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Coping and perceived stress as a function of positive Metacognitions and positive meta-emotions

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Abstract

Based on the recently developed construct of adaptive metacognitive traits and classic theories of coping, it was hypothesized that Confidence in Extinguishing Perseverative Thoughts and Emotions would correlate negatively with maladaptive coping, Confidence in Interpreting Own Emotions as Cues and in Setting Flexible and Feasible Hierarchies of Goals would correlate positively with adaptive coping, and both metacognitive traits would correlate negatively with perceived stress. A sample of 212 workers and students completed the Positive Metacognitions and Positive Meta-Emotions Questionnaire, Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire 30, Brief Coping Questionnaire, and Perceived Stress Scale. Structural equation modeling supported the hypotheses suggesting that adaptive metacognition fosters adaptive coping and prevents maladaptive coping and perceived stress controlling for maladaptive metacognition. Directions for future research are outlined.

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... Adaptive MC fosters positive appraisals and effective coping strategies during stressful situations, in addition to inhibiting ineffective coping. As such, adaptive MC is associated with less perceived stress and maladaptive coping (e.g., substance use, rumination) and more adaptive coping (e.g., positive reframing, using functional support; Beer & Moneta, 2012). Individuals that are more likely to engage in self-reflection and have flexibility in problem-solving are likely to report fewer episodes of heavy drinking and debilitating alcohol-related consequences. ...
... Maladaptive MC is comprised of five conceptually distinct dimensions: positive beliefs about worry, uncontrollability and danger, cognitive confidence (i.e., attention, memory), need to control thoughts, and cognitive self-consciousness (i.e., awareness of thoughts; Wells & Cartwright-Hatton, 2004). Maladaptive MC promotes ineffective coping strategies (e.g., alcohol use, rumination) thus maintaining distress (Beer & Moneta, 2012). Individuals who desire to control thoughts, have trouble doing so, and lack confidence in their cognitive abilities may be more likely to utilize alcohol to reduce distress. ...
... Contrary to hypotheses, the three-way interactions (SP × SR × adaptive MC; SP × SR × maladaptive MC subscales) did not significantly predict alcohol consumption. Prior studies demonstrated that adaptive and maladaptive MC have been associated with risky drinking and coping motives (Beer & Moneta, 2012;Clark et al., 2012;Spada & Wells, 2005. However, MC may not be as strongly associated with lower mean levels of drinking quantity, as reported in the current study. ...
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Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between inhibitory (sensitivity to punishment [SP], adaptive metacognition) and facilitatory (sensitivity to reward [SR], maladaptive metacognition) factors of alcohol consumption and problems among young adults. Methods: Three hundred fifty-five young adults (ages 18-25, 61% female) recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk and a large public midwestern university in the United States self-administered a Web survey. Two multiple regression models were tested. Results: SR significantly moderated the effects of SP and the maladaptive metacognition (MC) subscale Uncontrollability/Danger on alcohol consumption. Alcohol problems were also significantly predicted by SR and Uncontrollability/Danger. The interaction between SR and SP on alcohol problems was conditional upon levels of the maladaptive MC subscale Lack of Cognitive Confidence, with a significant moderating effect only at high levels of Lack of Cognitive Confidence. Conclusions: Consistent with the literature, individuals with high levels of SR coupled with low SP are at risk for increased alcohol consumption. This effect on drinking behaviors is further influenced by maladaptive MC, such that individuals characterized by high SR and low SP are significantly more likely to report more alcohol-related problems if they believe that worrying is dangerous and uncontrollable or lack cognitive confidence; however as SP increases, this effect significantly diminishes.
... Within the primary appraisal, individuals determine the significance of the current situation for their own general welfare and well-being (Devenport, 2012), while the secondary cognitive appraisal is used to analyze possible ways of combating the discomfort (Oláh, 2005). Depending on the primary cognitive appraisal, an individual can experience a specific event as a threat, loss or a challenge (Beer & Moneta, 2012;Lazarus, 1990;Mclean et al., 2007). The secondary cognitive appraisal serves to determine whether the stressor is controllable and what options are available to deal with it (Oláh, 2005). ...
