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On the measurement and conceptualization of flow.

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Abstract

This chapter introduces in chronological order the three main measurement methods—the Flow Questionnaire, the Experience Sampling Method, and the standardized scales of the componential approach—that researchers developed and used in conducting research on the flow state. Each measurement method and underlying conceptualization is explained, and its strengths and limitations are then discussed in relation to the other measurement methods and associated conceptualizations. The analysis reveals that, although the concept of flow remained stable since its inception, the models of flow that researchers developed in conjunction with the measurement methods changed substantially over time. Moreover, the findings obtained by applying the various measurement methods led to corroborations and disconfirmations of the underlying models, and hence provided indications on how to interpret and possibly modify flow theory. The chapter then analyzes the emerging process approach, which conceptualizes and measures flow as a dynamic path rather than an object, and highlights its potential for integrating flow and creativity within the same conceptual framework. The final section outlines new directions for developing more valid and useful measurement methods that can help to advance the understanding of flow, its antecedents, and its consequences.

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... This questionnaire served as a basis of the first model of flow described in the previous section, where a balance between skills and challenges was hypothesized to lead to flow experiences. A major strength of the instrument according to Moneta (2012) is that it provides a clear definition of flow and allows researchers to estimate the prevalence of flow in specific contexts. Nevertheless, the psychometric properties of the test are not in line with modern standards and expectations, and its application is limited in that it cannot be used for measuring the intensity of flow (Moneta, 2012). ...
... A major strength of the instrument according to Moneta (2012) is that it provides a clear definition of flow and allows researchers to estimate the prevalence of flow in specific contexts. Nevertheless, the psychometric properties of the test are not in line with modern standards and expectations, and its application is limited in that it cannot be used for measuring the intensity of flow (Moneta, 2012). ...
... More recent questionnaires attempt to comply with the requirements of classical test theory and use scales with appropriate content and construct validity (Moneta, 2012). They tend to adopt a componential approach and attempt to capture flow as a multidimensional variable. ...
Chapter
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As the effect of contextual factors is increasingly acknowledged in language learning, a greater emphasis tends to be placed on the quality of the learning experience (Csizér & Kálmán, 2019). Educationalists’ quest for the optimal learning experience led them to the concept of flow, which has been researched in different school contexts ever since (Csíkszentmihályi & Larson, 1984; Shernoff & Csíkszentmihályi, 2009). As flow can be defined as “the holistic sensation that people feel when they act with total involvement” (Csíkszentmihályi, 1975, p. 36), and it is an experience which typically accompanies an activity that people are willing to perform for its own sake, its educational benefits seem straightforward. Interestingly, flow in language learning has not yet been widely researched although interest in the topic seems to be growing. This review paper aims to assist researchers who see a potential in investigating flow experiences in language learning. Besides defining flow and describing the conditions that lead to it, this paper provides insights into the evolution of Csíkszentmihályi’s flow theory. This theoretical overview is followed by the examination of different methods that have been used in psychology and education to measure flow, in an attempt to highlight potential new tools to be used in applied linguistics. Finally, existing empirical studies of flow in our field are discussed from a measurement perspective, and conclusions are drawn.
... Characteristics of flow include the following nine aspects: (a) clear goals; (b) immediate and unambiguous feedback; (c) a balance of skills versus challenges; (d) sense of control over the task at hand; (e) high but subjectively effortless attention; (f) distorted sense of time perception, with time moving faster or slower than usual; (g) a merging of awareness and action; (h) a loss of self-awareness; and (i) an 'autotelic' experience namely that engaging in the task itself is perceived as rewarding. Since the combinations of high-challenge and high-skill situations are mostly found in work and structured leisure activities in daily life, flow is more frequently and intensely perceived in these situations [14][15][16]. On the contrary, any other combination may result in other psychological states ( Figure 1): for instance, (a) apathy, combinations of low challenges and low skills; (b) relaxation, resulting from high skills but low challenges; (c) anxiety, combined high challenges with low skills. ...
... On the contrary, any other combination may result in other psychological states ( Figure 1): for instance, (a) apathy, combinations of low challenges and low skills; (b) relaxation, resulting from high skills but low challenges; (c) anxiety, combined high challenges with low skills. In particular, the frequency and intensity of flow in everyday life pinpoint the extent to which a person achieves sustained happiness through deliberate striving and ultimately fulfills his or her growth potential [16,17]. ...
... Flow theory postulates that an individual who has intense and frequent flow will experience more elements of autotelic personality, which is driven by teleonomy of the self: for instance, if one's skills are perceived to be incapable of the challenges in a given task, s/he would experience anxiety, and then s/he will try to acquire new skills to retain balance in order to cope with the task [18,19]. Such an autotelic personality enables an individual to have a pattern of flow experience which is an essential driving force for the successful unfolding of personal potential, as well as for healthy human development [16,20]. Flow theory postulates that an individual who has intense and frequent flow will experience more elements of autotelic personality, which is driven by teleonomy of the self: for instance, if one's skills are perceived to be incapable of the challenges in a given task, s/he would experience anxiety, and then s/he will try to acquire new skills to retain balance in order to cope with the task [18,19]. ...
Article
A growing number of studies suggest that flow experience is associated with life satisfaction, eudaimonic well-being, and the perceived strength of one’s social and place identity. However, little research has placed emphasis on flow and its relations with negative experiences such as anxiety. The current study investigated the relations between flow and anxiety by considering the roles of self-esteem and academic self-efficacy. The study sample included 590 Chinese university students, who were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire on flow, anxiety, self-esteem, and academic self-efficacy. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) with AMOS software, in which both factorial analysis and path analysis were performed. Results revealed that the experience of flow negatively predicted anxiety, and both self-esteem and academic self-efficacy fully mediated the path between flow and anxiety. Specifically, self-esteem played a crucial and complete mediating role in this relationship, while academic self-efficacy mediated the path between self-esteem and anxiety. Our findings enrich the literature on flow experience and help with identifying practical considerations for buffering anxiety and more broadly with fostering strategies for promoting psychological sustainability and resilience.
... Influenced by this, conclusions based on measuring methodologies reliant on self-report (see [88] for a review) have contributed to an imprecise theory. One example is the flow questionnaire (FQ) [25], which asks participants to respond to Likert-like scales about quotes that originated in interviews (e.g., "I get involved", "I enjoy the experience and the use of my skills"), but, according to Moneta [88], its quotes represent different constructs. ...
... Influenced by this, conclusions based on measuring methodologies reliant on self-report (see [88] for a review) have contributed to an imprecise theory. One example is the flow questionnaire (FQ) [25], which asks participants to respond to Likert-like scales about quotes that originated in interviews (e.g., "I get involved", "I enjoy the experience and the use of my skills"), but, according to Moneta [88], its quotes represent different constructs. Another example is the experience sampling method (ESM) [26], which at random times during daily activities asks participants to report on variables associated with the concept and makes special emphasis in the activity's difficulty and skills. ...
... As the foundation of flow's theory is based on observations and self-reports, it hinders efforts to develop measuring methodologies based on psychometric variables (see [98] for a review), such as heart rate [28,64], respiratory depth [28], and salivary cortisol [64]. These methods do not have a clear path for operationalization, and, as Finneran and Zhang [38] and Moneta [88] argue, they are often based in arbitrary interpretations of the theory, and thus produce incongruent results. ...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of flow is used extensively in HCI, video games, and many other fields, but its prevalent definition is conceptually vague and alternative interpretations have contributed to ambiguity in the literature. To address this, we use cognitive science theory to expose inconsistencies in flow's prevalent definition, and introduce fuse, a concept related to flow but consistent with cognitive science, and defined as the "fusion of activity-related sensory stimuli and awareness''. Based on this definition, we develop a preliminary model that hypothesizes fuse's underlying cognitive processes. To illustrate the model's practical value, we derive a set of design heuristics that we exemplify in the context of video games. Together, the fuse definition, model and design heuristics form our theoretical framework, and are a product of rethinking flow from a cognitive perspective with the purpose of improving conceptual clarity and theoretical robustness in the literature.
... The idea is, the more the dimensions are fulfilled, the more the subject is in a state of flow. This means, differences in flowexperience are determined by the trade-off's result between the flow-experience's nine dimensions that seemingly regulates its intensity or level (Moneta, 2012). ...
... where the subject's high level of skills correspond to high demanding challenges (Moneta, 2012). ...
... This briefly outlined twofold nature of flow-experience is most often summarised in the socalled componential measurement approach of flow whose representatives are convinced that flow is always a state as well as the experiencing subject's trait (Moneta, 2012). Nonetheless, it is possible to characterise and measure both variables on their own. ...
Thesis
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Master's Thesis by Tomko Settgast, supervised by Mathias Hegele and Dominik Endres: The text at hand investigates the possibilities to capture the so-called flow-experience without the reliance on subjective reports, i.e. it follows the intention to explore reliably and objectively measurable markers. This search especially regards neural correlates of the experience in question that have not been found yet. The text is thereby subsumed under the umbrella of enactivism since it gives similar credit to phenomenology and neuroscience, uses the description of the dynamical system’s theory and bridges the phenomenal and natural scientific aspects of cognition via an ecologically psychological sense-making. The introduction of the neurophenomenological method at the beginning of the text offers the possibility to suggest objective markers of subjective experience based on correlation. A central position within thisobjectification is given to the entropic brain hypothesis, as it is prominently represented by Carhart-Harris (2018). Its claim to connect subjective experience to the brain’s dynamically working mechanism enables its linkage to a dynamical system’s account for cognition. The dynamical attractors that the systems theory suggest for guiding behaviour is thereby easily integrated within the notions of predictive coding (i.a. Kilner, Friston, Frith, 2007; Clark, 2015) that assumes predictions to be the foundation of perception. Under the assumption of enactivism and its notion of a unity of perception and action, one gets the opportunity to translate the dynamical system’s attractors with Gibson’s (1986) idea of affordances. Thus, the brain’s dynamical working mechanism is the reflection of the phenomenal experience of affordances that guide perception and action. Especially, skilled action will be explored as the consequence of simultaneously attracting affordances which allow for the use of different strategies in pursuing a goal. This dynamically metastable attunement to different affordances (Bruineberg & Rietveld, 2014) constitutes exactly the entirety of the introduced dynamical attractors and is reflected in the brain activities’ entropy. This hypothesis is completed with the introduction of the serotonin’s and dopamine’s neuromodulation on these attractor-based affordances where those neuromodulator’s influences in perceptual guidance and behavioural selection as well as execution are emphasised. The exploration of these neurophysiological measurements enables the linkage of subjective and objective markers of flow-experience after a flow-experience’s phenomenal characterisation is given. Therefore, the outlined objective measurements are followed by an introduction of flow-experience within the notion of Csíkszentmihályi (1975). Its phenomenal characterisation and the introduced theories are used to suggest an objective measurement of flow-experience. The text uses the similarity between the flow-experience’sphenomenology and the experience of (musical) improvisation to infer a way to investigate ojectively measurable markers of flow. As it will be revealed later, this is based on the fact that the cognitive neuroscience of improvisation leads to a phenomenological experience that is summarised as the creator-witness phenomenon a fter Berkowitz (2010) what will be made fruitful as a way to investigate the state of flow. Taken together, professional musical improvisation as a specific example of skilled action shows a phenomenal proximity to flow-experience wherefore its underlying neural mechanism isinferred as the underlying mechanism of flow-experience. Hence, an objectively measurable marker of theflow’s state of mind will be explored in the increase of the brain activities’ entropy that reflects an increase in themetastable attunement to different but simultaneously visible affordances.
... While survey-based research has identified a variety of individual, group, and organisational variables that influence flow, experimental and neurophysiological flow research are still in early stages. Importantly, despite scholastic efforts, there is no robust method available yet to detect flow experiences continuously (Moneta, 2012;de Moura Jr and Bellini, 2019). Currently, the only way to detect flow is to interrupt someone's task and ask about their current experience -which disrupts the (potential) flow experience altogether (Moneta, 2012;de Moura Jr and Bellini, 2019). ...
... Importantly, despite scholastic efforts, there is no robust method available yet to detect flow experiences continuously (Moneta, 2012;de Moura Jr and Bellini, 2019). Currently, the only way to detect flow is to interrupt someone's task and ask about their current experience -which disrupts the (potential) flow experience altogether (Moneta, 2012;de Moura Jr and Bellini, 2019). Therefore, to enable and instantiate flow-fostering, adaptive NeuroIS, more fundamental knowledge about how to observe flow using wearable neurophysiological sensors needs to be developed. ...
... shallow flow), or high intensity (i.e. deep flow) (Moneta, 2012). The differentiation can be seen in the emphasis of isolation from the environment, the lack of self-awareness, or the distortion of time (Moneta, 2012). ...
