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The antibacterial effect of Qutran (Wood Tar) from olive trees on pathogenic bacteria

Authors:
*Co
r
Abd
u
1
Res
e
Sulta
n
Saudi
Intr
It ha
s
day
drug
of a
n
of m
dem
a
whic
med
i
diss
e
local
repo
any
h
The
of S
a
Qutr
a
are
t
othe
r
Qutr
a
of ta
of b
e
obta
i
dest
r
heat
i
This
The Ant
Abdulrahm
a
r
respondin
g
u
lrahman Al-
e
arch Centre,
n
Military Medi
Arabia
oduction
s
been a challe
n
infections with
s, antibiotics or
n
tibiotics has cr
e
icroorganisms
a
a
nd for the su
p
h the microorg
a
i
cines have be
e
e
mination of kn
o
folklore or regi
o
rt that the micr
o
h
erbal extract,
w
local inhabitant
s
a
udi Arabia are
a
n which they a
t
old that they a
r
r
cattle from sc
a
a
n is an Arabic
rs are known; o
e
nzene known t
o
i
ned from wood
r
uctive hydrolys
i
i
ng of pine wo
o
work is licen
s
Inter
n
ibacteria
l
a
n Al-Asmari
1
g
author:
A
smari
2
Urology, Prin
cal City, Riya
d
n
ging task for t
h
the most pot
e
the structural a
n
e
ated a pheno
m
a
re being evolv
e
p
er antibiotics o
r
a
nisms do not
m
e
n in use for c
e
o
wledge, their u
o
nal remedies.
S
o
organisms hav
e
w
hich was used
t
s
of the southe
r
known to use
a
pply to get relie
f
r
e also using th
i
a
bies, where the
word translated
ne is from fossil
o
be very toxic
a
especially from
i
s under pyroly
s
o
d causes tar a
n
s
ed under a
C
n
ational
J
htt
p
l
Effect o
f
1
*
, Yunus Sid
d
ce
d
h,
Ab
s
Among
s
comes
animal
s
produc
t
negativ
e
determi
dilution
sensiti
v
showe
d
growth
Qutran
Gram
n
positiv
e
biocida
l
as ª0.6
2
Keywo
r
negativ
e
h
e clinicians to t
r
e
nt medicines
e
n
alogues. The a
m
enal problem t
h
e
d and thus the
r
r
chemical com
p
m
anifest any resi
e
nturies but bec
se has been c
o
S
o far, there h
a
e
developed re
s
t
o combat the in
r
n region (Asir)
a
popular remed
y
f
from oral ach
e
i
s material to tr
e
skin starts losin
in English as „
T
fuel and contai
a
nd even carcin
Pine trees eith
e
s
is, contain ver
y
n
d pitch to drip
C
reative Com
m
J
ournal o
p
://www.arj
o
Ori
g
i
n
f
Qutran
(
d
iqui
1
, Mozaf
f
s
tract
s
t the folklore m
from various tr
e
s
. This product i
s
t
s but the sour
c
e
bacteria were
ned by the disk
procedure. Bo
t
v
ity in terms of r
e
d
a phenomenal
in Gram negat
exerts more g
r
n
egative bacteri
a
e
bacteria than it
l
activity (MBC)
2
5mg/ml, while t
r
ds: Qutran, an
t
e
r
eat the present
e
ither the sulfa
buse or misuse
h
at new strains
r
e is a constant
p
ounds against
stance. Herbal
ause of a poor
o
nfined to either
a
s not been any
s
istance against
fection.
in the Kingdom
y
in the form of
e
s and pain. We
e
at camels and
g hair.
