Article

Does Sexual Satisfaction Change With Relationship Duration?

Authors:
Article

Does Sexual Satisfaction Change With Relationship Duration?

If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

Abstract

Despite a large body of empirical literature on sexual satisfaction, its development over the course of a relationship is still unclear. Only a small number of studies, most of which have relied on cross-sectional data of convenience samples, have explicitly focused on relationship duration, and empirical evidence is mixed. We analyzed how sexual satisfaction changes over the course of a relationship using three waves of the German Family Panel study (pairfam). We concentrated our analyses on young and middle-aged heterosexual individuals in committed relationships (N = 2,814) and applied fixed effects regression models, which have the advantage of estimations based on changes within individuals over time. We found a positive development of sexual satisfaction in the first year of a relationship, followed by a steady decline. This pattern persisted even when controlling for the frequency of intercourse, although the effects were, in part, mediated by intercourse frequency. We explained the non-linear effect of relationship duration on sexual satisfaction with an initial learning effect regarding partner-specific sexual skills, which is then outweighed by a decline in passion at later stages of a relationship. Moreover, we found significant effects for the control variables of health status, intimacy in couple communication, and conflict style, as expected. In contrast to past research, however, cohabitation and marriage were not found to play a role for sexual satisfaction in our data. Further research is required to deepen the understanding of the reasons why sexual satisfaction changes with relationship duration.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... For instance, research has shown that significant personal events during adulthood such as marriage (Christopher & Sprecher, 2000), child birth, child caretaking (Ahlborg, Rudeblad, Linnér, & Linton, 2008;Hansson & Ahlborg, term, systematic changes in sexual behaviors/inactivity, sexual satisfaction, and sexual functioning. Cross-sectional (e.g., Laumann et al., 1999) and longitudinal research on sexual satisfaction have shown that it decreases over time in relationships (McNulty et al., 2016;Schmiedeberg & Schröder, 2016), after an increase during the first year of the relationship (Schmiedeberg & Schröder, 2016). These findings suggest that there are identifiable longitudinal trajectories for sexual satisfaction in adult relationships which have not often been the focus of previous research. ...
... For instance, research has shown that significant personal events during adulthood such as marriage (Christopher & Sprecher, 2000), child birth, child caretaking (Ahlborg, Rudeblad, Linnér, & Linton, 2008;Hansson & Ahlborg, term, systematic changes in sexual behaviors/inactivity, sexual satisfaction, and sexual functioning. Cross-sectional (e.g., Laumann et al., 1999) and longitudinal research on sexual satisfaction have shown that it decreases over time in relationships (McNulty et al., 2016;Schmiedeberg & Schröder, 2016), after an increase during the first year of the relationship (Schmiedeberg & Schröder, 2016). These findings suggest that there are identifiable longitudinal trajectories for sexual satisfaction in adult relationships which have not often been the focus of previous research. ...
... Such a finding is also in line with the Enduring Dynamics Model (Huston & Houts, 1998), where a higher initial score may reflect enduring positive relational patterns that persist over long periods of time, but are in contrast to the Disillusionment Model, which purports that high early levels of passion might lead to decreased happiness over time (e.g., Huston, Caughlin, Houts, Smith, & George, 2001). Results related to sexual satisfaction were consistent when compared to existing longitudinal studies which have shown that sexual satisfaction typically declines over time (McNulty et al., 2016;Schmiedeberg & Schröder, 2016). Findings are also complementary to studies that show, for example, increasing age and resulting declines in health have a negative effect on one's sexual desire, arousal, and ability to orgasm (Laumann, Paik, & Rosen, 1999). ...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers have investigated the directionality between relationship and sexual satisfaction: however, there remains no definitive conclusion. Previous longitudinal studies have not conceptualized relationship and sexual satisfaction as systematic developmental processes and have focused on predicting scores at later timepoints. Instead, researchers should be concerned with understanding how relationship and sexual satisfaction change together over time. The objective of this study was to use longitudinal data from midlife American marriages to test the directionality of the association between relationship satisfaction and sexual satisfaction. Multivariate latent growth curve modeling of 1,456 midlife Americans married for 20 years from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study was used to compare directionality models. Findings support that long-term, stable marriages of midlife Americans at the sample level were characterized by a linear increase in relationship satisfaction over 20 years and a linear decline in sexual satisfaction during the same time frame. A co-change model, wherein relationship and sexual satisfaction changed together over time, fit the data best. Trajectory correlations showed that changes in relationship and sexual satisfaction were strongly interconnected. High initial levels of sexual satisfaction protected against declines in relationship satisfaction over 20 years. Results support that relationship and sexual satisfaction change together over time and highlight that the longitudinal association between these outcomes is dynamic, rather than static.
... A growing body of research has sought to describe changes in couples' sexual satisfaction over time. Schmiedeberg and Schröder (2016) observed a temporary rise in sexual satisfaction in the first year of the relationship, but satisfaction declined steadily after that. Research among newlyweds in mixed-sex marriages indicates that most begin their marriages with intensive passion and sexual attraction, but their sexual satisfaction declines on average over time (Liu, 2003;McNulty et al., 2016). ...
... Particularly considering that rapid declines in sexual frequency and desire are thought to emerge during the newlywed years (Call et al., 1995), which may damage sexual satisfaction (McNulty & Fisher, 2008), the fact that sexual satisfaction remained high and stable during this period suggests that many couples are able to keep their initial spark and sexual passion alive. This challenges the habituation effect, which emphasizes that as relationships progress, couples' sexual lives become more accessible and predictable, psychological and physiological habituation emerges, and satisfying feelings of sexuality decrease (Call et al., 1995;Schmiedeberg & Schröder, 2016). As such, our findings call for a shift from a theoretical focus solely on why sexual satisfaction declines to how couples can sustain high sexual satisfaction over time. ...
... Although stable high was the most common class in the current study, there was no evidence of a class in which sexual satisfaction improved over time. This result was in contrast to prior research (Leonhardt et al., 2021;Schmiedeberg & Schröder, 2016), which has found increases in sexual satisfaction based on young and middle-aged individual data. The explanation for these differences might be twofold. ...
Article
Although sexual satisfaction is a defining feature of marriage, research has consistently found that sexual satisfaction declines over time. Recently, however, emerging findings provide a more optimistic perspective on sexual satisfaction development by suggesting that couples may follow diverse sexual satisfaction trajectories. Using Dyadic Latent Class Growth Analysis, the current study is among the first to examine heterogeneity in couples' sexual satisfaction trajectory patterns during the early years of marriage and the first to do so in a non-Western context. Specifically, we establish distinct trajectory classes among 268 mixed-sex newlywed couples in China based on two couple-level features - the absolute level of sexual satisfaction and synchrony over time - and then compare these classes on subsequent ratings of marital instability. Four distinct trajectory patterns were found: a stable high class, a wives low and simultaneous deterioration class, a husbands low decrease-wives high stable class, and a wives high decrease-husbands high stable class. Couples in the stable high class reported lower levels of marital instability at two-year follow-up compared to couples in the other classes, suggesting that high sexual satisfaction and synchrony is beneficial for couples' marital relationships. These results provide further evidence challenging the inevitability of sexual satisfaction declines and have important implications for interventions aiming to enhance couples' sexual relationship.
... Limited research has specifically evaluated how relationship duration plays a role in sexual satisfaction in ongoing committed relationships, let alone midlife marriages, a notable gap considering that sexual satisfaction is connected to relationship satisfaction, love, commitment, and relationship stability across the life course (e.g., Byers, 2005;Davison et al., 2009;Sprecher, 2002;Sprecher & Cate, 2004). In general, research suggests that sexual satisfaction tends to decline over the course of a relationship (e.g., Araujo et al., 2004;Field et al., 2013;Schmiedeberg & Schroder, 2016). There are, however, several theoretical reasons for why subpopulations of husbands, and wives might vary from the average decline; due to previous methodological limitations, these variations are yet to be fully explored. ...
... Although limited, some studies exist employing a longitudinal design to understand patterns within the sexual relationship (e.g., Cao et al., 2019;Forbes et al., 2017;McNulty et al., 2016;Schmiedeberg & Schroder, 2016;Yeh et al., 2006). These studies provide a clearer picture as to whether aging or the duration of a relationship (time effects) are actually responsible for any trends in sexual satisfaction over the life course. ...
... These studies provide a clearer picture as to whether aging or the duration of a relationship (time effects) are actually responsible for any trends in sexual satisfaction over the life course. In just a few examples, Schmiedeberg and Schroder (2016) found that sexual satisfaction increased in the first year of the relationship but was followed by a steady decline. Quinn-Nilas (2020) showed in a large dataset that sexual satisfaction did indeed decline on average in midlife. ...
Article
Full-text available
Most research has shown that sexual satisfaction in long-term relationships tends to decline over time. Studies showing the average trajectory, however, are limited by only assessing one slope. With longitudinal data from the Flourishing Families Project, Marital Instability Dataset, and the Iowa Youth and Families Project, we utilized growth mixture modeling to assess what trajectories of sexual satisfaction exist in midlife marriages. In the three samples (one individual, two dyadic), we found clear evidence for heterogeneous sexual satisfaction trajectories, for both wives and husbands. Through the datasets, we found some trajectories did decline over time. We also found stably high, stably medium, stably low, and some trajectories that showed an increase in sexual satisfaction over time. Overall, trajectories were similar for wives and husbands, though some classes had one partner with variability while the other was stable, some classes had trajectories with wives having higher sexual satisfaction than husbands, and some classes had trajectories with husbands having higher sexual satisfaction than wives. Demographic variables were not strong distinguishers of these differing trajectories. Both marital satisfaction and perceived marital stability trajectories (based on sexual satisfaction classes) generally had similar patterns to sexual satisfaction trajectories, with a few exceptions. Both marital satisfaction and perceived marital stability were less likely to significantly change over time, have discrepancies between wives and husbands, and have either low marital satisfaction or high perceived marital instability, even if sexual satisfaction was low. These data can help couples recognize various possibilities for sexual satisfaction over time, perhaps helping them to avoid cultural myths of inevitably declining sexual satisfaction.
... Advancing the science on sexual satisfaction and health in SSA hinges on having reliable, valid, and culturally-relevant measures. The most commonly used measures of sexual satisfaction consist of only a single item (Carter et al., 2018;Fisher et al., 2015;Gadassi et al., 2016;Schmiedeberg & Schröder, 2016;Schoenfeld et al., 2017), which cannot capture the full range of the construct or allow for measurement error to be spread across multiple items (Epstein, 1980;Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994). Of the multi-item measures of sexual satisfaction that exist, none have been developed or validated for African populations or those with unique SRH needs such as people living with HIV (Cooper et al., 2009;Gruskin et al., 2007). ...
... In a large study conducted in five countries, an individual's sexual satisfaction was positively correlated with their own sexual activity, sexual functioning, and relationship happiness, as well as those of the partner (Fisher et al., 2015). Other studies have found that greater sexual satisfaction is associated with having higher relationship satisfaction (Butzer & Campbell, 2008;Byers, 2005;Fisher et al., 2015;Gadassi et al., 2016;McNulty et al., 2016;Schoenfeld et al., 2017;Sprecher, 2002), whereas lower sexual satisfaction is associated with poorer communication and more conflict in couples (Schmiedeberg & Schröder, 2016;Schoenfeld et al., 2017). ...
... Similar to the approach used by Neilands et al. (2019), we analyzed the data at the individual (versus couple) level because we were interested in developing a scale that could be administered to individuals in partnerships as opposed to only couples. An individual-level orientation is also consistent with scale development procedures for existing measures of sexual satisfaction (Carter et al., 2018;Fisher et al., 2015;Gadassi et al., 2016;Hudson, 2007;Hudson et al., 1981;Lawrance & Byers, 1995;Schmiedeberg & Schröder, 2016;Schoenfeld et al., 2017). We tested for whether the associations between the CSSS and respective outcomes (i.e., relationship dynamics and sexual risk behaviors) differed by gender by including an interaction term between gender and the CSSS in the models. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual satisfaction is an important dimension of relationship quality with implications for sexual and reproductive health (SRH), and HIV prevention, care, and treatment. We developed and validated the Couple Sexual Satisfaction Scale (CSSS) with heterosexual couples in sub-Saharan Africa. Using data from qualitative interviews with 94 partnered women and men in Swaziland and Malawi, we generated a 22-item scale and administered it to 211 couples with at least one partner living with HIV in Malawi. We performed an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to identify and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the factor structure. To assess validity, we tested for associations between the CSSS and relationship quality, consistent condom use, and intimate partner violence (IPV) using generalized estimating equations. The EFA yielded two factors, general sexual satisfaction (13-item CSSS-Gen subscale, e.g., “I am satisfied with the sweetness of sex in our relationship”) and HIV-specific sexual satisfaction (4-item CSSS-HIV subscale, e.g., “My appetite for sex has gone down due to HIV”), accounting for 78% of the shared variance. The CFA supported the two-factor solution: χ²(118) = 203.60; CFI = 0.909; SRMR = 0.057; RMSEA = 0.058. Participants with higher CSSS-Gen scores reported higher coital frequency and relationship quality (intimacy, trust, unity, equality, relationship satisfaction, commitment, partner social support), and less consistent condom use, physical IPV, and emotional IPV. Participants with higher CSSS-HIV scores reported higher coital frequency and relationship quality (trust, partner support), and less consistent condom use, and sexual IPV. The CSSS demonstrated good psychometric properties and provides new opportunities to study sexual reproductive health and HIV-related health behaviors among couples in sub-Saharan Africa.