Thesis
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The experience of flow is a unique sensation of complete task absorption and effortless action that is highlighted as a correlate of peak performances, personal and social growth, and general well-being. For organisations, higher flow frequencies, therefore, relate to a more engaged, skilled, and productive workforce. Especially as global phenomena like increasing knowledge work demand and low worker engagement are developing, organisations could strongly benefit from fostering workers’ flow experiences. However, facilitating flow represents a substantial challenge due to the variety of workers’ abilities, tasks and workplace configurations. Knowledge workers are faced with unstructured and complex tasks, that require numerous domain-specific abilities and cooperation with others. Workplaces are diversifying with boundaries disappearing between centralized and digitally-mediated workspaces. This variety means that only person-, task- and situation-independent approaches can deliver comprehensive flow support. For this reason, research on the experiences neurophysiological basis is increasingly pursued. On this basis, adaptive Neuro-Information Systems (NeuroIS) could be developed that are able to detect flow continuously (especially through wearable sensor systems), and that can provide flow-supporting mechanisms. Presently, despite these efforts, the knowledge on how to detect flow with neurophysiological measures is sparse, highly fragmented, and lacks experimental variety. On the individual level, competing propositions exist that have not been consolidated through cross-situational, and multi-sensor observation. On the group level, almost no research has been conducted to investigate neurophysiological correlates in social interactions, particularly not in digitally-mediated interactions. This dissertation addresses these gaps through the cross-situational observation of flow using wearable ECG and EEG sensor systems. In doing so, limitations in the present state of experimental flow research are addressed that refer to central shortcomings of established paradigms for the controlled elicitation of flow experiences. Specifically, two experiments are conducted with manipulations of difficulty, naturalism, autonomy, and social interaction to investigate the question of how flow elicitation can be intensified, and the experience detected more robustly across situations. These investigations are based on an extensive integration of the theoretic and empiric literature on flow neurophysiology. Altogether, the results suggest flow to be represented by moderate physiological activation and mental workload, by increased attentional task engagement and by affective neutrality. Especially EEG features indicate a diagnostic potential to separate lower from higher flow intensities by the reflection of optimal and non-optimal (individual and group) task difficulties. To catalyse, that the positive promises of fostering flow in individuals and social units, can be realised, avenues to advance flow facilitation research are outlined.
... Flow theory (Csikzentmihalyi, 1975;1990) identifies the conditions under which optimal performance is achieved and can be used to inform test users about the degree to which optimal performance has been attained. Flow is an optimal mental state resulting from a balance between challenge and skill, and the compositional model of flow posits eight dimensions that help predict its occurrence (Moneta, 2012). Applying a model of optimal performance, such as flow, would help improve the validity of test score interpretation and answer the call to improve the quality of assessment of test-taking motivation (Eklöf, 2010). ...
... Post hoc and retrospective scales are more feasible for large samples and do not interfere with test performance. However, some shorter scales, such as the Flow Activities Assessment (Whalen, 1997), adopt the channel model of flow (as do the aforementioned methods), which primarily focuses on challenge-skill balance (Moneta, 2012). ...
... Mplus DIFFTEST procedure can (Muthén & Muthén, 1998-2012. The DIFFTEST for comparing the one-and nine-factor models was significant (see Table 1), indicating the nine-factor model fit better. ...
Article
Full-text available
The validity of inferences made with test results depends on meeting the assumptions of the test users, one of which is the presumption of optimal performance (i.e., test-takers are doing their best). Flow theory identifies the conditions under which optimal performance is achieved and can be used to inform test users about the degree to which optimal performance has been attained. This sequential explanatory mixed-methods study examined the presence of flow in 159 middle-school test-takers during a high-stakes standardized test of math and reading achievement. Strong evidence was obtained for multiple facets of validity for measuring flow, including internal consistency reliability; structural validity via confirmatory factor analysis; concurrent and predictive validity via correlations among state and trait flow, test anxiety, and test performance; and convergent validity via structured participant interviews. Flow theory provides a road map to test stakeholders for fostering motivation and optimal performance in adolescent test-takers.
... Influenced by this, conclusions based on measuring methodologies reliant on self-report (see [88] for a review) have contributed to an imprecise theory. One example is the flow questionnaire (FQ) [25], which asks participants to respond to Likert-like scales about quotes that originated in interviews (e.g., "I get involved", "I enjoy the experience and the use of my skills"), but, according to Moneta [88], its quotes represent different constructs. ...
... Influenced by this, conclusions based on measuring methodologies reliant on self-report (see [88] for a review) have contributed to an imprecise theory. One example is the flow questionnaire (FQ) [25], which asks participants to respond to Likert-like scales about quotes that originated in interviews (e.g., "I get involved", "I enjoy the experience and the use of my skills"), but, according to Moneta [88], its quotes represent different constructs. Another example is the experience sampling method (ESM) [26], which at random times during daily activities asks participants to report on variables associated with the concept and makes special emphasis in the activity's difficulty and skills. ...
... As the foundation of flow's theory is based on observations and self-reports, it hinders efforts to develop measuring methodologies based on psychometric variables (see [98] for a review), such as heart rate [28,64], respiratory depth [28], and salivary cortisol [64]. These methods do not have a clear path for operationalization, and, as Finneran and Zhang [38] and Moneta [88] argue, they are often based in arbitrary interpretations of the theory, and thus produce incongruent results. ...
Preprint
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The concept of flow is used extensively in HCI, video games, and many other fields, but its prevalent definition is conceptually vague and alternative interpretations have contributed to ambiguity in the literature. To address this, we use cognitive science theory to expose inconsistencies in flow's prevalent definition, and introduce fuse, a concept related to flow but consistent with cognitive science, and defined as the "fusion of activity-related sensory stimuli and awareness". Based on this definition, we develop a preliminary model that hypothesizes fuse's underlying cognitive processes. To illustrate the model's practical value, we derive a set of design heuristics that we exemplify in the context of video games. Together, the fuse definition, model and design heuristics form our theoretical framework, and are a product of rethinking flow from a cognitive perspective with the purpose of improving conceptual clarity and theoretical robustness in the literature.
... Following Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi's flow theory, nine characteristics are used to describe flow (Csikszentmihalyi 2000;Moneta 2012): (1) challenge-skill balance, (2) clear goals, (3) unambiguous feedback, (4) focused concentration, (5) merging of action and awareness, (6) loss of self-consciousness, (7) perceived control, (8) distortion of time, and (9) autotelic experience. ...
... For these beneficial reasons, scholars are broadening the understanding of how flow can be fostered in daily life, and we likewise see promise in examining and facilitating students' flow in remote learning. This is consistent with flow theory and backed by a large body of empirical research that flow can be experienced in any task where active engagement is needed and the following conditions (also called flow antecedents) are met (Moneta 2012;Nakamura and Csikszentmihalyi 2009;Rissler et al. 2020): (1) a balance between the perceived challenge of the task and personal skill, (2) the setting of clear goals, and (3) unambiguous feedback. ...
... Unfortunately, measuring flow is still considered a major challenge: most research relies on self-reports to assess individuals' flow (Moneta 2012). However, these self-reports interrupt the flow of the study participants, justifying the need for less obtrusive (near) real-time measurement methods that can assess flow during task execution . ...
Article
Full-text available
With the advent of physiological computing systems, new avenues are emerging for the field of learning analytics related to the potential integration of physiological data. To this end, we developed a physiological computing infrastructure to collect physiological data, surveys, and browsing behavior data to capture students’ learning journey in remote learning. Specifically, our solution is based on the Raspberry Pi minicomputer and Polar H10 chest belt. In this work-in-progress paper, we present preliminary results and experiences we collected from a field study with medical students using our developed infrastructure. Our results do not only provide a new direction for more effectively capturing different types of data in remote learning by addressing the underlying challenges of remote setups, but also serve as a foundation for future work on developing a less obtrusive, (near) real-time measurement method based on the classification of cognitive-affective states such as flow or other learning-relevant constructs with the captured data using supervised machine learning.
... Several scholars have discussed the nine dimensions of flow that seem to be consistent in the literature (e.g. Csikszentmihalyi, 1975;Fullagar & Kelloway, 2009;Moneta, 2012). The first dimension is referred to as fusion of action and consciousness, implying that most of the cognitive processing is directed at the ongoing behaviour. ...
... Although high concentration, low self-reflection and forgetting of one's surroundings may be critical aspects of flow (Moneta, 2012), we wish to emphasize that before such a state occurs, at some point, one has already made the decision that the task is motivating or relevant enough to fully engage in it in the first place. Thus, the task either has to be intrinsically rewarding or has to be in accordance with the (short-or long term) goals one wants to achieve (Abuhamdeh & Csikszentmihalyi, 2012;Keller & Bless, 2008). ...
... There is consistent empirical evidence that a match between a person's skills and the task requirements enhances the probability of experiencing flow (Moneta, 2012;Peifer et al., 2014). The performance monitoring aspects of the SN seem to be a plausible candidate to play a role in this. ...
Article
Full-text available
Flow is a state of full task absorption, accompanied with a strong drive and low levels of self‐referential thinking. Flow is likely when there is a match between a person's skills and the task challenge. Despite its relevance for human performance and the vast body of research on flow, there is currently still relatively little insight in its underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. In this paper, we discuss a set of large brain networks that may be involved in establishing the core dimensions of flow. We propose that dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems mediate the intrinsic motivation and activate mood states that are typical for flow. The interaction between three large‐scale attentional networks, namely the Default Mode Network, Central Executive Network and the Salience Network is proposed to play a role in the strong task engagement, low self‐referential thinking, feedback and feelings of control in flow. The proposed relationships between flow and the brain networks may support the generation of new hypotheses and can guide future research in this field.
... Typically, the assessment of flow relies on questionnaires that are administrated after the experience, event or task [16]. While the assessment of flow could be carried out during the performance of the task, it can interrupt the flow state. ...
... Classical spectral power features were then extracted for each recorded channel in 8 s epochs with 4 s overlap between consecutive windows. The spectral features computed were: delta (0.5-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), lowalpha (8-10 Hz), high-alpha (10-12 Hz), and beta (12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30). The power for each individual band was then normalized by the power from the fullband (0.5-30 Hz) [31]. ...
... The experience of flow occurs when an individual is challenged by a given task that requires skills that are available. According to Csikszentmihalyi and LeFevre (1989), in order to evoke flow, an activity also needs to exceed the weekly average of challenges met and skills needed (see also Moneta, 2012). Furthermore, other affective states resulting from engagement in a given task can be distinguished from flow on this challenge-skill dimension. ...
... For example, if a situation is very challenging but one does not have the required skills, anxiety is more likely to be experienced -rather than flow; on the other hand, a situation may lead to apathy if both challenges and available skills are low. In addition to being challenging and requiring available skills, the task needs to be interesting and relevant for the person to not result in boredom (Moneta, 2012). Numerous studies on musical activities indicate that playing an instrument is a flow-evoking activity: it complies with the aforementioned prerequisites by challenging one's skills and being a relevant task for instrumentalists (Chirico et al., 2015;Gaggioli, Chirico, Mazzoni, Milani, & Riva, 2017;Hart & Di Blasi, 2015;Manzano et al., 2010;O'Neill, 1999;Smolej Fritz & Avsec, 2007;Valenzuela et al., 2018). ...
Article
Flow describes a state of total absorption in an activity. This optimal experience has received much attention in research on music-playing and performing, but not on interindividual differences in music-listening. We expect differences in the intensity of flow between performing music and listening to music and in the relationships with subjective well-being. In Study 1 (N = 207; questionnaire study), we investigated differences in flow between performing and listening to music in three dimensions of flow. We analyzed correlations between flow, previous musical training, music experience, and subjective well-being. Participants reported a more intense flow experience while listening to music than while performing music. Flow was significantly associated with subjective well-being and music experience. For performing music, flow was positively correlated with previous musical practice. Study 2 (N = 383; questionnaire study) focused on flow while listening to music and subjective well-being, and on the role a flexible self-concept plays in this phenomenon. Stronger relationships between flow and subjective well-being were obtained for individuals with a highly flexible self-concept. Flow was positively correlated with music experience. The results provided evidence for relationships between flow, previous musical practice, and music experience. Correlations with subjective well-being depend on processes of self-regulation.
... Bu eleştiriler sonucunda ortaya nedensel akış modelleri çıkmıştır. Bu modellere bileşenli akış modelleri (componential flow model) de denilmektedir (Moneta, 2012). Bileşenli modellerde üçlü, dörtlü ve sekizli akış modellerinde merkezi alınan beceri-zorluk dengesi sadece bir bileşen olarak ele alınmaktadır (Moneta, 2012). ...
... Bu modellere bileşenli akış modelleri (componential flow model) de denilmektedir (Moneta, 2012). Bileşenli modellerde üçlü, dörtlü ve sekizli akış modellerinde merkezi alınan beceri-zorluk dengesi sadece bir bileşen olarak ele alınmaktadır (Moneta, 2012). Nedensel modeller, akışı ortaya çıkaran özellikleri alt boyutlarıyla birlikte kavramsallaştırmaktadır (Novak & Hoffman, 1997;Trevino & Webster, 1992). ...
Thesis
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In this study, the effect of homogeneous and heterogeneous pairing, in terms of individual differences, in pair programming on group compatibility, flow and coding performance were investigated. In line with this purpose, seven individual difference cases, such as "gender, learning style, friendship, extraversion and conscientiousness components of personality traits, coding self-efficacy, and coding prior-knowledge" were determined to be used for pairing in pair programming. This study, designed as a mixed study, is a multiple case one. In the quantitative part of the study, posttest only nonequivalent control group design was used. During the fall semester of 2018-2019 academic year, 64 voluntary 3rd and 4th year undergraduate students enrolled in the elective "Information Management Applications" course at the department of CEIT of a large state university. As a result of the study, high levels of group compatibility and flow, but middle-level of coding performance were reached in all individual difference cases irrespective of group's being homogeneous or heterogeneous. Besides, it was concluded that the homogeneous group experienced higher level flow in the learning style case. In the friendship case, homogeneous group experienced higher level flow, while heterogeneous group showed higher level coding performance. It was also seen that the heterogeneous group exhibited a higher level of coding performance in the case of conscientiousness component of personality traits. Students prefer to pair as homogeneous or heterogeneous by friendship and coding prior-knowledge level in pair programming due to various reasons. In addition, they prefer to pair the ones with high task-related conscientiousness. Participant students expect to achieve higher group compatibility, flow, and coding performance in this way. In this context, in order to increase the flow experience in pair programming, it may be suggested to create homogeneous groups by the learning style and friendship, and to create heterogeneous groups by conscientiousness component of personality traits and friendship.
