Conference PaperPDF Available

Aviation Risk Management Strategies, Case Study

Authors:
  • Libyan Academy for Postgraduate Studies

Abstract and Figures

Risk assessment has always been the most challenging part of the risk management process for aviation operations. This paper investigates the risks involved in the Tripoli and Mitiga International Airport in Tripoli, Libya. This C addresses the risks that may occur during aircraft flight operations. It also investigates the human performance during the ground and flight operations. The paper implements some countermeasures in order to avoid and/or eliminate the risks, and to make sure that all risks remain at an acceptable level. The results demonstrated that a 67.9% of the registered risks are operational risks, 10.7% of the recorded risks are personal risks, 3.6% are health and safety risks, another 3.6% are strategic risks, 7.1% are financial risks, and another 7.1% are technical risks. Besides, the most of the countermeasures which suggested as solutions are suitable and beneficial. Moreover, implementation of the safety management system are effectively reduced the cost and improved the efficiency of the business.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Aviation Risk Management Strategies
Case Study
Mansour A. Elkhweldi
Safety Director, United Aviation Company,
Mitiga International Airport,
Tripoli, Libya
melkhweldi@unitedaviation.ly
Saber Kh. Elmabrouk
Faculty of Engineering, University of Tripoli
Engineering Project Management, The Libyan Academy
Tripoli, Libya
Saber_elmabrouk@yahoo.com
Abstract—Risk assessment has always been the most
challenging part of the risk management process for aviation
operations. This paper investigates the risks involved in the
Tripoli and Mitiga International Airport in Tripoli, Libya. This
case study addresses the risks that may occur during aircraft
flight operations. It also investigates the human performance
during the ground and flight operations. The paper implements
some countermeasures in order to avoid and/or eliminate the
risks, and to make sure that all risks remain at an acceptable
level.
The results demonstrated that a 67.9% of the registered risks
are operational risks, 10.7% of the recorded risks are personal
risks, 3.6% are health and safety risks, another 3.6% are
strategic risks, 7.1% are financial risks, and another 7.1% are
technical risks. Besides, the most of the countermeasures which
suggested as solutions are suitable and beneficial. Moreover,
implementation of the safety management system are effectively
reduced the cost and improved the efficiency of the business.
Keywords—Hazard, Risk, Risk management, Safety
management system, Risk matrix, Risk register
I. INTRODUCTION
Risk management is the identification, analysis, elimination
and/or mitigation to an acceptable or tolerable level of the
hazards, as well as the subsequent risks, that threaten the
viability of an organization. Before risk management can be
effectively built or improved, the safety hazards in the
operation should be identified. In aviation operations, Safety
Management System (SMS) should be risk based. For
example, the risks involved in operating aircrafts regularly on
ground are quite different to those in flying operations. In fact,
SMS is a careful examination of what could cause harm in the
workplace. That is in order to weigh up whether we have taken
enough precautions, or should do more to prevent harm.
History shows that aircraft accidents not only ruin lives,
but also affect the company’s business if output is lost, assets
or equipment are damaged, insurance costs increase, or the
company has to go to court. Legally, companies must assess
the risks to safe operations in their workplace, and implement a
plan to control those risks.
Risk management is the key component of the SMS and
involves two fundamental safety related activities: Identifying
safety risks, and assessing the risks. Finally mitigating them
reducing the potential of those risks to cause harm.
Accordingly, we can suggest that the SMS is identical to
Risk Management System (RMS) that is used in aviation sector
and it can be used as an application system for safety.
This study investigates the risks involved in the Tripoli
international airport (Fig. 1) and Mitiga international airport
(Fig. 2) which both located in Tripoli, Libya. The study
addresses the risks that may occur during all aviation
operations, identifying the best countermeasures to be
implemented for the collected risks, and finally continue with
reviewing if the implemented countermeasures are the right
choice or if they should be replaced with other better solutions
for the treated risks.