... Moreover, the duration of the relationship also seems to be an important factor. It is well documented that especially with longer relationship duration sexual satisfaction (Fisher, 1987;Quinn-Nilas, 2020;Schmiedeberg & Schröder, 2016) as well as relationship satisfaction (Meltzer et al., 2014) decreases. ...
... Moreover, a number of studies on the association between sexual satisfaction and relationship variables such as relationship quality or relationship satisfaction suggest that more sexually satisfied individuals report higher levels of relationship satisfaction Sprecher, 2002;Sprecher & Cate, 2004;Yeh et al., 2006). Taking previous research, which shows that sexual satisfaction decreases with relationship duration (Fisher, 1987;Quinn-Nilas, 2020;Schmiedeberg & Schröder, 2016) into account, we expect that the longer the relationship lasts, the lower the sexual satisfaction and relationship quality of short-term oriented individuals (H5). For long-term oriented individuals we did not hypothesize an effect of relationship duration on sexual satisfaction and relationship quality. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although, uncommitted dating via online apps is widespread, most people find value in long-term, trusting relationships. From a social and evolutionary point of view, it has been theorized that mating strategies, and, in particular, short-term strategies make some relationships more vulnerable than others. In our study, we examined short- and long-term relationship orientation and their association with relationship quality. We analysed data from 395 heterosexual couples using the actor-partner-interdependence model in order to explore effects on individuals and couples. Results demonstrated that short-term orientation was associated with lower levels of relationship quality and an increased likelihood of complaints about the partner and the relationship. Long-term relationship orientation, on the other hand, was associated with higher levels of relationship quality. In addition, higher levels of sexual satisfaction mediate the association between short-term orientation and relationship quality. In-depth analyses revealed gender- and couple effects.
... Indeed, sexual satisfaction is typically highest during the first year of a committed relationship and subsequently declines [7]. ...
... During the month preceding the study, 10.7% of the study participants were dissatisfied with their sexual orgasms (climex) at all, 18.5% were satisfied a little bit with their orgasms, while 17.1% of the participants were very satisfied with their orgasm figure (7). ...
... In the literature, there is mixed empirical evidence regarding the effect of relationship duration on sexual satisfaction. Firstly, there is empirical evidence for a negative association between relationship duration and sexual satisfaction (Klusmann, 2002;Schmiedeberg & Schröder, 2016). This decline of sexual satisfaction over the course of a relationship is commonly attributed to habituation -a decreased interest in sexual intercourse due to accessibility and predictability in sexual behavior with a steady partner over time (Call et al., 1995;Liu, 2003). ...
... As mentioned in the introduction, the effect of relationship duration on sexual satisfaction has yielded mixed, and even contradictory, results. Although a negative effect of relationship duration on sexual satisfaction has indeed been found before (Klusmann, 2002;Schmiedeberg & Schröder, 2016), there is no further evidence of this effect only being true for men but not women. Hence, considering the cross-sectional nature of the data, as well as the very small size of the effect (B = −.005), ...
Article
Closeness, in the sense of inclusion of other in the self, has been found to be an important factor for relationship well-being, satisfaction and pair-bonding. In the past ten years, the self-expansion theory has also been incorporated into sex research, although studies are still very scarce and not without limitations. The present research aimed at further elucidating the relevance of relational factors for couple’s sexuality, and to clarify the role inclusion of other in the self plays for sexual satisfaction and sexual distress. A broadly representative sample of 3,046 men and women aged 18 to 75 was taken from the German Health and Sexuality Survey (GeSiD). Throughout analyses, inclusion of other in the self and love were positively related to sexual satisfaction. Furthermore, inclusion of other in the self was negatively related to how strongly someone was distressed by experiencing sexual problems. Closeness seems to have a compensatory role especially for women with sexual problems, protecting them from experiencing sexual distress. In future research, couple’s sexual satisfaction should not be compartmentalized from relational aspects. Results clearly promote the Inclusion of Other in the Self Scale as an interesting tool for both research and treatment.
... This has proven true for men and women, from young people to those beyond middle age, both married and unmarried [18][19][20]. The impact of this factor is of such a magnitude that it is considered one of the integral elements of stability and satisfaction in a relationship [19][20][21]. There is even evidence that changes in sexual satisfaction predict changes in satisfaction with the relationship [19]. ...
... Although there are theoretical models to justify both perspectives, there is no reliable empirical evidence to establish the dominance of one over the other [23]. Sexual satisfaction is a complex construct that includes physical and emotional pleasure, as well as a subjective assessment of a person's sex life [21]. Some studies have concluded that the frequency of sexual activity is positively correlated with sexual satisfaction [20,23], along with the variety of sexual activities [24]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this online study was to develop an explicative model regarding the origin of infidelity-related behaviors on social networks for Hispanic women. We propose that sexual satisfaction and emotional intimacy have a direct impact on the satisfaction of couple relationships, and an indirect impact in the development of infidelity-related behaviors on social networks. To investigate this proposal, we used a non-probabilistic sample of 341 Hispanic women living in Puerto Rico. Statistical analyses confirmed that satisfaction and ambivalence in couple relationship completely mediate the association between sexual satisfaction and infidelity-related behaviors on social networks, as well as the relationship between emotional intimacy and infidelity-related behaviors on social networks. Overall, women who practice infidelity-related behaviors on social networks showed less sexual satisfaction, less emotional intimacy, less relationship satisfaction, and greater ambivalence. Our results provide theoretical and empirical evidence on how infidelity-related behaviors on social networks develop in couple relationships, and these results could help to inform possible forms of prevention and intervention.
... A methodological limitation to this study is that participants were not asked the duration of their relationship, so use of intimate apparel across time could not be measured. Schmiedeberg and Shroder [61] found that sexual satisfaction peaks in the second half of the first year of a relationship and then declines over time. As the relationship progresses, the couple becomes more acquainted with one another and experience mutual life stressors; the couple transitions into the companionate phase, characterized by a state of comfort and commonality [62]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Current literature on women's sexual signaling focuses on modes of attracting potential, new sexual partners, but says little about women's subtle sexual signals in committed, romantic relationships. Subtle sexual signals are inherently private and are only visible to the intended audience; a woman might use these signals to elicit or accept a sexual response from her partner or to increase her overall attractiveness, or attractivity. In this study, we sought to identify women's use of intimate apparel as a proceptive or receptive behavior as well as the effects of relative mate value, relationship commitment, relationship satisfaction, and sexual functioning. A total of N = 353 women in the United States aged 25-45 who were in committed, heterosexual relationships completed the survey; 88.7% of the sample indicated wearing or having worn sexy underwear. Results indicate that women report wearing sexier underwear the day taking the survey if they anticipate sexual activity that same day. However, during the most recent sexual activity, women did not report wearing sexier underwear if they initiated (proceptive) that activity. While relative mate value was not directly related to sexiness of intimate apparel, women who report higher mate value tend to wear sexier underwear. Women's use of intimate apparel might be viewed as a method of increasing attractivity and underlying receptivity to aid relationship maintenance, though caveats regarding measures and alternative interpretations are also discussed. Findings suggest that these women use intimate apparel to feel sexy, desired, aroused, and to prepare for sex with their partners. This study is the first to examine intimate apparel in relationships and as a subtle sexual signal of proceptivity and receptivity.
... Romantic relationships are a key source of happiness and help people meet fundamental needs for emotional support, personal growth, and sexual connection (e.g., Aron & Aron, 1996;Baumeister & Leary, 1995;Diener & Seligman, 2002;. However, romantic partnerships are also difficult to maintain-divorce rates are between 40% and 50% in North America (Amato, 2010;Kelly, 2015)-and even among couples who stay together, satisfaction and sexual desire tend to decline over time, often after the first year (Klusmann, 2002;McNulty et al., 2016;Schmiedeberg & Schröder, 2016). Therefore, people are likely to experience times in their lives when they feel that their relationship and sexual needs are unfulfilled. ...
Article
Romantic relationships help people meet needs for connection and emotional and sexual fulfillment. In the current research, we investigate an unexplored response to feeling sexually and relationally unfulfilled: reflecting on positive sexual experiences with past partners (or sexual nostalgia). Across three studies, people low in attachment avoidance (i.e., comfortable with closeness) who were (a) single or (b) sexually or relationally dissatisfied reported greater sexual nostalgia, whereas people high in attachment avoidance (i.e., value autonomy) did not calibrate their feelings of sexual nostalgia based on their current relationship status or satisfaction. Sexual fantasies about past partners (i.e., sexual nostalgia) were distinct from other types of sexual fantasies (Study 1) and the effects could not be attributed to general nostalgia (Study 2) or sexual desire (Study 3). Chronic sexual nostalgia detracted from satisfaction over time. The findings have implications for theories of nostalgia and attachment and for managing unfulfilled needs in relationships.
... 20,21,22,23 However Schmiedeberg and Schroder opined that this effect is seen in the first couple of years only, and the frequency of intercourse decreases over years with increased TitOr, unless the partner uses novel methods during sex. 24 An attractive, sexually skillful partner has positive influence on orgasm with reduced time to orgasm. 12 Sexual dysfunction in the partner such as premature ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, and so on affects the orgasm negatively in women and in majority of the cases leads to anorgasmia in women. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Orgasm in women is a complex phenomenon, and the sparse data about time to orgasm (TitOr) in women are an impediment to the research on this complex phenomenon. Aim: To evaluate the stopwatch measured TitOr in women in a monogamous stable heterosexual relationship. Methods: The study was conducted through web-based and personal interview using a questionnaire, which addressed the issues related to TitOr. Sexually active women older than 18 years and women in a monogamous stable heterosexual relationship were included in the study. Those with comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, asthma, psychiatric illness, sexual dysfunction and those with partners with sexual dysfunction were excluded. The participants reported stopwatch measured TitOr after adequate sexual arousal over an 8-week period. The data analysis was performed using GraphPad software (©2018 GraphPad Software, Inc, USA). Outcomes: The outcomes included stopwatch measured average TitOr in women. Results: The study period was from October 2017 to September 2018 with a sample size of 645. The mean age of the participants was 30.56 ± 9.36 years. The sample was drawn from 20 countries, with most participants from India, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States of America. The mean reported TitOr was 13.41 ± 7.67 minutes (95% confidence interval: 12.76 minutes-14.06 minutes). 17% of the participants had never experienced the orgasm. Penovaginal intercourse was insufficient to reach orgasm in the majority, in whom it was facilitated by certain positions and maneuvers. Clinical implications: The knowledge of stopwatch measured TitOr in women in real-life setting helps to define, treat, and understand female sexual function/dysfunction better and it also helps to plan treatment of male ejaculatory dysfunction, as reported ejaculatory latency in healthy men is much less than the reported TitOr here. Strengths & limitations: Use of stopwatch to measure TitOr and a large multinational sample are the strength of the study. The absence of a crosscheck mechanism to check the accuracy of the stopwatch measurement is the limitation of the study. Conclusion: Stopwatch measured average TitOr in the sample of women in our study, who were in a monogamous stable heterosexual relationship, is 13.41 minutes (95% confidence interval: 12.76 minutes-14.06 minutes) and certain maneuvers as well as positions during penovaginal intercourse help achieving orgasm, more often than not. Bhat GS, Shastry A. Time to Orgasm in Women in a Monogamous Stable Heterosexual Relationship. J Sex Med 2020;XX:XXX-XXX.
... Pour être inclus, les participants devaient être âgés de plus de 18 ans, de langue maternelle franç aise, hétérosexuels et vivre avec leur partenaire depuis au moins un an pour évaluer le niveau de satisfaction sexuelle en dehors de la phase de lune de miel. En effet, Schmiedeberg et Schröder (2016) ont montré qu'après une première année évoluant positivement, la satisfaction sexuelle décline de faç on constante. Au total, 646 personnes ont participé à l'étude. ...
Article
Résumé Objectif L’objectif de cette étude était de valider une version française de l’échelle de satisfaction sexuelle. Méthode Un total de 646 participants, 468 femmes et 178 hommes âgés en moyenne de 35,18 ans (ET: 13,77), ont rempli en ligne 3 questionnaires: l’échelle de satisfaction sexuelle (Comeau & Boisvert, 1985), l’échelle d’évaluation de l’anxiété et de la dépression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS) et l’échelle d’ajustement dyadique à 16 items (Dyadic Adjustment Scale-16, DAS-16). Résultat L’analyse de la distribution des items, les corrélations inter-items et items-score total ainsi que l’analyse hiérarchique des facteurs obliques ont conduit à l’exclusion de 6 items. Une analyse factorielle confirmatoire de cette version à 19 items a montré des indicateurs satisfaisants (RMSEA = 0,012 ; SRMR = 0,065 ; CFI = 0,999 ; TLI = 0,999 ; GFI = 0,99) et l’alpha de Cronbach est de 0,96. L’échelle mesure un facteur général de satisfaction sexuelle. Conclusion Cette étude a permis d’obtenir une version française de l’échelle de satisfaction sexuelle en 19 items proposant ainsi une mesure auto-rapportée valide et fiable de la satisfaction sexuelle. Les résultats ont été discutés à la lumière de leurs implications cliniques et scientifiques.