... Csikszentmihalyi (1975Csikszentmihalyi ( /2000 defined flow as a state of complete absorption in the activity for the sake of the activity itself. Flow usually occurs when concentration is high, skills and challenges are both high and in balance, when the goals are clear, and when there is immediate and unambiguous feedback (Csikszentmihalyi et al., 2005;Fong et al., 2014;Moneta, 2012). When these conditions are met, a person can achieve a flow state which is characterized by a sense of control, a merging of action and awareness, a loss of self-consciousness, and a loss of sense of time (Csikszentmihalyi (1975(Csikszentmihalyi ( /2000. ...
... To experience flow in some domain, a person has to have skills that are appropriate for the level of the challenges in that domain. To experience flow repeatedly the challenges and the individual's skills have to grow proportionally (Csikszentmihalyi et al., 2005;Fong et al., 2014;Moneta, 2012). In leisure, a person usually has more freedom to choose activities that are in line with his or her skills level. ...
Article
Full-text available
Flow experience is related to well-being. Still, the question arises as to whether the flow is beneficial because of its intensity and frequency, or its contribution to well-being depends on the domain in which it is experienced. It was hypothesized that flow experienced in a domain that is perceived important and useful (i.e., the academic domain) contributes more to students’ well-being than flow experienced in domains that are perceived as less important and less useful (leisure and routine activities) even though it is in academic domain experienced less often and less intensely. This hypothesis was tested in two separate studies. In the first study, the flow was operationalized as a trait and the frequency of flow was measured via questionnaires. In the second study, the flow was operationalized as a state and the intensity of flow was measured via the experience sampling method. The samples were comprised of university students from Zagreb, Croatia. Both studies showed that flow in a domain that is perceived as more important and useful (i.e., the academic domain), although is experienced less often and less strongly, is more related to students’ well-being than flow in domains perceived by students as less important and less useful (leisure and routine activities). It was also tested if the association between academic flow and well-being is mediated by academic achievement. This hypothesis was not accepted. The results of this study indicate that it is important for students to have opportunities to experience flow in their studies because it is a pleasant state, related to better achievement, and it adds to their overall well-being. Keywords: flow experience, sampling method, flourishing, flow in learning, life satisfaction, optimal experience
... The Flow Theory states that there are some factors that facilitate flow experience. Specifically, the activity must have clear goals, there must be immediate and unambiguous feedback during task performance, and the perceived challenges of the activity must be balanced with the individual's own skills [38][39][40]. A flow experience itself differs from individual to individual but is generally characterized by a high concentration on the task at hand, a loss of self-consciousness, a loss of sense of time, and deriving personal purpose from the task performance (ie, autotelic experience) [36,[38][39][40]. ...
... Specifically, the activity must have clear goals, there must be immediate and unambiguous feedback during task performance, and the perceived challenges of the activity must be balanced with the individual's own skills [38][39][40]. A flow experience itself differs from individual to individual but is generally characterized by a high concentration on the task at hand, a loss of self-consciousness, a loss of sense of time, and deriving personal purpose from the task performance (ie, autotelic experience) [36,[38][39][40]. In games and player experience research, flow is a key concept and has been proven, among other factors, to be important for player motivation and retention [41][42][43][44][45][46]. ...
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BackgroundA lack of ability to inhibit prepotent responses, or more generally a lack of impulse control, is associated with several disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia as well as general damage to the prefrontal cortex. A stop-signal task (SST) is a reliable and established measure of response inhibition. However, using the SST as an objective assessment in diagnostic or research-focused settings places significant stress on participants as the task itself requires concentration and cognitive effort and is not particularly engaging. This can lead to decreased motivation to follow task instructions and poor data quality, which can affect assessment efficacy and might increase drop-out rates. Gamification—the application of game-based elements in nongame settings—has shown to improve engaged attention to a cognitive task, thus increasing participant motivation and data quality. Objective This study aims to design a gamified SST that improves participants’ engagement and validate this gamified SST against a standard SST. Methods We described the design of our gamified SST and reported on 2 separate studies that aim to validate the gamified SST relative to a standard SST. In study 1, a within-subject design was used to compare the performance of the SST and a stop-signal game (SSG). In study 2, we added eye tracking to the procedure to determine if overt attention was affected and aimed to replicate the findings from study 1 in a between-subjects design. Furthermore, in both studies, flow and motivational experiences were measured. ResultsIn contrast, the behavioral performance was comparable between the tasks (P
... Perhaps hyperfocus is a specific type of flow state, labeled "deep flow" by Hupfeld et al. (2019). Moneta (2012) proposed that "deep flow" experiences are characterized by detachment from the environment, which is not a requirement for "shallow flow" experiences. Likewise, Csikszentmihayli (1975) suggested that flow experiences may span a continuum from "micro" (i.e., "shallow") flow experiences that are enjoyable but not fully absorbing to "deep flow" experiences that occur when all nine factors that foster flow are present. ...
... This unexpected pattern of results runs counter to Ashinoff and Abu-Akel's (2021) proposition that hyperfocus and flow are the same experience. Instead, it supports Hupfeld et al.'s (2019) claim that hyperfocus may be a particular type of "deep flow" characterized by a detachment from the environment more extreme than is experienced in normal, or "shallow," flow states (Moneta, 2012). The majority of correlations between hyperfocus and flow subscale scores were not significant, and the few significant correlations warrant consideration. ...
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Hyperfocus and flow are experiences of intense concentration associated with reduced perception of irrelevant stimuli and improved task performance (Ashinoff & Abu-Akel, 2021). Historically, hyperfocus has been conceptualized as a symptom of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), autism, or schizophrenia within the psychiatry literature, whereas flow has been construed as an enjoyable and facilitative experience within positive psychology. Recent studies (e.g., Ashinoff & Abu-Akel, 2021) have suggested that hyperfocus and flow are the same phenomenon viewed through different lenses. The present study investigates hyperfocus and flow experiences of college students with and without clinically significant symptoms of ADHD. Eight-five undergraduate volunteers with and without ADHD completed measures of dispositional hyperfocus and flow, as well as an ADHD screening instrument. Correlations showed that most elements of hyperfocus were negatively or not correlated with most aspects of flow. Further, a MANOVA and post-hoc ANOVAs revealed that students with clinically significant levels of ADHD symptoms reported higher levels of hyperfocus and lower levels of most aspects of flow compared to students without ADHD. These results suggest either that hyperfocus and flow are distinct, inversely related constructs, or that the wording of the questionnaire items influences responders to think of their experiences of task absorption differently.
... The simplest flow model describes flow as the state in which one is neither anxious nor bored because "skills" and "challenges" are perceived as being roughly equal, later models added more states such as apathy (when skills and challenges match, but are both at a low level), or divide "anxiety" into anxiety proper, worry, and arousal as well as "boredom" into boredom, relaxation, and control. [25] Kawabata and Mallett [26] pointed out a number of conceptual problems in the literature on flow, including problems with the notion of challenge as used in flow theory. Specifically concerning the skills-challenges balance, Landhäußer and Keller [27] noted that in most cases, researchers purportedly investigating flow actually investigated correlates and consequences of skills-demands compatibility-which is a precondition of flow, not the flow experience itself. ...
... Aristotle would seem to agree: EN 1154b 26-28. 25 See [96] for a brief introduction and philosophical consequences. 26 Other prominent psychological work critical of a simplistic dual-process model includes [67,100,101]. ...
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The present article critiques standard attempts to make philosophy appear relevant to the scientific study of well-being, drawing examples in particular from works that argue for fundamental differences between different forms of wellbeing (by Besser-Jones, Kristjánsson, and Kraut, for example), and claims concerning the supposedly inherent normativity of wellbeing research (e.g., Prinzing, Alexandrova, and Nussbaum). Specifically, it is argued that philosophers in at least some relevant cases fail to apply what is often claimed to be among their core competences: conceptual rigor—not only in dealing with the psychological construct of flow, but also in relation to apparently philosophical concepts such as normativity, objectivity, or eudaimonia. Furthermore, the uncritical use of so-called thought experiments in philosophy is shown to be inappropriate for the scientific study of wellbeing. As an alternative to such philosophy-as-usual, proper attention to other philosophical traditions is argued to be promising. In particular, the philosophy of ZhuangZi (a contemporary of Aristotle and one of the most important figures in Chinese intellectual history) appears to concord well with today’s psychological knowledge, and to contain valuable ideas for the future development of positive psychology.
... 119). If that is the case, given the fundamental role the FSS-2 has 19 played in flow research (e.g., Moneta, 2021), "questions could be raised over much of the 20 knowledge of flow generated to date" (Swann et al., 2018, p. 267) and the field could be 21 "moving towards a crisis point whereby it is difficult to confidently proceed with the 22 traditional nine-dimensions paradigm" (Swann et al., 2018, p. 264). In order to move beyond 23 this crisis point, new measures of flow and clutch statesbased on the Integrated Model -1 are needed. ...
... Second, items relating to flow and clutch states were developed and an initial 13 version of the scale was constructed. Lastly, to assess content validity, the items and scale 14 structure were reviewed by an expert panel -an important first step in scale development and 15 validation (e.g., Boateng or not they experienced flow (Moneta, 2021). This presumption is contradictory to other 10 findings that suggest flow is rare and elusive, and therefore unlikely to be experienced by 11 every participant on each occasion (Swann et al., 2018). ...
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Objectives The Integrated Model of Flow and Clutch States describes two overlapping psychological states that underlie exceptional performance and rewarding exercise experiences. However, research based on this model is currently hampered because no validated measure has yet been developed. Therefore, the aim of this multi-study paper was to develop and provide preliminary validation for the Flow-Clutch Scale in sport and exercise. Design Using two independent adult samples (n = 280; n = 264), three studies were conducted to develop and establish preliminary validity for the Flow-Clutch Scale. Method In Study 1, we developed an initial version of the scale and established content validity using an expert panel. In Study 2, we employed exploratory factor analysis to: identify the most appropriate factor structure; examine the scale’s internal consistency; test whether the scale differentiated between individuals who experience flow, clutch, or neither state; and examine relationships with the Flow State Scale-2. In Study 3, we aimed to replicate findings of Study 2 with an independent sample, and employed confirmatory factor analysis to confirm the factor structure, internal consistency, and relationships with the Flow State Scale-2. Results The results provide preliminary validation of the 4-factor, 22-item Flow-Clutch Scale. Conclusions These studies indicate the Flow-Clutch Scale represents a useful scale for researchers interested in examining flow and/or clutch states in sport and exercise. Recommendations are provided for further research to continue testing, and accumulating evidence for, the validity and reliability of the Flow-Clutch Scale.
... Octant model of flow state (Csikszentmihalyi, 2014) Researchers have developed ways to measure interpersonal and intrapersonal disparities in the occurrence of flow. Now, flow is measured in these three widespread ways: The flow questionnaire, The experience sampling method, and the standardized scales of the componential approach (Moneta, 2012). The flow questionnaire developed by Csikszentmihalyi and Csikszentmihalyi (1988) contains some descriptive passages regarding flow state and asks the if the individuals have had such an experience; if yes, how often and in context of what activity? ...
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“The destiny of games is to become boring…Fun is a process and routine is its destination (Koster, 2013).” This paper reviews the role of experiencing flow in videogames and identifies the precursors, properties, and probable outcomes. The potential importance of games has not been adequately studied in terms of the benefits for young individuals who are at risk (Kutner and Olson, 2008). The aim of this review is to increase the awareness about the association between games and flow and to provide a model of flow in gaming that can be applied to improve well-being. This paper distinguishes the strengths of current games that generate positive affect, better functioning and scopes of socializing that promotes and supports the player’s mental health and collective well-being of the gaming community. Keywords: flow, gaming, characteristics of flow in gaming, PERMA, well-being.
... Although researchers have reached a close consensus on the definition of flow (Engeser & Schiepe-Tiska, 2012), there have been a lot of attempts to develop new measurement tools for measuring flow experience (Kaur et al., 2016a). Aside from applying the experience sampling form (Csikszentmihalyi & Larson 1987) and the flow questionnaire (Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1988), many researchers have adopted the componential view of flow (Jackson and Csikszentmihalyi, 1999) that would measure flow to the standards required by traditional test theory (Moneta, 2012). Consistent with this, we have found that the majority of the reviewed papers in this study employed the componential view of flow. ...
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Flow theory has been widely applied to understand user behaviour in the different phases of the information systems life cycle during last two decades. Nevertheless, its application is complicated due to issues and challenges related to the broad nature of information technology and human behaviour. Specifically, there is a lack of consensus on the conceptualization of flow in the IS context, and much uncertainty still exists about the key topics and the relationship between antecedents, dimensions and consequences of flow experience. However, a systematic review of how the flow phenomenon is conceptualized and operationalized within the IS life cycle has not been addressed yet. Therefore, studies based on the flow framework within the IS life cycle have mostly emerged without a research agenda and theoretical guidance. Aiming to fill this gap, this study systematically reviews flow studies related to three main phases of the life cycle of an IS, namely adoption, continuance and discontinuance. A total of 81 peer‐reviewed articles published from 2000 to 2019 were identified for analysis. The findings present a comprehensive view of literature by analysing characteristics of reviewed studies in terms of research methods, research contexts and popular theoretical lenses used with flow theory. Furthermore, the results show antecedents, dimensions and outcomes of flow that have been relatively well or under‐investigated. Finally, based on these findings, research gaps and directions for future research are provided.