Fig. 1. Tripoli International Airport
Fig. 2. Mitiga International Airport
Below is a number of definitions of common terms in risk
management.
Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management
Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE), March 3 – 5, 2015
978-1-4799-6065-1/15/$31.00 ©2015 IEEE
A. hazard
A hazard is any existing or potential condition that can lead
to injury, illness, or death to people; damage to or loss of a
system, equipment, or property; or damage to the environment.
Similarly, it is also defined as a condition that is a prerequisite
to an accident or incident [1]. Moreover, it may be defined as
any condition, event, or circumstance that could induce an
accident [2]. In addition, hazards can be grouped into three
generic families: Natural hazards, Technical hazards and
Economic hazards.
B. Natural hazards
Natural hazards are the consequence of the habitat or
environment within which operations related to the provision
of services take place. Examples of natural hazards include:
Severe weather or climatic events (e.g. hurricanes,
winter storms, droughts, tornadoes, thunderstorms,
lighting and wind shear);
Adverse weather conditions (e.g. icing, freezing
precipitation, heavy rain, snow, winds and restrictions
on visibility);
Geophysical events (e.g. earthquakes, volcanoes,
tsunamis, floods and landslides);
Geographical conditions (e.g. adverse terrain or large
bodies of water);
Environmental events (e.g. wildfires, wildlife activity,
and insect or pest infestation); and/or
Public health events (e.g. epidemics of influenza or
other diseases).
C. Technical hazards
Technical hazards are a result of energy sources (electricity,
fuel, hydraulic pressure, pneumatic pressure and so on) or
safety-critical functions (potential for hardware failures,
software glitches, warnings and so on) necessary for operations
related to the delivery of services. Examples of technical
hazards include deficiencies regarding:
Aircraft and aircraft components, systems, subsystems
and related equipments.
An organization’s facilities, tools and related
equipments.
Facilities, systems, subsystems and related equipments
that are external to the organization.
D. Economic hazards
Economic hazards are the consequence of the socio-
political environment within which operations related to the
provision of services take place. Examples of economic
hazards include growth, recession, and cost of material or
equipment.
E. Risk
Risk is essentially a potential future problem (or
opportunity). Every decision or action taken contains some
element of risks. This risk shall mean the combination of the
overall probability, or frequency of occurrence of a harmful
effect induced by a hazard and the severity of that effect.
However, one can ask what is the difference between hazard
and Risk? A hazard is anything in the workplace that has the
potential to harm people, while the risk arises when it’s
possible that a hazard will actually cause harm. Nevertheless,
the risk is the projected likelihood and severity of the
consequence or outcome from an existing hazard or situation.
Whereas the outcome may be an accident, an intermediate
unsafe event/consequence may be identified as the most
credible outcome. [3]
II. RISK MANAGEMENT
Risk management is about identifying risk, assessing the
impact on the business if a security incident occurs, and
making the right financial decision about how to deal with the
results of the assessment. It also includes the implementation
of a program to continuously measure and assess the
effectiveness of existing safeguards in protecting the critical
assets. Managing risk is not a one-time activity; it’s an ongoing
process. Figure 1 shows a risk management cycle. The cycle
divided into five sections: assess risks, quantify risks, identify
countermeasure, implement countermeasure, and finally,
review and follow up.
Fig. 3. Risk management cycle
The strategies to manage risks come through a professional
committee which includes quality, safety and other
professional members, the strategies include transferring the
risk to another party, avoiding the risk, reducing the negative
effect of the risk, and accepting some or all of the
consequences of a particular risk.
Step one, Assess Risk: Risk assessment is intended to
provide management with a view of events that could impact
the achievement of objectives. The assessment techniques used
in this study are:
Brainstorming: A technique by which the chosen
committee generates ideas or find a solution for a specific risk.
The Delphi technique: a method used to assess the
associated risks.
Interviewing: A fact-finding technique for collecting
information in face-to-face.
