GOLDEN_WISEMAN GALLEYSPROOFS2 3/19/2015 9:41 AM
2015] THE FRACKING REVOLUTION 999
experienced a variety of costs. These include road damage and traffic,
increased demand for physical infrastructure,268 increased demand for city
services such as fire and emergency response, rises in crime and drug use,269
changes in historic economic activities like tourism and agriculture, and
nuisances from the noise, light, dust, and pollution at well sites.270
In considering lessons from the story behind the fracking revolution, Part V
examines how future policymakers might limit the downsides of regulatory
relief as well as its possible tendency to persist and even expand after
innovation-fostering justifications have substantially expired.271 In the
meantime, Part IV continues the discussion of factors behind the revolution
itself by describing roles played by complementary assets, intellectual property
rights, secrecy, and information sharing.
Dakota’s rise to the top of the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index, meant to act as a measure of the mental
and physical health of states’ residents).
268 See, e.g., WILLISTON ECON. DEV., supra note 5, at 1 (noting that a prior increase in “major
infrastructure capacity for up to 40% more population (pop 16,000)” had fallen short and there was additional
need for “water, sewer, and road infrastructure for workforce housing and industry facility needs”).
269 A number of media sources report rising crime and drug use following fracking-related booms. See,
e.g., Jack Healy, As Oil Floods Plains Towns, Crime Pours In, N.Y. TIMES, Nov. 30, 2013, at A1, available at
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/01/us/as-oil-floods-plains-towns-crime-pours-in.html; Michael Marks,
Drugs Follow Eagle Ford Energy Boom, AUSTIN AM. STATESMAN (June 22, 2014), http://projects.statesman.
com/news/eagle-ford-drugs/. Academic literature and government reports provide a more nuanced picture in
which increases in crime might largely reflect population growth associated with such booms. See, e.g., CARO L
A. ARCHBOLD, “POLICING THE PATCH”: AN EXAMINATION OF THE IMPACT OF THE OIL BOOM ON SMALL TOWN
POLICING AND CRIME IN WESTERN NORTH DAKOTA 55 (2013), available at http://www.ndsu.edu/fileadmin/
cjps/Policing_the_Patch_Report_-_Final_Draft_August_4th_-_Archbold.docx (noting that an apparent
increase in crime was “proportionate with the increase in population”); Rick Ruddell et al., Drilling Down: An
Examination of the Boom-Crime Relationship in Resource-Based Boom Counties, W. CRIMINOLOGY REV.,
Apr. 2014, at 3, 9 (finding “modest support for the proposition that crime is higher in oil producing counties
and that crime increased after the Boom”); MONT. ALL THREAT INTELLIGENCE CTR. & N.D. STATE & LOC AL
INTELLIGENCE CTR., IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH ON LAW ENFORCEMENT IN THE WILLISTON BAS IN
REGION 1 (2012), http://www.ag.nd.gov/reports/jointproductfinal.pdf (“With the increase in population there
has been an increase in arrests, criminal activity and vehicle crashes.”).
270 WILLISTON ECON. DEV., supra note 5, at 26–28, 35; Susan Christopherson & Ned Rightor, The
Boom-Bust Cycle of Shale Gas Extraction Economies, Community & Regional Development Institute, CARDI
REP. (Cornell Univ. Cmty. & Reg’l Dev. Inst., Ithaca, N.Y.), Sept. 1, 2011, at 4, available at http://www.
greenchoices.cornell.edu/downloads/development/shale/Economic_Consequences.pdf; Jeffrey Jacquet, Energy
Boomtowns & Natural Gas: Implications for Marcellus Shale Local Governments & Rural Communities 14,
17, 22, 25, 28 (Ne. Reg’l Ctr. for Rural Dev., Paper No. 43, 2009), available at http://aese.psu.edu/nercrd/
publications/rdp/rdp43; CJ Randall, Hammer Down: A Guide to Protecting Local Roads Impacted by Shale
Gas Drilling 2 (Cornell Univ. Comprehensive Econ. Impact Analysis of Natural Gas Extraction in the
Marcellus Shale Working Paper Series, 2010), available at http://www.greenchoices.cornell.edu/downloads/
271 See infra text accompanying notes 406–24.