... The discussion of this finding can be related to the explanation of the cognitive appraisal -a key concept of transactional stress theory, which is also one of the mediating variables in the stress process (Tran et al., 2018). As stated in the introductory part of the paper, the primary cognitive appraisal determines whether an individual will experience a specific event as a threat, loss or a challenge (Beer & Moneta, 2012;Lazarus, 1990;Mclean et al., 2007). Through the secondary cognitive appraisal, the person decides whether the stressor is controllable and what options are available to deal with it (Oláh, 2005). ...
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The current COVID-19 pandemic represents an accidental crisis of global proportions that requires humanity to adaptively cope with unknown and low-control stressors. This research aimed to explore coping mechanisms by first considering them in the domain of their factor structure and then examining their mediating role in the relationship between stress perception and precautionary measures in the context of a pandemic. The sample included a total of 582 adult respondents from Serbia (75.7% female), with an average age of 38.74 years (SD = 10.48). The Brief COPE (Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced) scale was used to measure coping mechanisms, the Perceived Stress Scale was used to assess the perception of the stress level, and the propensity to adhere to the prescribed precautions was examined with a scale constructed for the purpose of this study. The exploratory factor analysis extracted seven coping strategies. The first corresponded to problem-focused confrontation, the second referred to emotion-focused confrontation, three isolated dimensions were associated with avoidance coping strategies, while the functions of Humor and Religion could not be clearly defined. After conducting a higher-order factor analysis, two factors were singled out: the first, which combined problem-focused and emotion-focused coping, Humor, and Religion, and the second, which brought together mechanisms aimed at avoidance coping. The results of the hierarchical regression analysis suggested significant partial mediating effects of coping mechanisms. The first higher-order factor enhanced the effects of stress perception on the practice of precautionary behavior, while the second higher-order factor reduced these effects. The obtained results raise the question of adequacy of the standard coping mechanism measuring instruments in the assessment of stress caused by an accidental crisis and further question the possibility of an adequate response to stressors that are unknown and poorly controllable.
... Positive emotional beliefs about worrying and stress prevent maladaptive coping, helping a person to deal with negative emotions (Beer & Moneta, 2012). Positive beliefs about stress have an impact on physiological functioning of both body and mind under stress, such as decreasing cortisol reactivity (Crum, Salovey, & Achor, 2013). ...
... These findings support the results of previous studies on meta-emotional beliefs (Beer & Moneta, 2012), self-efficacy beliefs (McCormick & McPherson, 2003;McPherson & McCormick, 1998, 2006Zeidner & Matthews, 2007), and perceived social-support (Simoens et al., 2013;Wolfe, 1989) and show their linkage with musicians' pre-performance emotional states. Moreover, the results give us some ideas as to how to develop emotional knowledge and skills in young musicians to support MPA prevention. ...
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The aim of this study is to investigate the structure and complexity of emotional states experienced by young musicians before entering the stage and to explain the influence of emotional beliefs on their pre-performance emotions. Emotions were elicited with a guided imagery induction, where 222 students aged 9- to 12-years-old recalled their most recent concert memory. They described their emotions on the list of 18 emotions (nine pairs of contrary emotions) and answered three questions measuring music performance anxiety (MPA) beliefs: MPA utility beliefs, MPA regulation beliefs, and audience attitude beliefs. The cluster analysis results show the complexity and multiplicity of emotional states reported by young musicians. Five emotional profiles vary from negative emotions of fear and sadness (High MPA) through a mixture of positive and negative emotions (Moderate MPA, Hesitation, Ambivalence) to positive emotions of confidence, courage and happiness (Composure-Confidence). Beliefs that MPA has negative impact on performance, beliefs of inefficacy in managing MPA and perceived audience pressure rather than support were related to High and Moderate MPA profiles. Practical implications for music education are discussed. Access for free untill 22-10-2020 https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1321103X19830098
... Meta-mood is the ability to notice, distinguish, reflect and control ones' emotions, which can help individuals to identify and adjust negative emotions when facing stressful events and deal with negative events in a positive way [28]. It can improve individuals' anxiety, mental health level and obtain more happiness [29]. In addition, meta-mood also affects self-harmony, social adaptation and psychological resilience [30]. ...