Data collecting: data gathered from registered records.
The identified risks are listed under the following
categories; (1) Strategic Risks, (2) Operation risks, (3)
Financial and commercial risks, (4) Health and safety risks, (5)
Personal risks, and (6) Technology risks.
Step two, Quantify Risks: In this step, specify the
likelihood and impact of each recorded risks. A 4×4 matrix was
established to specify the risk size (intensity) as illustrated in
Fig. 4. The degree of impact and the likelihood of every risk
are negligible, low, moderate, or high.
The risk rating can be obtained from Equation (1).
R =
Ι
× L (1)
where, R = Risk size (risk rating), I = Impact degree and L =
Likelihood degree.
The risk matrix helps us to rate the significance of our
identified risks based on the likelihood of the risk materializing
and the impact if it does [3]. There are various sizes and types
of risk matrix, depending on the rating scale chosen. The
simplest form uses a 3×3 grid, but you could use a 4×4, a 5×5
or a 6×6 grid, depending on how complicated or simple you
want to make things. In reality, it does not really matter.
Because when we look at likelihood and impact, we are really
trying to determine the most significant risks, in other words,
the ones that are most likely to happen and the ones with the
most serious consequences [3].
Fig. 4. Risk Matrix
For the purpose of this project a 4×4 matrix is used as
shown in Figure 4. It can be helpful to color code the squares
in the matrix to indicate the seriousness and priority for action
for any given risk, and to carry this color coding through to our
risk register.
After we assessed the risks, selection risk response was
made. The selection treatments have brought the risk to
tolerable level. This process normally tabulated in a table
called risk register or risk log.
Risk Log: It is a document that contains information about
identified project risks and plays an important part in the risk
management plan. However, the risks log addresses the risk
management in four key steps: (1) identifying the risk, (2)
evaluating the severity of risks, (3) applying possible solutions
to those risks and (4) monitoring and analyzing the
effectiveness of any subsequent steps taken. Table 1 shows the
summary of risks log recorded in both Tripoli international
airport and Mitiga international airport.
The inherent risks in percentage as they appear in the
genuine risk register of the project after applied the planed
strategy are shown in Figure 5. The figure indicates that 14%
of the identified risks are considered as significant risks, and
21% measured as moderate risks, 62% of the identified risks
classified as low risks, while only 3% negligible risks.
Step three, Countermeasures Suggestions: It is the
process of developing strategic options, and determining
actions, to enhance opportunities and reduce threats to the
project's objectives which is to be applied by the responsible party.
This step is also mentioned in the risk log as well.
Fig. 5. Chart showing exitance percentage of risk Types
Step Four, Countermeasures Implementation: It is a
process of developing strategic options, and determining
actions, to enhance opportunities and reduce threats to the
project's objectives. In this step, we implement the type of
countermeasures suggested by the risk committee offering the
needful materials and apply them as illustrated in table (1)
column 8.
Avoidance: Risk prevention, changing the plan to eliminate
a risk by avoiding the cause/source of risk, protect project from
impact of risk. Examples: change the supplier/engineer, do it
ourselves, reduce scope to avoid high risk deliverables, adopt a
familiar technology or product [5].
Mitigation: Seek to reduce the impact or probability of the
risk event to an acceptable threshold. Be proactive, take early
actions to reduce impact and/or probability and don’t wait until
the risk hits your project [5].
Transfer: Shift responsibility of risk consequence to
another party, does not eliminate risk, most effective in dealing
with financial exposure [5].
In this study, four risk levels were used to describe the
defined risks (negligible, low, moderate, high). Thus, after we
assessed each listed risk, selection of risk response strategies
was made as shown in Figure 6. The Figure shows the risk
rating levels and the associated response strategy planned for
each indicated risk. Where, negligible risks have value ranges
from 1 to 3 and referred by green boxes, these are considered
as accepted risks. Low risks vary from 4 to 8 and denoted as
yellow boxes in the Figure, and these are considered as
manageable risks. Moderate risks are indicated by orange
boxes and have value ranges from 9 to 12. These risks must be
mitigated to an accepted threshold level, managed or
transferred in some cases. High risks that lie between 13 and
16 are denoted by red boxes; avoidance is the planned strategy
with risks of this level.
