Article

Global Prosperity and Sustainable Development Goals

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Abstract

Negotiations around Sustainable Development Goals and the post-2015 development agenda should go beyond just re-writing goals and targets that adhere to ‘sustaining’ the same old economic and social models. Instead, societies and governments should take this as an opportunity to advance more radical conceptual and practical approaches that challenge this reductive understanding of ‘sustainability’. The paper argues that we should turn our attention to prosperity rather than to development per se, recognising the critical role political and social innovation should have in unleashing individuals' potential to flourishing in a context of finite resources. The interwoven, interdependent and ever-evolving nature of socio-ecological systems, together with the uncertainties and ‘unknowns’ that characterise contemporary reality, questions the relevance of one-size-fits-all goals. There is no single route to prosperity; diversity of objectives is essential and fundamental. Learning from initiatives in the Global South, such as the case of agroecology, might pave the way towards this paradigm shift. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... The goals for SD are multi-faceted and spread across many spheres of human life (Cobbinah et al., 2015;Moore, 2015), including within developing countries (see Karuppiah et al., 2021). The ultimate purpose of SD is to improve humanity's socio-economic well-being by creating a conducive environment for citizens to develop their full potential and, thus, live productive lives (Moore, 2015). ...
... The goals for SD are multi-faceted and spread across many spheres of human life (Cobbinah et al., 2015;Moore, 2015), including within developing countries (see Karuppiah et al., 2021). The ultimate purpose of SD is to improve humanity's socio-economic well-being by creating a conducive environment for citizens to develop their full potential and, thus, live productive lives (Moore, 2015). It encompasses an integrated and somewhat intertwined development goal such as protecting the natural environment, promoting education, production, consumption and the well-being of citizens (Addison et al., 2015;Coscieme et al., 2021). ...
... In the main, providing medical drones that are environmentally friendly, may not only improve on the host country and the world's environmental SDGs, but may also improve the socio-economic conditions of the employees and beneficiaries (Moore, 2015); which also contributes to the long-term corporate sustainability of the implementing firm (Artiach et al., 2010;Chang et al., 2017). ...
Article
Artificial Intelligence (AI) has attracted extant literature devoted to different subjects, including healthcare. AI studies within healthcare, however, have focused extensively on medical diagnosis, operations, and prescription, to the neglect of supply chain management (SCM). To bridge this research gap, we draw on corporate social responsibility (CSR) as a theoretical lens to explore how an AI-enhanced medical drone application in Ghana’s healthcare supply chain (HSC) improves the HSC system and contributes to sustainable development. The data for this study is collated through documentary and an in-depth semi-structured interviews from the world's largest medical drone programme in Ghana. Findings indicate that an AI-enhanced medical drone application in HSC contributes significantly to the host country's HSC and sustainable development goals (SDGs) with particular emphasis on climate (SDGs 3, 8 & 13). The SDGs are achieved through the reduction of carbon emission with carbon and noise-free drones in the delivery of emergency medical products to healthcare centres. Furthermore, by adopting the use of medical drones in the HSC system, society’s socio-economic situations are improved through the reduction of mortality rates and may lead to the provision of better social and economic lives for the citizenry. Moreover, the medical drones contribute to the long-term corporate sustainability of the implementing firm.
... Recently Moore (2015) argued for the application of the knowledge gained through the study of indigenous farmers (historically) in the form of the adoption of Agro-ecology, in order to solve issues surrounding sustainability in present and future contexts. Moore suggests that looking at strategies adopted to improve fertility, soil structure and filtration, amongst other factors, could assist researchers in the necessary shift in our approach to sustainability. ...
... Moore suggests that looking at strategies adopted to improve fertility, soil structure and filtration, amongst other factors, could assist researchers in the necessary shift in our approach to sustainability. The goal here is to change the understanding and definition of sustainable agriculture in order to recognise the importance of local knowledge and people prosperity, rather than imposed values (Moore 2015). ...
... Presently we exist in an increasingly challenging, demanding climate. Globally, farmers are facing issues with climate change, reduced availability to natural resources and increased demand for produce due to ever increasing populations (Moore 2015). The historic land management practices implemented in order to overcome challenges like shifting ...
Thesis
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Despite the expansive size of the Bokoni complex, our knowledge with regards to many aspects of its occupancy is limited. Due to the agriculturally centered nature of the Bokoni, it is important to understand this facet of Bokoni life from as many perspectives as possible. This project aims to take us one step closer to achieving a deeper understanding of the agricultural practices of the Bokoni people. Through my fieldwork and the processing of collected data on land management practices of this society have been explored. Additionally Khutwaneng and the Bokoni complex in general, provide an interesting case study in the role of resilience in agricultural communities. Their agricultural success is inseparably linked to the adaptive strategies employed throughout their occupancy. This allowed for the consideration of the recursive relationship between resilience and sustainability, furthering our understanding of the Bokoni complex.
... One major framework for change currently in play at the global level is the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs) which typify the present global moment in which many national governments and multilateral institutions are notionally committed to affording a state of prosperity to all humans, many non-human animals and, increasingly, to nature itself. While the SDGs constitute an unprecedented triumph in the alignment of shared trajectories, they are underpinned by neoliberal capitalist ideas of development and progress which privilege a certain world view that can be identifiable as Western, Eurocentric or ofthe-Global-North, and is cemented in economic and institutional structures, as well as through technology, scientific knowledge and cultural influence (Gabor, 2021;Gibson-Graham, 2008;Moore, 2015;Santos, 2014b). Such a singular vision for global prosperity, like many such frameworks before, threatens to nucleate and nurture systemic frailties whilst struggling to conceive solutions which do not reproduce the same problems (Gunderson et al., 2018); solutions which this dominance obscures through its foreclosure of subaltern futures and other context-specific prosperities which might otherwise be allowed to flourish (A. ...
... Such a singular vision for global prosperity, like many such frameworks before, threatens to nucleate and nurture systemic frailties whilst struggling to conceive solutions which do not reproduce the same problems (Gunderson et al., 2018); solutions which this dominance obscures through its foreclosure of subaltern futures and other context-specific prosperities which might otherwise be allowed to flourish (A. Escobar, 2017aEscobar, , 2017bMoore, 2015;Moore & Mintchev, 2021;Scoones & Stirling, 2020). These frailties are already visible in the uneven distribution of the ingredients of prosperity (Atkinson, 2015;Stiglitz, 2013) and the effect of its primary tool -consumption fuelled economic growth -on the biosphere (Hickel, 2019a;Hickel & Kallis, 2020;Jackson, 2017;Klein, 2015). ...
... today's Global North). This, in turn, underpins the homogenising-civilising approach of progress and development espoused by the UN SDGs (Moore, 2015) and so-called Wall Street Consensus (Gabor, 2021). ...
Article
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Change is persistent, and provisioning for prosperity in this complex dynamic world is not a simple task. Sustaining the conditions which enable certain prosperities can come at the expense of others whilst undermining the biophysical foundations required for all. In this paper I explore the tension between this need for sustainment and the inevitability of change by examining several conceptualisations and formalised frameworks for change which range from the holistic to the mechanistic. I find that both prosperity and resilience in human systems are contingent on the skilful nurturing of the novelty emergent from the great diversity of knowledges at our collective disposal. With this assertion in hand, I attempt to design and assemble a meta-framework for change that can describe our dynamic world and gesture it towards a future of equitably co-existing prosperities through a craft of emergence. Following this and a hypothetical example of the meta-framework in action, I conclude that it can indeed be a useful tool provided it can bare the weight of further scrutiny and integration with other approaches.
... Qualitative work in east London attributes public services, community support, housing, social inclusion as well as secure, regular and good work to supporting a secure livelihood (Moore & Woodcraft, 2019). Income is not enough for people to live a good life (Moore, 2015;Jackson, 2017;Stiglitz et al., 2010). Nor is there a straightforward relationship between having a job and prosperity, as illustrated by the data on in-work poverty and precarious work (Wallace-Stephens, 2019). ...
... This piece is driven from citizen-led understanding of what it means to live a good life(Mintchev et al., 2019;Moore, 2015;Moore & Woodcraft, 2019). Research with citizens in east London defined prosperity, 'as the pursuit of a good lifea secure livelihood, good quality work, functioning public services, choice, opportunity, political freedoms,[and] intergenerational justice,' at once diverse, multidimensional and multi-scalar (23: 294). ...
Article
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The Covid-19 crisis has further exacerbated the insecurity of livelihoods in the UK. This commentary reflects on what resources the UK has to fulfil the calls to ‘build back better,’ to transform the economy to prioritise health and wellbeing over economic growth. We provide critical commentary on the current industrial strategy while recognising that industrial strategy can be a tool to unite public, private and third sectors in the shared goal for prosperous communities around the UK. Driven from the perspective of citizen’s understanding of prosperity and what it means to live a good life, we argue for a new local industrial strategy that places secure livelihoods at its centre. This means enhancing the capacities and capabilities of people and places to face 21st century global challenges locally.
... The vision is seen to materialize through self-actualized individuals, positive relationships, prospering enterprises (Laszlo et al., 2014), and a thriving Earth (Ehrenfeld and Hoffman, 2013). Scholars maintain advancing sustainability-as-flourishing requires profound socioeconomic change in society in general (Ehrenfeld and Hoffman, 2013;Moore, 2015), and in business in particular (Laszlo et al., 2012;Schaefer et al., 2015). But how might such profound change come about? ...
... Innovativeness seems to be essential for entrepreneurs who aim to develop novel business models and products to address social and environmental challenges (Schaltegger and Wagner, 2011;Hall et al., 2012). As another benefit, metacognition facilitates human and planetary flourishing, as it supports a transformation of our unsustainable social institutions, including modern culture (Fromm, 1976;Rimanoczy, 2013), by enabling individuals to break their unsustainable, limiting habitual patterns in thinking and behaving (Senge and Krahnke, 2013;Moore, 2015). ...
... Qualitative work in east London attributes public services, community support, housing, social inclusion as well as secure, regular and good work to supporting a secure livelihood (Moore & Woodcraft, 2019). Income is not enough for people to live a good life (Moore, 2015;Jackson, 2017;Stiglitz et al., 2010). Nor is there a straightforward relationship between having a job and prosperity, as illustrated by the data on in-work poverty and precarious work (Wallace-Stephens, 2019). ...
... This piece is driven from citizen-led understanding of what it means to live a good life(Mintchev et al., 2019;Moore, 2015;Moore & Woodcraft, 2019). Research with citizens in east London defined prosperity, 'as the pursuit of a good lifea secure livelihood, good quality work, functioning public services, choice, opportunity, political freedoms,[and] intergenerational justice,' at once diverse, multidimensional and multi-scalar (23: 294). ...
Article
Full-text available
The Covid-19 crisis has further exacerbated the insecurity of livelihoods in the UK. This commentary reflects on what resources the UK has to fulfil the calls to ‘build back better,’ to transform the economy to prioritise health and wellbeing over economic growth. We provide critical commentary on the current industrial strategy while recognising that industrial strategy can be a tool to unite public, private and third sectors in the shared goal for prosperous communities around the UK. Driven from the perspective of citizen’s understanding of prosperity and what it means to live a good life, we argue for a new local industrial strategy that places secure livelihoods at its centre. This means enhancing the capacities and capabilities of people and places to face 21st century global challenges locally.
... It is widely recognised that the pursuit of constantly augmented growth is not sustainable in the context of limited planetary resources, nor does it provide us with appropriate pathways for addressing today's pressing challenges of inequality, environmental degradation, and climate change among others (e.g. Cassiers, 2015, Dalziel et al, 2018Hickel, 2020a;Jackson 2017, Maxton and Randers, 2016, Moore, 2015. Yet, even in this time of crisis such realisations have had very little impact on policy formulation and how we might address the prosperity deficit of individuals and communities within regions and nations (Moore, 2015;Moore and Woodcraft, 2019), with conventional policy frameworks continuing to rely on national and regional aggregates and statistics with very little relevance to the quality of people's lives. ...