... The first three (i.e., challenge-skill balance, clear goals, and unambiguous feedback) are required conditions for flow to occur, while the remaining items refer to the phenomenological characteristics frequently associated with flow. These dimensions have been studied in many different populations mainly using self-report approaches (Moneta, 2012;Swann et al., 2012;Chirico et al., 2015;Stamatelopoulou et al., 2018;Habe et al., 2019). ...
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Improved perception during high performance is a commonly reported phenomenon. However, it is difficult to determine whether these reported changes experienced during flow states reflect veridical changes in perceptual processing, or if instead are related to some form of memory or response bias. Flow is a state in which an individual experiences high focus and involvement in a specific task, and typically experiences a lack of distractibility, a disordered sense of time, great enjoyment, and increased levels of performance. The present pre-registered study investigated 27 athletes and musicians using a temporal order judgement (TOJ) task before and after a sports or music performance over three sessions. Participants' flow experiences were surveyed in order to measure how modulations of flow over successive performances potentially modulates spatiotemporal perception and processing. Hierarchical linear modeling showed a positive moderation of subjectively experienced flow and performance on post-measures of a TOJ task. Specifically, the higher the subjective flow experience of the sport or music performance was rated, the better the participant performed in the post-performance TOJ task compared to the pre-performance TOJ task. The findings of the present study provide a more comprehensive explanation of human perception during flow at high level performances and suggest important insights regarding the possibility of modulated temporal processing and spatial attention.
... An individual in flow condition is in state of high concentration so that there are no space for other thoughts or disturbance. Even though flow is constructed of various complex variables, skill and challenge are two of the most important variables [21] [22]. ...
... Flow sensation emerges only when skill and challenge levels are balanced, otherwise boredom and anxiety will emerge (Hoffman & Novak, 1996). Moneta (2012) argued that a good balance between challenge and skills is the precondition of flow. Authors of studies concerning online consumer behavior reported that skills and challenges are the most widely accepted antecedents of the theory of flow. ...
Article
This paper aims to examine the mechanism that explains young consumers’ intention to perform online financial trading by integrating technology acceptance model, flow model, and theory of planned behavior. This study used a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based design. Using convenience sampling technique 471 samples were collected from young adults in Malaysia. All participants were placed in an online financial trading simulation prior to the survey. The hypotheses were tested using partial least squares structural equation modeling. The results revealed that intention to adopt online financial trading is driven by theory of planned behavior components which in turn are explained by consumers’ intrinsic (flow factors) and extrinsic (technology acceptance model factors) motivations, in which the latter plays a more important role in this process. Making profit or loss during the trading simulation may influence respondents’ attitudes and intention to perform online financial trading. The cross-sectionality of the data does not allow for confident causal conclusions. Data were collected from young adults studying in a university in Malaysia which limits generalizability of the findings. In designing a financial platform, practitioners’ focus should be on efficiency, user-friendliness, and providing functions that improve usefulness of the platform. Another implication is to be aware of the importance of prior experience and education in improving consumers’ use of financial platforms. Thus, improving consumers’ knowledge and skills of online trading would increase their market participation. A contribution of this study is investigating the mechanism that drives consumers’ intention to use online trading. More specifically, the current study by integrating three theories of Flow, TAM, and TPB examined how emotional and cognitive factors can inform consumers’ behavior, specifically, intention to perform online trading in the future.
... People with incongruent affective and cognitive preferences reported medium levels of flow regardless of their level of perceived abilities. They at least seemed to enter a state of "shallow flow" but maybe not a "deep flow" state, which differ in the level of the feeling of isolation from the environment (Moneta, 2012). However, unexpectedly, people high in perceived abilities but low in affective and cognitive preferences also reported levels of flow higher than the mean. ...
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One of the prominent questions in flow research is the investigation of conditions that need to be met so that people will get involved in an activity for the sheer sake of doing it. The present study examined the relationship between distal (i.e., implicit motives) and proximal (i.e., affective preferences, cognitive preferences, perceived abilities) motivational processes and flow experience based on assumptions of the compensatory model of motivation and volition. In order to arouse the implicit agentic motive, 63 participants worked on an online platform in an open innovation environment. Results showed that affective preferences mediated the effect of the implicit agentic motive on flow experience. Moreover, a hierarchical regression analysis with simple slope tests yielded that, at the proximal level, the congruence of affective preferences, cognitive preferences, and perceived abilities was associated with flow experience. The present research adds some new and essential ingredients to Csikszentmihalyis' traditional conception of flow.
... One more possible limitation of our study refers to the measurement of flow: By using the flow short scale (Engeser and Rheinberg, 2008), we applied a widely used componential approach to assess flow (compare Moneta, 2012). This scale measures flow as a continuous phenomenon: the more its components are pronounced, the higher flow values. ...
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Self-efficacy is a well-known psychological resource, being positively associated with increased performance. Furthermore, results from field studies suggest a positive impact of self-efficacy on flow experience, which has not yet been tested experimentally. In this study, we manipulated self-efficacy by means of positive feedback and investigated whether self-efficacy serves as a mediator in the relationship between positive feedback and flow and in the relationship between positive feedback and performance. Our sample consisted of 102 participants (63 female, 39 male). The experimental group received positive feedback after completing 5 min of mental arithmetic tasks on a computer, whereas the control group received no feedback. A second session of a mental arithmetic task was then completed for 5 min. Mediation analyses confirmed that specific self-efficacy mediated a positive effect of positive feedback on flow as well as on both performance measures (quality and quantity) in a subsequent task. However, direct effects of feedback on flow and on performance were not significant, which suggests the presence of other mechanisms that remain to be investigated.
... The concept of flow stems from the positive psychology literature [83,84], which uses the term to describe an optimal mental state for accomplishing a task. [85] outlines the various methods for measuring flow in different environments, such as questionnaire-based scales such as the WOLF scale [86], or the Experience Sampling Methodology [87] which requires frequent sampling at an individual level [88]. Hypothesised drivers of flow include task challenge [89], daily recovery [90], job characteristics [91], and organisational and personal resources [92], but no solid theory has yet been established on this topic. ...
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Over the past few decades many corporate organisations have moved to open-plan office designs, mostly due to financial and logistical benefits. However, recent studies have found significant drawbacks to open plan offices and it is unclear how office designs can facilitate the best work output and company culture. Current design practice aims to optimise efficiency of space, but no previous research has tested the effect of office design experimentally in a working office. This paper describes an experiment comparing four different office designs (Open-plan, Zoned open-plan, Activity based, and Team offices) against a suite of wellbeing and productivity metrics in a real world technology company. Results suggest that two very different designs (Zoned open-plan and Team offices) perform well compared to Open-plan office designs. Zoned open-plan and Team office designs improved employee satisfaction, enjoyment, flow, and productivity, while Activity based and Open-plan designs performed poorly by comparison. The Open-plan office design was rated more poorly by employees, had higher levels of unsafe noise, and once employees no longer had to be in the Open-plan office design of the experiment, they spent more time at their desks.
... Flow is typically characterized by the following aspects: (a) clear goals; (b) immediate and unambiguous feedback [22]; (c) balanced skills versus challenges; (d) sense of control over the task at hand; (e) high but subjectively effortless attention; (f) distorted sense of time perception (time moves faster or slower than usual); (g) a merging of awareness and action takes place; (h) a loss of self-awareness; and (i) an 'autotelic' motivation, namely, engaging in the task itself is perceived as rewarding. Since the combinations of high challenge and high skill situations are mostly found in work and structured leisure activities in daily life, flow is perceived to be more frequent and intense within such situations [21][22][23][24][25][26]. This is relevant here, because the smartphone is an indispensable tool for people's everyday life and it brings both work and leisure functions to people's daily life along with convenience and enjoyable experiences. ...
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The global use of smartphone has had tremendous social, environmental, and economic impacts in the last decade, and continues to grow impressively. In order to comprehend customers' purchase behavior, it is crucial to understand the driving force behind their choice of one specific brand among various competitors. A few prior researches have demonstrated that not only the optimal experience of flow, but also identity features (i.e., self-identity, social identity, brand identity) facilitate a customer's purchase intention. Previous studies also indicate that brand-related constructs (e.g., typically brand image but sometimes also brand personality and communication) predict purchase intention. As the first study combining flow, which focuses on investigating the consumer purchase behavior through identity and brand-related constructs, we propose a conceptual model that combines flow theory, brand image, brand communication, brand identity, and brand personality to investigate purchase intention. We have empirically tested the conceptual model based on the data collected from 1377 Chinese smartphone users. Results via the structural equation modeling with AMOS software indicated that flow experience, brand image, brand communication, brand personality, and brand identity all directly or indirectly explain purchase intention. Flow experience serves a critical role in mediating the path from brand communication, brand personality, and brand identity to purchase intention. The research focuses on the strategic implication of the various brand features management and aims to harmonize economic, social, and environmental sustainability.
... However, it is criticized for causing measurement error because different individuals might interpret the narrative description of flow differently, and thus, perceive and report flow differently. Furthermore, in this approach, researchers fail to observe or explore the intensity or level of flow in an activity (Moneta, 2012). Table 1 shows the number of articles in each stream of the flow structure. ...
Article
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Flow has been regarded as an important phenomenon for understanding and delivering compelling experiences to consumers when using computer‐mediated services. Despite the importance of flow in the delivery of computer‐mediated services in computer‐mediated environments, little attention has been devoted to evaluating the status of research and consolidating the findings in the literature. As there is an ongoing debate, concerning the nature of flow, its structure, antecedents and consequences in computer‐mediated environments, the need to understand the literature on flow in these environments becomes more relevant. This study synts the flow literature in computer‐mediated environments by systematically reviewing 137 peer‐reviewed journal articles published across 23 years. We showcase the current state of flow literature and provide (a) general knowledge, (b) methodological and (c) research model structural information of published studies (structure, antecedents and consequences of flow). The review concludes with identification of current gaps, future research directions and their managerial implications in computer‐mediated environments.
... This finding showed up some limitations of the conventional sampling method of measuring flow, which is usually used just after finishing the task. Sampling methods ask a participant to report their mental state 'now' or refer to the just finished task (Moneta, 2012). Because flow is more likely to be experienced in the latter part of the activity, when the task is already familiar and strategies for acting developed, sampling measures might overestimate the intensity of flow experience during the entire activity. ...
Article
This study investigated flow experience during group collaborations of creative dance improvisation, where group flow was defined as periods when most members of a group reported a flow experience. Sixteen dancers took part in the experimental sessions, performing improvisational tasks in groups of four. We chose two different types of dance task, hypothesising that dancers’ external focus upon the group’s shared surroundings and awareness of others might facilitate group flow experience; while an internal focus upon one’s own mental imagery might inhibit it. A novel, video-stimulated recall method to assess flow experience was used to track time patterns and shared characteristics of flow experience within the group. We also used the Flow Short Scale (FSS); thinking aloud recall; and consensual assessment of creative outcomes of activity. Our findings showed that group flow was rather rare and was more likely when a group had worked together for longer. Consequently, external focus tasks facilitated group flow only in the latter part of the session. Dancers’ reports revealed that a group in a high-flow state engaged with a task in a more complex way: sharing, transforming and supporting each other’s ideas, while low-flow moments were characterised by simpler creative tools, such as mimicry. As expected, flow was positively related to the creative outcomes of the group activity.
... In terms of methodology, our results support the componential (i.e., nine-dimensional) theory of flow (Moneta 2012), which allows greater nuance in our understanding than a unidimensional conception. They also support more recent conceptualizations that group the nine dimensions into groups reflecting absorption and felt control aspects of flow (Engesr and Rhienberg 2008;Landhäußer and Keller 2012;Sheldon et al. 2014). ...
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Flow is a motivational state occurring when one’s skill level is balanced with the challenge of a task, leading to optimal performance and profound enjoyment. Its connection with optimal performance has drawn interest in fields focused on performance—such as sports, education, and work—and its connection with enjoyment has drawn interest in fields focused on subjective well-being, such as leisure and mental health. Facilitation of flow can involve both personality traits that promote it and those that hinder it, such as reactance . Reactance occurs when one perceives either a threat to a freedom or its actual loss, leading to behaviors directed toward restoring that lost/threatened freedom. Reactance is negatively correlated with personality traits such as openness and positively correlated with neuroticism and anxiety, whereas flow is positively correlated with openness and negatively related with neuroticism and anxiety. After comparing several structural equation models using a sample of 369 postsecondary students, a first-order confirmatory factor analysis model was retained. Results indicated negative correlations between most flow factors and two of four reactance factors (resentment of authority and tolerance of conflict), and positive correlations with the remaining two (resistance to influence and preservation of freedom). Thus the strength and direction of the association between flow and reactance depend on the factors involved. These findings reflect a complex relationship between flow and reactance and provide insight into how optimal performance and subjective well-being can be better facilitated.