... According to a study, 50-60% of couples reported a signi cant reduction in sexual satisfaction during the course of infertility treatment (3). Decreased sexual dissatisfaction has other underlying causes such as a history of trauma, rape, mental illnesses and divorce (17)(18)(19). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Depression and sexual dissatisfaction are among the most common psychological factors caused by infertility. Infertility is an important topic in Iranian culture and many studies have already targeted them. The aim of this study was to compare the severity of both depression and sexual dissatisfaction between fertile and infertile groups of women in Iran. Methods: A number of 180 infertile and 540 fertile women participated in this case-control study. The cases were selected through a combination of multistage stratified and cluster sampling method. For each infertile woman, three fertile women were randomly selected. Data gathering instrument consisted of demographic variables, Depression Inventory Scale, Second Edition, and the Linda Berg Sexual Satisfaction Questionnaire. The multivariate marginal model and SPSS 21 software were used for data analyses with a significance level of 0.05. Results: After adjusting for the effect of confounding variables, the marginal model showed the odds of depression increased by approximately 21.305 times among cases compared to control subjects (OR = 21.305, 95% CI for OR:14.75-32.021, P < 0.001). This model also found that by moderating the effect of confounding variables, infertility increased the odds of low sexual satisfaction by approximately 15.560 times (OR = 15.560, 95% CI for OR = 5.089–47.571, p < 0.001). Chi-square test (Monte Carlo Simulation) showed a significant relationship between infertility treatment and severity of depression in infertile group of women (P = 0.001). Severe cases of depression were mostly seen among women who received IVF treatment. Conclusion: The overall severity of depression and sexual dissatisfaction were higher in infertile group than that of fertile one. Also, most cases of severe depression were seen in IVF clinics, which may boost their depression. The results of this study may help reveal the psychological and social aspects of infertility in, Iran.
... Older age was expected to be linked to more CNMR fantasies given that older adults are more likely to be in long-term, monogamous relationships. Sexual satisfaction tends to decline over time in such relationships (Schmiedeberg & Schröder, 2016) due, in part, to the Coolidge effect, which may stimulate increased interest in departures from monogamy. The Coolidge effect refers to the well-documented phenomenon that habituation of sexual arousal to one stimulus can be reawakened with a novel stimulus (Dewsbury, 1981). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present research explored fantasies about consensual nonmonogamous relationships (CNMRs) and the factors that predict such fantasies in a large and diverse online sample (N = 822) of persons currently involved in monogamous relationships. Nearly one-third (32.6%) of participants reported that being in some type of sexually open relationship was part of their favorite sexual fantasy of all time, of whom most (80.0%) said that they want to act on this fantasy in the future. Those who had shared and/or acted on CNMR fantasies previously generally reported positive outcomes (i.e., meeting or exceeding their expectations and improving their relationships). In addition, a majority of participants reported having fantasized about being in a CNMR at least once before, with open relationships being the most popular variety. Those who identified as male or non-binary reported more CNMR fantasies than those who identified as female. CNMR fantasies were also more common among persons who identified as anything other than heterosexual and among older adults. Erotophilia and sociosexual orientation were uniquely and positively associated with CNMR fantasies of all types; however, other individual difference factors (e.g., Big Five personality traits, attachment style) had less consistent associations. Unique predictors of infidelity fantasies differed from CNMR fantasies, suggesting that they are propelled by different psychological factors. Overall, these results suggest that CNMRs are a popular fantasy and desire among persons in monogamous romantic relationships. Clinical implications and implications for sexual fantasy research more broadly are discussed.
... Among adults, having a partner, cohabiting or being married (Lau, Kim, & Tsui, 2005) are associated with higher sexual satisfaction (Sánchez-Fuentes et al., 2014), and there is a similar association among young people: 'unattached, sexually active young people were least satisfied with their sex lives than were marrieds, cohabitants and committed daters' (Pedersen & Blekesaune, 2003, p. 192). The duration of the relationship matters, too, although there is no consensus regarding its effect on SS (Schmiedeberg & Schröder, 2016). Some studies did not find any significant effects from the duration of the relationship (Carpenter, Nathanson, & Kim, 2009;Ho, Cheung, & Cheung, 2008;Pedersen & Blekesaune, 2003), while other studies have shown differences between men and women (Heiman et al., 2011;Rehman, Rellini, & Fallis, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the determinants of sexual satisfaction among Italian young men and women at the beginning of their adulthood, taking into account the different stages of sentimental and sexual transitions. We based the analyses on the data collected in 2017 by the SELFY Survey on a sample of 7842 university students in Italy. Results of the logistic regression models highlight that, above all, sexual satisfaction is positively associated with the frequency of intercourse within a stable and exclusive relationship. Furthermore, results highlight the essential role of all transitions, sexual and sentimental, in enhancing sexual satisfaction, both in a positive and negative direction. Religion has a positive effect too, but only among students who have not yet had intercourse, expressing a protective effect of the adherence to beliefs. Significant differences between young men and women emerged mainly concerning performance, other conditions being equal.
... For instance, some uncommitted sexual encounters can evolve into more intimate (but still uncommitted) sexual encounters (e.g., Fuck Buddies might turn into Friends With Benefits) or into a committed relationship if partners become attached or "fall for each other" (Owen & Fincham, 2012;Wentland & Reissing, 2011). Furthermore, sexual satisfaction in committed relationships tends to reach a peak period (i.e., "honeymoon period"; Aubin & Heiman, 2004) after which it decays significantly (Birnbaum, 2018;Khoury & Findlay, 2014;Schmiedeberg & Schroder, 2016); however, it is unclear whether sexual satisfaction in casual relationships shows a similar pattern. Third, in Sample 2 our design purposely contrasted those in committed relationships from those who were single and had engaged in casual sex, thereby excluding individuals who may simultaneously be in a relationship and engaging in casual sex (such as those in open relationships, who may show different patterns of results). ...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has conflated different types of casual sex, potentially obscuring patterns that may vary across categories. Using data from two large online community samples, we examined whether differences in attachment orientation predict experiences in casual sex encounters (i.e., One-Night Stand, Booty Call, Fuck Buddies, Friends With Benefits). We construed these encounters as ranging on levels of intimacy, and hypothesized that anxious individuals would most enjoy more intimate forms of casual sex and avoidant individuals would most enjoy less intimate forms. We asked individuals engaging in casual sex about their most recent sexual encounter. Results suggest that anxious and avoidant individuals report lower well-being in casual sex contexts relative to more secure individuals; however, the specific type of encounter moderated these associations. Regardless of the type of encounter, anxious individuals experience fewer orgasms. Attachment orientation predicted motivations for engaging in, and expectations for, casual sex relationships. For avoidant individuals, physical pleasure during sex is contingent on the type of encounter (reporting the highest levels of physical pleasure in Fuck Buddies encounters). This study is the first to provide evidence that the type of casual sexual encounter influences how anxious and avoidant individuals experience sex, both emotionally and physically.
... These differences could be due to the fact that homosexual women, as opposed to heterosexual women, use a greater diversity of sexual practices to achieve orgasms (Coleman et al., 1983). They could also be because the mean of the duration of the current relationship between homosexual women is much lower than heterosexuals; being demonstrated that sexual satisfaction decreases as the duration of the relationship increases (Castellanos-Torres, Álvarez-Dardet, Ruiz-Muñoz, & Pérez, 2013;Schmiedeberg & Schröder, 2016) Please cite this article in press as: Calvillo In the present study, homosexual men and women reported high levels of sexual satisfaction and relationship satisfaction, which reflects results reported by in heterosexuals and Sánchez-Fuentes and in homosexuals. Our comparison between homosexual men and homosexual women showed significant differences in both GMSEX and GMREL, with higher scores for women. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background/Objective The Interpersonal Exchange Model of Sexual Satisfaction Questionnaire (IEMSSQ) is one of the few instruments that has been developed from a theoretical model and assess sexual satisfaction. In addition, it has been successfully validated in Spanish heterosexual population. The objective of this study is to adapt and examine its psychometric properties (reliability, evidence of validity, and measurement invariance across sexual orientation and sex) in homosexual adults in a relationship. Method: A sample of 1,820 adults, of whom 50% are homosexuals and 55% men, answered the Spanish version of the IEMSSQ. In addition, subjects with homosexual orientation answered the Massachusetts General Hospital-Sexual Functioning Questionnaire and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Results: When comparing by sex and sexual orientation, the IEMSSQ has a strict invariant structure. Its reliability is good, and the evidence of construct and concurrent validity is adequate. However, the components of equality are moderate. Conclusions: The IEMSSQ makes it possible to compare the sexual satisfaction between homosexual/heterosexual men and women, presenting good psychometric properties in homosexual population, constituting an useful instrument in the clinical and research field.
... Age was a covariate in both sexual contexts. For committed sex, we controlled for relationship duration because longer relationships likely affect women's sexual outcomes (Gossmann, Mathieu, Julien, & Chartrand, 2003;Schmiedeberg & Schroder, 2016). For casual sex, we controlled for a relationship status because being in relationship might affect participants' retrospection on their past casual sex. ...
Article
Previous studies have found that women report more orgasm and sexual satisfaction from sex in committed relationships than from casual sex. We examined whether sociosexual orientation was associated with these differences, and explored the links between sociosexuality and sexual outcomes in these two sexual relationship contexts. Sexually active women (n = 1,084) completed an online survey measuring sociosexual orientation, orgasmic function, and sexual satisfaction. Participants reported sexual outcomes (orgasmic function and sexual satisfaction) with respect to their sexual activity over the past 12 months in a casual context (if applicable), and separately in a committed context (if applicable). Among women who had both casual and committed sex in the past year, orgasmic function and sexual satisfaction differed between these two relationship contexts only for more sexually restricted women (lower sociosexuality). In the full sample, higher sociosexuality was associated with higher orgasmic function in casual sex and with lower sexual satisfaction in committed sex. These findings underscore the importance of examining interactions between individual differences and contextual factors when studying women’s sexual outcomes.
... Sexual desire tends to be high in the initial stages of a relationship when partners are getting acquainted and sharing many new experiences (Baumeister & Bratslavsky, 1999), but with time as a relationship stabilizes, many couples face precipitous declines in their desire (McNulty et al., 2019;Muise et al., 2016). Sexual satisfaction similarly tends to decline over time , even beginning after the first year of the relationship (Schmiedeberg & Schröder, 2016). A framework that has advanced our understanding of how aspects of sexuality change over time in relationships are theories of implicit sexual beliefs -different beliefs about how sexual satisfaction can be maintained in relationships and what declines in desire or sexual satisfaction signal about the quality of the relationship (Bohns et al., 2015;Bőthe et al., 2017;Maxwell et al., 2017;Sutherland & Rehman, 2018). ...
Article
People's beliefs about how to maintain sexual satisfaction have been associated with how they navigate sexual differences, but research has yet to explore the consequences of these beliefs for couples facing a distressing sexual issue. The current research extends past work on sexual growth beliefs (i.e., the view that sexual satisfaction requires continuous effort to maintain) and sexual destiny beliefs (i.e., the view that sexual satisfaction is the result of natural sexual compatibility with a partner) to couples for whom these beliefs might be especially consequential - those coping with sexual dysfunction. In a dyadic longitudinal study of 97 couples coping with women's clinically significant low desire and arousal, we tested how sexual growth and destiny beliefs are associated with sexual, relationship, and personal well-being. We found that endorsing greater sexual growth beliefs was associated with higher sexual desire for both partners, whereas, with some exceptions, endorsing greater sexual destiny beliefs was linked to lower sexual desire and relationship satisfaction, more conflict, and more depressive and anxious symptoms. However, these effects did not persist one year later. Our findings highlight the implications of sexual growth and destiny beliefs for both couple members when navigating a chronic sexual difficulty.
... Past measures have focused on 525 either new and dating relationships or longer term, established relationships. Because stages of relationship have been found to be qualitatively and quantitatively different from one another, with increased initiation being linked to the newness of the relationship (Byers & Heinlein, 1989), and sexual satisfaction decreasing 530 within the first 2 years (Call et al., 1995;Frederick et al., 2017;Liu, 2003;Schmiedeberg & Schröder, 2016), it was considered vital to include people at both the early/dating and the later/ established stages of relationship in the same sample. This sample also included people in less traditional relationships (e.g., "poly-535 amorous," "swinging," or "friends with benefits") in order to capture a breadth of erotic preferences. ...
Article
This article presents four studies conducted to develop and validate a self-report measure of sexual turn-on initiation preference – the Questionnaire for Turn-On Initiation Preference (QTIP). Sexual initiation is a vital stage of sexual activity and yet there are few prior measures of initiation. Moreover, previous measures have focused exclusively on the person initiating and none have addressed the turn-on preferences of the recipient of the initiation. The objective of this questionnaire is to understand how individuals prefer their partner to initiate sex that enhances erotic turn-on. This questionnaire was developed in four stages. Study 1 focused on item generation using qualitative data from 219 men and women. Study 2 tested the original items on 2,027 respondents assessing potential factor structure, followed by item revisions and additions. Study 3 (N = 5,812) assessed the revised 61 items on a larger sample and evaluated factor structure, and Study 4 (N = 1,848) tested the factor structure of the 66-item version, with an exploratory factor analysis, capturing a four-factor structure of turn-on preference: Emotional, Seductive-Exotic, Surrender, and Sensation. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated adequate fit for the final short version of QTIP with 26 items, good test–retest reliability and convergent validity. Theoretical frameworks are discussed along with gender differences and clinical applications.
