Article

Student engagement in instructional activity: Patterns in the elementary, middle, and high School Years

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Abstract

Although student engagement with the intellectual work of school is important to students' achievement and to their social and cognitive development, studies over a span of two decades have documented low levels of engagement, particularly in the classroom. Examining several theoretical perspectives that attempt to explain engagement through comprehensive frameworks, this study evaluates the effect on engagement of school reform initiatives that are consistent with the theories. The study also investigates whether patterns exist in students' engagement, whether the patterns are consistent across grade levels, and whether class subject matter (mathematics or social studies) differentially affects engagement. The sample includes 3.669 students representing 143 social studies and mathematics classrooms in a nationally selected sample of 24 restructuring elementary, middle, and high schools. Because of the nature of the nested data (students nested within classrooms nested within schools), the analysis is conducted using hierarchical linear modeling in its three-level application (HLM3L). The reform initiatives, which are consistent with the theories, eliminate personal background effects. Together with classroom subject matter, they substantially influence engagement. The results are generally consistent across grade levels.

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... Regarding gender-specific differences, there is broad evidence that girls seem to be more engaged than boys during classroom learning [57][58][59][60][61][62]. Looking specifically at math and science and the individual facets of engagement, Fredricks and colleagues [24] likewise reported a female advantage in cognitive and behavioral engagement in middle and high school students-although other studies have suggested an advantage for boys [51,63] or no significant gender differences [64]. ...
... Finally, students' sustained attention may play an important role in ultimately enabling and constraining engagement and performance, as well as performance via engagement [66]. While male and female students either do not differ in terms of math performance [17] or boys rather outperform girls on standardized tests [86,87]), girls have been repeatedly reported to show, on average, lower levels of motivation [17,45,88] and higher engagement in the classroom than boys [58,62]. These findings suggest gender differences in the prediction of math performance. ...
... These two divergent indirect paths reflect pronounced gender differences in the direct paths from engagement to performance, with much stronger effects of cognitive engagement on performance for girls and of behavioral engagement on performance for boys. Female students, on the mean-level, indicated higher behavioral engagement than male students, suggesting that, for girls, behavioral engagement is more the rule rather than game-changing [24,58,62]. However, the more female students reported to deeply engage with, elaborate on, and reflect on the content addressed in math classes (cognitive engagement), the higher their performance. ...
Article
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While math performance does not seem to differ systematically between males and females, it is one of the subjects that is consistently perceived as “male” with girls regularly reporting lower levels of motivation and less positive attitudes than boys. This study aimed to uncover gender-specific relations between perceived self-determination, engagement, and performance in school mathematics that might help to better understand this discrepancy. In an online study, we hence assessed perceived competence and autonomy support, social relatedness, cognitive and behavioral engagement, math performance as well as sustained attention as a basic cognitive prerequisite in a sample of N = 221 Seventh-Grade students from southern Germany (Mage = 12.84 years, SDage = 0.55, Nfemales = 115). As expected, we found no gender differences in math performance. In multiple group path analyses, perceived autonomy support was the most consistent predictor of cognitive and behavioral engagement for both girls and boys. While it did not affect math performance directly, we found significant indirect effects via cognitive engagement for girls, and via behavioral engagement for boys, whereas competence support in the math classroom, which female students perceived as significantly lower than male students, negatively predicted only girls’ performance, sustained attention explained a considerable part of boys’ math performance. Girls seem to experience competence support less often than boys, and if they do, we assume it to be in response to low performance rather than to encourage high competence and nurture talent. Our results suggest promising avenues for future research and implications for math classrooms.
... Many studies acknowledged that both the home-based and the schoolbased parental involvement played a crucial role in children's higher academic achievement (Crosby et al., 2015;Dotterer & Wehrspann, 2016). Similarly, teachers' teaching strategies for engaging students are important to enhancing students' academic performance (Marks, 2000;Syed et al., 2011). Marks (2000) has underlined that teachers' teaching strategies and support have an impact on narrowing the effect of prior achievement, socioeconomic status, and gender gap by encouraging student engagement in class. ...
... Similarly, teachers' teaching strategies for engaging students are important to enhancing students' academic performance (Marks, 2000;Syed et al., 2011). Marks (2000) has underlined that teachers' teaching strategies and support have an impact on narrowing the effect of prior achievement, socioeconomic status, and gender gap by encouraging student engagement in class. ...
... Previous studies have underlined that teacher's engaging teaching strategies, skills, and support are critical for improving students' engagement. When teachers assigned students a cognitively challenging work in mathematics or social studies class and connected those works to the real world beyond the classroom, students' engagement across elementary, middle, and high school tended to be higher (Klem & Connell, 2004;Marks, 2000). Moreover, these teaching strategies reduced the effect of prior achievement and SES in terms of student engagement (Marks, 2000). ...
Article
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Previous research studies about mathematics performance have continuously reported race/ethnic or gender gaps. Learners have different educational experiences depending on not only their ethnicity or gender, but also grade and sociocultural factors. However, only a few studies have considered all these factors integrally. Hence, the need of examining academic performance differences across ethnicity, gender, grade, and sociocultural variables led this study. The purpose of this study was to examine mathematics academic achievement of 4th and 8th grade African, Latinx, and Asian American students related to students’ ethnicity, gender, grade, and sociocultural variables such as student bullying, parental involvement, and engaging teaching. The guiding research question for this inquire was: Which factors (gender, student bullying, parental involvement, and engaging teaching) do predict the mathematics achievement of 4th and 8th grade African, Latinx, and Asian American students? The participants were total 9,605 fourth (n=4,785) and eighth grade (n=4,820) African, Latinx, and Asian American students in TIMSS 2015 U.S. national public-use data set. According to the results of multiple linear regression analyses, parental involvement was a significant predictor for all students across grade and ethnicity. In addition, engaging teaching from mathematics teachers significantly predicted 4th and 8th grade Latinx American students’ mathematics achievement. This study revealed that gender, student bullying, parental involvement, and engaging teaching had different level of impacts on mathematics achievement of each group of students.
... Other researchers have suggested that engagement is strongly related to controlling classroom structure and the classroom environment. They are factors that can predict student attendance and achievement (Marks, 2000;Shernoff et al., 2003;Akey, 2006;Fredericks, 2011). When students feel that they are in control of the favourable classroom environment, they are likely to direct their learning, their engagement and achievement improvement (Shernoff et al., 2003). ...
