times. When the information flows at the speed of light, a business has to be ready to react at a moment’s notice. With a thorough monitoring and a carefully crafted social media crisis management plan, assembling all the strengths of the online platforms, the company’s people and preventative actions, a business can leverage the social media to get through the situation.

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Nghiên cứu về vai trò của truyền thông xã hội trong việc ứng phó và xử lý khủng hoảng. Việc tìm ra vai trò của truyền thông xã hội trong việc đối phó và xử lý khủng hoảng sẽ giúp cho các doanh nghiệp, tổ chức ý thức được tầm quan trọng của truyền thông xã hội trong thời đại mới và tìm ra phương thức xử lý phù hợp nhất. Kết quả của nghiên cứu này có thể sẽ trở thành cơ sở cho những đề xuất đối phó và xử lý khủng hoảng của các doanh nghiệp.
Chapter
For some time, the over-indebted Lebanon economy has been implementing austerity measures. But a communication tax of $ 0.20 per day, scheduled for October 16, 2019 for WhatsApp talks, has sparked protests in Lebanon.Tax protesters in and around Lebanon have launched one of the country’s largest protests and demanded the government’s resignation. However, tax is not the only reason behind hundreds of thousands of people being taken to the streets. Corruption of the government, deteriorating macro economic indicators and the reflections of the Syrian crisis are other factors affecting this process. At this point, the tax was only the exceeded the threshold of society’s patience. Although the government backed down the tax proposal within a few hours after the protest, the activists continued to react to problems such as corruption and poor infrastructure. Another reason for the incidents is the arrival of 1.5 million Syrian refugees after the Syrian war. This has increased the tension between the working class and government officials. Lebanon’s most important problem today is the economic and social impact of the Syrian crisis, which is in its 9th year. Since March 2011, 1.5 million Syrians (which corresponds to 1/4 of the Lebanon population) have taken refuge. This has made Lebanon government public finance and service provision quite difficult. In particular, it has led to further impoverishment of Lebanon citizens and an increase in income inequality. These are the factors behind the rebellion and chaos that emerge after whatsapp3 tax and nothing is limited to a single tax proposal. Thus, the protests paved the way for demonstrations called for regime change and revolution. In this context, the study aims to analyze the anatomy of a country’s economy under the shadow of the tax rebellion and to make recommendations by focusing on the experiences of the Lebanon government after a tax proposal for Whatsapp.
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Purpose – The electronic social media such as Twitter, Facebook, MySpace, etc. have become a major form of communication, and the expression of attitudes and opinions, for the general public. Recently, they have also become a source of data for market researchers. This paper aims to provide a critical look at the advantages and limitations of such an approach to understanding brand perceptions and attitudes in the market place. Although the social media provide a wealth of data for automated content analyses, this review questions the validity and reliability of this research approach, and concludes that social media monitoring (SMM) is a poor substitute for in‐depth qualitative research which has many advantages and benefits. Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents a detailed, systematic comparison of various research approaches. These include well‐established methods and recent inventions which are in use to explore and understand consumer behaviour and attitudes. Particular attention is given to the analysis of spontaneous consumer attitudes as expressed through the social media and also in qualitative research interviews. Findings – This analysis concludes that there are three critical features which differentiate qualitative research (as practised in IDIs and group discussions) from SMM. These are: the direct, interactive dialogue or conversation between consumers and researchers; the facility to “listen” and attend to the (sometimes unspoken) underlying narrative which connects consumers' needs and aspirations, personal goals and driving forces to behaviour and brand choice; and the dynamic, interactive characteristics of the interview that achieve a meeting of minds to produce a shared understanding. Philosophically, it is this “conversation” that gives qualitative research its validity and authenticity which makes it superior to SMM. Originality/value – This review questions the validity and reliability of the SMM, and concludes that it is a poor substitute for in‐depth qualitative research which has many advantages and benefits.
Article
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Opportunities for participation by members of the public are expanding the information arena of disaster. Social media supports "backchannel" communications, allowing for wide-scale interaction that can be collectively resourceful, self-policing, and generative of information that is otherwise hard to obtain. Results from our study of information practices by members of the public during the October 2007 Southern California Wildfires suggest that community information resources and other backchannel communications activity enabled by social media are gaining prominence in the disaster arena, despite concern by officials about the legitimacy of information shared through such means. We argue that these emergent uses of social media are pre-cursors of broader future changes to the institutional and organizational arrangements of disaster response.
Conference Paper
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Recent world-wide crisis events have drawn new attention to the role information communication technology (ICT) can play in warning and response activities. Drawing on disaster social science, we consider a critical aspect of post- impact disaster response that does not yet receive much information science research attention. Public participation is an emerging, large-scale arena for computer-mediated interaction that has implications for both informal and formal response. With a focus on persistent citizen communications as one form of interaction in this arena, we describe their spatial and temporal arrangements, and how the emerging information pathways that result serve different post-impact functions. However, command-and- control models do not easily adapt to the expanding data- generating and -seeking activities by the public. ICT in disaster contexts will give further rise to improvised activities and temporary organizations with which formal response organizations need to align. Author Keywords: Disasters, crisis, crises, extreme events, NIMS, peer to peer, grassroots, policy, volunteerism
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This study investigated Internet communication and use in a crisis situation, Hurricane Katrina, to explore the role of the Internet in supporting or diminishing geographically- based community during a crisis. The researchers conducted an online survey of Internet users (n � /1192) from the dispersed metropolitan New Orleans area. The survey focused on amount, type, function, and importance of Internet use to creating and maintaining social capital, supporting geographically-based communities, activating social networks, reducing uncertainty, and achieving both expressive and instrumental communication goals. The results indicated that Internet users in a crisis situation went online to seek interactive fora specific to their neighborhoods and to activate weak ties in their social networks. They engaged in more uncertainty reduction behavior when experiencing higher degrees of damage. They turned to the Internet in place of other media as a result of disruptions caused by the crisis. Women valued online expressive communication more than men did. The findings suggest that social capital theorists would benefit from a communication perspective on the Internet. The study also led to the formation of suggestions for emergency preparedness agencies, shelter providers, crisis victims, and online news providers that can improve emergency response.
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The purpose of this study is to understand how microblogging communications change and contribute to collective sense-making over time during a crisis. Using B. Dervin's (1983) theory of sense-making applied to crises and communications during crises, we examined 7,184 microblogging communications sent in response to three violent crises that occurred on U.S. college campuses. The analysis of patterns of microblogging communications found that information-sharing behaviors dominated the early response phase of violent crises, and opinion sharing increased over time, peaking in the recovery phase of the crises. The analysis of individual microblogging communications identified various themes in the conversation threads that not only helped individual contributors make sense of the situation but also helped others who followed the conversation. The results of this study show that microblogging can play a vital role in collective sense-making during crises.
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