... Metamood is the ability of an individual recognizing and controlling his/her emotion [52]. Meta-mood can help adolescents' get more positive mental capital (confidence, hope, positive, resilience), enabling them to actively deal with and resolve the impact of a negative event [29,53]. Furthermore, adolescents with higher meta-mood usually pay less attention to their emotions, know their emotion status clearly and are able to repair their bad emotion [52]. ...
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Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted and is still impacting people's lives, including physical and mental health. Family plays an important role in adolescent mental health due to the long staying at home. Aims: This paper aimed to investigate the impact of family resilience on adolescent mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the mediation role of pandemic stress perception and the moderation role of meta-mood. Methods: A total of 2691 Chinese adolescents were recruited using convenient sampling. Their mental health, family resilience, pandemic stress perception and meta-mood were surveyed. Multivariate statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: Our results showed that (1) about 36.7% adolescents in our sample have some mental health problems; (2) family resilience can positively predict adolescent mental health, whereas pandemic stress perception can negatively predict mental health; (3) pandemic stress perception mediates the relationship between family resilience and adolescent mental health; (4) meta-mood moderates the relationship between family resilience and pandemic perception, i.e., the first half of the mediation role. Conclusions: Our results indicate that one can either improve family resilience or improve adolescents' meta-mood to relieve adolescents' mental health problems.
... Adaptive metacognitions and meta-emotions correlated negatively but moderately with maladaptive metacognitions and were found to correlate with indicators of well-being, such as intrinsic motivation and adaptive coping (Beer & Moneta, 2010, 2012. This is predominantly a cognitive phenomenon, it was hypothesised that people, who tackle demanding tasks, would not only activate general adaptive metacognitions, but it also activates a specific metacognition, which in turn would facilitate the process of experience. ...
Article
Objective of this study was to examine the effect of positive meta-cognition and meta-emotions (PMCEQ-H) on satisfaction with life. The study was conducted on 20 to 50 years old 300 (150 men & 150 women) conveniently sampled participants from the Chowk area of Varanasi city of India. The participants were individually administered Hindi versions of: (1) Positive Metacognitions and Meta-emotions Questionnaire (PMCEQ-H; Jaiswal et al., 2017) and (2) Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Singh & Rani, 2011). To elucidate the predictability of satisfaction with life by facets of positive metacognitions and meta-emotions and causal effects of positive metacognitions and meta-emotions on satisfaction with life, initially the data were analyzed by stepwise regression analysis with SWLS as criterion variable and facets of PMCEQ-H as predictors variable, and then the data were analyzed by 2 X 2 analysis of variance [2 gender (men & women) X 2 levels of facets of PMCEQ-H (high & low)] to delineate the main and interaction effects of'gender' and levels of facets of PMCEQ-H' on satisfaction with life. The results indicated PMCEQ-H 1 and PMCEQ-H2 significant as significant predictors of life satisfaction. The ANOVA revealed significant main effects of'gender' for PMCEQ-H1 and PMCEQ-H2, and 'levels' of PMCEQ-H1, PMCEQ-H2 and PMCEQ-H3 on satisfaction with life, and significant interaction effects of gender X levels of PMCEQ-H 1 and PMCEQ-H2 on satisfaction with life. Post hoc analyses demonstrated significantly higher satisfaction with life in men than in women with respect to PMCEQ-H 1 and PMCEQ-H2 facets of positive metacognitions and meta-emotions. Moreover, high than low scorer participants on the three facets of PMCEQ-H, displayed significantly higher satisfaction with life. The findings indicated facilitating effects of positive metacognitions and meta-emotions on life satisfaction.