... Cassiers, 2015, Dalziel et al, 2018Hickel, 2020a;Jackson 2017, Maxton and Randers, 2016, Moore, 2015. Yet, even in this time of crisis such realisations have had very little impact on policy formulation and how we might address the prosperity deficit of individuals and communities within regions and nations (Moore, 2015;Moore and Woodcraft, 2019), with conventional policy frameworks continuing to rely on national and regional aggregates and statistics with very little relevance to the quality of people's lives. What is needed is a redefinition of prosperity that is less concerned with aggregate economic wealth and growth, and more attentive to the things that people care about and needsecure and good quality livelihoods, good public services, a clean and healthy environment, planetary and ecosystem health, a political system that allows everyone to be heard, and the ability to have rich social and cultural lives. ...
Article
This working paper is about why we need new theories both about what prosperity means and entails in the 21st century. To redefine prosperity is to challenge both the structural features of our economies and the value premises on which they are built. We are concerned here with how a redesigned prosperity opens the door not just to innovative ideas, but to new practices, allowing us to address inequalities in novel ways. Searching for the means and mechanisms through which these new frameworks and activities may be operationalised quickly reveals that we need fresh approaches to how systems change and knowledge is shared. We begin then with three points of reference: the value of the economic in our lives, the purpose of sharing knowledge, and the means of operationalising change.
... Implicit in this agenda is the purpose of establishing a new paradigm shift for people and the planet to come together and face the future [2]. Consequently, 17 SDGs were established (see [3], [4]). They potentially aim to offer a new way to advance development policy and practice, with an emphasis on a broad range of global goals and targets for the world by 2030 [5]. ...
... Scheyvens et al. [5] argue that from a development perspective, human well-being is of central importance and there is a need to integrate it with the business growth and economic development goals of the private sector, in order to avoid the emergence of tensions or confrontations. Consequently, to be in line with the Sustainable Development Agenda, companies should go beyond just re-writing goals and targets that adhere to "sustaining" the same old economic and social models [3]. ...
Article
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The research into corporate volunteering (CV) has been prolific, although few studies have focused their approach on senior and retired workers under the framework of the corporate social responsibility (CSR). The social participation of retirees in CV activities contributes to the businesses’ socially responsible performance and can be intimately connected with the global commitment pursued by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by the year 2030. This article aims to explore the key issues that might have influence the effective implementation of CV programs to integrate retired and pre-retired workers, promoting a participatory and healthy aging. Based on the interface of internal and external corporate social responsibility, we discuss how CV can achieve social legitimacy, influencing the health and well-being of workers beyond the employment relationship. The main contribution of this article to the state of art is to extend the literature on CSR and CV by elaborating a theoretical model that integrates both perspectives with the focus on the SDGs. The results suggest that SDGs represent an opportunity and a frame of reference for CSR strategies. Companies engaged in senior CV activities could enhance their corporate and social images within the strategic action of social responsibility, indisputably improving people’s health and well-being.
... Oneofthemosturgentcontemporarydebatesconcernstheachievementofthesustainabledevelopment goals (Moore, 2015), covering economic growth, environmental protection and social progress. However,thesocialdimensionisoftenoverlookedinfavourofthemoreurgenteconomicdimensions orthemorevisibleenvironmentaldimension.Understandingthesocialdimensionisvitaltoachieving true sustainable development given an increasing sense of crisis in many areas of contemporary socialdevelopmentatthemomentwhereafterdecadesofprogress,therearestartingtobegrowing intractableproblemsaroundurbansustainability,climatechange,foodsecurity,energysecurityand poverty/inequality (Cunha&Benneworth,2013).Thesocialdimensionofsustainabilityconcerns protectingsociety'svulnerablegroups,respectingsocialdiversityandensuringsocialcapitalformation (Cunha&Benneworth,2013;Rinkinen,Oikarinen&Melkas,2016).Deliveringsustainability'ssocial dimensiondemandsextensiveinnovationtoreshapesocietyinwaysthatdelivertheseprotections andpotentials (Schmidpeter,2013).Sociallyinnovativepracticesofferaresponsetotheunfulfilled needsofcommunitiestoimprovesocialrelationsandfostersocio-politicalemancipation (Mehmood, 2016).Thispaperthereforeconsidersthisprocessofsocialinnovationasadriverofsustainable development, here defined as innovation primarily driven by the intent of benefiting the society (Bhattacharya,2013). ...
... Although technological innovations were important for economic growth historically, social innovationisincreasinglyrecognizedasthedriveroffuturechangetowardssustainability (Moore, 2015)explicitlytargetingsociallyexcludedgroups(Millardetal.,2016.Socialinnovationinvolves creatingnewsocialnetworksandcapacitiesthatevolveintonewsocialstructuresandsystemsthat thereforechangeexistingsocialparadigms (Mieg&Töpfer,2013;Garud&Karnoe,2013;Cajaiba-Santana,2014). ...
Chapter
There is an increasing recognition that dealing with sustainable development need to address the social structures that encourage unsustainable economic and environmental practices. Universities represent important sources of knowledge for addressing sustainable development, but there has been relatively limited consideration of their contributions to these social elements. Drawing on recent interest in social innovation as to conceptualise social change and community development, this paper aims to understand universities' involvement in the process of social innovation, for the particular case of a Brazilian higher education institution. By exploring how universities can contribute to the different stages of the social innovation process, it highlights the capacities that universities have to address the social sustainable development challenge. The paper identifies five characteristics of universities contributions to social innovation and sets out an agenda for future research necessary to understand universities' wider contributions to sustainable development.
... Economic wealth has dominated definitions of prosperity (Moore, 2015;Stiglitz, Sen, & Fitoussi, 2010). Throughout the 20th century, countries and cities have measured their prosperity by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and rising household income. ...
Article
In this paper, we argue that prosperity is understood and experienced in different ways by different age groups. Young people are typically less involved in research about their prosperity than adults. Their views and experiences are therefore less likely to be considered in policy decisions than adults’. However, young people – and particularly adolescents between 14-24 years old – are significantly affected by societal transformation, and are capable of reflecting on and responding to that transformation. We outline a study conducted with young people in Hackney who are mostly in mid-adolescence (between 14-17 years old). Hackney is a borough in east London which has undergone significant social and economic transformation. We draw out the main factors which young people said influenced their ability to live a good life in Hackney and discuss their views of the London Prosperity Index. We argue that there are structural differences and value differences which affect how young people understand prosperity, and which impact their capacity to lead a good life in places which are changing significantly. We conclude by establishing the need for a Youth Prosperity Index, to complement the Prosperity Index and related indexes, which focus on adults’ experiences and values. The research which informed this paper was funded by a UCL Beacon Bursary.
... The social dimension of sustainable development is expressed in the social acceptance of the outcomes of social and economic policy. The large number of definitions of sustainable development and its various dimensions points to the importance of social issues that must remain the focal point of sustainable development [50,[60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67]. ...
Article
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Measuring and monitoring the implementation of the concept of sustainable development is an important aspect of the assessment of the functioning of EU countries. One of the pivots of sustainable development is social order, although the literature analysis indicated that multidimensional empirical research in this area is scarce. The main goal of this article was to present the diversity of indicators characterizing social development in EU Member States in the context of progress made by each of them in implementing the concept of sustainable development between 2014 and 2018. The purpose of this article was also to compare Poland with the other EU countries in the years 2014 and 2018. The research procedure consisted of two stages. The first stage was to analyse and assess the regional differentiation of the values of variables explaining social development in the EU in the context of implementing the concept of sustainable development. The second stage envisaged a multidimensional assessment of the diversity of the thematic areas identified in the first stage, as well as a characterization of social development in the EU in the context of implementing the concept of sustainable development. Based on the obtained results, a conclusion could be drawn that many countries are witnessing positive trends which bring them closer to the successful implementation of the sustainable development paradigm—one of the principal priorities of the Europe 2020 strategy, a long-term socio-economic program of the EU. The multidimensional analysis also showed that the level of social development in the context of sustainable development differs across the EU. Particularly notable differences among EU countries could be observed for the variables denoting labour market and health, with demography being the least diversified of all areas. In Poland, the indicators regarding poverty and social exclusion improved significantly as a result of the implementation of numerous social programs. In addition to that, a positive change in education indicators was also reported in Poland. This favourable trend indicates that some of the goals set out in the Europe 2020 strategy have already been met by Poland while others are becoming increasingly attainable.
... From a practical point of view, it seems reasonable to define one or several of the most important criteria, bottlenecks of the method in relation to its planned use, and then to make a preliminary selection of methods from their point of view, e.g., by determining the minimum acceptable score. After such a pre-selection, the subsequent overall assessment by the whiteness method avoids the risk of choosing a "trap method", and takes into account the various features of the method: quality of results, practical aspects, environmental performance, and thus is closest to the idea of sustainable development [27,28]. ...
Article
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An original strategy to evaluate analytical procedures is proposed and applied to verify if the flow-based methods, generally favorable in terms of green chemistry, are competitive when their evaluation also relies on other criteria. To this end, eight methods for the determination of zinc in waters, including four flow-based ones, were compared and the Red–Green–Blue (RGB) model was exploited. This model takes into account several features related to the general quality of an analytical method, namely, its analytical efficiency, compliance with the green analytical chemistry, as well as practical and economic usefulness. Amongst the investigated methods, the best was the flow-based spectrofluorimetric one, and a negative example was that one involving a flow module, ICP ionization and MS detection, which was very good in analytical terms, but worse in relation to other aspects, which significantly limits its overall potential. Good assessments were also noted for non-flow electrochemical methods, which attract attention with a high degree of balance of features and, therefore, high versatility. The original attempt to confront several worldwide accepted analytical strategies, although to some extent subjective and with limitations, provides interesting information and indications, establishing a novel direction towards the development and evaluation of analytical methods.
... Today, these answers do not seem to convince policymakers and scholars, and, therefore, similar justifiable doubts are raised (see, for example, the discussion on the so-called sustainable development goals; Moore, 2015). According to Stiglitz (1989), if the problem were mainly the lack of natural capital, the return on capital would be much higher in the least developed countries, and the propensity of capitalists to profit would cause capital to flow from the most developed to the least developed economies. ...
Article
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A repositioning of the theoretical instruments of development and growth in the context of economics and political economy that we have at our disposal to date seems necessary, especially after the structural transformation caused by the COVID-19 socio-economic and pandemic crisis. Specifically, the overcoming of the COVID-19 era of crisis seems to depend on how we will manage to re-perceive the theory of economic development and apply its proposals in new economic policies, in global terms. In this context, this article examines whether the conceptual and “therapeutic” foundations of development economics have today the necessary potential to cope with structural changes caused by the ongoing global socio-economic crisis. We assess the current debate in the literature of “economic development versus economic growth” and conclude that a new, comprehensive and evolutionary, orientation to understanding economic development seems necessary to respond to new global challenges for the post-COVID-19 era. We propose a multidisciplinary and evolutionary conceptual direction that suggests the multi-angle understanding of diverse historical configurations. We argue that all socio-economic mutations accelerated by the current pandemic crisis have systemic and evolutionary content and effects and cannot be reliably perceived as mere coincidences of “quantities” and growth “performances.” In this way, we can only disagree with any static and linear approach to the current crisis that directly or indirectly leads to reproducing the rigid enclosure of the analysis in partial specializations of economics. On the contrary, we counter-propose a theoretical response of evolutionary type to assess the contemporary theory of economic development and the political economy in the post-COVID-19 era as an interdisciplinary crossroads for all socio-economic sciences.
