Pricing policy for tourism in protected areas: Lessons from Komodo National Park, Indonesia

ArticleinConservation Biology 15(1):218-227 · January 2001with 214 Reads 
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Abstract
Protected areas are under increasing pressure to provide economic justification for their existence, particularly in developing countries where demand for land and natural resources is high. Nature-based tourism offers a mechanism to generate substantial benefits front protected areas for both governments and local communities, and ecotourism is increasingly promoted as a sustainable use of protected areas. The extent to which ecotourism offsets the costs of a protected area has rarely been examined. We used financial data from Komodo National Park, Indonesia, and a willingness-to-pay questionnaire of independent visitors to (1) examine the financial contribution of tourism in offsetting the costs of tourism and wider management and (2) assess the effect of hypothetical fee increases on park revenues, visitation patterns, and local economies. Although only 6.9% of park management costs were recovered, visitors were willing to pay over 10 times the current entrance fee, indicating a substantial potential for increased revenue. The potential negative effect of large fee increases on visitor numbers and the resultant effect on local economic benefits from tourism may limit the extent to which greater financial benefits from Komodo National Park (KNP) can be realized. Our results suggest that a moderate, tiered increase in entrance fees is most appropriate, and that partial revenue retention by KNP would help demonstrate the conservation value of tourism to both visitors and managers and has the potential to increase visitors' willingness to pay.

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  • ... Approaches to establishing user fees in order to finance the management of PAs have been extensively documented. Perhaps one of the most extensively used approaches to researching entrance fees is contingent valuation approaches with willingness-to-pay (WTP) surveys (e.g.Asafu-Adjaye & Tapsuwan 2008;Baral, Stern & Bhattarai 2008;Barnes, Schier & Van Rooy 1997;Bruner et al. 2015;Greiner & Rolfe 2004;Kahn 2009;Kibira 2014;Mmopwlwa, Kgathi & Molefhe 2007;Moran 1994;Reyisdottir, Song & Agrusa 2008;Richer & Christensen 1999;Schultz, Pinazzo & Cifuentes 1998;Thur 2010;Walpole, Goodwin & Ward, 2001;Wang & Jia 2012). Other approaches to establishing recreational value and fees include the Travel Cost Method (e.g.Chen et al 2004;Flemming & Cook 2008;Herath & Kennedy 2004;Turpie & Joubert 2001) and price differentiation (e.g.Chase et al. 1998;Krug, Suich & Haimbodi 2002). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    User fees charged by Tanzania’s Game Reserves (GR) and Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) have not changed since 2008. Although previous research has been done on visitors’ willingness-to-pay to enter national parks in Tanzania, none has been conducted on GRs and WMAs. This article assesses the entrance fees in GRs and WMAs, by comparing them with equivalent fees charged in Tanzania (at national parks and the Ngorongoro Crater) and also with regional protected areas in Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe. Based on 28 semi-structured interviews with key stakeholder institutions working on tourism and conservation and more than 50 online survey responses from Tanzanian tourism operators, the research reviews local opinion and issues relating to adjusting current entrance fees. The article considers that while one objective for generating revenue from entrance fees is for conservation management, it is difficult to establish appropriate fees where there are gaps in knowledge about existing levels of visitation, tourism revenue and associated management costs. Conservation implications: This article has implications for protected area management practices, as it provides information on processes by which managers can review and revise entrance fee values.
  • ... It can also help recover the cost associated with establishing and managing parks, as well as compensate for the opportunity costs associated with preserving and protecting sites (Buckley, 2003). Modifications to the fee structure can also help avoid loss of revenue, prevent underproduction of park services, address the relatively high overhead cost associated with charging no fee or too low a fee (Walpole, Goodwin, & Ward, 2001;Whitelaw, King, & Tolkach, 2014). This is valuable especially when there are competing needs, including development projects, for limited funds available to decision makers and park managers (Adams et al., 2008;Baral, Stern, & Bhattarai, 2008). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Policymakers and recreation site managers use changes in fee structure, either introducing park entrance fees or increasing existing ones, to generate revenues, improve services, and reduce damages associated with over-use. Increase in park usage fee, however, can make the park inaccessible to certain segments of tourists. Understanding park users' response to changes in fees and its implication on park use equity is, thus, important to achieving a park's full potential in a socially and environmentally responsible way. This information is crucial especially for developing countries, where the issue has received relatively less attention and national park systems are chronically underfunded. This paper contributes to the literature on park access fees by: empirically assessing park use equity between and among international and national tourists visiting Nyungwe National Park, Rwanda, and; developing an approach for determining predictors and mean willingness to pay values for park entrance. Results of our survey-based approach show a positive willingness to pay values for park entrance and fee increases. Our results also show that it is possible to raise revenue without exacerbating existing park use differences.