... Naučnici posebnu pažnju posvećuju funkcijama suočavanja. Prema Lazarusovoj opšteprihvaćenoj podeli razlikujemo suočavanje čija je svrha kontrola i menjanje problema (suočavanje usmereno na problem) i suočavanje koje ima za cilj upravljanje emocionalnim reakcijama (suočavanje usmereno na emocije) (Beer & Moneta, 2012). Strategije suočavanja usmerene na problem podrazumevaju definisanje problema, traženje alternativnih rešenja, vaganje tih mogućnosti u odnosu na očekivane ishode, odabir rešenja i stupanje u akciju (Wang & Saudino, 2011). ...
Article
span>Osnovni cilj istraživanja podrazumevao je proveru prediktivne moći mehanizama suočavanja sa stresom, optimizma i generalne samoefikasnosti u odnosu na ukupan skor na Skali psihofizičkog zdravlja, koji je figurisao u svojstvu kriterijumske varijable. Isti složaj prediktorskih varijabli koristili smo u pokušaju predviđanja pojedinih aspekata psihofizičkog zdravlja koji se odnose na: poremećaj fizičkog zdravlja, strah i anksioznost, depresivne reakcije, umor, te poremećaj socijalnog ponašanja. Istraživanje je sprovedeno na prigodnom uzorku od 269 studenata Univerziteta u Novom Sadu, oba pola. Obuhvaćeni su studenti osnovnih i diplomskih studija. Radi operacionalizacije spomenutih varijabli, korišćeni su sledeći instrumenti: Skala psihofizičkog zdravlja, Life Orientation Test-Revised, kojim se meri dispozicioni optimizam, Skala opšte samoefikasnosti i Brief COPE kojim su mere operacionalizovani mehanizmi suočavanja sa stresom. Analizom faktorske strukture skale Brief COPE izdvojena su tri faktora, uvrštena u set prediktorskih varijabli: Traženje socijalne podrške, Suočavanje usmereno na problem i Suočavanje izbegavanjem. Kao značajni prediktori opšteg psihofizičkog zdravlja izdvojili su se: Suočavanje izbegavanjem (β = .24, p < .01), Optimizam (β = -.35, p < .01) i Opšta samoefikasnost (β = -.18, p < .05). Kad je reč o pojedinačnim aspektima psihofizičkog zdravlja, koji su u naknadnim analizama imali status kriterijumskih varijabli, pomenuti složaj prediktora pokazao se značajnim u predviđanju svakog pojedinačnog aspekta. Upoređujući pojedinačne doprinose prediktorskih varijabli, ustanovljeno je da se varijabilnost psihofizičkog zdravlja u svim razmatranim aspektima može objasniti razlikama u stepenu optimizma i prijemčivosti za strategiju izbegavanja.</span
... Metacognitions, along with metaemotions, refer to individuals' knowledge and beliefs about emotions as well as secondary emotional reactions to emotions (Gottman et al., 1996;Norman & Furnes, 2016). Individuals might view emotions generally or specific emotions, such as shame, positively (e.g., emotions as helpful signals, confidence in own capacity to regulate emotions; Beer & Moneta, 2012) or negatively (e.g., emotions are unhelpful, invalid; Manser et al., 2012). Those metacognitions may include beliefs about the emotion's helpfulness or role, as well as beliefs in one's capacity to tolerate or regulate the emotion. ...
Article
The present study explored beliefs about shame and coping strategies of Pakistani immigrants to Canada, without imposing Western definitions or theories. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 18 adult Pakistani immigrants to Canada who immigrated within the last 8 years. Grounded theory was used to uncover and illuminate how shame could act as a signal for wrongdoing or emerge as a result of social control and social hierarchies, while in both instances being shaped by and informing complex relational and social contexts. Participants accessed a wide range of positive and negative coping behaviors and prioritized positive coping strategies which included close others and focused on self-improvement. The findings highlight the need for researchers to expand current definitions of shame to render them more inclusive of non-Western worldviews and to honor the diversity in metacognitions or beliefs about shame present in different cultural groups. Future research may also benefit from exploring how shame may be felt as a response to power differentials, and how this may impact individuals' experiences of immigration. It is important for practitioners working with Pakistani immigrants to Canada to honor clients' nuanced and complex cultural and religious knowledge about shame, as Pakistani immigrants' beliefs about shame and their proactive stance toward the regulation of this emotion are likely to be protective. We also encourage therapists to be open to discussing sources of shame (e.g., personal vs. imposed by others) and systemic, structural inequalities which may be important in explaining individuals' emotional experience.