... Creative policies to address pandemics need to be based on local people coming together with the right resources, knowledge and power to develop solutions for the places they live in. Such policies also need to be based not on current models of economic success, but on citizen-led understandings of what it means to live a good life (Moore, 2015;Moore & Woodcraft, 2019). Although, community-led support initiatives sprang up in the UK during the crisis, as they did in countries across the world, there was little attempt in the global North to turn to communities for solutions and to make those the basis of local responses to the crisis. ...
Article
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The rapid policy response to quash the spread of the Covid-19 virus has been social distancing and lockdown. But these immediate policy goals cannot be maintained in the long-term management of the virus and for economic and societal wellbeing. Social distancing and lockdown policy have already proved to have disastrous impacts not only on the economy, but on inequality, poverty, housing, access to care and food and education – exposing how precarious people’s livelihoods are. This paper aims to start a critical discussion on how to develop innovative social mechanisms for supressing the spread of Covid-19 and whether there might be alternative solutions to long-term social distancing. It has been to the detriment of the UK and the USA that they have not viewed the Covid-19 pandemic as a humanitarian crisis as countries in Africa have. We argue that any solution to manage the virus, society and the economy must be locally informed and led. This requires progressive localism and universal public service delivery, enhancing the capacities and capabilities of local communities who are already responding to the virus.
... According to Moore (2015), destination stakeholders will need to rethink how to move beyond the "business as usual" mentality by looking for innovative approaches to solving social and environmental challenges. Moore argues that sustainable development and the achievement of SDGs requires new concepts, values, and institutions. ...
Article
Previous research had already established that sustainable destination outcomes can be realized when stakeholders engage in tourism destination management, yet the state of the needed engagement is still seen as problematic. It is evident that some change is required to enable behavioral change that will awaken a progress. Thus, new knowledge is needed to help advance this important destination management field. The aim of this exploratory case study was to present a new perspective which is underpinned by theories in the leadership and leadership development fields. The case study findings show that tourism-based leadership programs have the capacity to foster development of collective leadership capacity, which is needed to build the effective stakeholder networks that drive change at workplace, tourism destination, and community levels. The study suggests that sustainable development goals and sustained competitive advantage are developed through the bundle of collective leadership capacity and stakeholder causal scope.
... It should also be borne in mind that the concept of Sustainable Development (SD) currently promoted worldwide is in fact multidimensional [13]; by definition, it reinforces the need to strive for a balance between the pursuit of prosperity, which goes hand in hand with the progress of civilization, and care for the natural environment. Anastas proposed recently an interesting approach to this problem by proposing "the periodic table of the elements of green and sustainable chemistry" [14]. ...
Article
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The concept of White Analytical Chemistry (WAC) is presented as an extension of Green Analytical Chemistry (GAC). We propose the 12 WAC principles as an alternative to the known 12 GAC principles. In addition to green aspects, WAC takes into account other key criteria affecting the quality of the method, analytical (red) and practical (blue). In reference to the RGB color model, according to which mixing of red, green and blue light beams gives the impression of whiteness, a white analytical method shows the coherence and synergy of the analytical, ecological and practical attributes. Whiteness can also be quantified, based on the assessment of individual principles, as a convenient parameter useful in comparisons and selecting optimal method. WAC is closer to the idea of sustainable development due to a more holistic view, as it strives for a compromise that avoids an unconditional increase in greenness at the expense of functionality.
... Lastly, education will help diminish air pollution since an educated individual is more aware of air pollution, and qualified workforce can contribute to clean energy development, thus, γ 5 < 0. Each state has its own specific and constant parameters (γ i ) [35][36][37][38][39]. Three equations together represent a system of relations between economic variables, energy policies and the aim to reduce pollution in relation to sustainable development. ...
Article
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The article explores the impact of the quality and volume of energy consumption of the population on the human development index using a sample of a number of countries as an example. The hypothesis concerning the relationship between the amount of energy consumed, the human development index (HDI), and the environment (CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere) has been verified. The study results show that the size and rating of the HDI are influenced by such factors as urbanization growth, gross domestic product (GDP), gross national income (GNI) per capita, the share of "clean" energy consumption by the population and business in total energy consumption, the level of socioeconomic development, and R&D expenses. In the course of building the model, the recommendations by the United Nations (UN) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) were used. The results show that the volume of energy consumption not only affects the human development index in a particular country, but is also an important factor in determining the level of sustainable development. The results, obtained in the course of the study and described in the article, may be applicable in the practice of research related to the assessment of human development and sustainable development.
... Now, it is time to implement policies and regulations to ultimately achieve the SDGs (Paletta et al., 2019;Fleming et al., 2017). The ambitious 2030 agenda of SDGs is a plan of action with a special focus on the planet, people and prosperity (Schramade, 2017;Moore, 2015). The indicators, targets and goals need to be ingrained in the governing systems for the next 10 years. ...
Article
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Purpose: The importance and criticality of sustainable development goals is witnessed by 195 member countries. For its full-fledged adoption and implementation, it needs to be understood by masses and political leaders are critical agents those engage diverse communities through social media such as twitter. Therefore, in this study focuses on how political leaders can influence the sustainable development goals through Twitter. Design/methodology/approach: This study examines the social media conversations of political leaders on Twitter. Social media analytics methods such as sentiment mining, topic modelling and content analysis-based methods have been used. Findings: The findings indicate that most political leaders are primarily discussing the SDGs ‘partnership for goals’ and ‘peace, justice and strong institutions’. Many other goals such as ‘clean water and sanitation’, ‘life below water’, ‘zero hunger’, ‘no poverty’ and ‘educational quality’ are not being focused on. Research limitations/implications: This study offers implications in terms of collective decision making and the role of policy makers towards the goals of promoting SDGs. We highlight how political leaders need to involve key stakeholders in this journey.
... Pathways for democratic participation and citizen voice is fundamental to solving inequalities (Sen, 1999) and for prosperity (Moore, 2015;Moore & Woodcraft, 2019). The current form of devolution has not been met with an enhancement of citizen knowledge in how the economy functions, one reason why the local agenda to date has largely been unsuccessful in reducing inequalities within and between regions. ...
Article
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As we enter a new decade the future is increasingly uncertain. This paper focuses on interpreting existing research on localism and the foundational economy in light of recent discussions concerning Universal Basic Services (IGP, 2017; 2019a; Coote & Percy, 2020). We argue that localisation of basic services should form the basis of a new industrial strategy for the 2020’s. Investment in the infrastructure of care, health, education, transport and communication would increase people’s capacities, capabilities and opportunities for economic and social participation. These engines of investment improve people’s quality of life at the local level and regenerate local economies. By bringing localisation of basic services to the heart of a new industrial strategy control would return to places and people and help to secure livelihoods in the face of broad technological and societal change.
... In policy terms, prosperity is widely associated with economic growth and measured by rising GDP. New forms of citizen-led research challenge this narrow framing of prosperity as material wealth, offering diverse perspectives on what it means to live a prosperous life that encompass freedom, autonomy, security, social and economic inclusion, healthy environments, belonging and participation (Moore, 2015;Mintchev et al., 2019;Moore and Woodcraft, 2019). Recognising prosperity as diverse and contextspecific presents a challenge to conventional ways of understanding the economy and relationships between economic and social life. ...
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Citizen-led research in east London identifies livelihood security as a critical determinant of prosperity for local communities (Moore and Woodcraft, 2019; Woodcraft and Anderson, 2019). Livelihood security depends on more than income and work. Households draw on a range of assets including: secure income and good quality work; affordable, secure and good quality housing; access to key public services (healthcare, education, care, transport, digital communication); and inclusion in the social and economic life of the city. These assets display complex inter-dependencies, intersect with class, race, gender and other identities in multiple ways, and cut across sectors and policy domains that are commonly siloed in economic decision-making. In this paper, we conceptualise these assets as an ‘infrastructure’ for secure livelihoods to draw attention to their over-lapping nature and to demonstrate how knowledge based on lived experience generates fundamentally different ways of understanding the economy. We argue there is a democratic deficit in economic policy-making that must be addressed to better account for context-specific interactions between macro and micro-economic factors and generate more effective policy-making. Taking inclusive growth policies as a case in point, we explore how an expanded concept of ‘inclusion’ that incorporates participatory research, problem framing and policy development opens-up new spaces for action on place-based prosperity.
... Early studies have focused on measuring and ranking from the outside the implementation of MDGs and SDGs in countries and cities (Simon et al. 2015;Halisçelik and Soytas 2019;Arfvidsson, et al. 2017), or how tools such as the 100RC boosted resilience among cities and helped them to align with the SDGs (Croese, Green, and Morgan 2020). Other studies propose new approaches to global prosperity beyond the SDGs (Moore 2015) or underline the problems that may arise from using indicators (Klopp and Petretta 2017). There is a strand of the literature which focuses on how SDGs should incorporate specific goals, targets and monitoring mechanisms to do a better evaluation than the one done for the MDGs in the absence of adequate data systems (Lu et al. 2015;Sarvajayakesavalu 2015;Edouard and Bernstein 2016) and others that point to the need to use more informal ways to implement and monitor the SDGs at the local level (Arfvidsson et al. 2017;Weymouth and Hartz-Karp 2018). ...
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Given the increasing relevance of cities in the global agenda, we examine the voluntary local reports from six northern and southern cities around the world to understand their approach to the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development. We examine not only the framework but also the content of the reports to identify the differences in reporting on sustainable development goals (SDGs) and the factors that may explain why these cities have voluntarily submitted their reports. The research has revealed a wide diversity in the structure and content of the voluntary local reports, demonstrating that there was little to no institutional framework used to submit and compile the reports. Although the reports of northern cities tend to align with previous strategies for the SDGs, the implementation of the 2030 Agenda in southern cities has had a more significant impact on the adoption of monitoring and evaluation mechanisms at the local level. We have found that both international bodies and national policies have an influence on the development of sustainable practices at the local level. Our analysis also indicates that all cities have some sort of international exposure either through their participation in transnational municipal networks or through their collaboration with international organizations, especially in southern cities, which can explain why these cities (and not others) are more active in the adoption of SDGs at the local level and in the submission of voluntary reports.
... As a result, it might fail to recognise and grapple with the political forces which act on people's lives and shape their experience of and relationship with poverty, disaster or disease (e.g. Ferguson, 1994;Moore, 2015). Despite the establishment of sustained campaigns of international development pursued through the Bretton Woods institutions (e.g. the UN and the IMF) and the implementation of technical solutions, levels of poverty across the world did not decrease (Blackburn et al., 2000). ...
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The use of Participatory Epidemiology in veterinary research intends to include livestock keepers and other local stakeholders in research processes and the development of solutions to animal health problems, including potentially zoonotic diseases. It can also be an attempt to bring some of the methods and insights of social science into a discipline largely shaped by natural science methods and ways of seeing the world. The introduction of participatory methodologies to veterinary epidemiology and disease surveillance follows a wider movement in development thinking, questioning the top-down nature of much post-second world war development efforts directed from the Global North towards the Global South. In the best cases, participatory methods can help to empower the poor and marginalised to participate in and have some control over research and interventions which affect them. Compiled from experience in multi-disciplinary One Health projects, this paper briefly traces the rise of participatory epidemiology before examining some of the limitations observed in its implementation and steps that might be taken to alleviate the problems observed. The three areas in which the operationalisation of Participatory Epidemiology in veterinary and One Health research could be improved are identified as: broadening the focus of engagement with communities beyond quantitative data extraction; taking note of the wider power structures in which research takes place, and questioning who speaks for a community when participatory methods are used. In particular, the focus falls on how researchers from different disciplines, including veterinary medicine and the social sciences, can work together to ensure that participatory epidemiology is employed in such a way that it improves the quality of life of both people and animals around the world.