... When students feel that they are in control of the favourable classroom environment, they are likely to direct their learning, their engagement and achievement improvement (Shernoff et al., 2003). Marks (2000) reported higher engagement in the classroom when students felt valued as part of a classroom environment, supporting their learning and understanding. Respectful, fair, safe learning environment encourages positive communication and benefits students. ...
... 3. Write a clear thesis statement and essay map 4. Write an essay that demonstrates unity, coherence, and completeness. Several authors, Marks (2000), Shernoff et al. (2003), Akey (2006), andFredricks (2011), say that the instructional design that the teacher designs is indeed recognized as one of the factors that affect engagements and achievement. Suppose the structure of the instructional design is orderly and easy to understand. ...
Book
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As educators, we are constantly pushed to assist our pupils become self-sufficient, intelligent persons with pleasant personalities. All stakeholders must cooperate to accomplish this purpose. This collaboration is critical. Parents become partners with teachers and children, and they must be willing to contribute time and effort to their children ’s learning and development. Parenting concerns that providing a comfortable living environment and preserving a healthy relationship between parents and children should not be overlooked. In order to meet the learning objectives, school leaders must be actively involved. Schools must always be responsive to the needs of children and offer effective solutions to their challenges. In educational programs, the teacher's role is equally crucial, especially an academic writing program. Teachers must have enough pedagogical understanding and technology mastery abilities in order to construct organized courses. Skills in using technology are critical during the epidemic period, when all learning activities are conducted online. In short, the more teachers demonstrate their concern for these practical challenges, the more positively their pupils respond to school activities. Academic writing is one of the most difficult skills to master. Students must go through a deep learning process, study independently, engage in teacher’s instruction, materials, and peers, and have parental support. The author's teaching and research experience in an academic writing program inspired this book. Hopefully, the readers will benefit from this book.
... Student engagement is defined as making a psychological investment in learning and striving to learn (Newmann, 1992). Student engagement is important because it is a significant predictor of academic achievement and academic success (Lei, Cui, and Zhou, 2019;Marks, 2000). Student engagement has also been identified as a major challenge for universities as classes were moved online in response to Covid-19 (Farooq et al., 2020;Nickerson and Shea, 2020;Perets et al., 2020). ...
... Student engagement is considered a key component in keeping students connected with their courses and with their learning (Robinson and Hullinger, 2008;Kehrwald, 2008). Universities, professors, and researchers have a strong interest in understanding student engagement and especially methods to improve and increase student engagement in college classes (Marks, 2000;Williams and Whiting, 2016). Student engagement has been theorized as a continuous cycle with academic outcomes. ...
Article
Paper investigates the impact on student engagement from converting traditional face-to-face classes to online in response to Covid-19. In particular, this study investigated the impact of conversion to online on four different types of student engagement: (1) participation engagement, (2) emotional engagement, (3) skill engagement, and (4) performance engagement. Survey data were collected from 160 business students who had their face-to-face classes converted to online due to Covid-19. Results of study show that all four types of student engagement significantly declined when classes were converted to online. Participation engagement declined the most while performance engagement declined the least. Non-traditional students had significantly larger declines in participation engagement and skill engagement than traditional students. Those who prefer face-to-face classes had significantly larger declines in all four types of student engagement than those who prefer online classes. Extroverts had significantly larger declines in participation engagement, emotional engagement, and performance engagement than introverts. Gender, ethnicity, rank of student, type of class, and experience with online classes did not influence the decline in engagement when classes were converted to online. Recommendations on ways to improve online classes and ways to improve student engagement in online classes are provided.
... Superficial engagement could lead to students' low academic achievements, disengagement and, finally, dropout. Instead, profound engagement assists students' critical thinking and academic achievement (Carini et al., 2006;Lam et al., 2012;Lear, Ansorge, & Steckelberg, 2010;Lowes, Lin, & Kinghorn, 2015;Marks, 2000;Skinner & Belmont, 1993). Research findings in the field suggest that different online activities promote academic students' achievement though different ways (DeBoer et al., 2014;Hung, & Zhang, 2008;Iglesias-Pradas et al., 2021;Jaggars, Edgecombe, & Stacey, 2013;Lowes, Lin, & Kinghorn, 2015;Murphy et al., 2014;Tseng et al., 2016;Wilkowski, Deutsch, & Russell, 2014). ...
... Students with superficial engagement with extensive counseling support in most cases are able to complete the only the first Module. But without the element of the extensive counselling support, students are led to low academic achievements, disengagement and, finally, dropout (Carini et al., 2006;Lam et al., 2012;Lear, Ansorge, & Steckelberg, 2010;Lowes, Lin, & Kinghorn, 2015;Marks, 2000;Skinner & Belmont, 1993). The drop-out phenomenon is more often to occur after the completion of EAG52 * or EAG53 * than the completion of EAG60 * or EAG61 * . ...
Preprint
This study aims to gain insights into the dropout prediction problem in a sample of postgraduate special education students. Therefore, a nonlinear state-space model was employed. An Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm that iterates between state estimation (E-step) and parameter estimation (M-step) was retrieved from the existing literature and was redesigned in order to serve the aims of this study. For each student we collected data from the used online platform (https://courses.eap.gr) regarding their learning activities per week. More specifically, these data were related to the average number of activities per week by the week t, total number of activities in week t, average time consumption per week by the week t, total time consumption in week t, average number of different types of activity per week by the week t and the total number of different types of activity in week t. In the dataset a total number of n1=1337 students were enrolled, attending n2=7 different modules. Totally, there were n3=99.213 enrollments, n4=7.121.519 activity logs and in a 11-week longest lifetime of enrollment. Statistical analysis showed that the majority of the students dropped out during the second week. Moreover, an inversely proportional relationship was observed between the dropout rates and the number of weeks that the student has actively engaged in the module. Significant differences across modules were also observed. Results are discussed in terms of their applications in the training and education of the collaborating teaching staff working in the HOU.
... Among the evaluation indicators, the level of student engagement is a more meaningful indicator for evaluating the teaching process. Student engagement has been defined as investment or commitment (Marks, 2000;Tinto, 1975), participation (Kuh et al., 2011), or effortful involvement in learning (Pekrun & Linnenbrink-Garcia, 2012;Terenzini, Pascarella, & Lorang, 1982). It represents the degree to which students focus on learning tasks in learning activities. ...