... Engeser et al. (2021) argued that the definition of flow has changed very little since Csikszentmihalyi's (1975Csikszentmihalyi's ( /2000 original formulation in 1975, and that there is strong agreement among researchers on the definition itself. Yet, they pointed out that there is a certain level of disagreement among researchers regarding how flow should be measured: "Indeed, over the past 35 years, researchers have kept developing and validating new measurement tools for flow, and modifying and re-validating established ones, which indicates that a gold measurement standard for flow has yet to be achieved" (Moneta, 2021;pp. 31-32). ...
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While the formulation of Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi's theory of flow, including the experience dimensions, has remained stable since its introduction in 1975, its dedicated measurement tools, research methodologies, and fields of application, have evolved considerably. Among these, education stands out as one of the most active. In recent years, researchers have examined flow in the context of other theoretical constructs such as motivation. The resulting work in the field of education has led to the development of a new model for understanding flow experience in education, specifically dedicated to adult learning. As a result of both a meticulous analysis of existing models and consideration of more recent developments, a new flow scale has thus been developed. The aim of this study is therefore twofold: to validate the new flow measurement scale dedicated to the educational environment, EduFlow-2, and to test a new theoretical model. Students taking a course (N = 6,596), some on-site and others in a MOOC, participated. Several scales were administered online at the end of the participants' course during the 2017 academic year. The factor structure of EduFlow-2 was tested using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling. Several models were tested. The model with a second-order factor best fit the data. We tested the invariance of the flow scale measure for gender and for the type of training (MOOC/on-site). We were able to show that the flow scale is invariant of the modalities of these two variables. Results revealed good psychometric qualities for the scale, making it suitable for both on-site and distance learning. The analysis also revealed significant relationships with the classic variables of motivation, self-efficacy, learning climate, and life satisfaction. Furthermore, all four dimensions of the model were found to be adequate and consistent with the underlying theoretical arguments. In the end, this new, short flow scale and the theoretical model were demonstrated to be promising for future studies in the field of education.
... For all the constructs, the measurement scale items were adapted from previous studies related to online customer experience in the AIenabled service contexts and primarily dovetailed with psychological or cognitive emotions. Online flow experience (Giovanni, 2012;Koufaris, 2002;Lee & Wu, 2017;Webster et al., 1993), AI-enabled service quality (Ameen et al., 2021;Foroudi et al., 2018), and awe experience Yaden et al., 2018). The study employed multiple scale items to measure each construct and used a seven-point Likert-type scale with anchors ranging from 1 "strongly disagree" to 7 "strongly agree" (see Table 2). ...
Article
Interactive technology is rapidly transforming the modern e-tail landscape by applying reality-enhancing technologies, i.e., augmented reality, virtual reality, and mixed reality-led sensory, emotional and cognitive mechanisms. These wide-ranging AI-enabled services improve user interface and enhance customers’ experience in the online shopping environment. The current study integrated the flow dimensions and the broaden-and-build theory to investigate the moderating influence of AI-enabled service quality on flow dimensions and customers' awe experience. The model examined the role of online flow dimensions, i.e., perceived control, concentration, and cognitive enjoyment, in using AI-enabled services to enhance customers’ awe experience in the Indian fashion e-tailing context. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to analyze and validate a sample of 739 online fashion retail shoppers. The findings posited that individuals are encouraged by the (1) concentration and (2) cognitive enjoyment facilitated by online flow, and in the case of (3) perceived control, the effect size was small. Further, the moderating role of AI-enabled service in deepening and positively influencing the awe experience with perceived control, concentration, and cognitive enjoyment was also established.
... One of the key aspects has been how to develop computer-mediated educational activities which are capable of providing the flow state to students (Csikszentmihalyi. et al. 1977;Moneta, 2012;Rathunde and Csikszentmihalyi., 2005). In this context, a series of studies have been developed in order to define a conceptual model for developing activities that could allow students to enter in flow state. ...
Conference Paper
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Flow Theory has been discussed in several aspects in the last decades, in domains such as: work, social life and education, among others. Particularly in the field of educational technology, a series of discussions have been conducted in the academia, bringing out some issues such as: the importance of flow state for education to develop didactic materials which could lead students to the flow state and better learning. In this sense, this paper has the goal of presenting to the community four contemporary challenges of Flow Theory applied to Computers in Education.
... There is no consensus on how to operationalize the Flow construct, and commonly-used operationalizations have all been criticised (Abuhamdeh, 2020;Moneta, 2012;Swann, Piggott, Schweickle and Vella, 2018). We view the FSS as a workable solution for our multi-trial design, but cognisant of the possible issues, nevertheless we withheld a priori assumptions regarding its validity. ...
Article
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Flow is an intrinsically motivating (i.e. ‘autotelic’) psychological state of complete absorption in moment-to-moment activity that can occur when one performs a task whose demands match one's skill-level. Flow theory proposes that Flow causally leads to better performance, but empirical evidence for this assumption is mixed. Recent evidence suggests that self-reported Flow may not be linked to performance-levels per se, but instead to deviations from anticipated performance (the so-called flow deviation, or F˜deffect). We aimed to replicate and extend these results by employing a high-speed steering game (CogCarSim) to elicit Flow, and specifically focused on the moderating effects of learning and task experience on the F˜deffect. In a longitudinal design, 18 participants each played CogCarSim for 40 trials across eight sessions, totaling 720 measurements across participants. CogCarSim reliably elicited Flow, and learning to play the game fit well to a power-law model. We successfully replicated the F˜deffect: self-reported Flow was much more strongly associated with deviation-from-expected performance than with objective performance levels. We also found that the F˜deffect grew stronger with increasing task experience, thus demonstrating an effect of learning on Flow. We discuss the implications of our findings for contemporary theories of Flow.
... HAPPY ("Describe your current mood") was measured on a Likert-type scale coded from 1 to 7, with "happy" as the positive pole and "sad" as the negative pole. The scale was symmetrically anchored in very (1, 7), quite (2, 6), some (3, 5) and neither (4) (Moneta, 2021). For this study, BALANCE of perceived challenges (CHALL, "Challenge of the activity") and skills (SKLL, "Your skills in the activity") are expressed in terms of radians, the standard unit of angular measure, as Pi/4abs (atan [SKLL/CHALL] -Pi/4). ...
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Do LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY® (LSP) workshops result in improved experience of flow components as well as higher levels of creative output than traditional meetings (MEET)? This research studies the extent to which LSP, as a specialized material-mediated and process-oriented cocreative workshop setting, differs from MEET, a traditional workshop setting. Hypotheses for differences in individual flow components (autotelic behavior, happiness, balance), group flow components (equal participation, continuous communication) and creative output were developed and tested in a quasi-experimental comparison between LSP and MEET.
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Since Dr. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi outlined the foundation of the flow theory in 1975, the study of flow has grown into a massive multi-disciplinary field. This study aimed to use bibliometric techniques to analyze the vast amount of literature accumulated in flow research. A total of 2700 peer-reviewed documents published between 1979 and 2021 were retrieved from Scopus. The results revealed three major periods of flow research: the inception period (before 1998), the growth period (1998–2010), and the thriving period (2011–2021), with an exponential rise in the number of publications in recent years. Researchers of various disciplinary backgrounds across the globe have contributed to the field, and flow theory has been frequently connected with the Self-Determination Theory and the Technology Acceptance Model. Eight major themes were identified in the publications, including three theoretical themes (antecedents, adjustment, and motivation) and five application themes (technology, gaming, sports, creativity, and education). Flow in the technology area is the current research hotspot. These findings provide a macroscopic overview of the field and guidance for future studies.
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Flow is an intrinsically rewarding psychological state characterized by effortlessness, absorption, and feelings of automaticity, that is associated with numerous beneficial outcomes for athletes (e.g., performance, motivation, wellbeing). Many studies have attempted to induce flow through interventions, however, with minimal success, perhaps due to a lack of consultation with end-users regarding appropriate strategies. Therefore, this study sought to examine runners’ perspectives on potential strategies that should be considered during the development of flow interventions. Fourteen athletes (Mage = 32.71; SD = 7.22) participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis, which generated four categories with themes relating to factors that cause and inhibit the occurrence of flow within each category. Specifically, these runners suggested that flow interventions should: (i) create an exploratory or novel context; (ii) set openended goals; (iii) provide feedback that exceeds expectations; and (iv) ensure that attention is process-focused or directed toward pleasant aspects of the run. Moreover, runners suggested that certain strategies may inhibit the experience of flow: (i) evaluative contexts; (ii) setting specific goals; (iii) delivering quantitative feedback; and (iv) focusing on disruptive stimuli and bodily sensations. The findings of this study provide researchers with detailed enduser perspectives of strategies that may inform the development of flow interventions, and in turn, increase the likelihood of their efficacy.
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Flow experience is a psychological state characterized by simultaneous absorption, concentration, and enjoyment. Examining the change and continuity of the flow experience––an optimal state that contributes to well-being––is critical to the understanding of the lifelong trajectory of human flourishing. Nevertheless, to date there has been no systematic investigation of the relationship between age and flow experiences across adulthood. Developmental models of flow experiences suggest the continuity hypothesis that people are motivated to sustain a high level of flow experiences as long as conditions permit. We conducted two studies to investigate flow experiences among adults of different ages. Study 1 ( N = 1,162; age range 30–80) used longitudinal data from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) project, investigating the changes in flow experiences at work over a 10-year span. Study 2 ( N = 393; age range 20–82) was an online survey that examined age-related differences in flow experiences. Both studies revealed minimal relationships between age and flow experiences. Post-hoc analyses revealed no significant moderating effect of common demographics including gender, race, and education on the age–flow relationship. Taken together, these studies elucidate the “flow profile” in adulthood that is consistent with the continuity hypothesis. We discuss relations of the findings to the literature on flow experiences and well-being.
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ملخص الدراسة: تهدف هذه الدراسة إلى اختبار فاعلية برنامج ارشادي معرفي سلوكي قائم على خبرة التدفق النفسي في تنمية توكيد الذات والتوافق الدراسي لدى عينة من تلاميذ أولى ثانوي بثانوية بن الضيف الحفناوي بلدية الجلفة، قدر عددها بـ 30 تلميذا وتلميذة، قسمت بطريقة عشوائية متجانسة إلى مجموعتين تجريبية وضابطة في كل واحدة منهما 15 فردا، معتمدة على الوسائل التالية في جمع المعلومات: مقياس التدفق النفسي، مقياس توكيد الذات، مقياس التوافق الدراسي، واختبار الذكاء لرافن. ومعتمدة على البرنامج في رفع وتحسين مستوى التدفق النفسي، توكيد الذات، والتوافق الدراسي للتلاميذ، معتمدة على المنهج التجريبي الملائم للدراسة. خلصت نتائج الدراسة إلى أنه توجد فاعلية للبرنامج من خلال تحقق أهدافه، وهذا ما تبينه نتائج الفرضيات: - لا توجد فروق دالة احصائيا بين متوسطات درجات القياسين القبلي والبعدي في مقاييس التدفق النفسي، توكيد الذات، والتوافق الدراسي للعينة الضابطة. - توجد فروق دالة احصائيا بين متوسطات درجات القياسين القبلي والبعدي في مقاييس التدفق النفسي، توكيد الذات، والتوافق الدراسي للعينة التجريبية تعزى للبرنامج الإرشادي. - توجد فروق دالة احصائيا بين متوسطات درجات تلاميذ العينتين الضابطة والتجريبية في القياس البعدي على مقياس التدفق النفسي ومقياس توكيد الذات، ومقياس التوافق الدراسي. الكلمات الدالة: التدفق النفسي، التوافق الدراسي، تنمية توكيد الذات. Abstract: This study aims to test the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral indicative program based on the experience of psychological flow in developing self-affirmation and scholastic adjustment among a sample of first -year secondary pupils at Ibn Al-Dhaif Al-Hefnawi secondary School in Djelfa. the sample contains 30 pupils, which are divided into two groups in a spontaneous homogeneous manner, an experimental and a control group. Each of them has 15 individuals, and depends on the following methods to collect information: Psychological Flow Scale, Self-Affirmation Scale, Scholastic Adjustment Scale, and Raven IQ Test. It is based on the program to raise and improve the level of psychological flow, self-affirmation, and academic compatibility for pupils It is based on the appropriate experimental method for the study. The results of the study led to the program effectiveness by achieving its objectives, and that is what the the hypotheses show: - There are no statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the pre and post measurements in the measures of psychological flow, self-affirmation, and academic compatibility for the control sample. - There are statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the pre and post measurements in the measures of psychological flow, self-affirmation, and academic compatibility for the experimental sample due to the counseling program. - There are statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the students of the control and experimental samples in the post measurement on the psychological flow scale, the self-affirmation scale, and the academic compatibility scale. Keywords; Psychological flow, Academic Adjustment, Developing self-assertion Résumé: Cette étude vise à tester l'efficacité d'un programme de conseil cognitivo-comportemental basé sur l'expérience du flux psychologique dans le développement de l'affirmation de soi et de l'adaptation scolaire auprès d'un échantillon d'élèves du premier secondaire du lycée Ibn Al-Dhaif Al-Hefnawi dans la municipalité de Djelfa. Chacun d'eux est composé de 15 personnes et dépend des méthodes suivantes pour collecter des informations : échelle de flux psychologique, échelle d'auto-affirmation, échelle d'ajustement scolaire et test de QI de Raven. Il est basé sur le programme visant à élever et à améliorer le niveau de flux psychologique, d'affirmation de soi et de compatibilité académique pour les étudiants. Il est basé sur la méthode expérimentale appropriée pour l'étude. Les résultats de l'étude ont conclu que le programme est efficace en atteignant ses objectifs, et c'est ce que montrent les résultats des hypothèses : - Il n'y a pas de différences statistiquement significatives entre les scores moyens des mesures avant et après les mesures du flux psychologique, de l'affirmation de soi et de la compatibilité académique pour l'échantillon de contrôle. - Il existe des différences statistiquement significatives entre les scores moyens des mesures avant et après les mesures du flux psychologique, de l'affirmation de soi et de la compatibilité académique pour l'échantillon expérimental en raison du programme de conseil. - Il existe des différences statistiquement significatives entre les scores moyens des étudiants des échantillons de contrôle et expérimentaux dans la mesure post sur l'échelle de flux psychologique, l'échelle d'affirmation de soi et l'échelle de compatibilité académique. Mots clés: flux psychologique, ajustement scolaire, développement de l'affirmation de soi
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Quantitative analysis of Game User eXperience (GUX) is important to the game industry. Different from the typical questionnaire analysis, this paper focuses on the computational analysis of GUX. We aim to analyze the relationship between game and players using the multi-modal data including physiological data and game process data. We theoretically extend the Flow model from the classic skill-and-challenge plane by expanding new dimension on motivation, which is the result of the multi-modal data analysis on affect, and physiological data. We call this 3D Flow as Motivational Flow, MovFlow. Meanwhile, we implement a quantitative GUX Analysis System (GUXAS), which can predict the player's in-game experience state by only using game process data. It analyzes the correlation among not only in-game state, but the player's psychological-and-physiological reaction in the entire interactive game-play process. The experiments demonstrated our MovFlow model efficiently distinguished the users' in-game experience states from the perspective of GUX.