... It also involves major cultural changes, such as far less consumerism. Therefore, many researchers conclude we must try to shift societal paradigms, abandoning narrow and outmoded concepts and ideas, to allow a more fundamental rethinking of responses to environmental and social dilemmas [39,40]. ...
Preprint
This transdisciplinary review of research about international cooperation on social and environmental change builds the case for replacing Sustainable Development as the dominant framework for an era of increasing crises and disasters. The review is the output of an intentional exploration of recent studies in multiple subject areas, based on the authors’ decades of work in related fields since the Rio Earth Summit 30 years ago (rather than a keyword search of databases). It summarizes the research which documents failure to progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Consequently, the extensive scholarship critiquing the conceptual framework behind those ‘Global Goals’, and the economic ideology they arose from and support, is used to explain that failure. Although the pandemic set back the SDGs, it further revealed the inappropriate strategy behind those goals. This suggests the Global Goals constitute an ‘own-goal’ scored against people and nature. From this conclusion, alternative frameworks for organizing action on social and environmental issues become more important and are therefore briefly reviewed. It is argued that such a future framework must relate a new eco-social contract between citizen and state, and engage existing organizations and capabilities that are relevant to an increasingly disrupted world. Therefore, the case is made for considering an upgraded form of Disaster Risk Management (DRM) as an overarching framework. The proposed upgrades include detaching from economic ideologies, and recognizing that a wider metadisaster from climate chaos may reduce the future availability of external support. Therefore, self-reliant resilience and locally-led adaptation are identified as important to the future of DRM. Some options for professionals continuing to use the term sustainability, such as this journal, are discussed.
... Today, these answers do not seem to convince policymakers and scholars, and, therefore, similar justifiable doubts are raised (see, for example, the discussion on the socalled sustainable development goals; Moore, 2015). According to Stiglitz (1989), if the problem were mainly the lack of natural capital, the return on capital would be much higher in the least developed countries, and the propensity of capitalists to profit would cause capital to flow from the most developed to the least developed economies. ...
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A repositioning of the theoretical instruments of development and growth in the context of economics and political economy that we have at our disposal to date seems necessary, especially after the structural transformation caused by the COVID-19 socio-economic and pandemic crisis. Specifically, the overcoming of the COVID-19 era of crisis seems to depend on how we will manage to re-perceive the theory of economic development and apply its proposals in new economic policies, in global terms. In this context, this article examines whether the conceptual and “therapeutic” foundations of development economics have today the necessary potential to cope with structural changes caused by the ongoing global socio-economic crisis. We assess the current debate in the literature of “economic development versus economic growth” and conclude that a new, comprehensive and evolutionary, orientation to understanding economic development seems necessary to respond to new global challenges for the post-COVID-19 era. We propose a multidisciplinary and evolutionary conceptual direction that suggests the multi-angle understanding of diverse historical configurations. We argue that all socio-economic mutations accelerated by the current pandemic crisis have systemic and evolutionary content and effects and cannot be reliably perceived as mere coincidences of “quantities” and growth “performances.” In this way, we can only disagree with any static and linear approach to the current crisis that directly or indirectly leads to reproducing the rigid enclosure of the analysis in partial specializations of economics. On the contrary, we counter-propose a theoretical response of evolutionary type to assess the contemporary theory of economic development and the political economy in the post-COVID-19 era as an interdisciplinary crossroads for all socio-economic sciences. The Covid-19 pandemic raised a few issues concerning how market participants react to a global pandemic. The pandemic was a black swan event on some levels; there had been few pandemics that have had such a global impact: the Spanish Flu of the late 1910s and 1957 influenza. Moreover, global interconnection means that the Covid-19 pandemic was able to spread across the globe quickly, thus indicating that extreme measures were needed to bring it under control. The policies taken by governments around the world had a significant adverse impact on the economy. It is with these factors in mind that we research the psychology of the market participants during the pandemic. Conversely, we introduce a new model of behaviour during uncertainty, which explains how market participants react during crises such as the Covid-19 pandemic. The model analyses the psychological issues, both emotional and cognitive, influencing the pandemic. We found that like any other crises, market participant reacted to government actions and announcements and the impact on the economy. Therefore, leading to the old issue of miscommunication and insufficient actions. The New Zealand economy is in a parlous state and not simply because of the economic fall-out associated with the pandemic. For decades now, New Zealand has been falling further and further behind its OECD partners, with institutional inefficiencies, poor policy making and the almost willful refusal of successive governments to admit to (let alone confront) mounting economic problems, all combining to place us on the edge of a deep, and lasting, economic downturn. Across a broad plethora of areas and key economic indicators, New Zealand lags behind almost every other advanced country against which it has traditionally measured itself. These areas include the three pillars of social wellbeing (education, health, and social welfare), housing, tax, productivity and debt. In every case, we are either falling behind outcomes achieved in other countries (education, health, productivity), entrenching inequality through our failure to cater for the needs of our most vulnerable (housing, health, education, social welfare, tax), or failing to prepare adequately for looming economic and social costs – including those incurred by a rapidly aging population. If ignored, these problems will precipitate a crisis that may make the burden of recovering from Covid-19 pale by comparison (superannuation, health, debt). In its much anticipated post-Covid budget, the Labour Government needs to not only provide a clear blueprint for helping those who have been adversely affected by the pandemic and New Zealand’s subsequent lockdown, but also signal its intention to tackle the systemic weaknesses which have placed our economy at such risk, and which threaten to consign our future generations to unwelcome, and unnecessary, economic and social hardship. In economics, the problematics of development and underdevelopment is a field of conceptual controversies and constant “re-comprehension,” already since classical economists’ fundamental explorations. Nowadays, especially within the particularly pressing conditions caused by the global pandemic of COVID-19, it seems that this field of research and scientific knowledge must be profoundly re-fertilized in analytical and explanatory terms. The current crisis seems to function as a catalyst for various structural changes globally, leading to a necessary theoretical reorientation of the related thematics towards exploring the inner evolutionary “mechanisms” that will drive socio-economic development (and underdevelopment) in the future. This article aims to study the conceptual evolution of the notions of development and underdevelopment in the light of modern evolutionary economics, which we think could offer a foundational repositioning at the interpretative level in response to the new emerging conditions. More specifically, this article tries to respond to what development and underdevelopment mean over time, where analytical readjustments the evolutionary economics lead to nowadays, and whether it is possible to counter-propose a multilevel approach that enriches the theoretical background for an interdisciplinary and unifying understanding of the specific problematics at the dawn of the new global reality that appears in the post-COVID-19 era. At first, we look at essential development and underdevelopment concepts by critically exploring corresponding basic definitions throughout time. Next, we study the essential and associated elements of evolutionary economics, in the light of the problematics of development and underdevelopment of our days, intending to reach a synthesizing theoretical perspective. We counter-propose the “development web” approach and analysis as a useful repositioned perspective on addressing the developmental/underdevelopmental problem since the compartmentalization of social sciences between the “micro, meso and macro” approaches seems progressively inadequate and sterile. The COVID-19 pandemic gave minimal reaction time to governments around the world. While causing millions of deaths, it was also detrimental to the global economy. This paper is an attempt to understand what we can learn from our experience with the virus, with a focus on the United States. I discuss good and bad U.S. policies and the overall performance of institutions involved in pandemic response. The approach is economical because it connects what happened with some key economic principles. I talk about how markets helped us generate most of the knowledge we have on the virus, and I explain how existing regulations slowed down the production and distribution of essential items in the fight against Covid. Given the scarce nature of public attention, I also discuss the lack of consistent public messaging for the pandemic in the United States.
... This also highlights the importance of exploring the complexity in the ecological systems and how both social and ecological elements interact with each other. This information would greatly benefit in achieving global environmental sustainability (Moore 2015). ...
Article
Understanding the underlying complexity in human wellbeing formation is indispensable to maintain sustainable ecosystem services production and ensure greater human wellbeing. The interactions between wellbeing dimensions that creat the complexity are yet to be adequately understood. This study is designed to reveal the complex mechanisms shaping the wellbeing of the communities who are heavily reliant on ecosystem based livelihoods. In order to represent the robustness of wellbeing due to the economic dependency on the ecosystem services, we have taken into account six wellbeing dimensions- food sufficiency, livelihood security, physical health, stress level (mental), freedom of choice, and social cohesion. This study has identified the criteria of each dimension and provided empirical evidence on how the dimensions as well as their criteria influence each other. The wellbeing dimensions created a complex association that significantly shaped the wellbeing of the people. We found that food sufficiency was significantly influenced by not only its criteria but also the status of livelihood security, mental health, and freedom of choice which also had their own criteria sets. Similar relations were also observed in other dimensions. The findings would play a vital role in enhancing the resilience of coupled human-natural systems and thereby achieving greater sustainability.
... The fulfilment of the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations (UN) constitutes a commitment undertaken by all the countries of the world (Hák et al. 2016) which entails the achievement of a series of targets oriented towards sustainability and global prosperity (Moore 2015). Thus, in order to follow up on these Sustainable Development Goals, a framework of over two hundred and thirty indicators (United Nations 2020) has been agreed globally, which in accordance with Resolution 71/313 approved by the General Assembly in July 2017, should be broken down by income, sex, age or geographic location, among others. ...
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This study analyses empirically the effects of applying the OECD modified scale to the household income in order to measure the monetary poverty, which is a headline indicator in the framework of the UN sustainable development goal. We find that the reduction in the number of household consumption units derived from using the OECD modified scale, that is a standard in the EU, transforms the distribution of the disposable income to the right, raising the risk of poverty threshold per inhabitant, especially in households with fewer members. In contrast, the application of a per capita scale offers a higher degree of temporal link with the population rate in severe material deprivation, and it also prevents a disposable income transformation that introduces breaks on the left side of the distribution by type of household, showing a satisfactory soundness and reliability degree when estimating the proportion of people and households with a higher level of vulnerability.
... Two indicators to measure welfare are family income and expenditure indicators for food and non-food (Moore, 2015). If the income is above the average income, the family is said to be prosperous. ...
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Capital consists of human capital, social capital, natural capital, physical capital, and financial capital, but this study will only discuss human and social capital. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between human and social capital in achieving prosperity through the level of wages and income, especially for workers in the Small and Medium Enterprises sector in Palembang City. Respondents in this research were 400 workers in the Small and Medium Enterprises sector in Palembang, in the Sub-districts of Sukarami, Ilir Barat I, Kalidoni, Seberang Ulu I and Seberang Ulu II. The method used is descriptive qualitative in path analysis, with primary data in interview questionnaires. The results showed that workers’ drinking and maximum income ranged from Rp500,000 to Rp7,500,000, with an average of Rp1,903,041. The results of the path analysis found that human capital through wages affected the income of 76.4 percent, with a beta value of 0.137 indicating that if the length of schooling were increased by 10 percent, wages would increase by 1.4 times and income by 23.6 percent. In contrast, the relationship of social capital through wages to income is very small because other factors influence, such as the work environment, place of residence, and others.
... 2) We need to step outside the growth and development frameworks that have created systemic problems in the first place (Moore, 2015;Cassiers, 2015;Jackson, 2017;Hickel, 2020), with their particular commitment to unrevised notions of progress, efficiency and productivity 5 . ...