... Student engagement is a key factor that connects with student achievement and retention (Kahu & Nelson, 2018). Student engagement has been defined as investment or commitment (Marks, 2000;Tinto, 1975), participation (Kuh et al., 2011), or effortful involvement in learning (Pekrun & Linnenbrink-Garcia, 2012;Terenzini et al., 1982). It represents the degree to which students focus on learning tasks in learning activities. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to track college students’ on-task rate during the teaching process and to analyze the influence of instructional strategies on on-task rate through the aspects of observable and internal engagement indicators. Thirty-six undergraduate students at a higher education institution in China participated in the study. Students’ behaviors and their EEG signals were recorded from fifty-one learning activities. Analyses have been focused on identifying the determinants of student’s engagement levels and revealing the impacts of behavioral sequences and cognitive sequences on student’s engagement levels. The results show that (1) instructional strategies, classroom behaviors, and cognitive states were significant predictors of students’ on-task rate; (2) the continuity of classroom behaviors improved the on-task rate; and (3) the standard deviations of attention and cognitive load were positively correlated with the on-task rate. This study describes a case of integrating multimodal data analysis in classroom teaching and discusses practical implications for improving classroom teaching.
... Student engagement contributes significantly to language teaching and learning as engaged students often do better in learning (Prasetyawati & Ardi, 2020). Despite being difficult to conceptualize and measure (Han & Hyland, 2015), learning engagement is defined by Marks (2000) as "a psychological process, specifically, the attention, interest, investment, and effort students expend in the work of learning" (pp. 154-155). ...
... According to Christenson et al. (2012), researchers have to identify their conceptualization of the LE concept. Accordingly, this study conceptualizes this construct as outlined by Marks (2000) who identified two domains: behavioral and affective. He refers to affective engagement as the "motivation to learn" or "emotional involvement" while relating behavioral engagement to "students' participation". ...
Article
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Collaboration on, around, and through written text has been facilitated with the integration of cloud tools and platforms. Thanks to the learning analytics tools available on these platforms, large educational datasets on learners’ logs and online learning behavior are now at the instructors’ fingertips. Consequently, affective factors (like learning engagement), that have long been thought of as difficult and labor-intensive to observe and assess, can now be easily and objectively measured. In response, the current study examined the influence of cloud-based collaborative writing on EFL learners’ emotional and behavioral engagement using cloud learning analytics tools. A cohort of 27 junior EFL college students was selected and exposed to the eight-week intervention practicing collaborative writing and feedback on Google Docs. The quasi-experimental mixed-method design was followed. Quantitative data about behavioral engagement were collected using 4 indices: number of self-edits, frequency of learner logs, number of comments, and time spent per task. A pre-post emotional engagement scale was also administered. Quantitative results of the study revealed that, generally, students’ behavioral engagement did not change after the intervention, whereas their overall emotional engagement did. Qualitative data collected from the open-ended perceptions survey were generally in line with the quantitative ones.
... Engagement is a widely researched topic in education because of its significant impact on academic success (Fredricks et al., 2004). Previous research has shown a connection between engagement and increased academic achievement as well as disengagement and academic withdrawal (Marks, 2000). Student engagement has been defined as a psychological process (Jonasson, 2012) involving student attention, interest, investment, and effort in the learning process (Marks, 2000). ...
... Previous research has shown a connection between engagement and increased academic achievement as well as disengagement and academic withdrawal (Marks, 2000). Student engagement has been defined as a psychological process (Jonasson, 2012) involving student attention, interest, investment, and effort in the learning process (Marks, 2000). This is similar to the conceptualization of engagement suggested by Fredricks et al. (2004), where engagement is represented as a tri-part model with behavioural, cognitive, and affective components. ...
Article
This qualitative phenomenological study describes the experiences of female students in a rural Alberta vocational training centre through semi-structured interviews. The findings indicate five key ways that instructors and institutions can approach instruction to maximize the opportunity for early and sustained student engagement: a sense of belonging and feeling of community, relationships with instructors, consistent and clear organization and structure, the recognition of student success, and the opportunity to explore new skills and careers.
... The study revelation is backed by the assertions of Fredricks, Blumenfeld and Paris (2004), where students with higher academic engagement are more likely to achieve higher credentials and have a better outcome on standardized tests. The current study finding debunked those of Marks (2000), National Research Council (2003 and Yazzie-Mintz (2007), which found that academic engagement among students in the high-schools and middle-schools is shown to decline, reaching their lowest high-school levels as they progress academically. These studies further indicated that academic engagement becomes reduced more among students who find themselves in low-performing and high-poverty schools. ...
Article
The issue of students’ academic performance has become a matter of general interest to the nation’s governments, educationists, parents, and students because of the growing rate of academic failure especially at the secondary school level. Hence, this work investigated home-based factors, institutional environment and teacher characteristics as determinants of students’ academic performance in Ogun State senior secondary schools.The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The sample consisted of 1700 respondents made up of 1400 students and 300 teachers selected through stratified random sampling technique from public secondary schools in Ogun State, Nigeria. Three research instruments were used for data collection. They are, ‘Students Home Factors Questionnaire (SHFQ) (r = .76), Institutional Environment Questionnaire (IEQ) (r = .82), and Records of Students Academic Performance (RESAP). Data were analysed using Multiple Regression Analysis. Two null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 alpha level.Findings revealed that home based factors, institutional environment and teachers’ characteristics made significant joint contribution to the prediction of students’ academic performance (F = 25.487; p < .05). Moreover, these variables made significant independent contributions to the prediction of students’ academic performance. Out of the three predictors, the most potent factor was teachers’ characteristics (β= 6.131, t = 4.181, p < .05); followed by home based factors (β= 4.254; t= 3.154, p < .05) while institutional environment (β= 2.734, t= 2.691; p < .05) was the least potent predictor of students’ academic performance.It was recommended that parents should be encouraged to make their homes to be learners’ friendly. This can be done by creating awareness on the influential role of home factors on students’ academic performance. This should be done during PTA meetings, school visiting days and through the mass media. That governments, school proprietors and school administrators should endeavour to make the school environment to be conducive for learning through proper location of schools, provision of teaching – learning facilities and making the school environment to be learners’ friendly. Also, teachers’ quality should be continually improved through self-development efforts, periodic seminars, and workshops, and on-the-job training to keep teachers abreast of the developments in their field. Finally, schools should provide effective counselling services and administrative supports to facilitate teaching and learning in order to improve students’ academic performance.