... perfectionism and its associated behaviours (Macedo, Marques, & Pereira, 2014), perceived stress, functional coping strategies, and negative emotions (Spada, Nikcevic, Moneta, & Wells, 2008;Beer & Moneta, 2012), as a mediator between emotional presence and smoking dependence (Spada, Nikcevic, Moneta, & Wells, 2007), as a mediator between test anxiety and strategies for studying (Spada, Nikcevic, Moneta, & Ireson, 2006), and as a moderator of attentional control and both problem-solving strategies (Mukai & Sugiura, 2016) and addiction (Spada & Roarty, 2015). ...
Thesis
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Metacognition, or experiencing cognition about cognition, has been evidenced to have strong associations with to the way attention, information, and emotions are regulated. However, to date, little research has investigated how metacognitive concepts may apply to a sporting context, which is heavily dependent on the regulation of such phenomena. Therefore, the primary aims of this thesis were to: (a) investigate whether metacognitions were significantly associated with sports related mental states; (b) develop appropriate sports specific measurements of metacognitions; and (c) investigate the associations between sports specific metacognitions with sports related mental states. A literature review, five empirical studies, and a discussion piece were designed for this purpose. The first study evaluated how competitive triathletes’ metacognitive beliefs associated with competitive state anxiety, concentration, and performance. It also examined differences in metacognitive beliefs across cross-sectional time-to-event intervals. The second study examined how triathletes’ metacognitions relate to mindfulness and the different dimensions of flow during competition. It also assessed at how these factors differed across motivational types (i.e., recreational; social; competitive). The purpose of the third and fourth studies was to develop and validate two self-report questionnaires measuring sport specific metacognitive beliefs and processes, based on previous literature and findings of the previous studies. Additionally, the studies investigated the contributions that these measures had towards psychological outcomes, such as: state anxiety, cognitive flexibility, and concentration. The fifth study aimed to extend the results from the second study, by investigating the associations between the sports specific metacognitive questionnaires, with flow state. The proceeding discussion chapter, evaluated the results of these studies in whole, presented a proposed metacognitive model of performance, discussed potential implications of the findings towards enhancing athletic performance, and suggested areas of focus for future research.
... This approach suggests metacognitive beliefs can be causal factors in predicting the development and maintenance of a broad range of psychological disorders such as depression and anxiety disorders [19][20][21][22][23][24] prolonged worry 28,29 , and anxiety sensitivity 30 studied metacognitions from a positive psychology angle and provided initial evidence for general adaptive metacognitive processes, which people exhibit during demanding situations. Adaptive metacognitions and meta-emotions correlated negatively but moderately with maladaptive metacognitions and were found to correlate with indicators of well-being, such as intrinsic motivation and adaptive coping 16,31 . This is predominantly a cognitive phenomenon, it was hypothesised that people, who tackle demanding tasks, would not only activate general adaptive metacognitions, but it also activates a specific metacognition, which in turn would facilitate the process of experience. ...
Article
The present study explores the role of positive meta-cognitions and meta-emotions in predicting of alexithymia. Alexithymia is an established construct newly complemented with positive meta-cognitions and meta-emotions. The study was conducted on 20 to 50 years old 300 (150 men and 150 women) conveniently sampled participants from the Chowk area of Varanasi city of India. The participants were individually administered Hindi versions of: (1) Positive Metacognitions and Meta-emotions Questionnaire (PMCEQ-H)32 and (2) Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20-H)33. Pearson product moment correlations were computed to elucidate the relationship between facets of positive metacognitions and meta-emotions, and facets of alexithymia and the results revealed that PMCEQ-H1, PMCEQ-H2 and PMCEQ-H3, in general, have a negative relationship with ‘difficulties in identifying and describing feelings’ as well as ‘externally oriented thinking’ facets and total scores of alexithymia. Furthermore, stepwise regression analysis with factors of alexithymia as criterion and facets of PMCEQ-H as predictor variables indicated that PMCEQ-H1 and PMCEQ-H3 as significant predictors of alexithymia. Overall, the findings imply that positive metacognitions and meta-emotions are negatively associated with alexithymia. The observed findings have been discussed in the light of the available empirical evidences.