Fig. 6. Risk color coding
Figure 7 illustrates the risk distribution. It shows that 68%
of the registered risks are operational risks, 11% of the
recorded registered risks are personal risks, 3% are health and
safety risks and another 4% are strategic risks. Besides, 7% of
the risks are financial risks and another 7% are technical risks.
Fig. 7. Risk distribution
Step Five, Review and Follow-up: This step includes
reviewing the countermeasures implemented and checking if
these countermeasures are satisfy the solution required.
The strategic definition of risk response should include
criteria for success of the response. Risk action owner should
monitor their assigned risks, take agreed-upon action as
required, and provide the risk owner with the relevant
information on status or changes to the risk characteristics.
Risk owners should assess the effectiveness of any action,
decide whether additional actions are required, and keep the
manager informed of the situation. Figure 8 represents the
percentage of the responsibility of each risk owner. It shows
that 75% of the recorded risks should be monitored by
operational department, 25% of the risks assigned to the
technical department, 11% of the risks should be supervised by
the management, 4% of the risks should be controlled by the
handling department, and the remaining 3% should be tracked
by financial department.
It is the responsibility of the action owner to ensure that
these risks are effectively monitored and that the corresponding
actions are carried as defined, in a timely manner. In addition
to the response action and trigger conditions, a mechanism of
measuring the effectiveness of the response is provided by the
plan risk response. The risk action owner should keep the risk
owner aware of the status of the response action so that the risk
owner can decide when the risk has been effectively dealt with,
or whether additional actions are need to be planned and
implemented.
Fig. 8. Risk action owners
In the event of major organizational changes, risk
management planning may need to be revisited prior to
reassessing the risks. As a result, the low risks located in
yellow cells have success treatment response between 40% and
100%. The moderate risks that lie in orange color zone are in
the success treatment response range of 30% to 80%. On the
other hand, the high risks that lie in the red color zone have
success treatment response between 30% and 70%. These are
all illustrated in Table 1 column 9 and Figure 9.
Fig. 9. Result of risk countermeasures treatment
III. LEARNED LESSONS FROM THIS CASE STUDY
From our risk log, we can see that the most important
observations can be summarized as the following:
Employee negligence consisting of failure to fulfill the
expected duty.
Lack of knowledge on certain things and thus taking the
wrong decisions at certain situations.
Lack of commitment to finish the job with the best quality
and on schedule.
The nature of some employees who don’t mind taking
high risks.
Lack of hand over book from shift to the following shift.
It can be noticed that most of the risk sources are mainly
due to the lack of penalizing those who have shortcomings.
That is despite that fact that the rules are there, but the issue is
applying them. Another factor is the fact that the country
regime before February 17, 2011 was based on dictatorship.
Nonetheless, we are optimistic and expect better future for
Libya within the next years. Therefore, we should concentrate
on job and sessional training, as well as raising awareness of
the seriousness of safety and risk management. Likewise,
safety management system (SMS), follow up and quality
control are very important factors for quality assurance, which
in return lead to low risks and high job efficiency.
Finally, SMS in both airports need to be applied in order to
provide a systematic way to identify hazards and control risks
while maintaining assurance of the effectiveness of the risk
controls. In fact, SMS focuses on maximizing opportunities
to continuously improve the overall safety of the aviation
system. the key processes of an SMS are (1) hazard
identification (2) occurrence reporting (3) risk management (4)
performance measurement (5) quality/safety assurance
The roles and responsibilities within the SMS are starting
by the senior manager who is the one accountable. He is the
one to establish the SMS and allocate resources to support and
maintain an effective SMS; whereas, the management is
responsible for implementing, maintaining and adhering to
SMS processes in their area. Finally, employees are
responsible for identifying hazards and reporting them. The
safety management system is primarily proactive/predictive
system. It considers hazards and risks that impact the whole
organization, as well as risk controls.