... Student engagement is a psychological state, quantitative and qualitative, about behavioral, affective, and cognitive reactions to the educational process (Christenson et al., 2012;Gibbs & Poskitt, 2010;Gunuc & Kuzu, 2015). Some study describes engagement as a social-psychological phenomenon, particularly the attention given, interest indicated, as well as effort and investment exerted by a learner (Marks, 2000). Some scholars argue that engagement is a multidimensional variable with three dimensions: behavioral, cognitive, and affective (Fredricks et al., 2004;Jimerson et al., 2003). ...
Article
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The study was intended to model online learning engagement of international students studying in Indonesia to determine which factors affect learner engagement. A survey was conducted online, and 102 international students filled the questionnaire. Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) technique was used for data analysis. The results show that the variables: university support (T = 2.881, P< 0.01), motivation (T = 3.411, P< 0.01), and personal innovativeness (T = 2.426, P< 0.05) were the significant predictors of international students' engagement in online learning. Other variables like instructor interactivity, student-material interaction, student-student interactions, and self-regulated learning didn't significantly affect learner engagement. The findings of this exploration can be used as empirical data for higher education institutions' managers when developing support programs for international students during their studies in a destination country. Other findings' implications and recommendations are discussed.
... H4: Chương trình đào tạo ảnh hưởng cùng chiều (+) đến động lực học tập của sinh viên Trường ĐHTV Theo Fan & Chen [25], sự tham gia của cha mẹ vào quá trình giáo dục ảnh hưởng đáng kể đến động lực và thành tích học tập của người học. Nghiên cứu của Marks [26] cho thấy, sự hỗ trợ của cha mẹ trong giáo dục là một phần không thể thiếu trong động lực và thành công trong học tập của sinh viên. Nguyễn Bá Châu [14] cho rằng, sự động viên, giúp đỡ của bạn bè và sự cạnh tranh trong lớp học có ảnh hưởng nhất định đối với động lực học tập của sinh viên. ...
Article
The study aims to identify the factors affecting the learning motivation of students at Tra Vinh University and recommend solutions to increase students’ motivation. The study conducted a survey of 200 students whoare studying at Tra Vinh University in different schools. The methods of Descriptive statistics, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), and Linear Regression were used in this study. The results show that there are 6 factors affecting student’s learning motivation, in which learning environment variable has the strongest impact on students’ learning motivation. The level of impact of factors is ranked in descending order including learning environment, family and friends, selfperception, learning conditions, curriculum, and quality of lecturers.
... El compromiso cognitivo, relativo al uso de estrategias cognitivas para el aprendizaje (Appleton et al., 2008;Finn, 1989;Marks, 2000;Newmann, Wehlage & Lamborn, 1992;Willms, 2003); incluye el uso de estrategias efectivas y personalizadas de los alumnos en el aprendizaje y la autorregulación (Reeve, 2012). Es la implicación psicológica del alumno en el aprendizaje, así como el esfuerzo necesario para la comprensión de ideas complejas y el dominio de destrezas difíciles (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004;Zimmerman, 1990). ...
Article
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Resumen Alcance o repercusión del estudio: este estudio se deriva de la investigación ti-tulada: compromiso académico en estudiantes universitarios de la modalidad de educación virtual y a distancia: un estudio diagnóstico. Los estudios sobre Com-promiso Académico (CA) han aumentado, tratándose de una variable determi-nante para predecir el éxito académico en educación superior, así como promover la calidad de la enseñanza. Objetivo: comprender los signi cados que atribuyen al CA estudiantes de educación superior de las modalidades Virtual y a Distancia (MVD) y Presencial (MP), tanto de una universidad privada como de una pública en Bogotá-Colombia. Proceso metodológico: se trató de un estudio cualitativo, interpretativo-hermenéutico. Los participantes fueron 36 estudiantes, 20 de una universidad privada de MVD, y 16 de pública y MP. La estrategia para acceder a la información fue un escrito libre elaborado por los investigadores. El análisis de contenido fue el procedimiento empleado para el análisis de la información me-diante el so ware Atlas-ti. Principales resultados: fueron encontrados contenidos próximos y otros que di eren totalmente entre los dos grupos de estudiantes en los tres componentes del CA: Comportamental, Cognitivo y Emocional, siendo este último, donde se evidenciaron más contenidos de estudiantes de la MVD frente a los contenidos de MP. Los sentidos atribuidos al CA de ambos grupos de estudiantes se ven in uenciados por sus historias de vida frente al estudio, así como por otros factores como la edad y la modalidad de educación elegida. Conclusiones relevantes: esta investigación aportó al estudio de la variable CA un constructo poco explorado en Colombia, en educación superior, así como su abordaje desde la lógica cualitativa. Los resultados indican que el CA además de sus tres componentes permite identi car otros vínculos relevantes como: estu-diante-universidad (institución), estudiante-docente, estudiante-carrera (forma-ción profesional) elementos identi cados en los resultados de este estudio. N0. 1-Vol. 2, 2021 ISSN: RISEI ACADEMIC JOURNAL es de publicación continua, distri-bución online https://revista. risei.org/index.php/raj y es editada por Ediciones RISEI. Esta obra está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons Atribución 4.0 Internacional. ¡Esta es una Licencia de Cultura Libre! Palabras clave: Compromiso Acadé-mico, Educación Superior, Modalidad Presencial, Modalidad Virtual y a Distancia.
... Finn (1989), sosyal boyutun katılım anlamına geldiğini ifade etmektedir. Farklı araştırmalarda, sosyal bağlılık ile akademik başarı arasında yüksek düzeyde pozitif ilişki olduğu saptanmıştır (Connell, Spencer ve Abel, 1994;Marks, 2000;Skinner, Wellborn ve Connell, 1990). Rotermund'a (2011) göre, devamsızlık ve derse geç kalma durumlarının, öğrencinin gerçekten okulla ilgisi olmadığını ve öğrencinin okula olan ilgisinin büyük olasılıkla düşeceğini göstermektedir. ...
