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Perna canaliculus (Green-Lipped Mussel): Bioactive Components and Therapeutic Evaluation for Chronic Health Conditions

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Abstract

Perna canaliculus (Green-Lippped Mussel) is found only in New Zealand waters and is cultivated and manufactured for both the food and nutraceutical industry world-wide. P. canaliculus has traditionally been used as a therapeutic to treat various arthralgias in both humans and animals; however, clinical research reports provide conflicting results. Numerous in vitro studies have reported anti-inflammatory activity of the mussel under various conditions and also demonstrated a synergistic effect with pharmaceutical medications such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with P. canaliculus protecting the gastrointestinal mucosal lining against such medications. It is proposed that the anti-inflammatory activity demonstrated by P. canaliculus is predominantly due to the lipid fraction, however, among the major classes of compounds found in mussel meat, proteins and peptides are the largest with isolates demonstrating various anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, bioadhesive and anti-hypertensive activities. A review of the bioactive components, their function and therapeutic application is outlined in this chapter. Furthermore, we hypothesise and provide supportive evidence that the gastrointestinal microbiota play an important role in disease processes such as Rheumatoid arthritis and Osteoarthritis and also in the efficacy of P. canaliculus in chronic inflammatory conditions. The metabolic capacity of intestinal microbiota can modify bioactive food components altering the hosts' exposure to these components, potentially enhancing or diminishing their health effects. Understanding the interaction of the bioactive compounds in P. canaliculus with commensal and pathogenic bacteria may facilitate the development of novel interventions to control intestinal and extraintestinal inflammation.
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... It has an external shape similar to other mussels (Murphy et al., 2003); however, it is characterized by the bright green coloration of the shell near the lip (Miller et al., 2014). P. canaliculus has worldwide attention to be used as a functional food (Coulson et al., 2015;Nongmaithem et al., 2018), the food that offer health benefits beyond their nutritional value; in the nutraceutical industry (Nongmaithem et al., 2018), including oil extracts and freeze-dried mussel powder (Miller et al., 2014). ...
... Traditionally, P. canaliculus has been used to treat arthritis (Coulson et al., 2015). It is believed that the anti-inflammatory activity of the P. canaliculus is based on the lipid contents (Coulson et al., 2015), which contain high quantities of longchain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and docosahexaenoic; besides that, many other types of minor fatty acids, such as 5, 9, 12, 15-octadecatetraenoic acid (C18:4); 5, 9, 12, 16-nonadecatetraenoic acid (C19:4); 7, 11, 14, 17-eicosatetraenoic acid (C20:4); and 5, 9, 12, 15, 18-heneicosapentaenoic acid (C21:5) (Siriarchavatana et al., 2019;Treschow et al., 2007). ...
... Traditionally, P. canaliculus has been used to treat arthritis (Coulson et al., 2015). It is believed that the anti-inflammatory activity of the P. canaliculus is based on the lipid contents (Coulson et al., 2015), which contain high quantities of longchain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and docosahexaenoic; besides that, many other types of minor fatty acids, such as 5, 9, 12, 15-octadecatetraenoic acid (C18:4); 5, 9, 12, 16-nonadecatetraenoic acid (C19:4); 7, 11, 14, 17-eicosatetraenoic acid (C20:4); and 5, 9, 12, 15, 18-heneicosapentaenoic acid (C21:5) (Siriarchavatana et al., 2019;Treschow et al., 2007). ...
... It has an external shape similar to other mussels (Murphy et al., 2003); however, it is characterized by the bright green coloration of the shell near the lip (Miller et al., 2014). P. canaliculus has worldwide attention to be used as a functional food (Coulson et al., 2015;Nongmaithem et al., 2018), the food that offer health benefits beyond their nutritional value; in the nutraceutical industry (Nongmaithem et al., 2018), including oil extracts and freeze-dried mussel powder (Miller et al., 2014). ...
... Traditionally, P. canaliculus has been used to treat arthritis (Coulson et al., 2015). It is believed that the anti-inflammatory activity of the P. canaliculus is based on the lipid contents (Coulson et al., 2015), which contain high quantities of longchain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and docosahexaenoic; besides that, many other types of minor fatty acids, such as 5, 9, 12, 15-octadecatetraenoic acid (C18:4); 5, 9, 12, 16-nonadecatetraenoic acid (C19:4); 7, 11, 14, 17-eicosatetraenoic acid (C20:4); and 5, 9, 12, 15, 18-heneicosapentaenoic acid (C21:5) (Siriarchavatana et al., 2019;Treschow et al., 2007). ...