... azalttığı tam olarak anlaşılamamıştır.[19,20] Yine yapılan çalışmalarda ilişki süresinin ilk yıllarından sonra partnerlerin birbirine olan yakınlık ve tutkusunun azalabileceği ve bunun da zamanla cinsel memnuniyeti etkileyebileceği gösterilmiştir.[21,22] Diğer yandan, yine Lui ve ark.'nın yaptığı başka bir çalışmada ise patrnerlerin ilişki süresince birbirlerini daha iyi tanıdığını, cinsel uyumlarına aşina olduklarını ve böylece ilişki süresince cinsel memnuniyetlerinin zamanla arttığını vurgulanmıştır.[23] ...
... According to a study, 50-60% of couples reported significantly reduced sexual satisfaction during the course of infertility treatment (3). Decreased sexual satisfaction has other underlying causes such as a history of trauma, rape, mental illnesses, and divorce (18)(19)(20). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Depression and sexual dissatisfaction are among the most common psychological factors caused by infertility. Infertility is an essential topic in the Iranian culture, and many studies have already investigated it. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the depression severity and sexual dissatisfaction between fertile and infertile women in Iran. Methods: This case-control study enrolled 180 infertile women and 540 fertile women in 2019. The participants were selected through multistage stratified and cluster sampling methods. For each infertile woman, three fertile women were randomly selected. The data collection instruments consisted of a demographic form, the Depression Inventory Scale (Second Edition), and the Linda Berg Sexual Satisfaction Questionnaire. The multivariate marginal model and SPSS version 21 were used for data analysis at a significance level of 0.05. Results: After adjustment for confounding variables, the marginal model showed that the odds of depression increased by approximately 21.305 times among cases compared to controls (OR = 21.305, 95% CI = 14.75 - 32.021, P < 0.001). This model also found that by moderating the effects of confounding variables, infertility increased the odds of low sexual satisfaction by approximately 15.560 times (OR = 15.560, 95% CI = 5.089 - 47.571, P < 0.001). The chi-square test showed a significant relationship between infertility treatment and depression severity in infertile women (P = 0.001). Conclusions: The overall depression severity and sexual dissatisfaction were higher in the infertile group than in the fertile one. Most cases of severe depression were observed in IVF clinics with higher depression levels. The study may help reveal infertility's psychological and social aspects in Iran.
... Relational variables also play a role in sexual satisfaction. People in romantic relationships are generally more satisfied sexually than single people (Higgins et al., 2011;Schmiedeberg & Schröder, 2016); in long-term relationships, partners are more likely to know each other's likes and dislikes making it easier to satisfy one's partner, and especially women are less likely to orgasm in casual encounters compared to established relationships (Armstrong et al., 2012). Furthermore, relationship and sexual satisfaction are closely linked with the association generally thought to be bidirectional in nature (Byers, 2005;McNulty et al., 2016;L. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual satisfaction has been robustly associated with relationship and individual well-being. Previous studies have found several individual (e.g., gender, self-esteem, and attachment) and relational (e.g., relationship satisfaction, relationship length, and sexual desire) factors that predict sexual satisfaction. The aim of the present study was to identify which variables are the strongest, and the least strong, predictors of sexual satisfaction using modern machine learning. Previous research has relied primarily on traditional statistical models which are limited in their ability to estimate a large number of predictors, non-linear associations, and complex interactions. Through a machine learning algorithm, random forest (a potentially more flexible extension of decision trees), we predicted sexual satisfaction across two samples (total N = 1846; includes 754 individuals forming 377 couples). We also used a game theoretic interpretation technique, Shapley values, which allowed us to estimate the size and direction of the effect of each predictor variable on the model outcome. Findings showed that sexual satisfaction is highly predictable (48–62% of variance explained) with relationship variables (relationship satisfaction, importance of sex in relationship, romantic love, and dyadic desire) explaining the most variance in sexual satisfaction. The study highlighted important factors to focus on in future research and interventions.
... Our empirical analysis is based on data from the pairfam (Brüderl et al. 2018;Huinink et al. 2011). A handful of studies used the data to examine some aspects of sexuality (Hajek 2019;Kislev 2020;Morgan et al. 2018;Rainer and Smith 2012;Schmiedeberg et al. 2017;Schmiedeberg and Schröder 2016;Schröder and Schmiedeberg 2015;Smith 2012). However, these studies did not consider the influence of personality traits on sexuality. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual well-being plays an important role in the quality of life. Against this background, we provide an economics-based approach to the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and various dimensions of sexuality. From a theoretical viewpoint, personality influences sexual well-being not only by how a person feels about sex, but also by how the person behaves in a sexual relationship. Personality shapes information sharing about sexual preferences, the way dissonant sexual preferences of the partners are handled, and the extent to which a person is committed to promises made to a partner. Using a large representative dataset from Germany, we find that personality traits play a role in a person’s own sexual satisfaction, in (the self-assessment of) fulfilling their partner’s sexual needs and desires, in sexual communication, in actual and desired frequency of sex, and in extradyadic affairs. Conscientiousness contributes to a mutually beneficial sex life and increases a person’s commitment to their partner. The opposite holds true for neuroticism. While extraversion and openness to experience help realize a mutually beneficial sex life, we find no evidence that they have a commitment value. On the contrary, extraversion is associated with lower commitment to the partner. Agreeableness contributes to higher commitment. However, agreeableness appears to make people more reluctant to express their sexual needs and desires.
... Then, it will result in decreased sexual satisfaction [5,7,8]. Early sex education, pre-training rehabilitation programs, couples managing sexual change, and intimate relationships can improve the situation [9][10][11][12]. However, most research in this area has focused on the effects of treatment on the sexual health of breast cancer patients while ignoring the effects of proactive needs of partners on the sexual satisfaction of breast cancer patients. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
PurposeTo measure the sexual activity of breast cancer survivors and their partners to better understand the causes of sexual inactivity and sexual dissatisfaction in this population.Methods We investigated the proportion of sexual activity and sexual dissatisfaction in a cross‐sectional study and described their association with sexual health information sexual thoughts, socio‐demographic factors, body image, marital satisfaction, and mental health problems. We enrolled 438 eligible couples by convenient sampling. The statistical analysis and graphical work were completed using SPSS and Graphpad Prism.ResultsOf all participants, 58.66% (257/438) reported being sexually inactive. Of the 41.3% (181/438) sexually active participants, 96.7% (175/181) were considered to have sexual dysfunction. Patients’ sexual knowledge related to their disease, such as “sexual activity may impede disease recovery (AOR = 1.642; 95% CI: 1.119~2.409)”, “sexual activity may cause cancer recurrence or metastasis (AOR = 1.526; 95% CI: 1.012~2.302)”, “sexual activity could change the estrogen level and stimulate tumor growth (AOR = 1.585; 95% CI: 1.021~2.460)” were significantly associated with sexual inactivity. Psychological issues related to sexual activity, and hospital's sexual health resources, such as“anxiety (AOR = 2.141; 95% CI: 1.400~3.272)”, “depression (AOR =2.082; 95% CI: 1.317~3.293)”, “feeling less feminine as a result of your disease or treatment (AOR = 1.526; 95% CI: 1.012~2.302) ”, “dissatisfied with their physical appearance (AOR = 1.514; 95% CI: 1.010~2.271) ”, “medical providers provide information on sexual health (AOR = 4.459; 95% CI: 2.044~9.730) ”, “used sexual health aids (AOR = 1.514; 95% CI: 1.010~2.271) ” were significantly associated with sexual dissatisfaction. We also identified that the sexual demands of the partner led to increased sexual dissatisfaction among the survivors. Conclusions Most Chinese breast cancer survivors were sexually inactive. Patients’ sexual knowledge related to their disease was the great barrier to sexual activity. Improving psychological problems associated with sexual activity and providing professional sexual health resources in hospitals can effectively improve sexual satisfaction among survivors. In addition, the impact of the partner's proactive needs on sexual satisfaction also needs to be considered when developing couples' therapy together.
... For example, greater sexual satisfaction is associated with increased emotional intimacy (Štulhofer et al., 2014;Yoo et al., 2014), greater relationship satisfaction (McNulty et al., 2016;Sprecher, 2002; for a review, see Christopher & Sprecher, 2000), greater fidelity and commitment (Sprecher, 2002;Yucel & Gassanov, 2010), and greater physical and psychological health (e.g., Holmberg et al., 2010). Moreover, it is widely documented that sexual satisfaction ebbs and flows in relationships, with sexual satisfaction shifting across the duration of relationships (e.g., Heiman et al., 2011;Schmiedeberg & Schröder, 2015). Yet, people vary in their underlying belief that they can learn to be better sexual partners, or the extent to which they hold a sexual growth mindset (Böthe et al., 2017;Maxwell et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Research suggests that having a sexual growth mindset (SGM), or believing that a person can become a better sexual partner over time, may improve sexual relationships. The present research investigated the impact of SGMs on a new sexual outcome: sexual rejection sensitivity. In Study 1, adults in romantic relationships completed measures of SGM and sexual rejection sensitivity from their own and from their partner’s perspective ( N = 377; 49.9% women; M age = 29.1 years, SD age = 12.2 years). Findings show that perceived partner, but not own, SGM is associated with lower sexual rejection sensitivity, and sexual rejection sensitivity mediated the link between perceived partner SGM and own sexual satisfaction. In Study 2, we replaced perceived partner SGM with actual partner SGM by recruiting both members of 104 different-sex romantic couples ( M age = 43.9 years, SD age = 14.5 years). Study 2 finds that partner, but not own, SGM was negatively associated with sexual rejection sensitivity. Further, sexual rejection sensitivity was negatively associated with sexual satisfaction in Study 1 and for women in Study 2. This work demonstrates the importance of sexual partners’ implicit beliefs about sexuality (perceived or reported) in understanding sexual outcomes.
... A 7-year longitudinal study using two time points found that women reported lower desire, arousal, lubrication, and satisfaction at Time 2 compared with Time 1 (Gunst et al., 2017). Schmiedeberg and Schröder (2016) showed that there was a steady decline in sexual satisfaction over a 3-year period (three time points) among individuals in committed relationships. This result is in line with those of two eight-wave longitudinal studies spanning the first four-five years of 207 marriages, showing that sexual frequency and sexual satisfaction declined over that period for newlyweds couples . ...
Article
Full-text available
Whereas greater levels of intimacy have been shown to promote couples’ sexual well-being, recent theories suggest that satisfying sex is maintained via the capacity to encourage the partner’s individuality, while remaining intimately connected. Responses to capitalization attempts (i.e., the disclosure of a positive personal event) provide an opportunity to strengthen both the couple’s intimacy and each partner’s autonomy. Although responses to capitalization attempts are linked to couples’ greater relationship adjustment, very little is known about their relation to couples’ sexual well-being. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between self-reported, perceived, and observed responses to capitalization attempts and sexual satisfaction, sexual distress, and sexual function in 151 cohabiting couples who participated in a filmed discussion in the laboratory. They also completed self-report questionnaires pertaining to their responsiveness and to that of the partner during the discussion, as well as their sexual well-being. Results indicated that one’s higher levels of self-reported and partner-perceived active–constructive responses (enthusiasm/elaboration) during the discussion were associated with one’s own greater sexual satisfaction. Higher levels of perceived passive–constructive responses (quiet but interested) from one’s partner were associated with one’s own lower sexual satisfaction, and one’s higher levels of self-reported and perceived passive–destructive responses (lack of interest/self-focus) were associated with one’s own greater sexual distress. Finally, higher levels of observed active–destructive responses (undermines/denies the positive nature of the event) were associated with one’s own lower sexual function, while in women, they were associated with their lower sexual satisfaction. Findings contribute to a growing body of literature underscoring the importance of intimacy for sexual well-being in long-term relationships.
... Satisfying romantic relationships are one of the strongest predictors of happiness and life satisfaction (Coombs, 1991;Diener & Seligman, 2002) and sexual desire and satisfaction can be important aspects of maintaining overall relationship satisfaction (Butzer & Campbell, 2008;Impett et al., 2008;McNulty et al., 2016). However, on average, people experience lower sexual desire and sexual satisfaction over time (Impett et al., 2014;Klusmann, 2002;Schmiedeberg & Schroder, 2016) and a lack of interest in, or enjoyment of, sex are cited as reasons for ending a relationship (Regan, 2000;Sprecher, 1994Sprecher, , 2002Yabiku & Gager, 2009). Despite these average declines, some people are able to maintain desire and satisfaction decades into a relationship (Acevedo & Aron, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Sexuality is a key predictor of relationship satisfaction, but sexual desire and satisfaction can be difficult to maintain over time. Past research has investigated who might be more likely to experience higher (compared to lower) levels of desire and sexual satisfaction in their relationships. Certain aspects of personality, such as extraversion, have been associated with sexual satisfaction and desire, but evidence linking personality to sexual outcomes has generally been mixed, meaning there is a lot left to learn about how personality is associated with sexual well-being. A promising, yet unexplored, trait that could be associated with higher sexual desire and satisfaction is charisma—a combination of influence and affability that has been identified as a desirable trait when people are selecting a romantic or sexual partner. Across two studies—a cross-sectional study of individuals in relationships (N = 413) and a 21-day dyadic daily experience study (N = 121 couples)—people higher in charisma reported being more communal during sex and reported higher sexual desire and satisfaction. Through higher sexual communal strength, people with a charismatic partner also reported higher daily sexual desire and sexual satisfaction. The effects were largely retained above and beyond general communal strength and Big Five personality dimensions, although in Study 1, charisma was no longer associated with sexual desire and satisfaction when controlling for extraversion. The current findings provide initial evidence that charismatic people tend to be responsive to their partner’s sexual needs, which is associated with higher desire and sexual satisfaction in romantic relationships.