T
ar‰. Two types
ns high content
ogenic. The tar
e
r by heating or
y
heavy oil. The
away from the
m
ons Attributi
o
f Phyto
m
o
urnals.org/i
n
n
al Resear
c
(
wood T
a
Bacteria
f
arul Islam
1
,
M
edicine in Saud
e
es and has b
e
s
commercially
p
c
e of this prod
u
exposed to va
r
and agar diffusi
o
t
h the Gram p
o
e
duction in colo
n
inhibition of ba
c
ive bacteria. It
r
owth inhibition
a
. This effect c
o
s presence in t
h
of Qutran towa
r
he Gram negati
v
t
ibacterial effect
wood
is nor
m
prote
c
charc
o
cosm
e
candi
e
spice
and t
a
the w
o
prope
tar wi
t
comp
o
was
m
wood
use h
wood
prese
r
tar fr
o
been
u
Tar-li
k
matte
r
corn
s
rese
m
petrol
e
o
n 3.0 Licens
e
m
edicine
6
n
dex.php/ijp
m
c
h Articl
e
a
r) from
O
M
ohammed
A
i Arabia, the tar
e
en used for a
n
p
roduced and
m
u
ct is not men
t
r
ious concentra
t
o
n method and
o
sitive and Gra
m
n
y forming unit
c
c
terial growth to
was observed
(killing effect)
o
o
uld be taken a
s
h
e trilaminar cell
r
ds the Gram p
o
v
e microorganis
, minimum bac
t
and leave behi
n
m
ally known as
c
tion. The by-
p
o
al. It is availab
l
e
tics and food.
W
e
s like TervaLei
for meat. There
a
r cannot cure
c
o
od tar in their r
rties. It produc
e
t
h water and h
e
o
nent in cigaret
t
m
ainly used in
and Navy used
as been curtail
e
but made of ir
o
r
vation of wood
o
m wood was
k
u
sed in Scandin
k
e products can
r
such as peat.
s
talks by heati
n
m
bling tar can b
e
e
um that is nor
e
.
6
(2014)
4
m
/index
e
O
live Tre
e
A
l-Ghamdi
1
, A
preparation wh
i
n
umber of ailm
e
m
arketed in local
t
ioned. Three
G
t
ions of Qutran
a
enumeration of
c
m
negative mic
c
ounts (CFU).
D
Gram positive b
by the enumer
a
o
n Gram positi
v
s
action on the
m
walls of Gram
n
o
sitive microorg
a
ms showed no
g
t
ericidal conce
n
n
d charcoal. Th
e
„Russian oil" a
n
p
roducts of w
o
l
e as tar water
w
W
ood tar is als
o
jona liquorish,
a
is a saying in F
i
c
onsiders that t
h
egional medicin
e
s nice scent w
h
e
ated to turn in
t
t
es and anti-dan
the preservatio
n
to use this mat
e
e
d because th
e
o
n and steel. T
h
in docks and
f
k
nown in ancie
n
avia since the I
r
also be produc
e
A tar-like sub
s
n
g in a micro
w
e
produced from
mally called as
p
4
44-448
e
s on Pa
t
bdulrahman
E
i
ch is locally kn
o
e
nts in humans
shops selling h
G
ram positive
a
a
nd the growth
c
olony forming
u
roorganisms s
h
D
isk and agar di
f
ut lesser inhibiti
a
tion of CFU c
o
v
e microorgani
s
m
ucopeptide co
n
egative bacteri
a
a
nisms tested w
a
g
rowth above 1.
2
n
tration, Gram
p
e
tar made from
n
d known to be
u
o
od tar are t
u
w
hich is used in
o
used as a fla
v
a
lcohol (TervaV
i
i
nland that if the
h
e disease is f
a
e because of it
s
h
en used in sau
t
o steam. Tar i
s
druff agent in s
h
n
of boats or
s
e
rial indiscrimin
a
e
ships are no
l
h
is material is s
t
f
loating platfor
m
n
t Greece, and
r
on Age.
e
d from other fo
r
s
tance can be
p
w
ave oven. Mi
n
fossil hydrocar
b
p
halt. The anti
m
t
hogenic
E
l-Elaiwai
2
o
wn as Qutran
as well as in
erbs or herbal
a
nd two Gram
inhibition was
u
nits by micro-
h
owed a great
f
fusion assays
on of bacterial
o
unts that the
s
ms than onto
ntent of Gram
a
. The minimal
a
s determined
2
5mg/ml.