... Traditionally, P. canaliculus has been used to treat arthritis (Coulson et al., 2015). It is believed that the anti-inflammatory activity of the P. canaliculus is based on the lipid contents (Coulson et al., 2015), which contain high quantities of longchain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and docosahexaenoic; besides that, many other types of minor fatty acids, such as 5, 9, 12, 15-octadecatetraenoic acid (C18:4); 5, 9, 12, 16-nonadecatetraenoic acid (C19:4); 7, 11, 14, 17-eicosatetraenoic acid (C20:4); and 5, 9, 12, 15, 18-heneicosapentaenoic acid (C21:5) (Siriarchavatana et al., 2019;Treschow et al., 2007). ...
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In the past decade, the use of marine mussels as seafood is being more popular. They considered being a rich source of various nutritional bioactive compounds that aroused the scientific community's interest. This study investigated the antioxidant and the antithrombotic consequences on Sprague-Dawley male rats after adding dried New Zealand mussel Perna canaliculus in their diet. The biochemical, hematological and histopathological changes were also observed. Forty rats were divided into four groups according to the amount of dried mussels in their diet, in addition to a control group that consumed a basal diet only. Group 1 consumed 25% dried mussels in its basal diet; Group 2 consumed 35% dried mussels in its basal diet, and Group 3 was consumed 45% dried mussels in its basal diet. The biochemical parameters showed improvements in liver function. Interestingly, the lipid profile decreased, especially the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels which were reduced significantly in Group 3 (p < .01). These observations were accompanied by a decrease in iron levels significantly as the amount of dried mussels increased (p < .01). Furthermore, the noticed changes in the hematological profile prove that there is an increase in antithrombotic activity. Dried mussels had potent antioxidant effects in the liver as shown by increased lipid peroxide (p < .05), reduced glutathione (p < .05), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px; p < .05). Additionally, antioxidant activity in the kidney was shown to increase through GSH-Px activity (p < .01). In conclusion, these results indicate that consuming dried mussels resulted in improved biochemical and antioxidants activities and could be used as an antithrombotic agent.
... Clinical studies have yet to be completed assessing the therapeutic efficacy of mussel proteins and peptide fractions in humans. Reviews have suggested that the intestinal microbiota may be involved in the down-regulation of intestinal mucosal inflammation and, as such, the administration of compounds like P. canaliculus to manage symptoms of inflammatory conditions like OA and potentially RA are viable adjunctive therapies[33]. ...
... P. canaliculus extract powder has shown synergistic and anti-inflammatory activity when administered in combination with other NSAIDs. Experimental data has demonstrated that the stabilized whole extract powder of P. canaliculus decreases the severity and episodes of intestinal barrier damage in rat models[33,34]. The anti-inflammatory activity of acetylsalicyclic acid and indomethacin is further supported by reports that lipid and whole extract powders affect gastroprotective effects[36]. ...
... The AMPs identified have been classified as isoforms of the peptide families of defensins, mytimycin and mytilin with big defensins[38,41]. The crustacean hemolymph, specifically of crab origin, possesses a range of AMPs that act as endogenous antibiotics, as well as participating in pro-inflammatory activity, wound repair and regulating adaptive immunity responses[33]. These findings of the potency of whole mussel extract powder has provided the impetus for integrating marine peptides into novel pharmaceutical developments[42]. ...
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Natural medicines are often an attractive option for patients diagnosed with chronic conditions. Three main classes of bioactives that have been reported from marine mussel extracts include proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Commercially, the most relevant species of marine mollusks belong to two genera, Perna and Mytilus. Specifically, the Perna canaliculus species has been repeatedly demonstrated to harbor anti-inflammatory compounds such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) that can ameliorate pro-inflammatory conditions, or proteins that can promote thrombin inhibitory activity. Recent clinical studies have posited that extracts from green-lipped mussels may lead to prebiotic activity in the intestinal microbiome that in turn has been reported to improve symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee. Prebiotics have been reported to favorably interact with the intestinal microbiome through the proliferation of beneficial bacteria in the gut, suppressing exogenous and endogenous intestinal infections and promoting homeostasis by balancing local pro-and anti-inflammatory actions. Bioactive compounds from Perna canaliculus are functional foods and, in this regard, may positively interact with the intestinal microbiome and provide novel therapeutic solutions for intra-intestinal and extra-intestinal inflammatory conditions.
... Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that PC effectively relieves inflammation and arthritis conditions (Lee et al. 2008(Lee et al. , 2009Eason et al. 2019). In addition, PC can reduce inflammation in arthritic patients (Coulson et al. 2015;Eason et al. 2019). Previous studies have shown that PC inhibits the release of some proinflammatory mediators, such as IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α (Lawson et al. 2007;Lee et al. 2008Lee et al. , 2009). ...
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Pain and inflammation typically manifest in patients with arthritis. It is now widely known that Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb (AP) and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (SM) exert anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. We have previously reported that the mixture extract (ME) from AP and SM produces antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in gout arthritis and monoiodoacetate (MIA)-induced arthritis models. In the present study, we assessed the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects on the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. The antinociceptive effects in mice were measured using the von Frey test. ME administered once or for one week (once per day) once, and one-week reduced the pain in a dose-dependent manner (from 50 to 100 mg/kg) in the CIA-induced osteoarthritis (OA) model. ME treatment also reduced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in plasma and ankle tissues. Furthermore, COX-1, COX-2, NF-κB, TNF-α, and IL-6 expressions were attenuated after ME treatment. In most experiments, the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects induced by ME treatment were almost equal to or slightly better than those induced by Perna canaliculus (PC) treatment, which was used as a positive control. Our results suggest that ME possesses antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects, indicating its potential as a therapeutic agent for arthritis treatment.
... Here, in arthritic ICR mice, marked anti-inflammatory changes were observed in the PC-treated group, compared with the control group, which is supported by several other teams. They indicated that PC could reduce inflammation in arthritic animals [42,43] and arthritic humans [24,44]. Various factors were involved in this anti-inflammatory effect, one of which is reducing the release of proinflammatory mediators, such as IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α [42,43,45]. ...
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Arthritis is a common condition that causes pain and inflammation in a joint. Previously, we reported that the mixture extract (ME) from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. (AP) and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (SM) could ameliorate gout arthritis. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of ME and characterize the mechanism. We compared the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of a positive control, Perna canaliculus powder (PC). The results showed that one-off and one-week treatment of ME reduced the pain threshold in a dose-dependent manner (from 10 to 100 mg/kg) in the mono-iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis (OA) model. ME also reduced the plasma TNF-α, IL-6, and CRP levels. In LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, ME inhibited the release of NO, PGE2, LTB4, and IL-6, increased the phosphorylation of PPAR-γ protein, and downregulated TNF-α and MAPKs proteins expression in a concentration-dependent (from 1 to 100 µg/mL) manner. Furthermore, ME ameliorated the progression of ear edema in mice. In most of the experiments, ME-induced effects were almost equal to, or were higher than, PC-induced effects. Conclusions: The data presented here suggest that ME shows anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, indicating ME may be a potential therapeutic for arthritis treatment.
... Although severe fractures are rather rare during pregnancy, several clinical case reports have described fracture healing during pregnancy (139,140,141,142). These studies suggest that fracture healing is accelerated during pregnancy, based on earlier bone bridging of the fracture callus and reduced time until bony union. ...
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In this review we discuss skeletal adaptations to the demanding situation of pregnancy and lactation. Calcium demands are increased during pregnancy and lactation, and this is effectuated by a complex series of hormonal changes. The changes in bone structure at the tissue and whole bone level observed during pregnancy and lactation appear to largely recover over time. The magnitude of the changes observed during lactation may relate to the volume and duration of breastfeeding and return to regular menses. Studies examining long-term consequences of pregnancy and lactation suggest that there are small, site-specific benefits to bone density, and that bone geometry may also be affected. Pregnancy- and lactation-induced osteoporosis (PLO) is a rare disease for which the pathophysiological mechanism is as yet incompletely known; here we discuss and speculate on the possible roles of genetics, oxytocin, sympathetic tone and bone marrow fat. Finally, we discuss fracture healing during pregnancy and lactation and the effects of estrogen on this process.