... Fourth, most study participants had a relatively short relationship duration (less than five years). Since sexual satisfaction is relatively higher at the beginning of the relationship (Schmiedeberg & Schröder, 2016), this may have affected results. Future research should examine the relationship between EDs and sexual satisfaction among women or couples with longer relationships. ...
Article
Women with eating disorders experience difficulties related to sexual activity, yet little is known about the indirect association between eating disorders and sexual satisfaction. This study examined the indirect association between eating disorders and sexual satisfaction using body image self-consciousness during physical intimacy and dissociation as mediators. Online questionnaires were answered by 985 Israeli women. Of them, 98 were identified as likely to have eating disorders (study group). A matching control group (n = 98) was selected from the remaining respondents. Participants in the study group had significantly higher body image self-consciousness and dissociation than the matched controls, as well as significantly lower sexual satisfaction. The research model revealed that body image self-consciousness during physical intimacy mediates the link between eating disorders and sexual satisfaction, while dissociation does not. Women with eating disorders have higher levels of self-consciousness about their body during sexual activity, which may distract them from their own sexual needs and desires and those of their partners, and this, in turn, is associated with sexual dissatisfaction. Findings highlight the need for improved evidenced-based assessment and management of the sexual satisfaction of women with eating disorders. Abbreviations: ED: eating disorders; AN: anorexia nervosa; BN: bulimia nervosa; BED: binge eating disorder.
... With increasing age come mobility problems, physical illnesses, and lack of sexual activity, predicting decreased sexual function (Diokno et al., 1990;Sánchez-Fuentes et al., 2014;Smith et al., 2011), especially after menopause (Thomas & Thurston, 2016). The duration of the relationship also proved to be a negative predictor of sexual desire and satisfaction (Carvalheira et al., 2014;Carvalho & Nobre, 2010;Lankveld et al., 2021;Schmiedeberg & Schröder, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Sexual function is an important area in women’s lives and has repercussions on well-being and sexual satisfaction. The literature identifies relational variables, such as romantic attachment, intimacy in relationships, and dyadic adjustment, as determinants that influence female sexual expression, satisfaction, and function. This study aimed to test a predictive model of female sexual function, contemplating possible relationships between these relational variables. Methods The participants in this study were 267 women in a romantic relationship, who completed, between 2017 and 2020, the Romantic Attachment Questionnaire, the Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships Scale, the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and the Female Sexual Function Index. Results Data analysis, using structural equation modeling (SEM), indicated an adjusted model. Trust and avoiding romantic attachment were positive predictors of intimacy. Ambivalent romantic attachment was a negative predictor of dyadic adjustment, while intimacy and dependent romantic attachment were positive predictors of dyadic adjustment, which, in turn, was a positive predictor of female sexual function. Age, as well as frequency and interest in sexual activity, was found to be associated with female sexual function and other variables. Conclusions These results are discussed in terms of the importance of contemplating relational variables in psychotherapeutic interventions for female sexual problems.
... None of these factors correlated with the dependent variables at > .30. As prior research indicates that age (Haavio-Mannila & Kontula, 1997), relationship length (Schmiedeberg & Schröder, 2016), and pregnancy complications (Schaffir, 2006) may be particularly linked to couples' sexual satisfaction and/or distress, we re-ran all analyses while controlling for these variables. All of the observed effects for sexual satisfaction and sexual distress remained significant, indicating that our effects were not driven by these contextual factors. ...
Article
Despite sexual activity being safe for the majority of expectant couples (i.e., the pregnant individual and their partner), negative attitudes toward having sex during pregnancy are common and are related to lower sexual well-being across this vulnerable life period. Using dyadic response surface analysis in a sample of 254 first-time expectant couples, we examined the degree to which expectant partners demonstrated similar versus dissimilar attitudes to sex during pregnancy and whether specific patterns of couples' similarity in attitudes may uniquely contribute to their sexual satisfaction and sexual distress. Couples' more positive attitudes (i.e., the more both partners perceived sexual activity as non-threatening to their pregnancy), rather than partners' similarity in attitudes, were associated with lower sexual distress for both partners and higher sexual satisfaction for male partners. In couples where partners held more dissimilar attitudes, men demonstrated greater distress when their female partner's attitudes were more positive than their own. To promote sexual well-being during pregnancy, interventions should assist couples to attain stronger positive attitudes to sex during pregnancy by targeting concerns about sex in both expectant partners.
Article
Reasons for sex are associated with sexual and relational outcomes. This study investigated reasons for sex at last sex, with a focus on obligation (an avoidance motivation) and doing something nice for a partner (an approach motivation), and their associations with sexual and relationship satisfaction, while controlling for marital duration, age, and sexual desire. We investigated these reasons among married, midlife Canadian women (n = 324), men (n = 275), and 25 non-binary/gender queer participants 40 to 59 years of age. Participants were recruited from a Qualtrics analytics panel and completed an online questionnaire. Obligation was reported as a reason for having sex by 12.4% of women and 1.8% of men; “doing something nice” was reported by 10.2% of women and 9.5% of men. In regression analyses, women who reported having sex for obligation had significantly lower relationship satisfaction and sexual satisfaction than women who did not report this reason. In contrast, having sex to do something nice for one’s partner was associated with higher sexual satisfaction among women. Findings indicate that having sex when feeling obligated may be associated with negative sexual and relational outcomes among midlife women.
Book
Relationship maintenance encompasses a wide range of activities that partners use to preserve their relationships. Despite the importance of these efforts, considerably more empirical focus has been devoted to starting (i.e. initiation) and ending (i.e. dissolution) relationships than on maintaining them. In this volume, internationally renowned scholars from a variety of disciplines describe diverse sets of relationship maintenance efforts in order to show why some relationships endure, whereas others falter. By focusing on 'what to do' rather than 'what not to do' in relationships, this book paints a more comprehensive picture of the forms, functions, and contexts of relationship maintenance. It is essential reading for scholars and students in psychology, communication, human development and family science, sociology, and couple/marriage and family therapy.
Article
Sex is a defining feature of marriage with important implications for marital success. Nevertheless, frequency and quality of sex decline across the early years of marriage. Given many modern-day couples in the U.S. are delaying marriage and thus experiencing many traditional aspects of marriage before their nuptials, the current research explored the extent to which premarital factors such as courtship duration, cohabitation, and children are associated with trajectories of couples' sexual relationships during the early years of marriage. Using a 4-year longitudinal study of newlywed couples, results demonstrated that couples with longer (versus shorter) courtships or who did (versus did not) cohabit engaged in less frequent sex at the start of marriage; interestingly, couples with longer (versus shorter) courtships or with (versus without) children prior to marriage experienced less steep declines in frequency of sex over time. Couples who did (versus did not) cohabit were less sexually satisfied initially and over time; couples with longer (versus shorter) courtships experienced less steep declines in sexual satisfaction over time. Notably, each of these associations emerged independent of related individual differences and marital quality. These findings highlight the notion that premarital factors can explain, at least in part, differences in newlywed couples' sexual relationships.
Preprint
Full-text available
Most couples view sexual satisfaction as crucial for the maintenance of romantic relationships, yet our understanding of a person’s sexual ideals (i.e., the traits and attributes a person desires in a sexual partner and the characteristics of a sexual experience a person finds to be ideal) and what might buffer against lower satisfaction associated with unmet sexual ideals, is limited. One factor that may help couples manage unmet sexual ideals is sexual communal strength—the extent to which a person is motivated to meet their partner's sexual needs. Across six studies including cross-sectional, dyadic, longitudinal, and experimental methods (N = 2,429), we draw upon the Ideal Standards Model and theories of communal motivation to examine whether unmet sexual ideals are associated with lower sexual satisfaction and relationship quality and test whether higher sexual communal strength buffered these effects. Results suggest that when individuals perceive their partner to fall short in meeting their sexual ideals, they feel less sexually satisfied and report poorer relationship quality. However, having a partner who was high in sexual communal strength buffered these effects. Whereas people with partners who were low in sexual communal strength typically reported poorer sexual satisfaction and relationship quality when their sexual ideals were unmet, these negative associations were attenuated among people with partners who were high in sexual communal strength. Our results provide novel evidence of the deleterious effects of unmet sexual ideals for relationships and suggest that sexual communal strength can help buffer these detriments among partners.
Article
Introduction The increasing research interest in sexual satisfaction corresponds to a large amount of studies which focus on different singular determinants without establishing a common model for its explanation. Objectives The purpose of this review is to systematically identify and evaluate the structure and results of the current research about sexual satisfaction in heterosexual women in a long-term relationship. Methods A systematic literature search using Web of Knowledge, ProQuest and PSYNDEX was conducted from January 2004 to October 2019. In total, 1,649 studies published in the last 15 years were extracted from the databases with a systematic keyword search. Through a multistage evaluation process 204 studies met the inclusion criteria and described findings about sexual satisfaction as dependent variable. Results Research interest in sexual satisfaction increased notably in the last 5 years. Empirical analyses were predominantly based on data from North America whereas a considerably smaller share of research analyzed samples from Europe or Asia. Relationship variables were the most frequently analyzed predictors and included in more than half of the identified studies. Sexual behavior was most often analyzed in the form of frequency of sexual interactions. Contrariwise, sexual practices, communication about sexuality and sexual desire, and sexual thoughts received limited attention. Demographics were considered in one third of all studies. The inclusion of control variables was rare. Some important studies considered variables closely related to sexual satisfaction such as sexual dysfunction. Conclusion Relationship satisfaction and the frequency of sexual interactions are identified as the most frequently confirmed predictors of sexual satisfaction across all evaluated studies. Results about the effects of pornography consumption, religion, and relationship duration showed the greatest inconsistency. In general, identified effects were often believed to result from mediator variables like sexual desire or distracting thoughts.
Article
Although research in older individuals’ sexual health is steadily increasing, the nature of, and predictors related to, their distress about changes in sexual function have not been well studied. Using data from sexually active and partnered 1,047 Norwegian and Danish women and men aged 60-75 years, this study employed network analysis to explore the structure of older individuals’ sexual distress and the role of emotional intimacy. Men’s network of sexual distress facets was more densely interconnected than women’s network. Higher emotional intimacy was associated with lower sexual distress levels across gender. The findings have implications for sexual health interventions targeting older people.<br/
Article
Background Sexual and relationship satisfaction are intimately connected and share many predictors. Aim The aim of the present study is to disentangle the relationship between sexual and relationship satisfaction, by exploring the connections to other relevant correlates. Methods Regularized mixed graphical model networks were estimated separately for men and women, which were compared using the network comparison test. In addition, strength centrality and community structure were explored. Outcome The partial correlation structure between sexual satisfaction, relationship satisfaction and their correlates. Results The associations between variables measuring sexual and relationship satisfaction and related constructs did not differ significantly between partnered, cisgendered men and women. Sexual and relationship satisfaction were associated with sexual pleasure, sexual distress, and sexual communication for both men and women. Sexual satisfaction was the most central variable in the network for men (strength = 1.1), while sexual desire was the most central variable for women (strength = 1.1). Frequency of sexual activity was a central variable for both men and women (strength men = 1.0, strength women = 1.1). The community analysis showed similar communities of variables for men and women, except that frequency of sexual activity consistently belonged to the same community as sexual and relationship satisfaction for men, but not as consistently for women. Clinical Translation The results have clinical implication in sex and couples therapy, as they increase the knowledge on sexual and relationship satisfaction. Strengths & Limitations A strength of the study is the population-based dataset, and a limitation is that inferences of causality cannot be made due to the cross-sectional study design. Conclusion The present study suggests that men and women are largely similar when comparing constructs related to sexual and relationship satisfaction. Nickull S, Källström M, Jern P. An Exploratory Network Analysis of Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction Comparing Partnered Cisgendered Men and Women. J Sex Med 2021;XX:XXX–XXX.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Less is known about sexual attitudes of breast cancer survivors (BCSs) and its association with sexual activity and sexual dissatisfaction. Methods We investigated the proportion of sexual activity and sexual dissatisfaction in a cross‐sectional study among 341 Chinese BCSs aged 30‐75 years old, and we described their association with sexual attitudes, as well as socio‐demographic characteristics, physical health conditions, and mental health problems. Results Only 83 (24.3%) individuals reported sexual activity in the past year. More than 50% of BCSs considered that sexual activity had adverse impact on their disease recovery. The sexual attitudes such as “sexual activity may impede disease recovery” (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.51; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI: 0.30‐0.88), “sexual activity may cause cancer recurrence or metastasizes” (AOR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.30‐0.87), and “their partner fear contracting cancer by sexuality” (AOR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.23‐0.98) were significantly associated with decreased likelihood of reporting sexual activity in the past year. Although 201 (58.9%) BCSs reported that breast cancer decreased the frequency of their sexual activity, only 37 (10.9%) had ever discussed sexuality with a doctor to seek advice. Conclusions Most Chinese BCSs were sexually inactive. The sexual misconceptions about cancer were great barriers of sexual activity. Professional sexual education and consultation may be regarded as easy and effective intervention measures to correct BCSs' misguided sexual attitudes, and finally improving the overall sexual health for BCSs.