SMS is also prepared as a software program which is used
in aviation business by many companies. Similarly,
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), which
controls the aviation business internationally, had assessed and
engaged the SMS to be applied in all over the world and that
each local civil aviation authority should start implementing
the SMS.
Implementing SMS had shown improvement in safety and
quality of the aviation business as this system includes, for
example, Customer Service Reports, Internal Audits, Process
Management, Employee Feedback, Efficiency Reports,
etc. The extensive reporting capabilities maintain a high level
of transparency to keep leadership and staff informed. Finally,
SMS contributes in minimizing risks and improve aviation
business.
IV. CONCLUSION
Through this case study, we can conclude, in the aviation
field, the risk management system is the key component of the
safety management system.
Through the process of the data collected in both Tripoli
international airport and Mitiga international airport, it was
discovered that the most of risks are related to operational
risks. Similarly, the most of the countermeasures are suitable
and beneficial as solutions.
The risk logs shows that 67.9% of the registered risks are
operational risks, 10.7% of the recorded risks are personal
risks, 3.6% are health and safety risks, another 3.6% are
strategic risks, 7.1% are financial risks, and another 7.1% are
technical risks.
Furthermore, after reviewing and following up the
countermeasures, it is proposed that the risks lying in green
color zone are acceptable and no action is required. The low
risks located in yellow color zone have success treatment
response between 40% and 100%. The moderate risks that lie
in orange color zone are located in the success treatment
response range of 30% to 80%. The high risks that located in
red color zone have success treatment response between 30%
and 70%.
All aviation sectors represented in airlines companies,
maintenance service provider, airports service association
should concentrate on sessional training and on job training,
and try to change the culture of how to deal with risks reaching
to the culture of integrated safety corporation between all
members of aviation sectors. That is, in return, is done through
implementing SMS programs as a suggested solution and
especially using SMS software and of course increase and find
the suitable incentive and motivation that give remarkable push
to the labor in different levels. In the other hand,
implementation of SMS will effectively reduce the cost and
improve the efficiency of the business.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors would like to thank United Aviation Company
for their assistance in publishing this paper. Moreover, the first
author would like to express his utmost gratitude to the
Engineering Project Management department in the Libyan
Academy is supported him throughout his graduate study.
REFERENCES
[1] AC 120-92, Introduction to Safety Management Systems for Air
Operators (2010).
[2] EUROCONTROL Safety Regulatory Requirements (ESARR). ESARR
4 - Risk Assessment and Mitigation in ATM, 1.0 edition, 2001.
[3] Andy Osborne, Risk-management-made-easy, bookboon.com, 2012.
[4] Terje Aven, Risk Analysis: assessing uncertainties beyond Expected
values and probabilities. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2008.
[5] Muhammad Aleem Habib, Project Risk management JUNE 25th, 2013.
Information derived from pmbok and Rita Mulcahy presented at
http://www.slideshare.net/aleemhabib7/project-risk-management-
pmbok-5
BIOGRAPHY
Mansour A. Elkhweldi is a senior aeronautical engineer, specilaized in
aviation engineering, planning and management, 29 years of experience in
aviation, with bachelor degree in aeronautical engineering from faculty of
Engineering, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya. He currently works as a
safety director in United Aviation company, Tripoli, Libya.