Thesis
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The purpose of this study; is to develop an educational virtual reality application about fractions of fourth grade and to evaluate this application with the dimensions of academic achievement, student engagement and flow theory. In the research, educational virtual reality application which consists of four parts and including activities related to fractions subject has been developed and the application is named as "Keşfet Kurtul". Keşfet Kurtul has been designed in such a way that the fractions lasting a total of 4 weeks can be used every week, according to the opinions of the field experts. Mixed research method was used in the research. The quantitative data of the research were collected with the Academic Achievement Test developed by the researcher for fractions, Student Engagement in Mathematics Scale and Flow State Scale. Qualitative data of the study were obtained through semi-structured interview forms, observation reports and student notes. A total of 64 fourth grade students were included in the study. Interviews were conducted with 4 students selected by typical case sampling from the results obtained from the flow state scale and notes were filled out by these students. In addition, the researcher and 3 teachers participated as observers to the study. According to the results of the research it was found that the educational virtual reality application Keşfet Kurtul used in the experimental group, and the current method applied in the control group, had the same effect on the academic achievement of students. Similarly, when the students' engagement to mathematics was evaluated, it was concluded that the methods used in the experimental and control groups did not show a statistically significant difference. When the flow experience data obtained using the Flow State Scale were analyzed, it was found that the educational virtual reality application Keşfet Kurtul used in the experimental group was more effective than the current method used in the control group. This result is consistent with the findings obtained from the qualitative data of the study. According to the findings obtained from qualitative data, it has been concluded that in some parts of the educational virtual reality application Keşfet Kurtul can be arranged to provide a better flow experience.
... Kuh [50] defines student engagement as "the time and energy students devote to educationally purposeful activities". Empirical research has revealed student engagement as a critical factor influencing learning achievement in traditional face-to-face learning [51][52][53]. Studies focusing on online foreign language learning emphasized the enhancement of student engagement through computer-based and web-based means. ...
Article
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The outbreak of COVID-19 has forced Chinese international education to move online. An emerging number of studies have been published on online teaching and learning during the pandemic, few of which, however, focus on international students in China. This study examined the predictive effects of an online learning environment and student engagement on international students’ learning of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL). Self-reported data were collected in an online questionnaire survey involving 447 international CFL students at eight universities located in different geographical regions in China. Descriptive statistics revealed the participants’ favorable perceptions of an online learning environment, student engagement and Chinese learning achievement. The results of multiple linear regression revealed that three online learning environment factors, i.e., course accessibility, student interaction, course organization, and student engagement exerted significant positive effects on Chinese learning achievement. The implications of the study are discussed for the sustainable enhancement of the online learning environment to improve international students’ online language learning.
... Schlechty (2002) describes engagement as active, requiring learners to be committed and attentive within the learning task, finding some inherent value in what they are doing, with enthusiasm and diligence. Blumenfeld at al. (2006) argue that motivation alone is insufficient for academic performance, while Marks (2000) closely links learner engagement to academic achievement and optimal human development. Conclusively, motivation and engagement have a reciprocal relationship: positive motivation can lead to an increase in learner engagement; and an increase in learner engagement can lead to continued success/performance, in turn resulting in further increases in motivation (Afflerbach & Harrison, 2017). ...
Conference Paper
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Purpose-University of Nottingham Ningbo China (UNNC) was the first Sino-foreign higher education institution established in China. As a pioneering institution for innovation, UNNC aims to develop engaging pedagogy to stimulate and motivate students. One of these innovations is the virtual reality (VR) Design Movements (DM) experience developed by V-Room and the Faculty of Science and Engineering's Product Design and Manufacture (PDM) program. This pilot study explores facets of unique educational benefits brought by an initiative to develop an immersive VR (iVR) experience for the teaching and learning (T&L) of design history and its application in the PDM program. Design/methodology/approach-The current pilot study evaluates the instructional effectiveness of teaching scientific knowledge in the iVR context. 28 undergraduate PDM students from various year groups participated in the study. It triangulates data from questionnaires, tests, and observations, measuring affective-motivational factors crucial in VR learning experiences: these factors include motivation, engagement, and emotional states, and student performance. The questionnaires examine the participants' overall emotions, motivation and engagement towards iVR learning experiences and their usage in T&L, while the pretest and posttest of the iVR training compare knowledge increments development under the innovative learning context. Findings-Results show high levels of motivation and engagement throughout the pilot study, with participants indicating that they enjoyed, and were excited by, the use of iVR in educational contexts. Correlation analysis on affective-motivational ratings and learning experience showed positive correlations between the two. Paired-samples t-tests indicate significant knowledge gains in DM and the Bauhaus movement after the training. Originality/value/implications-The study contributes to the scholarly understanding of students' preference between traditional instruction and digital instruction, as well as the motivation and attitude towards the digital experiences and the use of iVR in T&L. Policy on the use and implementation of technology in the classroom could benefit from the findings; and higher education institutions involved in the design of iVR for learning purposes could likewise be informed. The key points are creative use of technology and embracing innovations such as immersive learning, gamification, and VR technology, to redefine T&L.
... For example, Loera et al. (2011) found that parental involvement in reading, such as reading to children or offering reading materials to their children, facilitates children's reading engagement. On the other hand, previous research has shown a positive association between children's learning engagement and academic achievement in children in grade 5 (Marks, 2000), in grades 6 to7 (Cheung & Pomerantz, 2012) and in grades 9 to11 (Sirin & Sirin, 2005). The authors explained that engaged children regularly attend courses, concentrate on learning, avoid disruptive behaviours and generally perform well in academics. ...
Article
Background: COVID-19 has infected over twenty million people across 200 countries. UNESCO claimed that more than 190 countries had implemented countrywide school closures, which resulted in preventing 1.6 billion students of their classroom learning opportunities. As children are unable to study in the classroom with teachers' supervision, the importance of parental engagement is amplified in children's learning at home. Aim: The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate how parental involvement contribute to children's academic achievement during school closure. Sample: Two hundred and twenty-nine primary school children and their parents. Method: Children's academic achievement before (T1) and after school closure (T3), parental involvement (T2) and children's learning engagement (T2) during school closure were measured. Results: After controlling for gender, age, grade and SES, children's learning engagement (T2) served as a full mediator of the association between parental involvement (T2) and children's academic achievement from T1 to T3. Moreover, parental psychological control (T2) moderated the association between parental involvement (T2) and children's learning engagement (T2). Specifically, the contribution of parental involvement to children's learning engagement became stronger for children whose parents had higher levels of psychological control. Higher Chinese parental psychological control did not always correlate to lower academic outcomes in the context of COVID-19. Conclusion: These findings highlight the central roles of parental involvement and children's learning engagement in children's academic achievement during school closure caused by COVID-19.