Article
The UK cost of living crisis has thrown the government’s Levelling Up agenda into sharper relief. With inflation at its highest rate in three decades – and with the effects of the pandemic still keenly felt in many communities – disparities are only set to widen over the coming months and years. This Working Paper draws on policy literature, historical research, and contemporary data to explore how persistent patterns of inequality have developed in the United Kingdom – and to demonstrate why holistic models of change are needed. Though policy makers rarely reach back into the past, preferring to look to a brighter, greener future, history helps us to consider how patterns of systemic injustice persist and shapeshift over time. Only by acknowledging historic trends and seeking radical alternatives to existing economic models can we attempt to design an inclusive vision of prosperity.
... They enable and unlock individual, economic, and societal transformations. The most significant shift and task for local governments will be to develop and service new areas while also building and integrating sustainable environmental, social, and economic conditions before 3 billion more people arrive in cities by 2050 (Moore 2015). As a result, if and when local governments have the knowledge, resources, and capacity to execute their responsibilities, the SDGs are more likely to be reached. ...
Chapter
Sustainable development is considered as one of the vital challenges of the twenty-first century for humanity in many third world countries. The COVID 19 pandemic has disrupted economic and social life, forcing governments and businesses to reconsider their priorities. In Africa, large share of its population is poor and lives in informal settlements that can be called slums. In addition to precarious and unhealthy living conditions, these slum dwellers lack formal land tenure rights and therefore are subject to government-supported evictions. There are rare empirical studies on the issues with sustainability in the cities in Global South in line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), hence this chapter sheds more light on how SDG goals and government policies have marked sustainable regional development and innovation in countries in the Global South. To understand how the countries in the Global South are working toward sustainability in alleviating urbanization challenges the Sustainable Development reports and recent publications on sustainability were analyzed and this study has direct relevance in terms of policy and planning implication for other cities in the Global South. The results indicate some obstacles must be overcome such as the high levels of social inequality and poverty that still constitute significant challenges for this region. Today’s biggest challenges are facing a pandemic situation and guaranteeing economic development that allows the underprivileged to escape poverty without dooming future generations to an even more degraded environment than the current one. Innovation continues to play a critical role in the transition toward a more sustainable world
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This paper asks how people finance life when displaced, as a precursor to building pathways to more inclusive and sustainable prosperity on the move. The approach taken seeks to examine both lived experiences of displacement and the actors, institutions and technologies shaping those lives. The paper selectively reviews existing literatures to explore two key foci: (1) the role that various technologies play in financing movement and (2) the obligatory relationships through which people make life on the move. The argument is structured around a series of problemsolution dyads through which finance and technology are presumed to solve displacement’s problems: Governing displacement through outsourcing and offshoring; Governing the movement of money through legislation and data mining; Managing displaced people through financialization and techno-humanitarianism; Capitalizing (on) mobility networks through remittances and mobile money. The paper then examines potential methods for exploring these topics, before concluding with a set of key questions for future research.
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This paper, through a systematic literature review, seeks to verify how the literature identifies the relationship between company's integration into the global value chain and environmental upgrading. The purpose is to evaluate if the literature presents a favorable or unfavorable view of the relationship between company's GVC and environmental upgrading using as a guide six of the 17 United Nations environment-related Sustainable Development Goals to propose a more in-depth understanding of perspectives addressed by the scholars. A survey of two databases identified eighty-four articles addressing the issue and found that the view of integration into global value chains from the standpoint of environmental upgrading is favorable at the country level but unfavorable at the sector level. The overall result presents an unfavorable outlook for environmental upgrading. The results show that the production displacement resulting from the fragmentation of activities also transferred environmental concerns and consequences, making environmental upgrading a critical issue.
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In the paper the concept of a “white calibration method” is proposed, that is, one that is consistent with the three basic attributes of a white analytical method: environmentally friendly (green), analytically reliable (red), and operationally effective (blue). It was assumed that these conditions can be met when the calibration is of complex nature and implemented in gradient flow analysis. As an example, three methods based on the processes of sample-to-standard combination, dilution and internal standardization are presented. On the basis of experimental results, their characterization was made and limitations of each of them from the point of view of the intended concept were identified (e.g. their resistance to various types of interference effects). A possible combination of these methods in the direction of enhancing their white properties was proposed. Finally, the real and presumed applicability of white calibration methods in analytical practice is presented.
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The sustainable development goals (SDGs) were adopted in 2015, succeeding the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). While the MDGs focused on improving well-being in the developing world, the 17 SDGs address all countries and aim at reconciling economic and social with ecological goals. We adopt a social ecology perspective and critically reflect on the SDGs’ potential for monitoring, supporting, and bringing about a transformation towards sustainability. Starting from a literature review on the SDGs, we link empirical findings from social ecology with analyses of SDG targets and indicators. First, we find that the SDGs fail to monitor absolute trends in resource use and thus prioritize economic growth over ecological integrity. Second, we discuss the contradictions between economic growth and sustainable resource use in early and late stages of industrialization processes and show that they are responsible for important trade-offs among SDG targets. Third, we analyze the transformative potential of the SDGs with a focus on the actors and institutions addressed to bring about transformative change. We find that the SDGs rely mainly on those institutions responsible for unsustainable resource use, and partly propose measures that even reinforce current trends towards less sustainability. Despite ascertaining limited transformative potential to the SDGs from an analytical perspective, we conclude by stressing the strategic relevance of the SDGs for visions, research, and practices of statt towards transformative change towards sustainability.
Chapter
This introductory chapter shows that transnational policy entrepreneurs are receiving ever more scholarly attention as global cooperation increases and as international organizations are more and more challenged. Drawing on the state of the art in literature, this chapter introduces new research questions on bureaucratic influence and knowledge circulation in global cooperation. It argues that understanding transnational activities of policy entrepreneurs for ‘Policy Coherence for Sustainable Development’ (PCSD) will contribute to explaining global policy change and sustainability innovations. The chapter presents the research objectives and shows how my empirical research intends to enrich academic literature on international policy transfer and international bureaucracy. I outline the theoretical problems that global policy-making poses and explain the case selection.
Conference Paper
In 2020, the United Nations (UN) commemorates 75 years since the ratification of its founding Charter. Over recent years, the public has increasingly challenged the prospect of multilateralism and the effectiveness of global bureaucracy. At the same time, academics and practitioners recognise that present-day challenges require collective solutions. The UN has acknowledged the public mistrust and engages eagerly on reviving its merit, displayed not least through the innovative formulation of 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs). Elaborated as part of the 2030 Agenda, these ambitious goals range from eradicating poverty, to fighting climate change, promoting gender equality, and creating an enabling, safe and sustainable environment for all communities. The paper is based on the premise that governance is a critical enabler of the 2030 Agenda. Most research equals this view to the functioning of national government institutions. Only few recognize the inherent potential of the 2030 Agenda to reform the governance and to reinvigorate the positioning of the UN itself, away from current critic and back towards its founding principles. The paper draws on Vincent and Elinor Ostrom's studies on polycentric governance. It projects the original application of polycentricity in local administration to the current affairs of global bureaucracy. The paper analyses the inclusiveness of governance arrangements and examines the extent of polycentricity in the UN development system. The study asserts that a polycentric approach to the UN's rules, procedures and institutions offers a provoking perspective to adversaries of global governance. The paper concludes that an increased level of polycentricity in the UN development system gives local communities the global voice promised in the organisation's founding Charter. More so, it repositions the UN as a transformational change agent critical to innovate and accelerate the implementation of the 2030 Agenda.
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The chapter’s purpose is to examine interactions between geographers of socialist countries with IGU and the world geographical community at large in 1945–1990. The authors consider some specific national trends in the development of geography in the former USSR, Poland, and China under the conditions of ideological constraints and geopolitical tensions. A special attention is paid to the forms and impact of internationalization on geography in these countries and the ways of the dissemination of scientific information. The authors show that participation of geographers from their countries in the activities of IGU was of particular importance in the extension of international contacts. It improved the positions of geography in the country and at the same time stimulated the use of new methods and approaches in geographical studies, and allowed spreading of national geographical concepts abroad. A particular role in internationalization belonged to academic leaders. In general, the development of geographical science in socialist countries follows the global paradigm.
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Geography has historically enjoyed strong interactions with other disciplines in addressing major challenges related to social, economic, and environmental issues and in contributing overall to sustainability. More especially in the Anthropocene, issues such as climate change, biodiversity loss, terrorism, poverty, refugees, environmental hazards, and pandemics have emerged that require an improved understanding of spatial and temporal patterns, processes, and impacts. Consideration of scale and place-based perspectives are essential in helping to resolve such complex issues. The chapter highlight five arenas of interaction between geography and other disciplines, viz. the natural sciences, socioeconomic sciences, humanities, human-environment relationships, and sustainability science. The International Geographic Union (IGU) provides a platform to unite geographers globally to share ideas, promote communication, and advance the interaction of geography with other disciplines, and also with different stakeholders from NGOs, governmental agencies, and international organizations. At this critical juncture, Geography must continue to develop through its vibrant connections with other fields and geographers should continue to exhibit interdisciplinary leadership by embracing different perspectives, by supporting institutional arrangements that foster interdisciplinary activity, and by seeking the knowledge and techniques that other fields can contribute to geographic perspectives, approaches, and insights to the collective effort. The IGU continues to play an important role in facilitating knowledge development and sharing, and in encouraging transformational actions that promote a just, peaceful, and sustainable planet.
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The livelihood of crab collecting, practised for generations in the Sundarbans forest of India, has undergone a radical moral makeover in recent years. Largely landless crab fishers are now the subject of frequent public denunciations by local authorities for their supposed greed and reckless endangerment of the entire ecosystem. While greed and its related category of need emerge from a local moral ecology of the region, internationally funded conservation campaigns and recent disruptions in the global crab supply chain reveal how accusations are activated and the means through which they play out amidst pre-existing village hierarchies. This article accounts for the political, economic, and moral shifts that underpin these accusations. In counterpoint, I present the defences of the accused, and explore crab collectors’ notions of a sufficient life and the rich moral distinctions they themselves make between greed (lobh), need (aubhav), desire (chahida), and habit (swabhav). I then step back to show the broader political contours that shape the discourse of ‘greedy’ crab collectors. I argue that both the conservation movement and allied state actors have distorted the material and moral resources intended to combat climate change and other environmental threats by scapegoating the politically disenfranchised: local fishers. Powerful stakeholders, as a result of their own political impotency, are deployed in a game of crab antics that fails to address the underlying environmental catastrophe while displacing the psychic burden of greed onto the poor.
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This paper has been produced as an Issue-Based Contribution to the sixth Global Report on Local Democracy and Decentralization (GOLD VI): the flagship publication of the organized constituency of local and regional governments represented in United Cities and Local Governments. The GOLD VI report has been produced in partnership with the Development Planning Unit (University College London), through the programme Knowledge in Action for Urban Equality (KNOW). GOLD VI focuses on how local and regional governments can address the local manifestations of growing inequalities and contribute to create ’Pathways toward urban and territorial equality’. The GOLD VI report has been produced through a large-scale international co-production process, bringing together over a hundred representatives of local and regional governments, academics and civil society organizations. This paper is an outcome of this process and is part of the GOLD VI Working Paper series, which collects the 22 Issue-Based Contributions produced as part of the GOLD VI process. In particular, the present paper has contributed to Chapter 8 on 'Prospering’, which focuses on prosperity as a culturally specific and multi-dimensional concept: one that includes, but is not limited to, the concept of income. The chapter explores key drivers of urban inequality reflected in the scarcity of decent work and in social-spatial disparities in the location of different productive activities within cities. Through the lens of ‘prospering’, the chapter analyses how local and regional governments can increase decent work opportunities, and, drawing on the impacts of COVID-19, how they can mitigate the effects of future pandemics and of climate change on decent work, urban prosperity, and inequality.