Article
As an important dimension of romantic relationships, sexual activity has received little attention in research on on‐again/off‐again (on–off) relationships. Study 1 assessed the prevalence and perceptions of sexual experiences in on–off relationships as compared to non‐cyclical relationships (those without a history of breakups and renewals); furthermore, current and post‐dissolution (PD) relationships were assessed. Findings showed that on–off partners were four times more likely to engage in sex after breakups than non‐cyclical partners (55 vs. 13%). Results also suggested that on–off partners' perceptions of PD sexual experiences were more satisfying, more compatible, and less stressful than were non‐cyclical partners'. Using longitudinal data, Study 2 showed that PD sex was linked with reconciling the relationship. Conclusions from these findings and future directions are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of Review This review aims to compile recent research on the interpersonal and relational predictors of sexual satisfaction and to identify key trends in this area of research. Recent Findings The introduction of the Interpersonal Exchange Model of Sexual Satisfaction (IEMSS) in 1995 caused researchers to begin conceptualizing sexual satisfaction in a relational context, rather than as an evaluation of individual sexual experiences. This shift gave rise to more dyadic research on sexual satisfaction, and in recent years, dyad-focused research has identified a number of factors that either facilitate or attenuate sexual satisfaction at the partner and relational levels. Factors such as communication, sexual compatibility, and relationship satisfaction have all been shown to facilitate greater sexual satisfaction. Conversely, factors like desire discrepancies and sexual dysfunction are common attenuators. Though recent research has yielded a greater understanding of the factors that are associated with sexual satisfaction, the current review identified an acute lack of experimental manipulations and individual differences research in this area, which may inhibit the development of effective treatments to maximize sexual satisfaction at the couple-level. Summary Current research on sexual satisfaction has identified a number of important interpersonal factors that predict sexual satisfaction levels; however, there is still a great need for research that will clarify the directionality of these relationships and examine individual differences to inform treatment development and clinical practice.
Article
Background Although their individual contributions to sexual and relational outcomes are well-established, there has been a lack of research on the importance of sexual frequency and sexual communication to sexual and relationship satisfaction. Aim To examine the contribution of sexual frequency and sexual communication to sexual and relationship satisfaction in the early stages of couple relationships. Methods A sample of 126 young, heterosexual couples (mean age = 23.3 years, SD = 2.4; average relationship duration = 1.9 years, SD = 0.9) filled out questionnaires about sexual frequency, sexual communication, and sexual and relationship satisfaction. Analyses were guided by the actor-partner interdependence model. Outcomes Main outcome variables were sexual satisfaction and relationship satisfaction, measured by the Quality of Sex Inventory and the Couple Satisfaction Index, respectively. Results Analyses revealed a significant actor effect of both sexual communication and sexual frequency for sexual satisfaction. Only sexual communication, not sexual frequency, predicted relationship satisfaction. No significant partner or gender effects were found. Clinical Translation These findings lend support to the notion that couples could benefit from focusing on non-behavioral processes (eg, sexual communication), rather than sexual behavior per se, when pursuing a fulfilling partnership. Strengths & Limitations Strengths of the study include the dyadic nature of the data and analyses, allowing for the evaluation of both individual- and couple-level processes. Also, to our knowledge, this is the first study to specifically examine the importance of sexual frequency and sexual communication to both sexual and relationship satisfaction. Limitations include the reliance on self-report measures and a relatively homogeneous sample. Conclusion Although both sexual frequency and sexual communication were relevant to the prediction of sexual satisfaction, only sexual communication predicted relationship satisfaction in this sample of young, heterosexual couples. Roels R, Janssen E. Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction in Young, Heterosexual Couples: The Role of Sexual Frequency and Sexual Communication. J Sex Med 2020;XX:XXX–XXX.
Article
Sex is a crucial factor that impacts the quality and stability of relationships, yet many couples report recurrent sexual issues – such as discrepancies in their desired sexual frequency or levels of sexual desire – that detract from their relationship quality. This article describes how applying the theory of communal motivation from relationship science to the sexual domain of relationships can shed light onto understanding how couples can maintain desire over time, remain satisfied in the face of conflicting sexual interests, and decline one another’s sexual advances in ways that protect their relationship. We integrate a decade of research on communal motivation, sexual rejection, and responses to sexual rejection to provide a better, and more holistic, understanding of how partners can successfully balance their sexual needs to ultimately reap the powerful rewards of a fulfiling sexual connection.
Article
Veterans who have experienced military sexual trauma (MST) report lower sexual satisfaction than veterans without a history of MST. The current study examined the relationship between demographic, physical health, mental health, and trauma variables and sexual satisfaction among a national sample of U.S. veterans who endorsed MST. Results demonstrated that lower sexual satisfaction was associated with uncoupled relationship status, poor physical health, and symptoms of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and sexual dysfunction among male and female veterans. Several additional factors were related to lower sexual satisfaction among female veterans. Findings highlight the importance of gender-targeted assessment, prevention, and treatment of sexual satisfaction problems.
Article
Mindfulness has shown positive links with conflict resolution. Additionally, couples skilled in conflict resolution report greater sexual and relationship satisfaction. However, no research has examined the moderating effect of mindfulness, specifically sexual mindfulness, between conflict resolution and sexual and relationship satisfaction. We used 1,627 couples from wave III of the Couple Relationships and Transition Experiences (CREATE) study. Sexual mindfulness moderated the association between conflict resolution and sexual satisfaction, even after controlling for attachment. Wives higher in sexual mindful awareness may rely less on conflict resolution for their sexual satisfaction. Karremans and colleagues’ (2017) model of mindfulness and romantic relationships provides a framework for testing whether, when, and how mindfulness increases positive romantic relationship processes and outcomes. Under this framework, mindfulness may provide a mechanism to help couples achieve sexual and relationship satisfaction. Mindfulness and sexual mindfulness may provide a useful mechanism for therapists, educators, social workers, and couples to enhance satisfaction within the romantic and sexual relationship even without partner buy-in.
Article
Full-text available
Sažetak: Ovim pregledom su obuhvaćene definicije i teorijski pogledi na konstrukt seksualnog zadovoljstva. U radu su prikazani i neki relativno noviji modeli seksualnog zadovoljstva: model Carpenterove i sur. (2009), koji razlikuje osobne, relacijske i kulturalne utjecaje na seksualno zadovoljstvo i ekološki model seksualnog zadovoljstva (Henderson, Lehavot i Simoni, 2009), koji različite odrednice seksualnog zadovoljstva smješta u okvir Bronfenbrennerove ekološke teorije. Polazeći od prethodno navedenih modela, prikazani su rezultati dosadašnjih istraživanja sljedećih odrednica seksualnog zadovoljstva: 1. odrednice osobne razine ili mikrosustava (socio-demografske karakteristike, sek-sualne disfunkcije, osobine ličnosti, stavovi o seksualnosti i subjektivna dobrobit), 2. odrednice interperso-nalne razine ili mezosustava (karakteristike same veze, romantična ljubav, seksualno samootkrivanje i drugi aspekti seksualnosti), 3. odrednice egzosustava (socijalna potpora, trudnoća, roditeljstvo, viktimizacija i obi-teljske interakcije u djetinjstvu) te 4. odrednice makrosustava (religioznost i politička ideologija). U završnom dijelu su prikazani zaključci i smjernice za buduća istraživanja u tri područja: 1. mjerni instrumenti, 2. ciljevi i problemi budućih istraživanja s obzirom na aktualne modele te 3. individualni vs. dijadni pristup. Ključne riječi: seksualno zadovoljstvo, pregled istraživanja, odrednice seksualnog zadovoljstva Seksualnost je za većinu ljudi važan as-pekt života i središnji dio intimnih veza. Sek-sualno zadovoljstvo (SZ) jedan je od ključ-nih aspekata ljudske seksualnosti. Definicija seksualnog zdravlja Svjetske zdravstvene or-ganizacije (WHO, 2004) uključuje neposto-janje seksualnih disfunkcija, ali i emocional-nu, mentalnu i socijalnu seksualnu dobrobit. Pozitivan pristup seksualnosti i seksualnim vezama i zadovoljstvo odnosno uživanje u seksualnim odnosima također su, prema ovoj definiciji, ključni za seksualno zdravlje. Sek-sualna želja jedan je od najsnažnijih motiva ljudskog ponašanja, a zadovoljenje seksualne želje jedno od najvećih ljudskih užitaka. SZ se smatra važnim faktorom i u općoj dobro-biti pojedinca (Henderson, Lehavot i Simo-ni, 2009). U prilog tome idu klinički podatci u području seksualne terapije i znanstvena istraživanja koja upućuju na značajnu pove-zanost seksualnog zadovoljstva s kvalitetom i stabilnošću intimnih veza (Byers, 2005; Chri-stopher i Sprecher, 2000; McNulty, Wenner i Fisher, 2016). Proučavanje relevantnih odrednica SZ-a ima, dakle, i praktične i teo-rijske implikacije.
Article
Despite the population of transgender individuals in the United States doubling from 2011 to 2016, this population is one of the most understudied in counseling and related disciplines. Of the available research, the associations between gender congruence, defined as an individual’s body matching their gender identity, and well-being have been examined, particularly demonstrating positive associations between gender congruence and overall life satisfaction. However, a dearth of research remains on the possible associations between gender congruence and indices of relationship well-being—particularly sexual satisfaction—and possible moderating effects of the internal negative feelings regarding one’s identity (internalized transphobia). To address these gaps in the literature, this study gathered self-report data from 165 binary transgender men. While there was not an effect of gender congruence on sexual satisfaction, internalized transphobia was found to moderate this association; individuals who reported high internalized transphobia and high gender congruence reported the highest sexual satisfaction. Results of this study highlight the existing literature on the negative associations between internalized transphobia and well-being for transgender individuals. Implications for counselors are discussed, including advocacy efforts and implementation of techniques to facilitate growth and resilience to help transgender clients navigate the negative effects of internalized transphobia.
Article
Full-text available
En el presente estudio teórico se realiza una revisión sistemática de investigaciones publicadas en las que la satisfacción sexual constituye la variable dependiente. Tras una búsqueda bibliográfica en las principales bases de datos electrónicas, y una vez realizado un proceso de selección, se resumen los principales resultados de 197 artículos científicos publicados entre 1979 y 2012. Se comprueba la complejidad y la relevancia de la satisfacción sexual, la cual se asocia con: a) variables individuales, como ciertas características socio-demográficas, psicológicas, así como con el estado de salud físico y psicológico; b) variables vinculadas con la relación de pareja y con la respuesta sexual; c) factores relacionados con el apoyo social y relaciones familiares; y d) creencias y valores culturales como la religión. Como conclusión se puede señalar que la satisfacción sexual constituye un factor clave, tanto de la salud sexual como del bienestar general de las personas. No obstante, a pesar de su relevancia, se echan en falta modelos teóricos que aúnen los factores más importantes en la explicación de la satisfacción sexual.
Article
Full-text available
This article introduces the DFG-funded “Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics” (pairfam) study, which was initiated to provide an extended empirical basis for advances in family research. Within the context of challenges in couples and family research, we address the major substantive fields covered by the pairfam panel: couple dynamics and partnership stability, childbearing, parenting and child development, and intergenerational relationships. Then we present the conceptual framework and survey design of pairfam. The panel started with about 4,000 respondents (anchors) in each of three birth cohorts: 1991-1993, 1981-1983, and 1971-1973. The panel also includes anchors’ partners. From the second wave onwards parents and children of anchors are included. The policy of pairfam with regard to the provision of scientific use files and data distribution are discussed in the concluding remarks. Zusammenfassung Dieser Beitrag stellt das deutsche Beziehungs- und Familienpanel (pairfam) vor, das eine empirische Basis für Fortschritte in der Beziehungsund Familienforschung bieten soll. Vor dem Hintergrund zentraler Herausforderungen in der Partnerschafts- und Familienforschung werden Themenschwerpunkte, der konzeptuelle Rahmen und das Design des pairfam-Projekts vorgestellt. Inhaltlich fokussiert werden Fragen der Aufnahme, Gestaltung und Beendigung von Partnerschaftsbeziehungen, Elternschaftsentscheidungen bei Familiengründung und -erweiterung, Erziehung und Eltern-Kind-Beziehungen sowie Intergenerationenbeziehungen. Befragungsteilnehmer waren in der ersten Erhebungswelle je rund 4.000 Jugendliche (geboren 1991-93), junge Erwachsene (geboren 1981-83) und Erwachsene im mittleren Lebensalter (geboren 1971-73) sowie nach Möglichkeit auch deren Partner/in. Ab der zweiten Erhebungswelle werden auch Eltern und Kinder einbezogen. Am Ende des Beitrages werden einige Angaben zur Distribution der Daten als scientific use file gemacht.
Article
Full-text available
The current research tested a model proposed by Baumeister and Bratslavsky (1999) suggesting that passion’s association with intimacy is best understood as being linked with changes in intimacy over time. Within this framework, when intimacy shows relatively large and rapid increases, levels of passion should be high. When intimacy remains unchanged over time, levels of passionate experience should be low. To test this hypothesis, 67 heterosexual couples involved in long-term relationships completed daily measures of intimacy, passion, and sexual satisfaction for 21 consecutive days. Analyses guided by the actor–partner interdependence model (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006) demonstrated that day-to-day changes in intimacy for both partners predicted relationship passion, sexual frequency, and sexual satisfaction in a manner conforming to Baumeister and Bratslavksy’s model. These results represent the first empirical support for this model of intimacy and passionate experience.