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Ein positiver Zusammenhang von Leistungsmotivation, Flow und Wohlbefinden ist in Einzelpfaden gut belegt. Befunde, welche alle drei Variablen miteinander in Beziehung setzen, stehen in der Bildungsfor-schung noch aus. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, den Einfluss einzelner Dimensionen von Leistungsmotivation & Flow auf das subjektive Wohlempfinden von Schüler/innen, unter Berücksichtigung etwaiger Media-tionseffekte durch Flow zu untersuchen. Die Grundlage der Daten bildet der erste Messzeitpunkt einer motivationsbezogenen Interventionsstudie. Erhoben wurden die Daten im Rahmen einer prospektiven randomisierten Längsschnittstudie im Kon-trollgruppendesign (N=742; 46,2% weibl.), welche mit Schüler/innen von sieben rheinland-pfälzischen Schulen durchgeführt wurde. Leistungsmotivation, Wohlbefinden und Flow wurden mit folgenden In-strumenten erfasst: Petermann & Winkel (2007a&b): Fragebogen zur Leistungsmotivation; Flow-Skala (in Anlehnung an Rheinberg et al., 2003); Flourishing-Skala (in Anlehnung an Diener et al., 2009). Ausge-wertet wurden die Daten mittels Mediatoranalysen per multipler Regression mit SPSS. Die Ergebnisse multipler Regressionsanalysen konnten sowohl in der Primar-, als auch Sekundarstufe direkte Effekte einzelner Leistungsmotivationsskalen auf das subjektive Wohlbefinden belegen. Zudem wurden in den Jahrgansstufen 2&3,4&5,7&9 der Zusammenhang zwischen Leistungsmotivation und Wohlbefinden durch Flow-Erleben mediiert. In der Jahrgangsstufe 11 konnte kein Mediationseffekt gefunden werden. Die Ergebnisse bestätigen vorliegende Korrelationsstudien und identifizieren Flow als einen zentralen Mediator zwischen der Leistungsmotivation und dem Wohlbefinden bei Schüler/innen. Die Reflexion dieser Befunde eröffnet großes Potential für die weitere Ausarbeitung und Implementierung Flow-förderlicher Interaktionen in der Schule.
Article
Objective We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed articles aimed at the evaluation of certified flight instructors’ (CFI) performance in a training context and a scoping review of potential research avenues given the previously identified gaps. Background As the demand for pilots will continue to grow significantly in the coming decades, so will the demand for CFIs, and for ways to improve their existing performance. Understanding performance factors of CFIs could benefit their training and help meet the increasing demand for pilots. Method State-of-the-art research on the subject was surveyed via a systematic review of performance factors of CFIs and a scoping review to identify areas where other fields of research could inform CFI performance evaluation. Result Only 20 articles since 1965 have directly assessed performance factors of CFIs. Their focus has mostly been on communication and educational processes. The scoping review brings forward concepts from cognitive psychology and psychophysiology as means of improving the current understanding of CFI situation awareness and task management. Conclusion Very little work has been done on CFI situation awareness and task management. These are the two main domains in which psychophysiological tools could provide a clear understanding of the attentional and decisional processes at play while developing situation awareness in a dynamic environment and quantify the task load affecting it.
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Flow is an optimal psychological state associated with exceptional performances and positive subjective experiences in sport and exercise. Considering these reported benefits, there have been many attempts to promote flow experiences through interventions. However, there is little evidence to demonstrate the effectiveness of flow interventions in sport and exercise. This study aimed to systematically review, synthesise, and evaluate the efficacy of flow interventions in sport and exercise to date. Twenty-nine empirical studies, published before August 2020 were identified, primarily comprising single-case designs (41.38%) and quasi-experimental designs (34.48%). Strategies most commonly reported in flow interventions to date included: mindfulness (30.03%); hypnosis (17.24%); and imagery (13.79%). While there is evidence that interventions increased certain dimensions of flow, no studies to date have reported conclusive evidence that flow was induced through an intervention. None of the included studies were developed through an intervention development framework, and the strategies employed were generally only partially related to a conceptual framework of flow. Collectively, these findings suggest interventions reported to date have largely been unsuccessful at producing flow experiences. The conceptual, developmental, and methodological issues impacting the quality of flow interventions are discussed, and recommendations are made to improve the efficacy of flow interventions in future.
Article
Introduction The state of cognitive flow, colloquially known as being ‘in the zone’, has been linked with enhanced performance, happiness, career satisfaction, and decreased burnout. However, the concept has not been adopted strongly in healthcare training, continuing professional development, or daily practice. A systematic review with a narrative synthesis was undertaken to map the evidence for flow in healthcare. Methods A search was conducted in MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and EMBASE in July 2019 and updated in October 2020 for manuscripts discussing flow in all healthcare disciplines. Articles published between 1806 to October 13 2020 were included. Two authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts (and subsequently full‐texts where necessary) for inclusion. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Data were extracted on location, manuscript type, population and context, measures, and key findings. Results 4923 unique abstracts were initially retrieved and 15 articles were included in the final review. We report on the experience, benefits, and strategies to support flow in healthcare. Flow may benefit providers by enhancing career enjoyment, wellness and performance, while mitigating exhaustion, burnout, and stress. While research from other domains has focused on supporting flow through individualized training, our results highlight the importance of system and environmental factors. Conclusions Supporting professional and trainee flow in healthcare requires a holistic approach, including individual training and system‐level interventions.
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Research on psychological flow is well established, although criticisms remain regarding conceptual and measurement issues associated with the construct. This scoping review maps flow-related research across scientific disciplines, examining the conceptualization, measurement instruments, and outcomes of flow between 2012 and 2019. Across 236 sources that met the review criteria, 108 different flow-related constructs were measured by 141 instruments, and 84 possible antecedents were identified. Despite the varied approaches, a common set of overarching antecedent constructs included "optimal challenge" and "high motivation," and recurring characteristics of the flow experience itself included "absorption," "effort-less control," and "intrinsic reward." Applied studies-albeit inconsistent in approach and largely correlational in nature-predominantly linked flow to "positive development" (i.e., well-being and health), "high functioning," and "further engagement." We contextualize the findings of the review relative to important work on flow that has recently emerged (following the review period)-in doing so, we hope this review offers a contemporary framework that can be used for the study of flow across scientific disciplines. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
The flow theory has been widely applied to explain video game players' gaming and purchasing behaviour. However, due to the conceptual and empirical flaws of the current measurement instruments, researchers can hardly apply them to measure dispositional flow experience of adult video game players. In this research, we conceptualised flow experience and developed its measurement instrument in the video game context. To achieve these objectives, we conducted five phases with different participants in each of them: conceptualisation of the constructs and item generation (n = 13), expert judging (n = 5), pre-test (n = 96), initial development and validation (n = 289), and advanced development and validation (n = 593). We applied both qualitative and quantitative analysis to conceptualise and measure flow experience of video game players, including grounded theory and several statistical tools of latent variable modelling. We obtained a scale of 28-items that performs well in the first-order model. Moreover, we tested three hierarchical structure of flow experience: unidimensional model, independent antecedent model, and hierarchical antecedent model. Results show that hierarchical antecedent model is the best structure to represent flow experience. We named our scale Video Game Dispositional Flow Scale (VGDFS).
Chapter
Predicting flow intensities from unobtrusively collected sensor data is considered an important yet challenging endeavor for NeuroIS scholars aiming to understand and support flow during IS use. In this direction, a limitation has been the focus on cross-subject models built on data collected in controlled laboratory settings. We investigate the potential of predicting flow in the field through personalized models by collecting report and ECG data from a clerical worker over the course of two weeks. Results indicate that a lack of variation in flow experiences during this time likely diminished these potentials. Through pre-training feature selection methods, model accuracies could be achieved that nonetheless approach related cross-subject flow prediction work. Novel recommendations are developed that could introduce more flow variation in future flow field studies to further investigate the within-subject predictability of flow based on wearable physiological sensor data.
Thesis
Настоящият труд включва философско и научно изследване на креативността във феномена „гранична ситуация“, както е развит във философията на Карл Ясперс. Трудът е разделен на три части: 1) Въведение във философията на Карл Ясперс и концепцията за „гранична ситуация“, 2) Описание на функциите на психо-соматичния комплекс в норма и патология и техните отношения към философията и философското съзнание и 3) Изследване на креативността преди, по време и след преживяванията на гранични ситуации. Първата част е историко-философска. Втората – научна, а третата е синтез между първите две, като двете линии – философската и научната – са развити паралелно. Използваните методи са: историко-философски анализ, сравнителен анализ, концептуален анализ. Излагат се редица подстъпи към едно сериозно изследване на граничните ситуации и на ролята на креативността по отношение на методите за тяхното превъзмогване. Включени са редица изследвания в рамките на конкретни области от познанието, свързани с ядрената тематика труда, като: понятието „креативност“, епилепсията на Достоевски, животът на Е. Сведенборг, фармакометафизиката, депресивно-песимистичния реализъм, психичните защити по А. и З. Фройд, понятието „Аз“, логотерапията на В. Франкъл, психозомиметиците и др. Фокусът е върху способите за превъзмогване на граничните ситуации, в частност каква роля играе креативността при тях. Предлага се богата съвкупност от перспективи за бъдещи изследвания в горепосочените области и проблемни точки. Глава 1: Понятието „гранична ситуация“ в екзистенциалната философия на Карл Ясперс В тази глава се анализира понятието „гранична ситуация“ в рамките на философията на Карл Ясперс или т. нар. Existenzphilosophie. Става въпрос не за вид екзистенциална философия, а за философия на Existenz. Разгледани са в детайли основните понятия на Existenzphilosophie, а именно: Всеобхватно, Existenz, Transcendenz, Разум, Операцията „трансцендиране“, Крушение и Философска вяра. Понятието „гранична ситуация“ е дискутирано, от тази перспектива, в следните главни точки: Същност, Кой попада в гранична ситуация?, Методи за превъзмогване (вж. Глава 3), Гранични ситуации и психопатология, Видове гранични ситуации и Навлизане в гранични ситуации. Разгледано е и понятието „мистично преживяване“ в рамките на Ясперсовата Existenzphilosophie. Приведени са голямо количество цитати от основните трудове на Ясперс (от преводите от немски на английски език), които не са преведени на български език и които сами по себе си представляват една миниатюрна антология на Ясперсовата Existenzphilosophie. Глава 2: Науката на психо-соматичния комплекс срещу философското съзнание В тази глава изложението включва главно дискусията на научни понятия и концепции, но са дадени и редица философски такива. Ясперс е считал, че за философстващия са от ключово значение наличните обширни научни познания. Това е така поради факта, че самата Existenzphilosophie или философската светова ориентация, така да се каже, надгражда научния светоглед или т. нар. от Ясперс научна светова ориентация. Поради този факт, главата започва с дискусия върху отношението, взаимовръзката и взаимоотношението между науката и философията. След това в детайли е анализирано понятието „съзнание“, както от научна, така и от философска перспектива. На читателя се предоставя и кратка научна дискусия върху функционалността на човешкото съзнание и човешката психика в норма и в патология; тук е включено и изложение върху т. нар. механизми за психична защита по А. и З. Фройд. Главата завършва с кратко изложение на главните постановки в когнитивната наука, вкл. и афективната наука: възприятие, познание, емоции и деятелност. Включено е и изложение, което представлява кратко въведение в основите на функционалната невроанатомия, както и основните принципи на невро- и психофармакологията. Емоционалността или афективността е разгледана и от философска перспектива в лицето на т. нар. екзистенциални чувства. Главата завършва с кратко, но богато изложение върху психологията и философията на креативността. Глава 3: Динамика на креативността във феномена „гранична ситуация“ Тази глава се базира на Глава 1 и Глава 2, като представлява синтез между двете глави. Фокусът е върху динамиката на креативността, която се анализира в рамките на преживяванията на гранични ситуации. Приведен е списък с възможните методи за превъзмогване на граничните ситуации, който е далеч по-пълен от този, представен в съответната секция в Глава 1. Разгледан е случаят със SARS-CoV-2 като актуална световна гранична ситуация. Впоследствие се въвежда понятието „миниатюра на гранична ситуация“, което представлява смес между креативността като процес (и черта) и граничните ситуации – самата креативност се разглежда като миниатюра на гранична ситуация. Към всичко това, ние сме привели и следните дискусии (като вид практическо приложение на знанието за граничните ситуации): Логотерапията на Виктор Франкъл (и изобщо екзистенциалната психотерапия) като метод за превъзмогване на граничните ситуации, Феноменология на психеделичното състояние (като метод за превъзмогване на гранични ситуации и като метод за индуциране на гранични ситуации, респ. мистични преживявания), Видовете светогледи и граничните ситуации – в частност т. нар. от нас Депресивно-песимистичен реализъм, Философията на човешкото когнитивно фармакологично подобрение – Фармакометафизика и граничните ситуации, Екстазната аура като мистично преживяване при епилепсията на Достоевски и граничните ситуации (вж. секцията за мистичното преживяване в Глава 1), Метафизиката на душата като парафрения на психиката – случаят на Емануел Сведенборг – граничните ситуации и обективацията на езика на Трансценденцията.