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This research considers nature-based solutions as part of the broader sustainability agenda, as perceived from a Global South perspective. Such considerations emanate from a global phenomenon of urban areas experiencing rapid amounts of socioeconomic and environmental decay, calling for an urgent search towards sustainable city planning practices. A literature study was conducted to explore the broader concepts of sustainable city planning and nature-based solutions and, the Global South, as an underrepresented part within academic literature, was explored in terms of the broader sustainability agenda with specific reference to nature-based solutions. Ten purposefully selected cities from around the globe was then analysed to gain an understanding of sustainable city planning practices and perspectives on the sustainability agenda, nature- based solutions and the Global South. It was found that nature-based solutions may prove valuable in the quest towards urban sustainability and that it is important for such approaches to be context-based and included in broader spatial planning approaches.
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This article argues for a citizen social science methodology in which residents from the sites of inquiry play a central role in key activities of the research process and beyond: research design and data collection, presentation and publication of findings, and design and implementation of urban interventions that address challenges to quality of life. This is a way of democratising the research process through sustained engagement with communities and an emphasis on co-designing pathways to impact. The article draws on the authors’ experience of running a citizen social science project in Beirut, Lebanon, where citizen scientists, university academics, and NGOs have worked collaboratively to understand what prosperity means for local residents, develop context-specific measures of prosperity, and design and implement small-scale interventions for local challenges.
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Social economy has been a prominent topic among scholars, politicians, and practitioners. Social economy organizations are mission-driven with the purpose of creating social value, overcoming a social problem, and contributing to attain sustainable social development. In this chapter, a particular weakness underlying those organizations is addressed: lack of managerial skills and the importance of a well-structured process of strategic management and organizational innovation. Based on the analysis of a Portuguese case study, the goal is to increase the knowledge on the facilitating factors and barriers to the improvement of the quality of service and the efficiency of the management of a social economy organization, in order to understand how it creates and delivers social value and ensures its future sustainability. The findings highlight a number of best practices in the design of a structured innovation process which were supported by the Portuguese program Q3-qualifying the third sector, which may help similar organizations to improve their innovation and organizational processes.
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The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) within the United Nations 2030 Agenda emerged in 2015, becoming an unprecedented global compass for navigating extant sustainability challenges. Nevertheless, it still represents a nascent field enduring uncertainties and complexities. In this regard, the interplay between digitalization and sustainability unfolds bright opportunities for shaping a greener economy and society, paving the way towards the SDGs. However, little evidence exists so far, about a genuine contribution of digital paradigms to sustainability. Besides, their role to tackle the SDGs research gaps remains unexplored. Thus, a holistic characterization of the aforementioned topics has not been fully explored in the emerging literature, deserving further research. The article endeavors a twofold purpose: (1) categorizing the main SDGs research gaps; (2) coupled with a critical exploration of the potential contribution of digital paradigms, particularly Big Data and Artificial Intelligence, towards overcoming the aforesaid caveats and pursuing the 2030 Agenda. Ultimately, the study seeks to bridge literature gaps by providing a first-of-its-kind overview on the SDGs and their nexus with digitalization, while unraveling policy implications and future research directions. The methodology has consisted of a systematic holistic review and in-depth qualitative analysis of the literature on the realms of the SDGs and digitalization. Our findings evidence that the SDGs present several research gaps, namely: flawed understanding of complexities and interlinkages; design shortcomings and imbalances; implementation and governance hurdles; unsuitable indicators and assessment methodologies; truncated adoption and off-target progress; unclear responsibilities and lacking coordination; untapped role of technological innovation and knowledge management. Moreover, our results show growing expectations about the added value brought by digitalization for pursuing the SDGs, through novel data sources, enhanced analytical capacities and collaborative digital ecosystems. However, current research and practice remains in early-stage, pointing to ethical, social and environmental controversies, along with policy caveats, which merit additional research. In light of the findings, the authors suggest a first-approach exploration of research and policy implications. Results suggest that further multidisciplinary research, dialogue and concerted efforts for transformation are required. Reframing the Agenda, while aligning the sustainable development and digitalization policies, seems advisable to ensure a holistic sustainability. The findings aim at guiding and stimulating further research and science-policy dialogue on the promising nexus amid the SDGs and digitalization.
Article
This research explores the viability of and considerations for circular economy international trade, a new international trade concept developed from an established circular economy concept. This work derives insights from literature to initiate a new branch of international trade, augmented by several trade experts’ reviews to ensure the feasibility of the ideas. Academic and practical insights include advice for future trade agreements and suggestions for future international trade research, opening up a new field of circular economy trade. The original 2018 academic research was jointly commissioned by the UK and Canada to consider how to design a trade agreement between the two countries post-Brexit. As of April 1, 2021 and as predicted by our original 2018 work, an agreement, called the Canada-United Kingdom Trade Continuity Agreement (Canada-UK TCA), much like the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between Canada and the European Union is in place to support UK-Canada trade. CETA incorporates some principles of sustainable development. Taking sustainable development aims further by explicitly embedding circular economy trade into the UK-Canada agreement would represent progression of international trade agreements and possibly support a worldwide “race to the top”. According to expert opinion, our nations could engage in circular economy trade because our countries are aligned on internal circular economy policy. Moreover, although traditional views on international trade could remain as barriers, even the World Trade Organization subscribes to this new model. Overall, this research opens up paths for future research opportunities in international trade.
Chapter
Sustainability and sustainable development are extremely critical aspects in modern society. Sustainability is the term employed for the practice of ensuring that goods and services are produced in ways that do not use resources that cannot be replaced. This concept can be extended to any environmental, political, and socio-economical system, becoming a global concern that has been highlighted in several different re-search agendas. According to the general assembly of the United Nations defined in 2015 a universal call to action, defining 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) addressed not only to governments but also to businesses and civil society. The agenda goes to the heart of tackling a number of interrelated global issues such as poverty, inequality, hunger, and environmental degradation. In this scenario, the research area of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) plays a key role into the design and development of software applications and practices aimed to achieve the SDGs. This paper depicts a vision about how HCI could be integrated in a better way through the inclusion of human values aspects in the design of interactive applications) lines before and after the abstract.KeywordsHuman-computer interactionInteractive applications
Article
Demography has driven increases in agricultural productivity and is in the limelight once again with questions about how we intend to feed 9 billion people on the planet. The scale of this challenge and the ecological threat from collapsing resources has generated a sense of impending crisis, but remarkably little action. The frames of reference tend towards climate change and the Anthropocene, but perhaps a more fruitful approach is to reflect on developments in agriculture and agroecology to examine the scale and significance of the ecological challenges we face. In this article, we use agriculture as a nodal point through which to engage with the emerging and dislocating human–planetary relations of the contemporary world, reflecting on past, current and future notions of ‘progress’, and on how ongoing developments and experiments in making a living with others (human, non-human and more-than-human others) might offer potential pathways for positive social transformation and future flourishing. As we argue throughout the article, reassessing notions of progress does not mean the mere return to traditional forms of knowledge and practice, nor embracing a form of luddite politics absent of advances in modern science and technology. Instead, we propose this is about opening spaces where diversity, pluralism and contending perspectives and agencies are engaged on their own terms, creating and sharing alternative knowledge and ways of doing and being. Here, the role for the social sciences and humanities is not to describe or pretend to represent these emerging relationalities, but instead to enable and actively engage them. Doing this responsibly and effectively will require us to inhabit the disorienting and discomforting ruins of progress, eschewing the turn towards finalised solutions and outcomes.
Chapter
The Sustainable Development Goals were heralded as representing a transformative approach to addressing the world’s most pressing problems. They have been widely adopted, yet many question the effectiveness of initiatives that do not consider system-wide effects. This chapter reviews relevant literature on wicked problems, presenting our findings from coded reports from the United Nations and partner organisations, which map interrelations between SDGs. It takes a closer look at the food system in Sub-Saharan Africa, finding two interesting dynamics; first, investigating cooking reveals that existing gender inequity is negatively affected by the combined effects of multiple issues. Second, examining the triad of agriculture, urbanisation and rural-urban linkages, our findings illustrate that when policies are developed in isolation, there is potential for unintended impacts[Relevant SDGs: All SDGs].
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Research aims to understand the rule of education in Goma Junior High School, to understand the level of environmental management, and relationship between education and environmental management. This research employed a mixed method which is quantitate and qualitative. Technique to gather non-numerical data, the researcher utilized a qualitative data collection approach. The results show that environmental education helps students improve their living, study through tree planting, waste management, good environmental management in the school farm and increase number of environmental management ambassadors in the community. The students have a moderate level of understanding on environmental issues and concerns while the rest of the students either have very good or good in understanding environmental management issues. Moreover, students are at the knowledge and understanding A to A continuum level while the list is in the problem-solving skills level of the A to A continuum phase. Students become more responsible in matters dealing with environmental management such as planting tree, keeping their living environment clean and attractive, and managing waste well. Peranan pendidikan terhadap menejemen lingkungan: Studi kasus Goma Junior High School DR Congo Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimanakah aturan pendidikan di Sekolah Menengah Pertama Goma, untuk memahami sistem pengelolaan lingkungan, dan memahami hubungan antara pendidikan dan pengelolaan lingkungan di Sekolah Menengah Pertama Goma, DR Congo. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode campuran yaitu kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Pengumpulan data nonnumerik menggunakan pendekatan pengumpulan data kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pendidikan lingkungan membantu siswa meningkatkan taraf hidup, belajar melalui penanaman pohon, pengelolaan sampah, pengelolaan lingkungan yang baik di sekolah pertanian dan meningkatkan jumlah duta pengelolaan lingkungan di masyarakat. Sebagian besar siswa memiliki tingkat pemahaman yang moderat tentang masalah dan masalah lingkungan, sedangkan siswa lainnya memiliki pemahaman yang sangat baik atau baik dalam masalah pengelolaan lingkungan. Siswa berada pada pengetahuan dan pemahaman tingkat kontinum A ke A sedangkan daftar berada pada tingkat keterampilan pemecahan masalah dari tahap kontinum A ke A. Mahasiswa menjadi lebih bertanggung jawab dalam hal-hal yang berhubungan dengan pengelolaan lingkungan seperti penanaman pohon, menjaga lingkungan hidup tetap bersih dan menarik, serta mengelola sampah dengan baik.
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Book Description The basic function of companies is to add value to society. Profits are a means to an end, not an end in itself. The ability of companies to innovate, scale and invest provides them with a powerful base for positive change. But companies are also criticized for not contributing sufficiently to society’s grand challenges. An increasingly VUCA (Volatile, Uncertain, Complex and Ambiguous) world creates serious governance gaps that not only require new ways of regulation, but also new ways of doing business. Can companies effectively contribute to sustainable development and confront society’s systemic challenges? Arguably the most important frame to drive this ambition was introduced and unanimously adopted in 2015: the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDG-agenda not only defines a holistic set of global goals and targets, but also foundational principles to guide meaningful action to their achievement by 2030. Multinational companies have signed up to the SDGs as the world’s long-term business plan. Realizing the SDGs provides a yearly $12 trillion investment and growth opportunity, while creating hundreds of millions of jobs in the process. But progress is too slow – witnessing society’s inability to deal with pressing human, ecological, economic and health crises – whilst the vast potential for societal value creation remains underutilized. This book provides a timely account of the systemic, strategic and operational challenges that need to be addressed to enhance the effectiveness of corporate involvement in society, by using the SDGs as the leading principles-based framework for actionable, powerful and transformative change. Principles of Sustainable Business is written for graduate and postgraduate (executive) students, policymakers and business professionals who want to understand the complex challenges of global sustainability. It shows how companies can design and implement SDG-relevant strategies at three levels: the macro level, to assess whether the SDGs present wicked problems or opportunities; the micro level, to develop and operationalize innovative business models, design new business cases and navigate organizational transition trajectories; and the meso level, to develop fit-for-purpose cross-sector partnering strategies. Principles of Sustainable Business presents innovative tools embedded in a coherent sequence of analytical frameworks that can be applied in courses for students, be put into practice by business professionals and used by action researchers to help companies contribute to the Decade of Action.