... PMCE was found to be associated with self-regulation and goal orientation (Rahmanian & VaezMousavi, 2015). It also promotes adaptive coping, as well as inhibits maladaptive coping and perceived stress after controlling for maladaptive metacognition (Beer & Moneta, 2012). ...
Article
Exposure to natural disasters can lead to both negative and positive mental health consequences (i.e., posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] and posttraumatic growth [PTG]). While there is evidence linking metacognition to these outcomes, the focus is mostly on maladaptive metacognitions. The present study investigated the role of positive metacognitions and meta-emotions (i.e., confidence in extinguishing perseveration [Extinguishing], confidence in interpreting emotions as cues [Interpreting], and confidence in setting flexible and attainable hierarchies of goals [Setting]) on PTSD and PTG among Filipino typhoon survivors. Findings supported a model wherein Extinguishing and Setting, but not Interpreting, predicted PTSD and PTG through posttraumatic cognitions.
... In turn, it is posited that types of parenting approaches adults adopt may be impacted by levels of parental stress that adults experience. Reearch conducted by Beer and Moneta (2012) produced similar results in that the ways parents handled stressors within their environments directly impacted their parenting approaches. Despite a plethora of research conducted on parenting styles and stress, minimal research has been performed on the association of stress and how it may affect the types of meta-emotion approaches parents exhibit. ...
... Individual differences in the regularity of practicing in everyday life of the prioritizing positivity (i.e. an active search for happiness by seeking and organizing circumstances that can give raise to positive emotions, as opposed to just wanting to be happy) predicts more well-being and less psychopathology (Catalino, Algoe, & Fredrickson, 2014). The other health-related dispositions influencing emotions indirectly as a base of emotion regulation are: attitudes towards emotions (Harmon-Jones, Harmon-Jones, Amodio, & Gable, 2011), affective metacognitions (Beer & Moneta, 2012) and coherence-based reasoning (Simon, Stenstrom, & Read, 2015). ...
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The aim of the article is to outline the concept of emotional health and its integrative potential in the field of clinical psychology. It is a well-known fact that the trans-diagnostic approach and psychotherapy integration – the two most influential integrative movements in clinical psychology – search for a sound conceptual foundation of the efforts to organize a plethora of theories and data relating to the psychological aspects of physical and mental health. Following a short presentation of general discrepancies afflicting clinical psychology and the main ideas of both the transdiagnostic approach and psychotherapy integration, the notion of emotional health is introduced and its unifying convenience, as well as limitations, is discussed. key words emotions; transdiagnostic processes; psychotherapy integration Emotional health: on the applicability of affective science to the integration of clinical psychology corresponding author – Prof. Ewa Trzebińska,
... Studies suggest that metacognition has a positive association with academic performance [35] and surgical skills acquisition [70], a negative association with procrastination [4] and depression [9], and is important for clinical reasoning, decision making [71,72] and the continuous process of life-long learning [73,74]. Furthermore, positive metacognitive abilities have been associated with a decreased level of perceived stress [75]. On a conceptual level, because clerkships are based upon the principles of experiential learning, the success of clerkship depends in part on a student's capacity for reflective practice and accurate self-assessment [76,77]. ...