... Emotional engagement is mainly used in the field of research and learning. Marks (2000) believes that emotional engagement is a psychological state in which much energy and attention are spent to complete a learning task. Fredricks et al. (2004) define emotional engagement as "a person's emotional reaction when undertaking a specific task, " which ultimately includes "positive and negative reactions to teachers, classmates, scholars and schools, and is considered to establish contact with an institution and affect work Willingness. ...
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COVID-19 has caused significant damage globally, including tourism. This study adopts the quantitative research method, selects 588 samples from tourists watching short videos to investigate the antecedents and effects of parasocial interaction between tourists and short video tourism Vloggers, and analyses them with partial least squares. Based on parasocial relationship theory, this study investigates the antecedents of parasocial relationships between tourists and short video tourism Vloggers and their willingness to share short video tourism. Results show that the consistency of values, entertainment motivation, and emotional engagement positively impact the parasocial relationships between tourists and short video tourism Vloggers and affect the online sharing intention through the parasocial relationship. The consistency of values can directly affect sharing intention. As an intermediary variable, parasocial relationship positively impacts value congruence, entertainment motivation, emotional engagement, and sharing intention. This study introduces parasocial relationship into the research of tourism short video Vloggers, which enriches the literature. Furthermore, this introduction provides new marketing strategies and suggestions for the sustainable development of tourism.
... Caring in school leadership is emphasized by Louis et al.'s (2016) discussion of the nexus of caring school leaders and caring schools. Caring schools are those that foster a supportive and nurturing environment, especially for those students who have previously been disenfranchised from the educational process, and/or who come from disadvantaged home environments (Marks, 2000;Murphy & Tobin, 2011). Birch and Ladd (1997) note that, without agency of caring support from schools, vulnerable students are at risk for lower academic achievement. ...
... The study revelation is backed by the assertions of Fredricks, Blumenfeld and Paris (2004), where students with higher academic engagement are more likely to achieve higher credentials and have a better outcome on standardized tests. The current study finding debunked those of Marks (2000), National Research Council (2003 and Yazzie-Mintz (2007), which found that academic engagement among students in the high-schools and middle-schools is shown to decline, reaching their lowest high-school levels as they progress academically. These studies further indicated that academic engagement becomes reduced more among students who find themselves in low-performing and high-poverty schools. ...
... In addition, teaching methods by Mohd Yusuf (2000), Ahmad (1997), Sang andLee (1991), Sharifah Alwiah (1984) and Hassan (1981) is a systematic series of actions aimed at achieving the objectives of the lesson measures and a structured presentation. In fact, the appropriateness of teaching approaches is closely related to the type of student and the kind of teaching according to (Ahmad 1997;Marks 2000) is the following: the use of braille skills; visual impairment; the community commitment, and; the government's commitment. ...
Article
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Issues which are consist in learning disability context for the blind comprises several aspects such as; teachers did not teach the Quran by using the Quran in braille, have not mastered in Quran Braille code, have not basic learning on the Quran and alphabetical character. This article attempts to find out the issues and challenges of learning disabilities experienced by Muslim Blind Community in Malaysia. The study also aims to solve problems on learning disabilities among Muslim blind community in Malaysia by using braille approach. This study undertakes an analysis of people with learning disabilities based on issues and challenges as the main sources of reference by adopting the document analysis method. Therefore, this study used a qualitative method with a protocol of observation and analysis of several sources to get data and information. The outcome of this article suggests that the Malaysia government needs to make improvements in order to enhance the quality of education for people with learning disabilities and create a special education program for them. This paper clarifies that the methods and point solutions to the problems faced by this kind of people is considered as a new issue and supposed to be handled by government and private sector
... The academic data could reflect students' behavioral engagement, setting out in the students' interaction with the learning activities (Bujang et al., 2021;Macfayden and Dawson, 2010;Georgakopoulos et al., 2018;Georgakopoulos and Tsakirtzis, 2021;Zakopoulos et al., 2021;Zakopoulos, 2022;Anagnostopoulos et al., 2020;Alyahyan and Dustegor, 2020). The non-academic data could reflect demographic data such as gender and age, along with students 'emotional engagement (Marks, 2000). In our case, the data related to emotional engagement was reflected by students 'motivation, indicating students 'positive disposition towards the lectures and the entire learning process. ...
... Behavioral engagement includes effort, attention, and persistence while participating in the learning activities [21]. Emotional engagement includes enthusiasm, interest, and enjoyment [21,25]. Cognitive engagement refers to how students use sophisticated in contrast to superficial learning strategies [26]. ...
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This study investigates the validity of path models in which interpersonal motivation positively predicts behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement, and behavioral engagement positively predicts superior performance in collaborative learning in university classes. The path model was tested using structural equation modeling. The results of the analyses showed that weak positive paths from identified regulation to all three aspects of engagement were substantial. In addition, a weak positive path from intrinsic motivation was significant for emotional engagement. For performance, the weak positive path from behavioral engagement was statistically significant. Based on these results, the implications of the motivation theory and practice in higher education are discussed.
... The various motivational characteristics just defined and described (MAp, PAp, PAv, SSE, cognitive, and behavioral engagement) are not independent of each other; they are intertwined and interact with each other. For example, past studies have shown that MAp, SSE, behavioral and cognitive engagement in science tend to decrease as students mature (Dorfman & Fortus, 2019;Marks, 2000;Rice et al., 2013;Vedder-Weiss & Fortus, 2011). Lee et al. (2016) moreover found strong interactions between engagement and different goal orientations. ...
Article
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Students' motivation plays an important role in successful science learning. However, motivation is a complex construct. Theories of motivation suggests that students' motivation must be conceptualized as a moti-vational system with numerous components that interact in complex ways and influence metacognitive processes such as self-evaluation. This complexity is further increased because students' motivation and success in science learning influence each other as they develop over time. It is challenging to study the co-development of motivation and learning due to these complex interactions which can vary widely across individuals. Recently, person-centered approaches that capture students' motivational profiles, that is, the mul-tiplicity of motivational factors as they co-occur in students , have been successfully used in educational psychology to better understand the complex interplay between the co-development of students' motivation and learning. We employed a person-centered approach to study how the motivational profiles, constructed from goal-orientation, self-efficacy, and engagement data of N = 401 middle school students developed over the course of a 10-week energy unit and how that development was related to students' learning. We identified
... Thus, once someone has acquired a particular skill set, this can result in continuing self-improvement (Shernoff & Csikszentmihalyi, 2009;Shernoff et al., 2003). Moreover, flow has been linked to academic achievement and learning success in a number of studies (Csikszentmihalyi, 1997;Custodero, 2002;Egbert, 2003;Ghani, 1995;Guo & Ro, 2008;Joo et al., 2015;Kiili, 2005;Konradt et al., 2003;Konradt et al., 2001;Marks, 2000;Rea, 2000;Shernoff et al., 2003;Skadberg & Kimmel, 2004;Skinner et al., 1990;Webster et al., 1993) and even been conceptualized as an operationalization of student engagement (Mills & Fullagar, 2008;Shernoff & Csikszentmihalyi, 2009). ...