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Originally, Csikszentmihalyi studied activities such as rock climbing, playing chess, composing music, modern dancing, playing basketball or conducting a surgery. Csikszentmihalyi’s interest was to determine, why people pursue these activities even though they might offer little, if any extrinsic rewards. He claimed that if we better understood, what makes us put a lot of effort into something that is seemingly lacking an extrinsic reward, then it may help us be less dependent on extrinsic rewards (cf. Engeser, Schiepe-Tiska & Peifer, Chap. 1). Competitive sports, as well as physical exercise (in terms of prevention) are often linked to extrinsic rewards (e.g. performance & money in competitive sports, or gaining and stabilizing health in prevention settings). Nevertheless, there are a lot of sports activities, which can’t be explained with extrinsic rewards, such as marathon-running as a hobby. Since the early 1990s, flow-experiences were often in the focus of sports- and exercise psychology. The aim of this chapter is to describe the historical development of flow research in sports and exercise settings and furthermore methodological as well as theoretical advances (e.g. neuro-cognitive aspects) related to sports and exercise will be reported and discussed.
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The present study focuses on the dynamics of flow in work and non-work contexts with the aim of studying differences and similarities of this motivational experience. Sixty employees from various occupational backgrounds answered a flow diary six times per day, over a period of 21 days (6,982 registers of data were collected). The obtained time series were analysed at between and within levels of analysis. Likewise, linear (i.e. regression analysis) and nonlinear models (i.e. catastrophe model) were used in order to examine the predictive capacity of the skill-challenge balance with respect to flow. Work and non-work domains have shown two main differences: higher variability in the latter (higher standard deviations in skills, enjoyment, interest, and absorption) and a different meaning of perceived challenge. Likewise, the nonlinear model doubled the predictive capacity compared to its linear counterpart (42% versus 19% during non-work activities, 44% versus 33% at work). In both work and non-work contexts, flow presents nonlinear dynamics that combine gradual and abrupt changes. Research and intervention efforts interested in this process should focus on the variable of challenge, which according to our study, is key to understand the complex dynamics of flow.
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Objectives This study aimed to provide an up-to-date summary of the literature on flow in elite sport, specifically relating to: (i) how flow is experienced; (ii) how these states occur; and (iii) the potential controllability of flow.DesignSystematic review.MethodsA comprehensive literature search of SPORTdiscus, PsycINFO, SAGE journals online, INGENTA connect, and Web of Knowledge was completed in August, 2011, and yielded 17 empirical studies published between 1992 and 2011. The primarily qualitative findings were analysed thematically and synthesised using a narrative approach.ResultsFindings indicated that: (i) some flow dimensions appear to be experienced more consistently than others; (ii) key factors were consistently reported to induce or inhibit flow occurrence; and (iii) the perception that flow experiences could be controllable to some extent, and are not merely ‘coincidental’. Additionally, it is appears that physiology is also relevant in flow, and these experiences may be psychophysiological.Conclusions Based on these findings, recommendations are made including the need for researchers to move from description to explanation of flow, the use of new methodologies, greater focus on the role of personality factors, and possible refinements of existing flow theory to be more specific to sport.
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Work-related flow is defined as a sudden and enjoyable merging of action and awareness that represents a peak experience in the daily lives of workers. Employees’ perceptions of challenge and skill and their subjective experiences in terms of enjoyment, interest and absorption were measured using the experience sampling method, yielding a total of 6981 observations from a sample of 60 employees. Linear and nonlinear approaches were applied in order to model both continuous and sudden changes. According to the R2, AICc and BIC indexes, the nonlinear dynamical systems model (i.e. cusp catastrophe model) fit the data better than the linear and logistic regression models. Likewise, the cusp catastrophe model appears to be especially powerful for modelling those cases of high levels of flow. Overall, flow represents a nonequilibrium condition that combines continuous and abrupt changes across time. Research and intervention efforts concerned with this process should focus on the variable of challenge, which, according to our study, appears to play a key role in the abrupt changes observed in work-related flow.
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Zusammenfassung. Bei N = 101 Arbeitnehmern verschiedener Berufe wurden mit der Experience Sampling Method (ESM) eine Woche lang Daten zum Flow-Erleben, zu Gluck/Zufriedenheit und zur Zielausrichtung laufender Aktivitaten erhoben (N = 4 603 Messungen). Die Daten wurden mit GLMM-Analysen ausgewertet. Auch bei der jetzt vollstandigen Erfassung aller Flow-Komponenten mit der FKS bestatigte sich das Paradoxon der Arbeit, wonach wahrend der Arbeit hohere Flow-Werte, aber niedrigere Werte fur Gluck/Zufriedenheit auftreten als jeweils in der Freizeit. Wahrend der Arbeit waren Aktivitaten haufiger auf die Erreichung von Zielen ausgerichtet als wahrend der Freizeit. Die Zielausrichtung wirkte auf Flow vs. Gluck/Zufriedenheit signifikant verschieden. Wahrend der Arbeit hat die Zielausrichtung auf Flow einen stark positiven Effekt, auf Gluck/Zufriedenheit jedoch nicht. Im Freizeitbereich war der Effekt von Zielausrichtung auf Gluck/Zufriedenheit sogar negativ. Das Paradoxon der Arbeit lasst sich partiell als Effekt d...
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Over the past several years, researchers have used data from the experience sampling method to operationalize flow and non-flow experiences in people's daily lives, including leisure, as indicated by the theory of optimal experiences (Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1988). The challenge-skill ratio that is central to that theory has been found to explain only a small portion of the variance of measures of subjective experience (e.g., affect, arousal). The purposes of the present study were to review potential factors that may limit the percentage of variance explained in studies of the flow phenomenon, propose alternative methods of analysis, and compare the explanatory power of the different approaches to analysis. Findings are reported from two separate data sets. The discussion focuses on considerations for future analyses of ESM data and the refinement of the theory of optimal experiences.
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This article builds on job characteristics and optimal flow theory to describe the experience of individuals using computers in the workplace. A model was developed and tested with linear structural relationship modeling (LISREL) with data from 149 professionals employed in a variety of organizations. Flow, which is characterized by intense concentration and enjoyment, was found to be significantly linked with exploratory use behavior, which in turn was linked to extent of computer use. Flow was itself determined by the individual's sense of being in control and the level of challenge perceived in using computers. Perceived control was more important for individuals with high task-scope jobs, that is, jobs with high variety, identity, autonomy, and feedback. Challenge played a greater role for low task-scope individuals. Practical and theoretical implications of the model are discussed, and suggestions for further research are offered.
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As a result of the growing interest in studying employee well-being as a complex process that portrays high levels of within-individual variability and evolves over time, this present study considers the experience of flow in the workplace from a nonlinear dynamical systems approach. Our goal is to offer new ways to move the study of employee well-being beyond linear approaches. With nonlinear dynamical systems theory as the backdrop, we conducted a longitudinal study using the experience sampling method and qualitative semi-structured interviews for data collection; 6981 registers of data were collected from a sample of 60 employees. The obtained time series were analyzed using various techniques derived from the nonlinear dynamical systems theory (i.e., recurrence analysis and surrogate data) and multiple correspondence analyses. The results revealed the following: 1) flow in the workplace presents a high degree of within-individual variability; this variability is characterized as chaotic for most of the cases (75%); 2) high levels of flow are associated with chaos; and 3) different dimensions of the flow experience (e.g., merging of action and awareness) as well as individual (e.g., age) and job characteristics (e.g., job tenure) are associated with the emergence of different dynamic patterns (chaotic, linear and random). Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Intuition and previous research suggest that creating a compelling online environment for Web consumers will have numerous positive consequences for commercial Web providers. Online executives note that creating a compelling online experience for cyber customers is critical to creating competitive advantage on the Internet. Yet, very little is known about the factors that make using the Web a compelling experience for its users, and of the key consumer behavior outcomes of this compelling experience. Recently, the flow construct has been proposed as important for understanding consumer behavior on the World Wide Web, and as a way of defining the nature of compelling online experience. Although widely studied over the past 20 years, quantitative modeling efforts of the flow construct have been neither systematic nor comprehensive. In large parts, these efforts have been hampered by considerable confusion regarding the exact conceptual definition of flow. Lacking precise definition, it has been difficult to measure flow empirically, let alone apply the concept in practice. Following the conceptual model of flow proposed by Hoffman and Novak (1996), we conceptualize flow on the Web as a cognitive state experienced during navigation that is determined by (1) high levels of skill and control; (2) high levels of challenge and arousal; and (3) focused attention; and (4) is enhanced by interactivity and telepresence. Consumers who achieve flow on the Web are so acutely involved in the act of online navigation that thoughts and perceptions not relevant to navigation are screened out, and the consumer focuses entirely on the interaction. Concentration on the navigation experience is so intense that there is little attention left to consider anything else, and consequently, other events occurring in the consumer's surrounding physical environment lose significance. Self-consciousness disappears, the consumer's sense of time becomes distorted, and the state of mind arising as a result of achieving flow on the Web is extremely gratifying. In a quantitative modeling framework, we develop a structural model based on our previous conceptual model of flow that embodies the components of what makes for a compelling online experience. We use data collected from a largesample, Web-based consumer survey to measure these constructs, and we fit a series of structural equation models that test related prior theory. The conceptual model is largely supported, and the improved fit offered by the revised model provides additional insights into the direct and indirect influences of flow, as well as into the relationship of flow to key consumer behavior and Web usage variables. Our formulation provides marketing scientists with operational definitions of key model constructs and establishes reliability and validity in a comprehensive measurement framework. A key insight from the paper is that the degree to which the online experience is compelling can be defined, measured, and related well to important marketing variables. Our model constructs relate in significant ways to key consumer behavior variables, including online shopping and Web use applications such as the extent to which consumers search for product information and participate in chat rooms. As such, our model may be useful both theoretically and in practice as marketers strive to decipher the secrets of commercial success in interactive online environments.
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The concept of flow is briefly reviewed and several theoretical and methodological problems related to flow research are discussed. In three studies, we attempted to avoid these problems by measuring the experience of flow in its components, rather than operationally defining flow in terms of challenge and skill. With this measure, we tested the assumption that experience of flow substantially depends on the balance of challenge and skill. This assumption could only be partially supported, and, as expected, this relationship was moderated by the (perceived) importance of the activity and by the achievement motive. Furthermore, flow predicted performance in two of the three studies.
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The aims of this study are to consider the experience of flow from a nonlinear dynamics perspective. The processes and temporal nature of intrinsic motivation and flow, would suggest that flow experiences fluctuate over time in a dynamical fashion. Thus it can be argued that the potential for chaos is strong. The sample was composed of 20 employees (both full and part time) recruited from a number of different organizations and work backgrounds. The Experience Sampling Method (ESM) was used for data collection. Once obtained the temporal series, they were subjected to various analyses proper to the complexity theory (Visual Recurrence Analysis and Surrogate Data Analysis). Results showed that in 80% of the cases, flow presented a chaotic dynamic, in that, flow experiences delineated a complex dynamic whose patterns of change were not easy to predict. Implications of the study, its limitations and future research are discussed.
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In an effective e-learning game, the learner’s enjoyment acts as a catalyst to encourage his/her learning initiative. Therefore, the availability of a scale that effectively measures the enjoyment offered by e-learning games assist the game designer to understanding the strength and flaw of the game efficiently from the learner’s points of view. E-learning games are aimed at the achievement of learning objectives via the creation of a flow effect. Thus, this study is based on Sweetser’s & Wyeth’s framework to develop a more rigorous scale that assesses user enjoyment of e-learning games. The scale developed in the present study consists of eight dimensions: Immersion, social interaction, challenge, goal clarity, feedback, concentration, control, and knowledge improvement. Four learning games employed in a university’s online learning course “Introduction to Software Application” were used as the instruments of scale verification. Survey questionnaires were distributed to students taking the course and 166 valid samples were subsequently collected. The results showed that the validity and reliability of the scale, EGameFlow, were satisfactory. Thus, the measurement is an effective tool for evaluating the level of enjoyment provided by e-learning games to their users.