Article
Full-text available
This study was designed to systematically compare and contrast the psychometric properties of three scales developed to measure sexual satisfaction and a single-item measure of sexual satisfaction. The Index of Sexual Satisfaction (ISS), Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (GMSEX), and the New Sexual Satisfaction Scale-Short (NSSS-S) were compared to one another and to a single-item measure of sexual satisfaction. Conceptualization of the constructs, distribution of scores, internal consistency, convergent validity, test-retest reliability, and factor structure were compared between the measures. A total of 211 men and 214 women completed the scales and a measure of relationship satisfaction, with 33% (n = 139) of the sample reassessed two months later. All scales demonstrated appropriate distribution of scores and adequate internal consistency. The GMSEX, NSSS-S, and the single-item measure demonstrated convergent validity. Test-retest reliability was demonstrated by the ISS, GMSEX, and NSSS-S, but not the single-item measure. Taken together, the GMSEX received the strongest psychometric support in this sample for a unidimensional measure of sexual satisfaction and the NSSS-S received the strongest psychometric support in this sample for a bidimensional measure of sexual satisfaction.
Article
Full-text available
It has been suggested in several studies that marriage provides the best framework for a sexual relationship. During the past few decades, however, the majority of young singles have maintained a partnered sex life, and marriage has given way to cohabitation as the typical way for heterosexual couples to live together in young adulthood. Taking a longitudinal population-based sample of young Norwegian adults (n = 2695, age 20-26), we investigated the degree to which sexual satisfaction was associated with the type of relationship in which they were engaged. Among both males and females, the sexually active unattached were the least satisfied with their sex lives, and a committed and long-lasting relationship seemed to be of greater importance for women than for men. In these relationships, however, a decrease in sexual activity and sexual satisfaction was observed over time, suggesting that boredom and routine may rapidly decrease sexual satisfaction. Most striking was the finding that females seem to profit in their sexual relationships from traditionally feminine and masculine gender roles in the form of androgyny. Men, on the other hand, still seem to manoeuvre on the basis of less flexible gender roles.
Article
Full-text available
This study extended the Interpersonal Exchange Model of Sexual Satisfaction (IEMSS) to short-term dating relationships. The IEMSS has been shown to have excellent validity for long-term heterosexual relationships. The IEMSS proposes that sexual satisfaction is greater to the extent that, over time, relationship satisfaction is high, levels of sexual rewards exceed levels of sexual costs, relative sexual reward levels exceed relative sexual cost levels, and interpersonal equality of sexual rewards and of sexual costs are perceived to exist. Fifty-one college men and 57 college women in a dating relationship of 3 to 36 months participated in the study. As predicted, more sexually satisfied individuals reported greater relationship satisfaction, a more favorable reward/cost ratio, a more favorable relative reward/relative cost ratio, and more equal rewards and costs between partners. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that relationship satisfaction, the difference between relative rewards, relative costs and cost equality made unique contributions to the prediction of sexual satisfaction, accounting for 75 percent of the variance in sexual satisfaction. The model was shown to work equally well for men and women, for individuals new and less new to their relationship, and for high and low self-disclosers. The IEMSS offers a promising approach for investigating and understanding sexual satisfaction.
Article
Full-text available
The sex drive refers to the strength of sexual motivation. Across many different studies and measures, men have been shown to have more frequent and more intense sexual desires than women, as reflected in spontaneous thoughts about sex, frequency and variety of sexual fantasies, desired frequency of intercourse, desired number of part - ners, masturbation, liking for various sexual practices, willingness to forego sex, initi - ating versus refusing sex, making sacrifices for sex, and other measures. No contrary findings (indicating stronger sexual motivation among women) were found. Hence we conclude that the male sex drive is stronger than the female sex drive. The gender dif - ference in sex drive should not be generalized to other constructs such as sexual or or - gasmic capacity, enjoyment of sex, or extrinsically motivated sex. If the world were designed for the primary goal of maximizing human happiness, the sexual tastes of men and women would match up very closely. What could be more ideal than perfect attunement with one's mate, so that both people feel sexual desire at the same times, to the same degrees, and in the same ways? Yet there is ample evidence that romantic partners are sometimes out of synchrony with each other's sexual wishes and feelings. The continuing market for sexual advice, sex therapy, couple counseling, and similar offerings is a testimony to the fact that many people are not perfectly satisfied with their sex lives even within committed re- lationships. Infidelity and divorce may also sometimes reflect sexual dissatisfaction. The focus of this article is on one potential source of
Article
Full-text available
Familiarity is attractive in many types of stimuli and exposure generally increases feelings of liking. However, men desire a greater number of sexual partners than women, suggesting a preference for novelty. We examined sex differences in preferences for familiarity. In Study 1 (N = 83 women, 63 men), we exposed individuals to faces twice and found that faces were judged as more attractive on the second rating, reflecting attraction to familiar faces, with the exception that men's ratings of female faces decreased on the second rating, demonstrating attraction to novelty. In Studies 2 (N = 42 women, 28 men) and 3 (N = 51 women, 25 men), exposure particularly decreased men's ratings of women's attractiveness for short-term relationships and their sexiness. In Study 4 (N = 64 women, 50 men), women's attraction to faces was positively related to self-rated similarity to their current partner's face, while the effect was significantly weaker for men. Potentially, men's attraction to novelty may reflect an adaptation promoting the acquisition of a high number of sexual partners.
Article
Full-text available
There is theoretical reason to believe narcissism is associated with a number of sexual behaviors and outcomes that affect both sexual and relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, research on the association between personality and behavior demonstrates that personality traits, such as narcissism, only predict behavior in domains that activate the components of the personality system. Given that global assessments of narcissism do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, we examined the extent to which the facets of a domain-specific measure of sexual narcissism accounted for the trajectories of own and partner sexual and marital satisfaction over the first five years of 120 new marriages. Three of the four facets of sexual narcissism (sexual exploitation, sexual entitlement, and low sexual empathy) were negatively associated with both trajectories. The fourth facet (sexual skill) was positively associated with both trajectories. Notably, sexual satisfaction mediated the effect of every facet of sexual narcissism on marital satisfaction. A global assessment of narcissism was not associated with either trajectory of satisfaction. These findings highlight (1) the importance of narcissistic tendencies for sexual processes, (2) the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality in research on sexual behavior, and (3) the importance of examining the implications of the specific facets of personality constructs.
Article
Full-text available
Little is known of the extent to which heterosexual couples are satisfied with their current frequency of sex and the degree to which this predicts overall sexual and relationship satisfaction. A population-based survey of 4,290 men and 4,366 women was conducted among Australians aged 16 to 64 years from a range of sociodemographic backgrounds, of whom 3,240 men and 3,304 women were in regular heterosexual relationships. Only 46% of men and 58% of women were satisfied with their current frequency of sex. Dissatisfied men were overwhelmingly likely to desire sex more frequently; among dissatisfied women, only two thirds wanted sex more frequently. Age was a significant factor but only for men, with those aged 35-44 years tending to be least satisfied. Men and women who were dissatisfied with their frequency of sex were also more likely to express overall lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. The authors' findings not only highlight desired frequency of sex as a major factor in satisfaction, but also reveal important gender and other sociodemographic differences that need to be taken into account by researchers and therapists seeking to understand and improve sexual and relationship satisfaction among heterosexual couples. Other issues such as length of time spent having sex and practices engaged in may also be relevant, particularly for women.
Article
Full-text available
Sexuality research focuses almost exclusively on individuals rather than couples, though ongoing relationships are very important for most people and cultures. The present study was the first to examine sexual and relationship parameters of middle-aged and older couples in committed relationships of 1-51 years duration. Survey research was conducted in Brazil, Germany, Japan, Spain, and the U.S. targeting 200 men aged 40-70 and their female partners in each country, with 1,009 couples in the final sample. Key demographic, health, physical intimacy, sexual behavior, sexual function, and sexual history variables were used to model relationship happiness and sexual satisfaction. The median ages were 55 for men and 52 for women; median relationship duration was 25 years. Relationship satisfaction in men depended on health, physical intimacy, and sexual functioning, while in women only sexual functioning predicted relationship satisfaction. Models predicting sexual satisfaction included significant physical intimacy and sexual functioning for both genders and, for men, more frequent recent sexual activity and fewer lifetime partners. Longer relationship duration predicted greater relationship happiness and sexual satisfaction for men. However, women in relationships of 20 to 40 years were significantly less likely than men to report relationship happiness. Compared to men, women showed lower sexual satisfaction early in the relationship and greater sexual satisfaction later. Within the long-term committed relationship context, there were significant gender differences in correlates of sexual and relationship satisfaction, with sexual functioning a common predictor of both types of satisfaction and physical intimacy a more consistent and salient predictor for men.
Article
Full-text available
Sexual desire discrepancies and the associations between desire discrepancies and relationship adjustment (i.e., sexual and relationship satisfaction) in heterosexual dating couples (N = 72) were examined Desire discrepancies were assessed via two methods: (1) a couple-based index created using both individuals' reports of sexual desire and (2) an individual-based index using each person's own subjective perception of a desire discrepancy within the couple. Both indices were associated with women's adjustment, whereas only individual perceptions of discrepancies were associated with men's adjustment. The association between desire discrepancies and general relationship satisfaction was fully mediated by level of sexual satisfaction for both men and women. Women whose sexual desire level was lower than their partners' endorsed lower levels of relationship adjustment relative to women whose desire was either greater than or similar to their partners'. Implications for the assessment of sexual desire differences in couples are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
The variation of sexual motivation with duration of partnership is analyzed in data from a survey of German students. The sample of 1865 includes only students aged 19-32 who reported to be heterosexual and to live in a steady partnership. Main results are (1) sexual activity and sexual satisfaction decline in women and men as the duration of partnership increases; (2) sexual desire only declines in women; and (3) desire for tenderness declines in men and rises in women. Because these results are based on cross-sectional data, a longitudinal explanation is precarious. Individual differences in mating strategy associated with the probability of having a partnership of shorter or longer duration at the time of the survey may account for some part of the findings. This possibility set aside, post hoc explanations for the results as reflecting a modal time course of partnership are evaluated with regard to habituation, routine, gender role prescriptions, and polarization of roles. In addition, an explanation from evolutionary psychology is offered, entailing the following ideas: the psychological mechanisms of attachment in an adult pair bond have evolved from the parent-child bond. Due to this nonsexual origin, a stable pair-bond does not require high levels of sexual desire, after an initial phase of infatuation has passed. Nevertheless, male sexual desire should stay at a high level because it was selected for in evolutionary history as a precaution against the risk of sperm competition. The course of female sexual desire is assumed to reflect an adaptive function: to boost attachment in order to establish the bond.
Article
Full-text available
There have been several studies in Western societies on the causes and consequences of sexual satisfaction within marriage. Little is known, however about the marital sexual relationship in Chinese societies. Moreover, most published studies used married individuals rather than married couples as participants. The present study examined data from a well-established knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) survey of 1,124 Hong Kong Chinese couples on martial sexual relationship. A conceptual model was tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). Interest in sex was found to be the strongest predictor of both sexual satisfaction and frequency of sex for both husbands and wives. Among the sociodemographic variables, the following two were significantly associated with lower frequencies of sex: for wives, that of having a full-time job; and for husbands, the factor of age. Theoretical implications for research on the interplay among culture, marriage, and sex in non-Western societies are discussed.
Article
This study presents data on marital sex based on the 1988 National Survey of Families and Households. With this representative sample of United States adults (n = 7,463), we show how the incidence and frequency of marital sex change over the life course. Consistent with previous research, this study shows a decline in marital sexual incidence and frequency. Several factors contribute to this decline, including biological aging, diminished health, and habituation to sex. In multivariate analyses, age was the single factor most highly associated with marital sexual frequency. Marital happiness was the second most important predictor. Some factors found to be related to sexual frequency are associated with life changes that reduce or increase the opportunity to have sex, including pregnancy, the presence of small children, and sterilization. Controlling for age and many other factors, we found that cohabitors, married individuals who had cohabited before marriage, and those who were in their second or later marriage had more frequent sex than their counterparts who had not experienced these events. The effect of missing responses on the validity of aggregate information on sexual frequency is considered.
Article
Research into the changes in the frequency of sexual intercourse is (with few exceptions) limited to cross-sectional analyses of marital duration. We investigate the frequency of intercourse while taking into account relationship duration as well as the duration of cohabitation and marriage, effects of parenthood, and relationship quality. For the analysis we apply fixed effects regression models using data from the German Family Panel (pairfam), a nationwide randomly sampled German panel survey. Our findings imply that the drop in sex frequency occurs early in the relationship, whereas neither cohabitation nor marriage affects the frequency of intercourse to a significant extent. Sex frequency is reduced during pregnancy and as long as the couple has small children, but becomes revived later on. Relationship quality is found to play a role as well. These results are contrary to the honeymoon effect found in earlier research, but indicate that in times of postponed marriage an analogous effect may be at work in the initial period of the relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Article
This study uses a national panel of 1,668 married women and men interviewed in 1980 and again in 1983 to assess the commonsense notion that shift work damages marital quality. The effects of shift work are assessed on six measures of marital quality (marital happiness, interaction, disagreements, general problems, sexual problems, and child-related problems) and the probability of divorce. The results suggest that shift work has a modest but very general negative effect on marital quality: every indicator of marital quality is significantly and negatively affected by shift work in at least one analysis. This negative effect is supported by both cross-sectional and panel analysis and does not appear to be attributable to correlated job characteristics. Shift work is also found to increase the probability of divorce from 7% to 11% over the three-year period.