Saber Kh. Elmabrou
k
received the Ph.D. degree in Petroleum Engineering
from the prestigious University of Regina, Canada. Prior to his Ph.D., he had
earned his Master and Bachelor degree in Petroleum Engineering from
University of Tripoli, Libya. Dr. Saber is currently a member of Petroleum
Engineering Department faculty at the University of Tripoli, Libya. Besides, he
is an adjunct faculty at the Engineering Project Management Department,
School of Applied Science and Engineering, The Libyan Academy, Tripoli,
Libya. His research interests include reservoir management, phase behaviour,
artificial intelligence techniques, modeling, optimization, uncertainty, and risk
management. His research experience and teaching career spans over 25 years.
TABLE I. SUMMARY OF THE RISKS LOG FOR TRIPOLI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT AND MITIGA
Risk Category Risk Identification L* I
* R
* Responsible Strategy Countermeasure
Success treatment response
Personal risk
Time pressure -task saturation 2 2 4 Shift manager Avoidance Increase staff 80%
Over/under skilled risk 2 3 6 Operation dept. Avoidance Training/Control 50%
Wrong instruction marshalling 1 4 4 Oper ation dept. Mitigation Training/Control 100 %
Operational risk
No company logo on the equipment 3 1 3 Handleing Dept. Accept - 0%
No static wick protection warning devices 3 3 9 Technical dept. Mit igation Training/Control 50%
Bad aircraft parking consequences 2 4 8 Operation dept. Mitigation Training/Control 80 %
Misuse of ground Support equipment 3 4 12 Operation dept. M itigation T raining/Control 60 %
Equipment near aircraft 2 2 4 Technical dept. M itigation Tr aining/Control 90%
Nois e leve l 2 2 4 Operation dept. M itigation Training/Safety
precaution 40%
Equipment movement due to vibration or jet blast. 1 4 4 Technical dept. Mit igation Tr aining/Control 80 %
Aircraft log books storage 2 4 8 Technical dept. Mitigation Training/Control 100 %
Safety clothing 2 4 8 Technical dept. M itigation T raining/Control 80 %
Flight crew precautions (departure check list) 1 4 4 Operation dept. Mitigation Training/Control 90 %
Unavailability of spare parts 3 4 12 Operat ion dept. Mitigation Budget/Control 30 %
Aircraft 'area clean up after maintenance 3 3 9 Operation dept. Mitigat ion Training/ Control 80 %
Push back aircraft by unauthorized person 2 4 8 Operation dept. Mitigation Training/ Control 80 %
Incorrect cargo loading 1 4 4 Operat ion dept. Mitigation Training/Control 80 %
incorrect fuel gauge reading 4 4 16 Operation dept. M itigation Budget/Control 30 %
accessible perimeter fence 2 4 8 Operation dept. Mitigation Budget/Control 100%
not updated MEL 4 4 16 Operat ion dept. Mitigation Quality Control 70 %
a/c certification standard - updates 4 3 12 Operation dept. Mitigation Qua lity Control 60 %
not updated serialized installed spare parts 4 4 16 Operation dept. Mitigation Quality Control 60%
Strategic risk Loss customer sat isfaction 2 4 8 Management Avoidance Review business plan 60%
Financia l risk
Technical support due payment 4 4 16 Ma nagement Mitigation Budget /Control 30 %
Delay in receiving flight revenue from customer 3 4 12 Fianancial dept. Mitigation Control 50 %
Technology risk
Communications breakdowns 2 3 6 Technical dept. Mitigation Material supply/Control 60%
IT failure- data loss 2 4 8 T echnical dept. Mitigation Training/Control 60 %
Health & safety risk Laser aimed at aircraft cockpits During landing 2 4 8 Operation dept. Mit igation Culture change 0%
*L = Likelihood degree, I = Impact degree, and R = Risk degree = L × I
... Pravzaprav je sistem managementa varnosti skrben pregled tega, kaj bi lahko povzročilo škodo na delovnem mestu. To je zato, da pretehtamo, ali smo sprejeli dovolj previdnostnih ukrepov ali bi morali narediti več, da preprečimo škodo (Elkhweldi, & Elmabrouk, 2015). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Znanstvena monografija Management - izbrana poglavja je usmerjena v določene vsebine ravnateljevanja na različnih področjih, ki skozi znanstvene raziskave in njihovo povezanost z aplikativnostjo, usmerjajo na trende razvoja. Glede na kompleksnost oz. razvejanost managementa na praktično vse sfere našega življenja, je nemogoče v eni znanstveni monografiji zajeti dosledno vse. Zato smo se odločili, da izberemo takšna poglavja, ki vendarle zajamejo zadostno multi disciplinarnost in tako raziskovalcem in preučevalcem managementa omogočijo videti procese in smeri poti v bližnji prihodnosti razvoja.