Article
The antecedents and outcomes of individual‐level flow are well documented in a large body of literature. However, flow does not only occur in isolation ‐ quite to the contrary, recent evidence suggests that social interaction can facilitate the experience of flow. Therefore, we propose a taxonomy, which distinguishes five different flow states according to two global factors: interactional synchrony and self‐other overlap. Solitary flow bears all characteristics developed by Csikszentmihalyi. Co‐active flow is facilitated or hampered by the presence of other people. Private interactive flow emerges on the grounds of a minimal unidirectional interaction with more passive others; only the active subject is in flow. In shared interactive flow, a fully synchronized activity between group members takes place and all group members are in flow. In group flow, all members reach a level of complete self‐other overlap with the group, which leads to a collective experience of flow on the group‐level. In addition to differences and commonalities of the different types of flow, suggestions for how to induce and study social flow are discussed.
... For instance, Kiili [35] developed a multimedia learning model based on the idea that students are more likely to experience learning flow and succeed in class if they are engaged in activities that require less mental resources. Alnamrouti et al. [36], Joo et al. [14], Köprü and Ayas [37], and Marks [38]all found that there is a positive relationship between learner engagement and academic achievement. Overall, it seems that flow, among other factors, may play a significant part in determining academic success. ...
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The current study sought to determine the flow level of students at Taif University’s College of Designs and Applied Arts and the disparities in average student grades based on gender, specialization, and academic level. The sample was drawn randomly from Taif University’s College of Designs and Applied Arts and included (51) male and (138) female students majoring in arts, graphic design, interior design, fashion design, and textiles. The flow scale was produced by Al-Ghamdi (2021). Overall, there is an average flow level among the sample members, with no statistically significant gender differences in flow in the first, second, and sixth dimensions, but there are disparities in flow in the third, fourth, and fifth dimensions. Aside from one group (interior design, graphic design) that favored interior design, there were no statistically significant changes in flow related to expertise. According to the data, there were no statistically significant differences in the flow due to the dimensions’ academic level variables (1st–6th). However, there were differences between the sample members in both dimensions (3rd–5th). Anxiety and tension, a lack of clarity of objectives, and dissatisfaction with the results were identified as the main reasons that impede the flow. Enrichment programs and material support were developed to boost student flow at Taif University’s College of Designs and Applied Arts.
... One issue that remains particularly unclear, however, is the extent to which the universal programs reviewed are delivered using techniques that promote student engagement. It has been consistently demonstrated that greater student engagement is associated with improved learning and program outcomes (Carini et al., 2006;Marks, 2000;Shernoff, 2013;Wang et al., 2020). As with other educational settings, student engagement may also influence the effectiveness of universal programs in the promotion of mental health and wellbeing. ...
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Differences in approaches used to deliver school-based mental health and wellbeing programs may be a key consideration for program effectiveness, yet this has not been considered in reviews and meta-analyses to date. Consistent with previous research, this systematic review of 47 studies found that wellbeing programs delivered in schools tended to show small effect sizes for mental health and wellbeing outcomes with effects often not sustained. The review considered the influence of various program factors on effectiveness, and consistent with previous findings, program-based factors like theoretical framework, program length, and session duration did not show reliable patterns for influencing effectiveness. In contrast, pedagogical factors aimed at increasing participant engagement (e.g., using student-centred and active learning approaches), appear more closely linked to improved mental health and wellbeing outcomes. This review has shown that universal programs can be effective in producing better mental health and wellbeing outcomes in secondary school settings when participant engagement is maximised.
... Also, students whose parents were involved in their academic journeys and collaborated with the school, had formal education were likely to persist to completion. These findings confirm the hypotheses of this study and are in line with those of previous research that found a child's age (Lewin 2009(Lewin , 2015Taylor et al. 2010), family income (Lewin 2015;Lincove 2015;Rugh 2000), level of participation at school (Fan and Williams 2010;Marks 2000), a positive school experience (World Health Organization 2003), parental involvement (Johnson and Descartes 2017;Hussain et al. 2010;Jones and White 2000;Mahuro and Hungi 2016;Park and Holloway 2017), parents' level of education (Abuya et al. 2017;Jones and White 2000) and quality of the school with supportive teaching (Hanushek, Lavy, and Hitomi 2008;Lloyd, Mensch, and Clark 2000;Nishimura and Yamano 2013) all contributed to students' persistence in completing their education. These findings are useful for educational leaders, policymakers and teachers working to improve students' persistence in the free universal education system, as well as researchers exploring the factors that contribute to students' persistence. ...
Article
Persistence to complete has emerged as a pressing issue facing free primary education (FPE) in Kenya. Only 58% of the students who enroll in FPE complete and this proportion drops as they advance to higher levels. Failure to complete primary school, let alone the higher levels of education is alarming. Besides funding, this study explores the features that contribute to students’ pathways to persistence. Using data from the African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), this study found the retention level to be 57%. The logistic analysis showed that parents’ level of education and student's age (i.e. 10–14 years) were over five times more likely to improve student persistent. Family socio-economic status, the level of engagement, positive school experience, parents’ involvement and collaboration with the school, and a high-quality school with supportive learning were also positively associated with academic persistence. The implications for practice and research are discussed below.
... 学习投入是学生在学校学习中所特有的投入行为,包括行为投入、情感投入以及认知投入三个维度 (Fredricks et al., 2004),是提高学生学业成就和教育质量的重要因素 (Connell et al., 1994;Marks, 2000 分代表"完全不符合",5 分代表"完全符合"。各个维度的 Cronbach's α 系数为 0.74~0.82。 ...
... Searching and matching related textual and pictorial information in split-attention examples requires learners to remember the location of the information, and by pointing the index finger to this information, working memory resources can be decreased because the finger pointing provides a stable marker in the environment that does not need to be kept active in working memory. Task engagement can also explain the process (Marks, 2000). Finger pointing may enhance the cognitive engagement in the process of learner-task interaction, which is helpful for constructing high-quality schemas and thus can enhance learning (Paas & Sweller, 2012). ...