... GLM extracts GLM, also called Perna canaliculus, is endemic to New Zealand and has an important significance in the health of the Maori population, which has a lowered incidence of arthritis [39]. Traditionally, it has been used to treat various arthralgias in both humans and animals including RA and OA [39,40]. One systematic review was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a GLM extract in the treatment of OA; however, no estimated treatment effects were provided [25]. ...
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OA is a chronic and disabling joint disease with limited evidence-based pharmacological treatment options available that improve outcomes for patients safely. Faced with few effective pharmacological treatments , the use has grown of dietary supplements and complementary medicines for symptomatic relief among people living with OA. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of existing evidence and recommendations supporting the use of supplements for OA. Systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials investigating oral supplements for treating OA were identified. Limited research evidence supports recommendations for the oral use of Boswellia serrata extract and Pycnogenol, curcumin and methylsulfonylmethane in people with OA despite the poor quality of the available studies. Few studies adequately reported possible adverse effects related to supplementation, although the products were generally recognized as safe. Further high quality trials are needed to improve the strength of evidence to support this recommendation and better guide optimal treatment of people living with OA.
... osteoarthritis/rheumatoid arthritis and asthma are well covered in a series of reviews(Brien, Prescott, Coghlan, Bashir, & Lewith, 2008;Cobb & Ernst, 2006;Coulson, Palacios, & Vitetta, 2015;Grienke, Silke, & Tasdemir, 2014;Ulbricht et al., 2009). Presently, there are no stud- ...
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Greenshell™ mussel (GSM, Perna canaliculus) is New Zealand's most important aquaculture species. This study looked at changes in the proximate composition, lipid class and fatty acid profile of male and female market ready mussels over a year from April 2016 through to March 2017. There were differences over the season as well as differences between male and female mussels. Winter GSM had lower lipid, carbohydrate and protein concentrations than other seasons. Female mussels had a higher lipid (on average 1.8 ± 0.5 g/100 g ww) and carbohydrate (on average 5.0 ± 1.1 g/100 g ww) compared with the males (lipid, 1.5 ± 0.4 g/100 g ww and carbohydrate 4.5 ± 1.2 g/100 g ww). The major differences observed between seasons in the omega 3 and fatty acids content of the GSM were driven by the fat content, with the highest fat content found in female mussels in the spring prior to spawning. The majority of lipids found in mussels are polar lipids. Overall, this study provides the most comprehensive data on the composition and the lipid content of GSM to date and provides solid base-line data as the New Zealand GSM industry continues to improve their production procedures. The enhanced nutritional payload of mussels harvested outside of winter (particularly female mussels in spring) could drive a differentiated higher value mussel product.
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This study has undertaken a metabolomic assessment of Australian blue mussels, (Mytilus galloprovincialis). A comparison to the New Zealand green lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) was also made. The aqueous metabolomes were investigated by NMR and the lipid metabolomes by NMR and GC/MS. There are clear metabolic differences between the species M. galloprovincialis and P. canaliculus though this may be due to environmental factors as well as genetic differences. There is also significant variation between the M. galloprovincialis samples collected from two different sites within Port Phillip Bay Victoria. These results indicate that metabolomics approaches could be useful for provenance determination for mussels and could be developed into a tool useful for fisheries and food agencies to trace mussel products
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Objective: to assess the efficacy of a lipid extract of the New Zealand green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus in rheumatoid and osteoarthritis and compare it with green-lipped mussel powder. Design: A double-blind 3-month parallel comparison of the two preparations and a further 3-month period of lipid extract for all patients. Setting: The out-patient department of the Glasgow Homoeopathic Hospital. Interventions: Stabilized green-lipped mussel powder, 1150 mg/day and the derived lipid extract, 210 mg/day. Main Outcome Measures: Articular index of joint tenderness (AI), morning stiffness (limbering-up-time, LUT), grip strength in each hand, visual analogue scale of pain (VA) and functional index (FI). Results: Seventy six percent of rheumatoid and 70% of osteoarthritic patients benefitted. AI, LUT and FI improved significantly by 3 months. The two preparations appeared equally efficacious. One patient experienced fluid retention and one developed nausea. There were no other adverse reactions. Conclusion: Both the stabilized freeze-dried mussel powder and its derived lipid extract are effective in reducing pain, swelling and stiffness and in improving functional index in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.