Article
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Background Self-regulated learning (SRL), which is learners’ ability to proactively select and use different strategies to reach learning goals, is associated with academic and clinical success and life-long learning. SRL does not develop automatically in the clinical environment and its development during the preclinical to clinical learning transition has not been quantitatively studied. Our study aims to fill this gap by measuring SRL in medical students during the transitional period and examining its contributing factors. Methods Medical students were invited to complete a questionnaire at the commencement of their first clinical year (T0), and 10 weeks later (T1). The questionnaire included the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) and asked about previous clinical experience. Information about the student’s background, demographic characteristics and first clinical rotation were also gathered. ResultsOf 118 students invited to participate, complete paired responses were obtained from 72 medical students (response rate 61%). At T1, extrinsic goal orientation increased and was associated with gender (males were more likely to increase extrinsic goal orientation) and type of first attachment (critical care and community based attachments, compared to hospital ward based attachments). Metacognitive self-regulation decreased at T1 and was negatively associated with previous clinical experience. Conclusions Measurable changes in self-regulated learning occur during the transition from preclinical learning to clinical immersion, particularly in the domains of extrinsic goal orientation and metacognitive self–regulation. Self–determination theory offers possible explanations for this finding which have practical implications and point the way to future research. In addition, interventions to promote metacognition before the clinical immersion may assist in preserving SRL during the transition and thus promote life-long learning skills in preparation for real-world practice.
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This study proposed and tested a comprehensive, chained mediation model of university students’ academic performance. The hypothesized model included adaptive-positive and maladaptive-negative submodels. The structures and processes in the adaptive-positive submodel were hypothesized to facilitate students’ academic performance, whereas the structures and processes in the maladaptive-negative submodel were hypothesized to undermine it. A sample of 373 university students completed a set of questionnaires measuring their approaches to studying, positive and negative affect, evaluation anxiety, use of creative cognition, motivational orientations, and adaptive and maladaptive metacognitions. Participants’ end-of-semester and prior semester academic performance was retrieved from the university registry. A structural equation model explained 90 % of the variance in students’ future academic performance, supported all but one hypothesized intermediate paths, and revealed that only positive affect in studying and prior academic performance predict directly future academic performance. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are outlined.
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The current study aimed to develop and examine a moderated mediation model between acculturative stress and acculturation, with cultural intelligence as a moderator, and hope as a mediator. A sample of 362 ethnic minority college students from 4 universities in Beijing, China completed a self-report battery that included measures of acculturative stress, cultural intelligence, hope, and acculturation. Findings indicated that (1) Acculturative stress had a direct effect on acculturation; (2) Hope partially mediated the association between acculturative stress and acculturation; and (3) Cultural intelligence buffered the negative effect of acculturative stress, and such that the indirect effect between acculturative stress and acculturation via hope was stronger for low cultural intelligence. The findings further improve the mechanism theory of acculturation and provide a basis for the application of stress regulation.
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In most modern societies, nearly every realm of life involves some form of evaluation of our knowledge, abilities and skills. Given the potentially significant consequences of exams, it is not surprising that they are often very stressful. This study aimed to determine the existence and nature of the relationships between level of test anxiety, coping strategies, and achieved success on a mid-term test. As well as examining the direct relations between the given variables, our primary interest was to investigate the potential mediating role of coping mechanisms between the input and output variables of the examined stressful transaction. The study was conducted on a sample of 263 students from the Psychology and German Studies Departments of the Faculty of Philosophy at the University of Novi Sad. According to our results, only emotion-focused coping mechanisms were statistically significant mediators in the relationship between level of test anxiety and mid-term test achievement. The results indicate that students with high test anxiety who employ predominantly emotion-focused coping strategies score lower on a pre-exam knowledge test.