Article
Three separate issues concerning the relation between age and satisfaction with sex life are addressed in this article. The first issue was concerned with the age generalizability of the factor structure produced by responses to the Satisfaction with Sex Life Scale (SWSLS). The second issue was to examine whether there were differences in the satisfaction with sex life according to certain background characteristics, namely age. Finally, the relationship between scores on the SWSLS with those on other relational constructs was explored. Data collection involved completion of a questionnaire. The sample consisted of 1,144 participants. The mean ages of the sample were 38.99 years in (SD = 16.91); ages ranged from 20 to 80. The data indicated that the factor structure of responses to the SWSLS were highly similar through adult life. Religious involvement, marital status, and love status influenced satisfaction with sex life. Expected correlations with measures of other relationship constructs were found. The strongest predictor of satisfaction with sex live across the adult life span was love satisfaction. Suggestions concerning the use of the SWSLS for research and clinical purposes are offered.
Article
A sample of romantic partners completed several measures of perceived equity in regard to their relationship, at multiple times over almost five years. Three of the measures were one-item global assessments and one measure was detailed and based on Foa and Foa's (1974) classification of resources. The measures were compared on descriptive properties (e.g., percentage of participants who chose the equity category), their degree of association with the other equity measures, and the results obtained for two research questions: What is the association between equity/inequity and specific emotional reactions? How does equity change with the passage of time? The major findings were that partners tended to agree in their perceptions of equity, inequity was more common in the domain of money than in other resource areas, equity in the service domain was more highly associated with overall equity judgments for both men and women than was equity in other relationship domains, underbenefiting inequity but not overbenefiting inequity was associated with overall distress experienced as a result of exchange, and perceptions of equity remained generally stable over time. Although the different equity measures yielded some different findings, there were more similarities than differences.
Article
Tested the hypothesis that children would report that different social-network members provide different social provisions, using 199 5th–6th grade White children. Ss completed network of relationships inventories, which assessed 10 qualities of their relationships with mothers, fathers, siblings, grandparents, friends, and teachers. Consistent with R. S. Weiss's (1974) theory (i.e., that individuals seek specific social provisions or types of social support in their relationships with others), Ss reported seeking different provisions from different individuals. Mothers and fathers were turned to most often for affection, enhancement of worth, a sense of reliable aid, and instrumental aid. Next to parents, grandparents were turned to most often for affection and enhancement of worth, and teachers were turned to most often for instrumental aid. Friends were the greatest source of companionship, and friends and mothers received the highest ratings of intimacy. Ss also reported having more power in their relationships with other children than in those with adults. Conflict was perceived as occurring most often in sibling relationships. Ss were most satisfied with their relationships with mothers, and they thought their relationships with mothers and fathers were the most important. Bases for children's differentiations of their relationships and implications for understanding social networks are discussed. (19 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study examined the validity of the Interpersonal Exchange Model of Sexual Satisfaction (IEMSS) in long-term, heterosexual sexual relationships. The IEMSS proposes that sexual satisfaction depends on one's levels of rewards and costs in the sexual relationship, one's comparison levels (CL) for rewards/costs, and one's perceptions of the dyadic equality (EQ) of these rewards/costs. Sexual satisfaction is expected to be greater to the extent that, over time, levels of rewards (REW) exceed levels of costs (CST), relative reward levels (CLREW) exceed relative cost levels (CLcst), and interpersonal equality of rewards (EQrew) and of costs (EQCST) is perceived to exist. Married/cohabiting community volunteers and university alumni/staff completed two questionnaires, 3 months apart. The results obtained from this well-educated, relationally satisfied sample (N= 143) provided excellent support for the IEMSS. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that each component of the model (REW - CST, CLrew - CLcst, and EQrew, EQcst) added to the prediction of sexual satisfaction as expected, accounting for 75% of the variance. Repeated measurement of the IEMSS components offered a better prediction of sexual satisfaction than a one-time measure alone. Neither gender nor relationship satisfaction interacted with the IEMSS components. However, including relationship satisfaction (but not gender) in the model significantly improved the prediction of sexual satisfaction. It was concluded that the model should be revised to include relationship satisfaction. Both the exchange components of the IEMSS and sexual satisfaction uniquely predicted relationship satisfaction. The IEMSS offers a promising approach for understanding sexual satisfaction and its relationship to relationship satisfaction, as well as for reconciling inconsistent findings in the literature.
Article
Using the Interpersonal Exchange Model of Sexual Satisfaction, we consider how infidelity, pornography consumption, marital satisfaction, sexual frequency, premarital sex, and cohabitation are associated with married couples’ sexual satisfaction. Data from 433 couples are analyzed with structural equation models to determine the contributions of (a) each respondent’s predictors (actor effects) and (b) his/her spouse’s predictors (partner effects). No gender differences in actor and partner effects emerge. Marital satisfaction and sexual frequency act as rewards and increase sexual satisfaction. A partner effect emerges for marital infidelity, suggesting that a spouse’s infidelity is costly for sexual satisfaction. Finally, some evidence suggests that pornography consumption is costly for own and spouse’s sexual satisfaction, especially when pornography is used by only one spouse.
Article
In this article, we review the major research advances made during the 1990s in the study of sexuality in marriage and other close relationships. More specifically, we provide a critical review of the empirical findings from the last decade on such sexual phenomena as sexual behavior, sexual satisfaction, and sexual attitudes within the context of marriage, dating, and other committed relationships. After highlighting the major theoretical and methodological advances of the 1990s, we focus on the research literatures of: (1) frequency and correlates of sexual activity in marriage; (2) sexual satisfaction, including its association with general relationship satisfaction; (3) sexuality in gay and lesbian committed relationships; (4) trends in sexual behavior and attitudes in dating relationships; and (5) the role of sexuality in dating relationships. We also incorporate brief reviews of the past decade's research on sexual assault and coercion in marriage and dating and on extramarital sex. We end our decade review with recommendations for the study of sexuality into the next decade.
Article
Sexual desire is often present at the beginning of a romantic relationship. However, research is divided regarding whether, and how, desire is experienced as a relationship progresses. The authors examined relationship duration and its effect on sexual desire in a sample of 170 undergraduate men and women between the ages of 18 and 25 years. Hierarchical multiple regression results indicated that women's sexual desire was significantly and negatively predicted by relationship duration after controlling for age, relationship satisfaction, and sexual satisfaction. Men's sexual desire, however, was not significantly affected by the duration of their romantic relationships. These findings suggest that men and women may have different experiences with sexual desire as relationships progress and that sexual desire might be affected by different factors depending on one's gender. Possible reasons for these results are suggested and therapeutic implications are discussed.
Article
The Social Organization of Sexuality reports the complete results of the nation's most comprehensive representative survey of sexual practices in the general adult population of the United States. This highly detailed portrait of sex in America and its social context and implications has established a new and original scientific orientation to the study of sexual behavior. "The most comprehensive U.S. sex survey ever." —USA Today "The findings from this survey, the first in decades to provide detailed insights about the sexual behavior of a representative sample of Americans, will have a profound impact on how policy makers tackle a number of pressing health problems." —Alison Bass, The Boston Globe "A fat, sophisticated, and sperm-freezingly serious volume. . . . This book is not in the business of giving us a good time. It is in the business of asking three thousand four hundred and thirty-two other people whether they had a good time, and exactly what they did to make it so good." —Anthony Lane, The New Yorker New York Times Book Review Notable Book of the Year
Article
This investigation focused on how sexual satisfaction is associated with relationship quality and stability in premarital couples. With data collected at multiple times over several years from a sample of heterosexual couples (who were all dating at Time 1), we examined how sexual satisfaction was associated with relationship satisfaction, love, commitment, and stability. At each wave of the study, sexual satisfaction was associated positively with relationship satisfaction, love, and commitment for both men and women. In addition, change in sexual satisfaction between Time 1 and Time 2 was associated with change over the same period in relationship satisfaction, love, and commitment. Furthermore, some evidence was found that sexual satisfaction was associated with relationship stability. Overall, sexual satisfaction had stronger links with relationship quality for men than for women.
Article
Does the quality of marital sex increase or decrease with marital duration? Previous research assumes that it decreases; however, there is no empirical evidence of declining quality of marital sex with duration in the literature. This study theoretically and empirically examines how the quality of marital sex changes with duration. Theoretically, two effects may influence the change of quality of marital sex: the effect of diminishing marginal utility (the marginal utility of consuming a good or service diminishes as the consumption of that good or service increases) and the effect of the investment in the marriage-specific human capital (including the "partner specific" skills that enhance the enjoyment of marital sex and the knowledge about the spouse's sexual preferences, desires, and habits). The quality of marital sex could either increase or decrease depending on which effect is dominant. The multivariate analysis of the National Health and Social Life Survey data shows that marital duration has a small and negative effect on the quality of marital sex. The gender difference in the quality of marital sex is discussed.
Article
To document sexual and emotional satisfaction with their relationships and desired and actual frequency of sex among a representative sample of Australian adults. Between mid-2001 and mid-2002, computer-assisted telephone interviews were completed by 10,173 men and 9,134 women aged 16-59 years from all States and Territories selected by modified random-digit dialling of households (response rate 73.1%). Respondents in a regular relationship were asked how physically pleasurable they found sex with the partner to be and how emotionally satisfying the relationship was. All respondents were asked how often they would ideally like to have sex and how often they had sex in the past four weeks. Most people in heterosexual relationships found sex very or extremely pleasurable (90.3% men, 79.1% women) and the relationship emotionally satisfying (87.5% men, 79.2% women); men were more satisfied with both. Physical pleasure in sex was correlated with emotional satisfaction. One person in four had had no sex in the past four weeks; most people had had sex less than twice a week. Most people wanted ideally to have sex more often than they did. However, 24.3% of men but only 8.3% of women said they ideally wanted sex daily or more often. Men on average express higher levels of relationship satisfaction and of sexual interest, but the overlap between men and women is large.
Article
To build on existing theories about love, we propose that passion is a function of change in intimacy (i.e., the first derivative of intimacy over time). Hence, passion will be low when intimacy is stable (either high or low), but rising intimacy will create a strong sense of passion. This view is able to account for a broad range of evidence, including frequency of sex in long-term relationships, intimate and sexual behavior of extraverts, gender differences in intimate behavior, gain and loss effects of communicated attraction, the biologically atypical human preference for face-to-face coitus, and patterns of distress in romantic breakups. Although this view may provide a good fit to available evidence, the totality of evidence is not yet adequate for a definitive conclusion, and suggestions for further research are offered.
Article
This study examined the association between relationship satisfaction and sexual satisfaction over time to provide evidence about possible causal explanations for the association between two variables. Eighty-seven individuals in long-term relationships completed measures of sexual satisfaction and relationship satisfaction at 2 times 18 months apart. There was only limited evidence, based on exploratory analysis, to support either the hypothesis that changes in a relationship satisfaction lead to changes in sexual satisfaction or the hypothesis that changes in sexual satisfaction lead to changes in relationship satisfaction. However, sexual satisfaction and relationship satisfaction wer found to change concurrently. The quality of intimate communication accounted for part of the concurrent changes in relationship satisfaction and sexual satisfaction. I discuss the results in terms of the need to develop more complex models depicting the longitudinal associations between relationship satisfaction and sexual satisfaction.
Article
We conducted two studies to further test the validity of the Interpersonal Exchange Model of Sexual Satisfaction for long-term opposite-sex relationships (IEMSS; Lawrance & Byers, 1995). Study 1 examined, in a sample of 79 individuals, the extent to which the history of sexual exchanges is associated with sexual satisfaction as well as whether changes in sexual rewards and costs are associated with change in sexual satisfaction. Using a sample of 104 couples, Study 2 examined whether partner rewards and costs add to individuals' own sexual satisfaction over and above own sexual rewards and costs for men or women. The results provided further evidence for the validity of the IEMSS, including support for the propositions that in long-term relationships: (a) sexual satisfaction is influenced by the history of sexual rewards and costs rather than by rewards and costs at a particular point in time; (b) decreases in sexual satisfaction are associated with sexual exchanges becoming less favorable; and (c) satisfaction is influenced by dyadic factors for both men and women.
Article
In late midlife, heterosexual women report markedly lower levels of sexual satisfaction than heterosexual men. This article explored the social factors contributing to this difference, using data from 1,035 sexually-active heterosexual adults, aged 40-59 years, who participated in the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS). Conducted in 1992, NHSLS interviewed a nationally representative random sample of U.S. adults about diverse aspects of sexual life (Laumann et al., 1994, The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press). Contrary to gender stereotypes, women's emotional satisfaction was closely associated with bodily sexual practices, whereas men's physical pleasure was linked to relational factors. Lower levels of sexual satisfaction at older ages appeared to stem from differences between the Baby Boom and older generations rather than from aging per se.
The German family panel (pairfam)
  • B Nauck
  • J Brüderl
  • J Huinink
  • S Walper