p
ositive, Gram
bacteria
the Birch-bark
u
sed in leather
u
rpentine and
medicaments,
v
oring agent in
i
ina) and as a
vodka, sauna
a
tal. They use
s
microbiocidal
nas by mixing
s
an important
h
ampoos [1]. It
s
hips made of
a
tely. Lately its
l
onger built of
t
ill used in the
m
s. Producing
has probably
r
ms of organic
p
roduced from
n
eral products
b
ons including
m
icrobial effect
ISSN: 0975-0185ISSN: 0975-0185
Al-Asmari
et al
. International Journal of Phytomedicine 6 (3) 444-447 [2014]
PAGE | 445 |
of botanical tar (coming from the trees) has been reported earlier
[2, 3, 4]. The presence of some alkylphenanthrenes in wood tar
pitch was reported by Jonsson [5] but Lopez
et al
. [6] have
reported the structural analysis of tar obtained after pyrolysis of
wood. Essential oils from medicinal and herbal plants have also
been studied for their growth inhibitory property on bacteria and
viruses [7, 8, 9]. We studied the antibacterial effect of Qutran
obtained from the dried olive trees which is true representative of
tar rather using the commercially available product.
Materials And Methods
The Qutran preparation was brought in the Research Centre at
Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC) formerly known as
Riyadh Military Hospital in Riyadh, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
from the city of Abha in Asir region. A stock solution of Qutran was
prepared in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at a concentration of
200mg/ml (weight/volume) and stored in dark at room temperature.
Further dilutions of Qutran were made in either physiological saline
or phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at pH 7.4 and used in the
antibacterial experiments.
Microbial cultures of
Staphylococcus aureus
(
S. aureus,
ATCC
25923)
, Escherichia coli
(
E. coli,
ATCC 25922),
Enterococcus
faecalis
(
E. faecalis,
ATCC 29212) and
Pseudomonas
aeruginosa
(
P. aeruginosa, ATCC 27853)
were purchased from
Microbiologicals, Inc. MD, USA. The
S. aureus
(MRSA positive
strain #12498) was obtained from the Department of Laboratory
Medicine, (PSMMC) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Stock cultures of
these microorganisms were prepared in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI,
Scharlau Laboratory, Barcelona, Spain) broth containing 50%
glycerol and the aliquots were kept frozen at -400C for future use.
Colony Forming Unit (CFU) counts
Bacterial cultures were grown in BHI broth for 24h and centrifuged
at 2000xg for 10 minutes to get the growing bacteria in the pellet,
which was suspended in fresh broth. The optical density of these
cultures was adjusted to 0.5 McFarland Standard. One log dilutions
of the bacterial cultures were prepared in sterile physiological
saline and equal volumes were mixed with various dilutions of
Qutran taken in micro centrifuge tubes. Reaction tubes were
vortexed to mix the content and incubated for 6 and 24h in a 370 C
incubator. The control cultures were incubated with the diluent only
that contained the highest concentration of DMSO (2.5%). All of
these tests were conducted in triplicates.
After the prescribed incubation time of 6 and 24h, an aliquot from
control and each concentration was removed and log dilutions
were made in physiological saline. The 100øl inoculum of different
dilutions were used to inoculate the BHI agar plates in triplicate and
spread with the help of L-shaped glass rod and a plate rotator
(plate turn table). Plates were incubated and the CFU were
counted after 48h of incubation.
Disk and Agar diffusion
The disk diffusion assay was based on the procedure of Kirby-
Bauer [10]. Six millimeter disks were cut from filter paper (Trans-
Blot filter paper, Bio-Rad Scientific, CA. USA) using a paper punch
and sterilized for 15minutes at 1210C. Container with filter disks
was left in drying chamber and then used in assay. After spreading
24h old bacterial inoculum, disks soaked with various
concentrations of Qutran were placed and plates were incubated
for a maximum of 48h. Zone of growth inhibitions were recorded at
24 and 48h.