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Introduction: The research on humour is part of the research on positive psychology which was borne at the end of the 20th century. In the source literature, humour was treated in a multidimensional way as a feature of personality, temperament, a tendency to laugh and joke at other people and the ability to do so. With the development of positive psychology, the focus started to be on the functional character of humour and in particu�lar on its role in shaping the psychological well-being of the individual. According to the cognitive-transactional theory of stress, humour can be treated as a subjective resource for an individual to cope with difficult situations. Research in this field allows us to recognise humour as an ex�tremely important mechanism regulating the psychophysical balance of the individual. When the excessive stress in the teaching work begins to take on a chronic, repetitive character and results from the imbalance be�tween teachers’ resources and the requirements of their work environ�ment, they can lead to the development of burnout syndrome. Significant adverse changes caused by the burnout syndrome occur in all spheres of teacher functioning. Due to the loss of caring for another person and ex�cessive distancing to his problems, professional burnout “impresses” on the quality of the teacher’s relationship with pupils, pupils’ parents, col�leagues, co-workers, and superiors. Determines the family life of teach�ers, causes more frequent conflicts. The aim of the study: The main purpose of the presented dissertation was to determine the relationship between humour, expressed in humour styles and coping humour and the intensity of professional burnout of teachers, taking into account the role of intermediary variables of so�cio-demographic and work-related nature. Method: The study group consisted of 536 teachers: 425 women (79%) and 111 men (21%) aged from 21 to 71 years old (M=43,04; SD=9,02), working in various types of schools: kindergarten, elementary school, junior high school, basic vocational school, technical school and gen�eral high school. The teachers participated in the questionnaire study, which used: a personal questionnaire, Perceived Stress at Work Scale (PSS-10-P) by Sheldon Cohen, Tom Kamarck and Robin Mermelstein in the Polish adaptation of Siegfried Juczyński and Nina Ogińska-Bulik in a modified version of Agnieszka Kruczek and Małgorzata A Basińska, Coping Humour Scale (CHS) by Rod A. Martin and Herbert Lefcourt in the Polish adaptation of Kruczek and Basińska, Humor Style Question�naire (HSQ) by Rod Martin, Patricia Puhlik-Doris, Gwen Larsen, Jeanette Gray and Kelly Weir in the Polish adaptation of ElżbietaHornowska and Jolanta Charytonik and Link Burnout Questionnaire (LBQ) by Massimo Santinello in the Polish adaptation of Aleksandra Jaworowska. Results: The surveyed teachers most often presented the affiliative hu�mour style and self-enhancing humour style. They experienced inten�sified dimensions of occupational burnout (psychophysical exhaustion, deterioration of relations with clients, job ineffectiveness, disappoint�ment) at an average level. Same as perceived stress at work. In the group of teachers there were associations between humour (expressed in hu�mour styles and coping humour) and intensification of professional burn�out: teachers who used positive humour styles more often (affiliative hu�mour style and self-enhancing humour style) were accompanied by less psychophysical exhaustion, less job ineffectiveness; in the case of using affiliative humour also lower deterioration of relations with pupil and their parents. In turn, teachers who used negative humour styles more often (aggressive and self-defeating humour styles) were accompanied by a greater deterioration of relations with pupil and their parents and greater disappointment with their professional work; when aggressive humour were used, also greater psychophysical exhaustion and a greater job ineffectiveness. In-depth analysis allowed to distinguish three types of use of humour by teachers: adaptive positive (teachers functioning in this type more often showed positive – adaptive humour styles and less frequently negative – non-adaptive humour styles) (teachers function�ing according to this type revealed the highest level of negative humour styles, aggressive and masochistic), adaptive negative (teachers of this type used with smaller (negative styles of humour) or average intensity (negative styles of humour) different styles of humour and coping with humour at the highest sense of stress at work. Teachers representing different types of humour use differed in terms of socio-demographic characteristics, work-related variables and Conclusions: In the light of the obtained research results, which were con�ducted among teachers, humour appears to be a very valuable personal resource, having a positive effect on reducing the severity of burnout. The surveyed teachers used diverse humour styles, also dealing with dif�ferent levels of humour. Hence, it was possible to distinguish three types of use of humour in the face of stress at work by teachers. Obtained re�sults of own research allow to indicate practical implications. The use of humour seems to be valuable in the prophylaxis of professional burnout as a strategy to deal with stress more effectively. Cognitive-behaviour�al interventions focused on shaping a humorous perspective seem to be particularly helpful. These include, for example, the conversion of neg�ative thoughts into positive and humorous thoughts; shaping the help word in dealing with humorous content (i.e. “I’m going to focus on the hu�morous aspect of this event”); as part of the ways of dealing with a stress�ful situation, choice of means containing humorous aspect – watching cabaret performances, comedy, reading jokes. Raising people’s aware�ness of the role of humour in coping with stress can also be important. Key words: coping humour, humour styles, professional burnout, teachers
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