... Forasmuch as, in airline business mainly highlighted on safety risk rather than the risk that effect to organization. There are myriad studies on risk in airline business, such as Li et al. (2020) revealed the technologies correlate with airline flight operations; Elkhweldi and Elmabrouk (2015) examined risk management process on airlines operation (Qiu et al., 2020) specifically during aircraft flight operations, and human performance on ground operations; Bourgeois-Bougrine (2020) investigated fatigue risk management systems toward airline's crew members; Dudek et al. (2020) represented the process of risk management in aviation precisely the identification of hazard and risk assessment in air traffic management. As it can be seen that the majority of risk study in airlines mainly focusing on safety, flight operation, and hazard identification. ...
Article
Full-text available
The pandemic of COVID-19 has extreme impact than the intense competitors in airlines industry that never turn up in history. It derailed all airlines’ operations, company’s structure, strategy, and its markets which is highly impact to Thailand’s tourism industry. The purpose of this study is to assess the managerial practices of low-cost carriers (LCCs) to enhance the organization’s performance during COVID-19. The managerial practices concern with strategic human resources management, organizational culture, high competence personnel, and risk management affect to organizational structure. The quantitative was administered to four anonymous low-cost airlines operating in Thailand. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 150 person of each airline, hence there were 600 samples in total. The descriptive statistic and path analysis were applied. The results found that LCCs stressed greatly on the high competence personnel, followed by organizational culture, risk management, and strategic human resource management affecting organizational structure that led to efficiency and competitiveness of organization. To investigate the effect of management issues of strategic human resources management (SHRM), organizational culture (OC), high competence personnel (HQP), and risk management (RM) on low-cost carriers (LCC) in Thailand toward organizational structure (OS) which result to the competitiveness of high-performance organization (CHPO). The quantitative approach was employed by using structural equation modelling for path analysis. The data was collected by using questionnaires. There were 600 samplings from four anonymous low-cost airlines. The results found that LCCs stressed greatly on the high competence personnel, followed by organizational culture, risk management, and strategic human resource management affecting organizational structure that led to competitiveness of organization. The authors would recommend LCCs to refocus its practices to strategic human resource management during the crisis. Since, the human resource management is dealing with organization changes through the leadership and organizational culture. Finally, researchers have developed the model creating organizational structure.
... Most common risk matrices use a traffic light system to colour risks from low or acceptable (green), over moderate or tolerable (amber), to high or intolerable risks (red) [66]. Some researchers have added yellow as another colour to their risk matrix, representing low risks in risk assessments that have large values for likelihood and impact, and typically these are non-linear scales [67,68]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Risk assessment methods are widely used in aviation, but have not been demonstrated for visual inspection of aircraft engine components. The complexity in this field arises from the variety of defect types and the different manifestation thereof with each level of disassembly. A new risk framework was designed to include contextual factors. Those factors were identified using Bowtie analysis to be criticality, severity, and detectability. This framework yields a risk metric that describes the extent to which a defect might stay undetected during the inspection task, and result in adverse safety outcomes. A simplification of the framework provides a method for go/no-go decision-making. The results of the study reveal that the defect detectability is highly dependent on specific views of the blade, and the risk can be quantified. Defects that involve material separation or removal such as scratches, tip rub, nicks, tears, cracks, and breaking, are best shown in airfoil views. Defects that involve material deformation and change of shape, such as tip curl, dents on the leading edges, bents, and battered blades, have lower risk if edge views can be provided. This research proposes that many risk assessments may be reduced to three factors: consequence, likelihood, and a cofactor. The latter represents the industrial context, and can comprise multiple sub-factors that are application-specific. A method has been devised, including appropriate scales, for the inclusion of these into the risk assessment.