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The urgency of charting pathways to sustainability that keep human societies within a "safe operating space" has now been clarified. Crises in climate, food, biodiversity, and energy are already playing out across local and global scales and are set to increase as we approach critical thresholds. Drawing together recent work from the Stockholm Resilience Centre, the Tellus Institute, and the STEPS Centre, this commentary article argues that ambitious Sustainable Development Goals are now required along with major transformation, not only in policies and technologies, but in modes of innovation themselves, to meet them. As examples of dryland agriculture in East Africa and rural energy in Latin America illustrate, such "transformative innovation" needs to give far greater recognition and power to grassroots innovation actors and processes, involving them within an inclusive, multi-scale innovation politics. The three dimensions of direction, diversity, and distribution along with new forms of "sustainability brokering" can help guide the kinds of analysis and decision making now needed to safeguard our planet for current and future generations.
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This paper reviews what local governments in more than 50 cities are doing with regard to disaster risk reduction. It draws on the reports of their participation in the global Making Cities Resilient Campaign and its 10 "essential" components, and on interviews with city mayors or managers. These show how resilience to disasters is being conceived and addressed by local governments, especially with regard to changes in their institutional framework and engagement with communities and other stakeholders, also in mobilizing finance, undertaking multi-hazard risk assessments, upgrading informal settlements, adjusting urban planning and implementing building codes. The paper summarizes what city mayors or managers view as key milestones for building resilience, and further discusses their evaluation of the usefulness of the campaign to them. It also discusses how a local government-focused perspective on disaster risk reduction informs our understanding of resilience. This includes how development can contribute much to disaster risk reduction as well as a more tangible and operational understanding of resilience (resistance + coping capacity + recovery + adaptive capacity) that local governments can understand and act on.
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The United Nations (UN) Rio+20 summit committed nations to develop a set of universal sustainable development goals (SDGs) to build on the millennium development goals (MDGs) set to expire in 2015. Research now indicates that humanity’s impact on Earth’s life support system is so great that further global environmental change risks undermining long-term prosperity and poverty eradication goals. Socioeconomic development and global sustainability are often posed as being in conflict because of tradeoffs between a growing world population, as well as higher standards of living, and managing the effects of production and consumption on the global environment. We have established a framework for an evidence-based architecture for new goals and targets. Building on six SDGs, which integrate development and environmental considerations, we developed a comprehensive framework of goals and associated targets, which demonstrate that it is possible, and necessary, to develop integrated targets relating to food, energy, water, and ecosystem services goals; thus providing a neutral evidence-based approach to support SDG target discussions. Global analyses, using an integrated global target equation, are close to providing indicators for these targets. Alongside development-only targets and environment-only targets, these integrated targets would ensure that synergies are maximized and trade-offs are managed in the implementation of SDGs. © 2014 by the author(s). Published here under license by the Resilience Alliance.
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The urgency of charting pathways to sustainability that keep human societies within a "safe operating space" has now been clarified. Crises in climate, food, biodiversity, and energy are already playing out across local and global scales and are set to increase as we approach critical thresholds. Drawing together recent work from the Stockholm Resilience Centre, the Tellus Institute, and the STEPS Centre, this commentary article argues that ambitious Sustainable Development Goals are now required along with major transformation, not only in policies and technologies, but in modes of innovation themselves, to meet them. As examples of dryland agriculture in East Africa and rural energy in Latin America illustrate, such "transformative innovation" needs to give far greater recognition and power to grassroots innovation actors and processes, involving them within an inclusive, multi-scale innovation politics. The three dimensions of direction, diversity, and distribution along with new forms of "sustainability brokering" can help guide the kinds of analysis and decision making now needed to safeguard our planet for current and future generations.
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Starting from the diagnosis of a profound reconfiguration since the second half of the 1980s of the normative foundations of contemporary eco-political discourses, the theory of post-ecologist politics has conceptualised eco-politics in advanced modern consumer societies as the politics of unsustainability. How the politics of unsustainability is organised and executed in practical terms is explored and the theory of post-ecologist politics is extended to suggest that, in the wake of a modernisation-induced post-democratic turn, democratic values and the innovative modes of decentralised, participatory government which, up to the present, are widely hailed as the key towards a genuinely legitimate, effective and efficient environmental policy are metamorphosing into tools for managing the condition of sustained ecological and social unsustainability. Analysis of this governance of unsustainability reveals a new twist in the notoriously difficult relationship between democracy and ecology.
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This article identifies the future challenges that cities face in their ability to create well-being, particularly for urban poor communities, as a result of the compound effect generated by climate change – distinguishing between direct impacts, indirect effects and pre-existing vulnerability. This suggests that action to reduce exposure and improve the adaptive capacity of urban populations must therefore simultaneously address disaster risk reduction, urban poverty reduction and urban resilience (i.e. the ability of the city to maintain the functions that support the well-being of its citizens). Based on evidence and experience from 10 cities which form part of the Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network (www.acccrn.org), this article proposes that a simplified conceptual model and resilience characteristics be used to analyse urban systems, in parallel with spatial analysis, to target action at multiple levels to reduce exposure and improve the adaptive capacity of urban populations simultaneously.
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The impacts of climate change in any city are obviously influenced by the quality of its housing and other buildings, its infrastructure and services. These were not built with climate change risks in mind, although they were influenced by environmental health risks that were present when they were constructed (including those from extreme weather) and often by responses to past disasters. Well-governed cities that have greatly reduced these risks have accumulated resilience to the climate change impacts that exacerbate (or will exacerbate) these risks. In so doing, they have also developed the social, political, financial and institutional structures that provide the basis for addressing these and other risks. These structures were developed through social, environmental and political reforms, driven by such factors as democracy, decentralization and strong social movements representing the needs of those with limited incomes, or other factors associated with vulnerability. These “bottom-up” pressures from citizens and civil society on national and city governments are critical for developing the institutions and measures to reduce climate change-related risks (especially for those most at risk) and to support resilience.
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The purpose is to provoke discussion by exploring and elaborating the concept of sustainable livelihoods. It is based normatively on the ideas of capability, equity, and sustainability, each of which is both end and means. In the 21st century livelihoods will be needed by perhaps two or three times the present human population. A livelihood comprises people, their capabilities and their means of living, including food, income and assets. A livelihood is environmentally sustainable when it maintains or enhances the local and global assets on which livelihoods depend, and has net beneficial effects on other livelihoods. A livelihood is socially sustainable which can cope with and recover from stress and shocks, and provide for future generations. Current and conventional analysis both undervalues future livelihoods and is pessimistic. Ways can be sought to multiply livelihoods by increasing resource-use intensity and the diversity and complexity of small-farming livelihood systems, and by small- scale economic synergy. The objective of sustainable livelihoods for all provides a focus for anticipating the 21st century, and points to priorities for policy and research. -from Authors
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This article develops a political economy account of global environmental govern-ance to improve upon our understanding of the contemporary conduct of environmental politics and to clarify thinking about the potential for, and barriers to, effective environmental reform. By elaborating the key contours of a political economy account on the one hand and opening up to critical enquiry prevailing understandings of what is meant by 'global' 'environmental' and 'governance' on the other, such an approach is able to enhance our understanding of the practice of environmental governance by emphasising historical, material and political elements of its (re) constitution and evolution.
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Every day, we make decisions on topics ranging from personal investments to schools for our children to the meals we eat to the causes we champion. Unfortunately, we often choose poorly. The reason, the authors explain, is that, being human, we all are susceptible to various biases that can lead us to blunder. Our mistakes make us poorer and less healthy; we often make bad decisions involving education, personal finance, health care, mortgages and credit cards, the family, and even the planet itself. Thaler and Sunstein invite us to enter an alternative world, one that takes our humanness as a given. They show that by knowing how people think, we can design choice environments that make it easier for people to choose what is best for themselves, their families, and their society. Using colorful examples from the most important aspects of life, Thaler and Sunstein demonstrate how thoughtful "choice architecture" can be established to nudge us in beneficial directions without restricting freedom of choice. Nudge offers a unique new take-from neither the left nor the right-on many hot-button issues, for individuals and governments alike. This is one of the most engaging and provocative books to come along in many years. © 2008 by Richard H. Thaler and Cass R. Sunstein. All rights reserved.
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This paper provides an overview of what we call ‘agroecological revolution’ in Latin America. As the expansion of agroexports and biofuels continues unfolding in Latin America and warming the planet, the concepts of food sovereignty and agroecology-based agricultural production gain increasing attention. New approaches and technologies involving the application of blended agroecological science and indigenous knowledge systems are being spearheaded by a significant number of peasants, NGOs and some government and academic institutions, and they are proving to enhance food security while conserving natural resources, and empowering local, regional and national peasant organizations and movements. An assessment of various grassroots initiatives in Latin America reveals that the application of the agroecological paradigm can bring significant environmental, economic and political benefits to small farmers and rural communities as well as urban populations in the region. The trajectory of the agroecological movements in Brazil, the Andean region, Mexico, Central America and Cuba and their potential to promote broad-based and sustainable agrarian and social change is briefly presented and examined. We argue that an emerging threefold ‘agroecological revolution’, namely, epistemological, technical and social, is creating new and unexpected changes directed at restoring local self-reliance, conserving and regenerating natural resource agrobiodiversity, producing healthy foods with low inputs, and empowering peasant organizations. These changes directly challenge neoliberal modernization policies based on agribusiness and agroexports while opening new political roads for Latin American agrarian societies.
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Post-development theorists have declared development obsolete and bankrupt and have called for ‘alternatives to development’. What do they mean by such calls and what should be the African response to such calls? In this paper I will attempt to address three important questions: first, what is meant by post-development theory's call for ‘alternatives to development’? Second, why consider post-development theory from an African perspective? Third, what contributions can a consideration of African difference and diversity make towards debate on ‘alternatives to development’? I conclude by arguing that increased consideration of the African experience would be valuable for all who are seeking alternative ways of dealing with the problems that development purports to address.
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This article proposes a research programme devoted to examining 'processes of economization'. In the current instalment we introduce the notion of 'economiza-tion', which refers to the assembly and qualification of actions, devices and analytical/practical descriptions as 'economic' by social scientists and market actors. Through an analysis of selected works in anthropology, economics and sociology, we begin by discussing the importance, meaning and framing of economization, as we unravel its trace within a variety of disciplinary backgrounds. We show how in combination, these works have laid the foundations for the study of economization. The second instalment of the article, to appear in the next volume of Economy and Society, presents a preliminary picture of what it might mean to take processes of economization as a topic of empirical investigation. Given the vast terrain of relationships that produce its numerous trajectories, we will illustrate economization by focusing on only one of its modalities Á the one that leads to the establishment of economic markets. With emphasis on the increasingly dominant role of materialities and economic knowledges in processes of market-making, we will analyse the extant work in social studies of 'marketization'. Marketization is but one case study of economization.
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Presented in two parts, this article proposes a research programme devoted to examining 'processes of economization'. In the first instalment, published in Economy and Society 38(3) (2009), we introduced the notion of 'economization'. The term refers to the assembly and qualification of actions, devices and analytical/ practical descriptions as 'economic' by social scientists and market actors. Through an analysis of selected works in anthropology, economics and sociology, we discussed the importance, meaning and framing of economization, unravelling its trace within a variety of disciplinary backgrounds. This second instalment of the article explores what it would mean to move this research programme forward by taking processes of economization as a topic of empirical investigation. Given the vast terrain of relationships that produce its numerous trajectories, to illustrate what such a project would entail we have limited ourselves to the examination of processes we call 'marketization'. These processes, which constitute but one modality of economiza-tion, are discussed here from five vantage points: the things in the market, agencies, encounters, prices and market maintenance.