Article
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Background: Self-management of cognitive load is a recent development in cognitive load theory. Finger pointing has been shown to be a potential self-management strategy to support learning from spatially separated, but mutually referring text and pictures (i.e., split-attention examples). Aims: The present study aimed to extend the prior research on the pointing strategy and investigated the effects of finger pointing on learning from online split-attention examples. Moreover, we examined an alternative pointing strategy using the computer mouse, and a combination of finger pointing and computer-mouse pointing. Sample: One-hundred and forty-five university students participated in the present study. Method: All participants studied an online split-attention example about the human nervous system and were randomly allocated to one of four conditions: (1) pointing with the index finger, (2) pointing with the computer mouse, (3) pointing with the index finger and the computer mouse and (4) no pointing. Results: Results confirmed our main hypothesis, indicating that finger pointing led to higher retention performance than no pointing. However, the mouse pointing strategy and the combined finger and mouse pointing strategy did not show supportive effects. Conclusions: Finger pointing can be used as a simple and convenient self-management strategy in online learning environments. Mouse pointing may not be as effective as finger pointing.
... The concept of engagement is one that is familiar to many educators. Teacher engagement focuses on teaching, with higher teacher engagement being linked to higher teacher achievement (Marks, 2000). Actually, academicians' work engagement is seldom studied, but the purpose for researching it is similar since higher level of engagement among employees, has been illustrated in many sectors to be connected with greater employee effort motivation, productivity and higher employee retention (Hakanen et al., 2006). ...
Article
The present study is designed to propose a framework for the implementation of work engagement among academicians in the higher education institutions in HeNan province of China. Its aim is to motivate academicians serving higher education institutions to improve their work engagement, which can facilitate the development of university. The sample size for the study consists of 300 academicians and using SPSS software as an analysis tool to test the hypothesis, the constructed model has better stability. The proposed motivational factors are career development; occupational stress; work-life balance, and work-related well-being. Academicians’ loyalty is also included as mediating variable. The researcher has applied cross-sectional survey research to validate the framework. It is found that three factors (career development, occupational stress, work-related well-being) influenced work engagement significantly. On the other hand, academicians’ loyalty is influenced by the four factors. However, academicians’ loyalty did function significantly as mediating variable. It is recommended that management should provide great career development, reduce occupational stress and increase work-related well-being as important motivating factors for both academicians’ loyalty and work engagement. Thus, this paper contributes with the literature review for theories and future research directions for achieving a more profound understanding of the importance of academicians’ work engagement.
... Student engagement involves concepts like active participation during the learning process, taking responsibility, attention, efforts made to achieve the intended outcomes, the time spent on tasks and participation in in-class and out-of-class activities (Gunuc, 2013;Marks, 2000;Hu & Kuh, 2001;Kuh, 2009). Astin (1984999), using the concept of student's involvement, defines engagement as the physical and psychological energy that the students spend on educational activities. ...
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This study aims at examining the relationships between technology integration, campus facilities, and student engagement at 26 state universities in Turkey. In the study, the quantitative method was employed, specifically the correlational research method. The research sample involved 5,534 female students (71.21%) and 2237 (28.79%) male students, amounting to 7771 participants in total. The data of this study were collected by means of Student Engagement Scale, Student Perception Scale for Faculty Members’ Technology Integration Efficacy, and Campus Climate Checklist. In addition, Pearson correlation analysis was conducted on the collected data. The results revealed that in every university, there was a positive relationship between student engagement and the students’ scores in regards to benefits from the campus facilities. Another important result was that the positive relationship between student engagement and the students’ perceptions regarding technology integration efficacies of the faculty members was proven for all universities involved in the study.
Thesis
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This dissertation addresses measuring institutional rigor through detailed classroom observations, graduation rates that lead to college graduation in Kentucky
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The aim of this study is to examine the school burnout factors that affect the level of school attachment of secondary school students. The research was carried out with a total of 326 secondary school students studying in the eighth grade in a secondary school in a province of the Central Anatolia Region. In the research, "School Attachment Scale for Children and Adolescents" developed by Savi (2011) to measure students' school attachment levels, and "Primary Education II. “School Burnout Scale for Level 1 Students” was used. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine school burnout as the level of school attachment. SPSS was used in the analysis of the research data. As a result of the research, it was determined that school burnout factors are important factors that predict school attachment. Suggestions for different stakeholders were developed in line with the findings obtained from the research.
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As interest in creativity explodes, it has become more complicated to decide how to best nurture creativity in our schools. There are the controversial Common Core Standards in many states. Meanwhile, the classroom has become increasingly digital; it is easier to access information, communicate ideas, and learn from people across the world. Many countries now include cultivating creativity as a national educational policy recommendation, yet there is still debate over best practices. Indeed, many well-intentioned educators may institute programs that may not reach the desired outcome. The notion that schools 'kill creativity' has become a widespread social meme. We view such beliefs as both hyperbolic and problematic: they allow us to recognize there is a problem but not solve it. In this book, a wide array of international experts addresses these issues, discussing theories and research that focus on how to nurture creativity in K-12 and college-level classrooms.
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This study therefore assessed the effect of digital mathematical games on students' engagement in number bases in Lagos, Nigeria. The study employed quasi experimental pre-test, post test research design with experimental and control groups. The respondents comprised of 36 Basic 8 students in Lagos state, Nigeria. The purposive sampling technique was adopted to select the schools which were used for this study based on the fact that school teachers were ready to cooperate with the researcher and there is availability of computers that aided the study. The students' engagement was measured (before and after treatment) using a student engagement scale in mathematics, whose reliability index was derived using Cronbach Alpha and found to be 0.779. A total of 36 Basic 8 students (20 in the experimental group and 16 in the control group) from two (2) private secondary schools in Lagos, Nigeria participated in the study. A pre achievement test was administered to both groups in order to know their entry knowledge in the subject matter (Number Bases). Both groups were thereafter taught number bases using the two separate approaches for the two groups. The data accruing from the study was subjected to statistical data analysis using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0. Mean, standard deviation and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses. The result showed a non-significant effect of digital games on students' engagement in Number Bases. Interestingly the control group was found to be better engaged than their counterparts in the experimental group. It was recommended that further studies exploring the effects of various digital games on students' engagement in perceived difficult topics be undertaken.
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