Article
Objectives: All organizations seek to minimize the risks that their operations pose to public safety. This task is especially significant if they deal with complex or hazardous technologies. Five decades of research in quantitative risk analysis have generated a set of risk management frameworks and practices that extend across a range of such domains. Here, we investigate the risk culture in three commercial enterprises that require exceedingly high standards of execution: radiation oncology, aviation, and nuclear power. Methods: One of the characteristics of high reliability organizations is their willingness to learn from other such organizations. We investigate the extent to which this is true by compiling a database of the major publications on risk within each of the three fields. We conduct a bibliographic coupling analysis on the combined database to identify connections among publications. This analysis reveals the strength of engagement across disciplinary boundaries and the extent of cross-adoption of best practices. Results: Our results show that radiation oncology is more insulated than the other two fields in its adoption and propagation of state-of-the-art risk management tools and frameworks that have transformed aviation and nuclear power into high reliability enterprises with actuarially low risk. Conclusions: Aviation and nuclear power have established risk cultures that cross-pollinate. In both nature and extent, we found a distinct difference in radiation oncology's engagement with the risk community, and it lags behind the other two fields in implementing best practices that might mitigate or eliminate risks to patient safety.
Article
Since publication of the first edition, huge developments have taken place in sensory biology research and new insights have been provided in particular by molecular biology. These show the similarities in the molecular architecture and in the physiology of sensory cells across species and across sensory modality and often indicate a common ancestry dating back over half a billion years. Biology of Sensory Systems has thus been completely revised and takes a molecular, evolutionary and comparative approach, providing an overview of sensory systems in vertebrates, invertebrates and prokaryotes, with a strong focus on human senses. Written by a renowned author with extensive teaching experience, the book covers, in six parts, the general features of sensory systems, the mechanosenses, the chemosenses, the senses which detect electromagnetic radiation, other sensory systems including pain, thermosensitivity and some of the minority senses and, finally, provides an outline and discussion of philosophical implications. New in this edition: • Greater emphasis on molecular biology and intracellular mechanisms • New chapter on genomics and sensory systems • Sections on TRP channels, synaptic transmission, evolution of nervous systems, arachnid mechanosensitive sensilla and photoreceptors, electroreception in the Monotremata, language and the FOXP2 gene, mirror neurons and the molecular biology of pain • Updated passages on human olfaction and gustation. Over four hundred illustrations, boxes containing supplementary material and self-assessment questions and a full bibliography at the end of each part make Biology of Sensory Systems essential reading for undergraduate students of biology, zoology, animal physiology, neuroscience, anatomy and physiological psychology. The book is also suitable for postgraduate students in more specialised courses such as vision sciences, optometry, neurophysiology, neuropathology, developmental biology. Praise from the reviews of the first edition: "An excellent advanced undergraduate/postgraduate textbook." ASLIB BOOK GUIDE "The emphasis on comparative biology and evolution is one of the distinguishing features of this self-contained book. .... this is an informative and thought-provoking text" TIMES HIGHER EDUCATIONAL SUPPLEMENT.
Project Risk management
  • Muhammad Aleem Habib
Muhammad Aleem Habib, Project Risk management JUNE 25th, 2013. Information derived from pmbok and Rita Mulcahy presented at http://www.slideshare.net/aleemhabib7/project-risk-managementpmbok-5
Risk-management-made-easy, bookboon.com
  • Andy Osborne
Andy Osborne, Risk-management-made-easy, bookboon.com, 2012.