Pour plates method was used in the agar diffusion procedure, with
a slight modification of Barry and Brown method [11]. Molten agar
was kept at 450C in a water bath and 100øl of inoculum were
added in the tubes containing 15ml of agar. Plates were poured
and once the agar was solidified, they were left at the refrigeration
temperature for 2-3hours. A dedicated agar punch was used to cut
holes and then filled with different concentrations of Qutran. Middle
well (control) received only the saline containing the highest
concentration of DMSO used with the test reagent. After incubation
for 48h, the zones of growth inhibition were recorded.
Results
Effect of Qutran on Gram Positive Bacteria
(Quantitation of CFU through the microdilution
procedure)
Exposure of
S. aureus (
MRSA positive),
S. aureus
(MRSA
negative) and
E. faecalis
cultures to various concentrations of
Qutran revealed the antibacterial effect of Qutran in 6 and 24h of
incubation. Within 24h of incubation, no bacterial colonies were
observed with 0.3mg of Qutran/ml. Relatively it was highly
bactericidal on
E. faecalis
where the minimum bactericidal
concentration (MBC) of Qutran was observed to be < 0.3125
mg/ml. The Qutran preparations showed almost identical
bactericidal effect on
S. aureus
and MRSA strains (Fig1. A-C).
Effect of Qutran on Gram negative bacteria (CFU
counts)
E. coli
and
P. aeroginosa
were exposed to Qutran dilutions and the
growth was checked by the dilution methods of counting colonies
after 6 and 24h of exposure. No growth was observed after 6h of
incubation with 2.5mg of Qutran but at lower concentration decent
number of CFU were recorded. Figure 2A and B, shows the
bactericidal effect of Qutran on
E. coli
and
P. aeruginosa
cultures.
Agar and Disk Diffusion
Table 1 and 2 demonstrate the numerical values of the disk and
agar diffusion procedure respectively. The zones of bacterial
growth inhibition are pronounced in both the procedures. Gram
positive organisms show larger zones of growth inhibition
compared to Gram negative organisms. The concentration of
Al-Asmari
et al
. International Journal of Phytomedicine 6 (3) 444-447 [2014]
PAGE | 446 |
Qutran less than 500øg/well was not effective in showing the zones
of growth inhibition with Gram negative bacteria.
Discussion
Our results using three different end points (CFU counts, disk, and
agar diffusion procedures) consistently show the bactericidal effect
of Qutran on pathogenic bacteria and these three end points show
concordance in this study. Its medicinal use is limited to either in
production of tar-based shampoos or in folklore medicine. Little use
has been in making candies and some use in Sauna baths. There
are some studies in finding out the components in pine-wood tar [5,
6]. Although it is suggested that it is highly antibacterial but not
many references are available. Brockow
et al
. [12] reported the
effect of tar solution (liquor carbonis detergents) on the reduction of
S. aureus
colonized on human skin. The growth inhibitory effect of
bamboo charcoal obtained by pyrolysis in absence of air and made
composite with silver on
S. aureus
and
P.aeruginosa
was reported
by Yang
et al.
[13]. To the best of the authorÊs knowledge no study
has been reported so far where the anti-bacterial role of the Qutran
preparation originating from olive trees was documented. The close
studies that we could find was the antifungal effect of coal tar gel
on
Malassezia furfur
[14] and antibacterial effect of the various
extracts of tar by organic solvents [15]. The bacteriostatic effect of
wood tar was also reported byVeijola and Mustakallio over five
decades ago [16]. Skin diseases including psoriasis have been
treated successfully with pine tar [17, 18, 19] while it was also
proved useful on wound healing [20].