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Climate change is the main challenge facing developed countries in the 21st century. To what extent does this agenda converge with issues of poverty and social exclusion? Climate change and poverty offers a timely new perspective on the ‘ecosocial’ understanding of the causes and symptoms of, and solutions to, poverty and applies this to recent developments across a number of areas, including fuel poverty, food poverty, housing, transport and air pollution. Unlike any other publication, the book therefore establishes a new agenda for both environmental and social policies which has cross-national relevance. It will appeal to students in social policy, public policy, applied social studies and politics and will also be of interest to those studying international development, economics and geography.
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See www.humiliationstudies.org/whoweare/evelin/04.php. Please contact the author at e.g.lindner@psykologi.uio.no if you would like to have access to this book. Please see also www.humiliationstudies.org/whoweare/evelin02.php for other full texts to download.
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How did the industrialized nations of North America and Europe come to be seen as the appropriate models for post-World War II societies in Asia, Africa, and Latin America? How did the postwar discourse on development actually create the so-called Third World? And what will happen when development ideology collapses? To answer these questions, Arturo Escobar shows how development policies became mechanisms of control that were just as pervasive and effective as their colonial counterparts. The development apparatus generated categories powerful enough to shape the thinking even of its occasional critics while poverty and hunger became widespread. "Development" was not even partially "deconstructed" until the 1980s, when new tools for analyzing the representation of social reality were applied to specific "Third World" cases. Here Escobar deploys these new techniques in a provocative analysis of development discourse and practice in general, concluding with a discussion of alternative visions for a postdevelopment era. Escobar emphasizes the role of economists in development discourse--his case study of Colombia demonstrates that the economization of food resulted in ambitious plans, and more hunger. To depict the production of knowledge and power in other development fields, the author shows how peasants, women, and nature became objects of knowledge and targets of power under the "gaze of experts." In a substantial new introduction, Escobar reviews debates on globalization and postdevelopment since the book's original publication in 1995 and argues that the concept of postdevelopment needs to be redefined to meet today's significantly new conditions. He then calls for the development of a field of "pluriversal studies," which he illustrates with examples from recent Latin American movements. © 1995 by Princeton University Press. 1995 by Princeton University Press.
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Introduction: Diverse Economies as a Performative Ontological ProjectBecoming Different Academic SubjectsThe Ethics of ThinkingNew Academic Practices and PerformancesConclusion References
Article
Financialization refers to the increasing importance of finance, financial markets, and financial institutions to the workings of the economy. This article reviews evidence on the causes and consequences of financialization in the United States and around the world, with particular attention to the spread of financial markets. Researchers have focused on two broad themes at the level of corporations and broader societies. First, an orientation toward shareholder value has led to substantial changes in corporate strategies and structures that have encouraged outsourcing and corporate disaggregation while increasing compensation at the top. Second, financialization has shaped patterns of inequality, culture, and social change in the broader society. Underlying these changes is a broad shift in how capital is intermediated, from financial institutions to financial markets, through mechanisms such as securitization (turning debts into marketable securities). Enabled by a combination of theory, technology, and ideology, financialization is a potent force for changing social institutions.
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Rapid environmental change in the face of enduring poverty and social inequality has brought unprecedented attention to the challenge of achieving social equity and environmental sustainability, at all levels from the local to the global. There is a clear need for conceptual approaches that enable these challenges to be addressed together, so that options for pathways to equitable and sustainable development can be identified and debated. The concept of social and planetary boundaries, integrated with the three "Ds" agenda – direction, diversity and distribution – provides one such framework. This can be used to identify alternative pathways and inform consideration of their social and political implications.
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In this major book Martha Nussbaum, one of the most innovative and influential philosophical voices of our time, proposes a kind of feminism that is genuinely international, argues for an ethical underpinning to all thought about development planning and public policy, and dramatically moves beyond the abstractions of economists and philosophers to embed thought about justice in the concrete reality of the struggles of poor women. Nussbaum argues that international political and economic thought must be sensitive to gender difference as a problem of justice, and that feminist thought must begin to focus on the problems of women in the third world. Taking as her point of departure the predicament of poor women in India, she shows how philosophy should undergird basic constitutional principles that should be respected and implemented by all governments, and used as a comparative measure of quality of life across nations.
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This article sketches a brief panorama of the advances and challenges involved in the implementation of the agroecological approach in Brazilian institutions. It begins with an account of the struggles of rural social movements working at the deepest grassroots level of the country's “agroecological field.” The processes that led to the creation and development of the National Agroecology Alliance (ANA) and the Brazilian Agroecology Association (ABA-Agroecologia) are presented as a key part of the construction now under way. Taking as a baseline the evolutions in the internalization of agroecology in official teaching, research, and rural extension services, the article identifies some of the powerful practical, theoretical, and politico-ideological obstacles preventing the rupture with the paradigm of modernization on the part of state institutions.
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The current model of economic growth generated unprecedented increases in human wealth and prosperity during the 19th and 20th centuries. The main mechanisms have been the rapid pace of technological and social innovation, human capital accumulation, and the conversion of resources and natural capital into more valuable forms of produced capital. However, there is evidence emerging that this model may be approaching environmental limits and planetary boundaries, and that the conversion of natural capital needs to slow down rapidly and then be reversed. Some commentators have asserted that in order for this to occur, we will need to stop growing altogether and, instead, seek prosperity without growth. Others argue that environmental concerns are low-priority luxuries to be contemplated once global growth has properly returned to levels observed prior to the 2008 financial crisis. A third group argues that there is no trade-off, and, instead, promotes green growth: the (politically appealing) idea is that we can simultaneously grow and address our environmental problems. This paper provides a critical perspective on this debate and suggests that a substantial research agenda is required to come to grips with these challenges. One place to start is with the relevant metrics: measures of per-capita wealth, and, eventually, quantitative measures of prosperity, alongside a dashboard of other sustainability indicators. A public and political focus on wealth (a stock), and its annual changes, could realistically complement the current focus on market-based gross output as measured by GDP (a flow). This could have important policy implications, but deeper changes to governance and business models will be required.
Article
The G20 is committed to supporting equitable and sustainable growth. But new data shows that a lot needs to change if they are to live up to this pledge. The stakes are high: analysis in this paper suggests that without attention to growing inequality, strong growth is unlikely to be enough to prevent poverty increasing in some G20 countries over the next decade. Income inequality is growing in almost all G20 members, while it is falling in many low- and lower middle-income countries. Meanwhile, environmentally unsustainable economic expansion is driving dangerous climate change, and depleting the natural resources upon which poor people depend most for their livelihoods. Without action, inequality will render the benefits of growth inaccessible to the poor, even as they bear the costs of this expansion through the impacts of a changing climate and environmental degradation. It's time for the G20 to practice what it preaches.
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This book is part of a larger effort undertaken by the World Bank to understand the development experience of the 1990s, an extraordinary eventful decade. Each of the project’s three volumes serves a different purpose. Development Challenges in the 1990s: Leading Policymakers Speak from Experience offers insights on the practical concerns faced by policymakers, while At the Frontlines of Development: Reflections from the World Bank considers the operational implications of the decade for the World Bank as an institution. This volume, Economic Growth in the 1990s: Learning from a Decade of Reform, provides comprehensive analysis of the decade’s development experience and examines the impact of key policy and institutional reforms of growth.Economic Growth in the 1990s confirms and builds on the conclusions of an earlier World Bank book, The East Asian Miracle (1993), which reviewed experiences of highly successful East Asian economies. It confirms the importance of growth of fundamental principles: macro stability, market forces governing the allocation of resources, openness, and the sharing of the benefits of growth. At the same time, it echoes the finding that these principles translate into diverse policy and institutional paths, implying the economic policies and policy advice must be country-specific and institutional-sensitive if they are to be effective. The authors examine the impact of growth of key policy and institutional reforms: macroeconomic stabilization, trade liberalization, deregulation of finance, privatization, deregulation of utilities, modernization of the public sector with a view to increasing its effectiveness and accountability, and the spread of democracy and decentralization. They draw lessons both from a policy and institutional perspective and from the perspective of country experiences about how reforms in each policy and institutional area have affected growth.
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How might academic practices contribute to the exciting proliferation of economic experiments occurring worldwide in the current moment? In this paper we describe the work of a nascent research community of economic geographers and other scholars who are making the choice to bring marginalized, hidden and alternative economic activities to light in order to make them more real and more credible as objects of policy and activism. The diverse economies research program is, we argue, a performative ontological project that builds upon and draws forth a different kind of academic practice and subjectivity. Using contemporary examples, we illustrate the thinking practices of ontological reframing, re-reading for difference and cultivating creativity and we sketch out some of the productive lines of inquiry that emerge from an experimental, performative and ethical orientation to the world. The paper is accompanied by an electronic bibliography of diverse economies research with over 200 entries.
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What principles should guide how society distributes environmental benefits and burdens? Like many liberal theories of justice, Martha Nussbaum's “capabilities approach” does not adequately address this question. The author argues that the capabilities approach should be extended to account for the environment's instrumental value to human capabilities. Given this instrumental value, protecting capabilities requires establishing certain environmental conditions as an independent “meta-capability.” When combined with Nussbaum's nonprocedural method of political justification, this extension provides the basis for adjudicating environmental justice claims. The author applies this extended capabilities approach to assess the distribution of benefits and burdens associated with climate change.
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Preface and Acknowledgements. 1. Strategies. 2. Capitalism and Anti-essentialism: An Encounter in Contradiction. 3. Class and the Politics of "Identity". 4. How Do We Get Out of This Capitalist Place? 5. The Economy, Stupid! Industrial Policy Discourse and the Body Economic. 6. Querying Globalization. 7. Post-Fordism as Politics. 8. Toward a New Class Politics of Distribution. 9. "Hewers of Cake and Drawers of Tea". 10. Haunting Capitalism: Ghosts on a Blackboard. 11. Waiting for the Revolution. . . Bibliography. Index.
Book
Is more economic growth the solution? Will it deliver prosperity and well-being for a global population projected to reach nine billion? In this explosive book, Tim Jackson a top sustainability adviser to the UK government makes a compelling case against continued economic growth in developed nations. No one denies that development is essential for poorer nations. But in the advanced economies there is mounting evidence that ever-increasing consumption adds little to human happiness and may even impede it. More urgently, it is now clear that the ecosystems that sustain our economies are collapsing under the impacts of rising consumption. Unless we can radically lower the environmental impact of economic activity and there is no evidence to suggest that we can we will have to devise a path to prosperity that does not rely on continued growth. Economic heresy? Or an opportunity to improve the sources of well-being, creativity and lasting prosperity that lie outside the realm of the market? Tim Jackson provides a credible vision of how human society can flourish within the ecological limits of a finite planet. Fulfilling this vision is simply the most urgent task of our times. This book is a substantially revised and updated version of Jackson's controversial study for the Sustainable Development Commission, an advisory body to the UK Government. The study rapidly became the most downloaded report in the Commission's nine year history when it was launched earlier this year. In 2017, PWG was published in a second, substantially revised and re-written edition that updates the arguments and considerably expands upon them. https://www.cusp.ac.uk/pwg/
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Arturo Escobar reviews the critiques around postmodernist critiques of development. He looks at the reading strategies employed and argues for a cultural politics of difference.Development (2000) 43, 11–14. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1110188