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ObjectiveThe primary purpose of this study was to examine the factorial validity and reliability of the Japanese versions of the Flow State Scale-2 and Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (JFSS-2 and JDFS-2) for use with Japanese adults.MethodTo accomplish the aim, a multi-staged approach was employed. Following the guidelines for test adaptation [Tanzer, N. K., & Sim, C. Q. E. (1999). Adapting instruments for use in multiple languages and cultures: A review of the ITC guidelines for test adaptations. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 15, 258–269], the two flow scales were translated from English to Japanese and the best 36 items for each instrument was identified through two pilot studies. Employing a 9-factor 1st-order hypothesized model, the factorial validity of the JFSS-2 and JDFS-2 was tested and cross-validated with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In addition to internal consistency reliability for the both scales, stability was assessed over a 4-week time period for the JDFS-2. Furthermore, measurement equivalence was examined across Japanese independent samples as well as two cultural samples.ResultsThe results of a series of CFAs revealed that the data for the JFSS-2 and JDFS-2 were represented appropriately by the hypothesized 1st-order model. For the both scales, internal consistency estimates for all factors were satisfactory, whereas the stability of single factors over time were medium to high. Measurement invariance was established across the Japanese samples as well as the cultural samples.ConclusionsThe findings from this study provided strong support for the validity and reliability of the JFSS-2 and JDFS-2 in assessing flow experiences in physical activity for Japanese adults. In addition, this study indicated that the Japanese versions of the flow scales are useful instruments for cross-cultural research.
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The fate of ”consciousness” as a scientific concept is one of the most ironic paradoxes in the history of psychology. Once the central issue, the very essence of what psychology was all about, it is nowadays a peripheral concern, an antiquated idea about as useful as ether and phlogiston are to physicists. According to Murphy and Kovach (1972, p. 51), consciousness ”has been a storm center in psychology for a century. Some regard it as an unfortunate and superfluous assumption. . . . Others regard consciousness as only one of many expressions of psychological reality; indeed many psychologists think that the recognition of a psychological realm far greater than the conscious realm is the great emancipating principle of all modern psychology.”
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Introduction DEFINITION Motivation can be defined as the “activating orientation of current life pursuits toward a positively evaluated goal state”. (Rheinberg, 2004a, p. 17) The purpose of a definition of this kind is to describe the essential qualities of a term as succinctly as possible. Finer points have to be considered separately. In the present case, at least two points need further elaboration: The “positively evaluated goal state” may be to avoid or prevent undesired events. The qualities of avoidance motivation may differ from those of approach motivation (Chapters 4–9). The second point is rather more complicated, and is the focus of the present chapter. When, as here, the definition of motivation focuses on a goal state, there is a risk of premature conclusions being drawn about where the incentives motivating behavior are located. It is easy to assume that the goal state has incentive value, and that the pursuit of the goal-directed activity is purely instrumental to bringing about that goal state, i.e., that the appeal of an activity resides solely in its intended outcomes. This is the approach taken by scholars such as Heckhausen (1977b) and Vroom (1964). Unfortunately, this rather rash conclusion sometimes holds and sometimes does not. It is beyond question that people often engage in activities simply because they want to achieve or modify a particular goal state.
Article
The Flow State Scale-2 (FSS-2) and Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (DFS-2) are presented as two self-report instruments designed to assess flow experiences in physical activity. Item modifications were made to the original versions of these scales in order to improve the measurement of some of the flow dimensions. Confirmatory factor analyses of an item identification and a cross-validation sample demonstrated a good fit of the new scales. There was support for both a 9-first-order factor model and a higher order model with a global flow factor. The item identification sample yielded mean item loadings on the first-order factor of .78 for the FSS-2 and .77 for the DFS-2. Reliability estimates ranged from .80 to .90 for the FSS-2, and .81 to .90 for the DFS-2. In the cross-validation sample, mean item loadings on the first-order factor were .80 for the FSS-2, and .73 for the DFS-2. Reliability estimates ranged between .80 to .92 for the FSS-2 and .78 to .86 for the DFS-2. The scales are presented as ways of assessing flow experienced within a particular event (FSS-2) or the frequency of flow experiences in chosen physical activity in general (DFS-2).
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this chapter compares responses to the Experience Sampling Method from a sample of American students in the Chicago area studied by Csikszentmihalyi and Larson (1984) and a sample of Italian students from a classical lyceum in Milan the purpose of the comparison is to ascertain whether and to what extent respondents in these two cultures report similar experiences across their daily life in terms of the flow theory as operationalized by the challenge/skill ratio given the importance of the high school in the lives of these two groups of adolescents, the chapter also focuses on studying the U.S. sample consisted of equal numbers of 14-, 15-, 16-, and 17-year-olds / the Italian one was made up of students between 16 and 18 years of age (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Twenty-five adolescents reported their daily activities and the quality of their experiences for a total of 753 times during a normal week, in response to random beeps transmitted by an electronic paging device. In this sample adolescents were found to spend most of their time either in conversation with peers or in watching television. Negative affects were prevalent in most activities involving socialization into adult roles. Television viewing appears to be an affectless state associated with deviant behavior and antisocial personality traits. The research suggests the importance of a systemic approach which studies persons' activities and experiences in an ecological context. The experiential sampling method described in this paper provides a tool for collecting such systemic data.
Article
Drawing from the social psychology approach to creativity, it was hypothesized that trait intrinsic motivation would be associated with the probability of experiencing flow in work, and that the extent to which a job provides opportunity for creativity would moderate the association. A sample of 367 workers completed the Flow Questionnaire and the Work Preference Inventory, and described their job. Multinomial logistic regression of “flow in work” versus “no flow” and “flow in leisure” revealed motivation by opportunity interactions such that intrinsic motivation is associated with flow in work for high opportunity, and is either not associated or negatively associated for low opportunity. The findings support the hypotheses and indicate that person-environment matching fosters flow in work.
Article
Flow is a subjective experience of high but effortless attention, loss of self-awareness, control, and enjoyment that can occur during active performance of challenging tasks. Proneness to experience flow is associated with personality, specifically with low neuroticism and high conscientiousness. We investigated genetic and non-genetic influences on flow proneness in 444 adult twin pairs. Data were collected using an on-line administration of the Swedish Flow Proneness Questionnaire, which includes separate scales for flow proneness in three major domains of life: work, maintenance, and leisure. We found moderate (.29–.35) heritabilities for the flow scales. Twin correlations as well as multivariate modeling suggested non-additive genetic influences. Genetic influences were almost entirely shared for the three flow scales and genetic correlations between the scales were very high (.81–.97), suggesting that the same genes influence flow proneness independently of domain. Non-shared environmental influences, in contrast, were largely specific to each flow scale. We conclude that an individual’s general proneness to experience flow is influenced by the same genetic factors regardless of domain, and these may be associated with personality traits that are conducive to flow. In addition, specific environmental factors appear to be of importance for within-individual differences in flow proneness in different domains.
Article
This paper investigates a prediction from flow theory according to which subjective feelings of concentration depend on the balance between perceived challenges posed by a task and one's perceived skills in mastering the task. The goal is to compare three different formalizations of balance (crossproduct, absolute difference, and quadratic effects of challenges and skills following a rotation of the predictor axes) with respect to how well each model predicts everyday life selfreports of feelings of concentration, which were obtained with the Experience Sampling Method from 208 talented high school students. Multilevel modeling with first-order autocorrelation structure is used throughout the model comparison. All models fitted reasonably well, accounting for nearly half of the variance. With reference to simple goodness-of-fit criteria, we conclude that both the rotated and the absolute difference models are to be preferred. Lastly, we discuss and compare the implications of the models for teaching, and outline extensions toward dynamic modeling and external modeling, by relating the subject specific effects of challenges and skills and of their balance with non-experiential variables such as personality traits and achievement measures.
Article
Compares peak experience (intense joy), peak performance (superior functioning), and flow (intrinsically rewarding experience). Peak experience and peak performance are models of optimal human experiencing and, therefore, are important in personality study. Flow, although not always at a high level, shares many qualities with both constructs. Important attributes shared by all 3 include absorption, valuing, joy, spontaneity, a sense of power, and personal identity and involvement. The topologies also reveal distinguishing characteristics. Peak experience, for example, is mystic and transpersonal; peak performance is transactive, clearly focusing on self as well as the valued object; and flow is fun. Differences among the constructs concerning sense of self and motivation are also noted. (27 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Studies suggest that young children are quite limited in their knowledge about cognitive phenomena—or in their metacognition—and do relatively little monitoring of their own memory, comprehension, and other cognitive enterprises. Metacognitive knowledge is one's stored knowledge or beliefs about oneself and others as cognitive agents, about tasks, about actions or strategies, and about how all these interact to affect the outcomes of any sort of intellectual enterprise. Metacognitive experiences are conscious cognitive or affective experiences that occur during the enterprise and concern any aspect of it—often, how well it is going. Research is needed to describe and explain spontaneous developmental acquisitions in this area and find effective ways of teaching metacognitive knowledge and cognitive monitoring skills. (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A new research tool, the Lifetime Creativity Scales (LCS), is presented, along with validation evidence based on three personally interviewed, independent samples totalling 541 subjects. The LCS provide broad-based assessment of original activity at work and leisure, without the requirement that activities be socially recognized or limited to particular fields of endeavor. The LCS therefore allow study of everyday creativity in unselected populations, and they open up new research possibilities. The scales show high interrater reliability and multiple indications of construct validity. Findings with the validation samples raise interesting questions, including the relationship between vocational and avocational creativity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Developed and validated the Flow State Scale (FSS), a measure of flow in sport and physical activity settings. The 9 FSS scales of the 36-item instrument represent the dimensions of flow, and each scale is measured by 4 items. Internal consistency estimates for the 9 FSS scales were reasonable for administration of the scale to 394 athletes (aged 14–50 yrs) from the US and Australia. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the 9 scales. Consistent with the theoretical basis of the FSS, there was also support for a hierarchical model in which 1 global (higher order) flow factor explained correlations among the 9 first-order FSS factors. The FSS is appended. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Individuals, as living open systems, actively interact with their environment. Throughout their life, they preferentially replicate a subset of the available opportunities for action. This process has been labeled psychological selection, and it is based on the quality of experience reported in daily situations. Empirical evidence has shown that individuals preferentially select, reproduce, and cultivate the activities associated with optimal experience, a distinctively positive and complex state of consciousness characterized by the perception of high challenges balanced with adequate skills, concentration and engagement, clear goals and rules, and control of the situation. From this perspective, optimal experience fosters the development of individual competencies, shaping the pattern of psychological selection. Empirical evidence was also gathered for apathy, the negative pole of experience fluctuation, characterized by disengagement, disruption of attention, negative affect, and low perceived challenges. This paper will provide findings concerning the psychological features of optimal experience and apathy across different samples and activities. A stable cognitive core was detected for both states, around which affective and motivational variables fluctuate according to the structure of the associated activities. The regulating function of short-term desirability and perceived long-term goals on the quality of experience was also highlighted. Results suggested that the association of optimal experiences and skill cultivation with structured and long-term meaningful activities could be used as an intervention tool for the promotion of individual development and social integration in youth and adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Theoretical and empirical studies at the cross-cultural level highlighted the active role of the individual in selecting, replicating and transmitting cultural information. Optimal experience is a key element in this process. The aim of this study was to investigate cross-cultural differences and similarities in optimal experience and associated activities. 252 participants were examined: 52 Walser settled in Northern Italy, 50 villagers from Southern Italy, 60 Gypsies, 63 Indonesian people from Java, 27 Iranians living in Tehran. Participants were administered Flow Questionnaire: the occurrence of optimal experience in daily life, its psychological features, the associated activities were investigated. Results showed substantial cross-cultural consistency in the description of optimal experience. Differences emerged as concerns the associated activities, according to the cultural background of the participants. Moreover, the features of optimal experience were compared across three activity categories, namely work, leisure and the use of media. Regardless of cultural differences, optimal experience was mostly associated with complex and highly structured activities, providing opportunities for self-expression, high concentration, enjoyment, and skill development. In particular, traditional work and leisure activities were most often reported. The association of these activities with optimal experience facilitates their preferential replication in time and the cultivation of related skills. Their relationship with participants' cultural heritage fosters both individual integration in the social context and cultural survival and transmission. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The meaning [of creativity] that is of primary interest to us here is creativity as the achievement of something remarkable and new, something which transforms and changes a field of endeavor in a significant way. We are concerned with the kinds of things that people do that change the world. What has been true of this line of work is that it has failed to provide a coherent set of generalizations about the nature of great creativity and how it occurs. The field of creativity research is rich with examples from the lives of remarkable individuals, but lacks a framework for approaching the many issues that arise when trying to make more general sense of the data. To produce such a framework is the main purpose of this book. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The study examined the relationship of challenge and challenge-skill balance to the positive subjective states of enjoyment, interest, happiness and relaxation in the daily life of 57 students in the Youth Training Scheme using the innovative ‘experience sampling method’. Respondents answered questions in a diary on the receipt of a signal from a pre-programmed watch or radio pager eight times a day for one week. The study showed a significant association between the mean level of challenge experienced by individuals over the seven-day period and the mean level of enjoyment and interest, but not happiness and relaxation. When incidences of high challenge were matched by high skills, enjoyment and interest both tended to be high in line with ‘flow’ model predictions. Contrary to ‘flow’ theory the study found that situations of low challenge which were exceeded by skill were associated with enjoyment, happiness and relaxation. Implications are highlighted for research into training and quality of life.