The northern region of Saudi Arabia has a multitude of herbal
plants used in the folklore medicine. The word of mouth made us to
explore the anti-bacterial effect of Qutran preparation which the
people have been using for the treatment of cariogenicity and also
on animals to treat the scabies in sheep and camels. Sometimes
they use Qutran to rub on dentine to get relief from pain and also
when the tooth needs to be extracted. The local inhabitants were
requested to provide various samples of Qutran but we were able
to receive only one, which we have used in this study. Three
different end points like the colony forming unit counts, agar and
disk diffusion procedures were chosen to elucidate the antibacterial
effect of Qutran preparation [21, 22]. The antibacterial effect of
Qutran on three Gram positive and two Gram negative bacteria has
been described in this study. By using the most common
pathogens, it is fully acknowledged that the preparation has
certainly a good potential to be used as a medicament for
antibacterial therapy and in particular on Gram positive bacteria.
The Gram negative bacteria like
E. coli
and
P. aeruginosa
were
less sensitive to the bactericidal dose of Qutran. Research is
underway to know its effect on yeast and possibly on viruses but at
the same time its safety, toxicity and adverse effects
in vivo
needs
to be addressed. The biocompatibility of Qutran also has a
premium concern that needs to be analyzed as soon as possible
although it is possible mutagenicity and clastogenicity has been
ruled out in one study from pine-tar resins [23].
Acknowledgment
The authors thank the head of Medical Services Department of the
PSMMC for providing us the opportunity and basic facilities to
conduct this work at the Research Center.
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... It is not seriously warned about in some countries like Morocco; However, according to Lindborg, the toxicity of Moroccan medicinal tars remains moderate (Lindborg, 2009). Hand tar is marketed by herbalists and on the internet its cosmetic value (Al-Asmari et al., 2014). Consequently, tar is accessible to consumers without restrictions (Johnson, 2001). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Throughout history, Humans have always used tar for different purposes such as gluing materials, waterproofing, and conserving wood, but today, it is also used in medicines and cosmetics. Many countries around the world, Norway and Morocco to name a few, obtain tar from endemic trees. In a process of dry distillation, the organic material, endemic trees in this case, is exposed to a high temperature with a restricted amount of oxygen. Eventually, it cracks the large molecules in the matter and turns it into tar. Aim of the review This review article sheds light on tar production and the species that have been used in the process. Equal emphasis is placed on its uses, chemical composition, and toxicity. Materials and methods Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines have been used to review this article. The review is put together from various articles, theses, documents in “Science Direct”, “Hal (Archive ouvert)”, “Web of knowledge” without limitation date. Results It turns out that tar can be produced by 18 tree taxonomic families, notably Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, and Betulaceae. As for the production techniques, two methods are considered: Per ascensum and Per descensum, which can take different forms. The chemical composition of tar consists of acids, phenols, and aromatic hydrocarbons. The uses of tar have changed over time, while its toxicity is strongly related to its chemical composition. Conclusions The different species used in tar production have been highlighted in this research review. Equal importance has been given to its methods of extraction, uses and its chemical components. We hope that future studies will focus more on these species used to produce tar in other biological activities.
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Pine tar is the end product of pine wood carbonisation following distillation using extreme heat. An extensive literature search was conducted back to the 1950s for this review. Pine tar has been used in medicine for more than 2000 years to treat a range of skin conditions because of its soothing and antiseptic properties. Pine tar should not be confused with coal tar, which has been produced from coal for approximately a hundred years. Pine tar is thought to exert its effect by reducing DNA synthesis and mitotic activity, which promotes a return to normal keratinisation. In addition, pine tar has been shown to be antipruritic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal. These properties make pine tar suitable for the topical treatment of eczema, psoriasis, seborrhoeic dermatitis and other dry, itchy, flaky or inflamed skin conditions. Topical products available over-the-counter in Australia today contain up to 2.3% pine tar, and come in several different formulations that can be used on the entire body, including the face. Modern day pine tar is manufactured with increased purity to eliminate toxic phenol and carcinogenic components, which have been of concern in the past. Primary irritation is uncommon. In conclusion, the long experience with topical pine tar therapy and its worldwide usage, together with the evidence presented in this review, suggests that pine tar is an effective treatment with minimal safety risk.
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