  • ... Notably, tourism supported 277 million jobs in 2014, which is 1 in 11 of the world's total jobs (World Travel and Tourism Council [WTTC], 2015). However, there is concern of the effectiveness of using tourism to deliver economic development and conservation objectives (Goodwin & Santilli, 2009;Shibia, 2010;Walpole, Goodwin, & Ward, 2001). ...
    Article
    A prerequisite for the sustainability of protected areas in Africa is the meaningful inclusion of local populations in conservation and tourism. This has been demonstrated in numerous destinations where communities receive benefits from tourism in terrestrial protected areas, they are more inclined to view it positively and conserve natural resources. This paper presents a review of revenue-sharing literature, and also an analysis of the evidence of quantified benefits accrued by local communities in Africa through institutional arrangements to share revenue or finance development projects by (1) protected areas, and (2) tourism enterprises. The review highlights the challenges of revenue sharing as well as four key components of successful revenue-sharing systems: (1) economic benefits must be clearly identified and communicated, (2) benefits are appropriate to the scale of threats to biodiversity, (3) involvement of communities in decision-making on the structure and process of the distribution system, and also how the revenues are used and (4) sufficient regulatory and institutional support is necessary to develop clear objectives, aims, goals and responsibilities. This paper constitutes the first multi-country, multi-scheme analysis of revenue sharing in terrestrial African protected areas.
  • ... Implementing a similar fee to residents would likely result in more social conflict with NPs' managers and should, in case of interest, be tackled with care and adequate local participation. An option to favour residents over visitors and compensate them for restrictions on land use would be either excluding them from the fee or having a discount rate for their access to the NP (Walpole et al. 2001;Nyaupane et al.2009;Atmodjo et al. 2017). In some countries, only foreign visitors must pay to access PAs (Lindberg 2001). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Effective protected area (PA) conservation relies heavily on positive social perception, attitude and values, especially by the stakeholders most affected by PA regulations. Random samples of residents around (n = 401) and quota samples of visitors to (n = 542) two emblematic, environmentally similar National Parks (NPs) in Spain: Ordesa y Monte Perdido NP (Ordesa NP) and Sierra de Guadarrama NP (Guadarrama NP) were surveyed on their attitudes, perceptions and values using structured questionnaires. The results show similarities and differences between stakeholder groups and NPs. Most differences can be explained by the different geographic, historical and socioeconomic contexts. Residents near Guadarrama NP visited it less frequently, whereas non-residents visited the NP more frequently than Ordesa NP. Residents’ and visitors’ perception on the conservation state was better for Ordesa NP than for Guadarrama NP. The main perceived threats by both groups were wildfires, massive visitation and insufficient environmental awareness. Local participation in management was deemed improvable in both NPs. Stated importance on both NPs was similarly high for both stakeholder groups. Half of residents and over two-thirds of visitors to both NPs were willing to pay an entrance fee. A daily fee of 3 € per person would be acceptable to most. Willingness to pay (WTP) was negatively correlated with ‘frequency of visits’ in Guadarrama NP. WTP increased substantially with measures that ensure equity, transparency and accountability. These results present PA managers with updated key stakeholders’ attitudes and perceptions, and provide a feasible alternative to regulate massive visitation and enhance financial sustainability of Spanish NPs.
  • ... Notably, tourism supported 277 million jobs in 2014, which is 1 in 11 of the world's total jobs (World Travel and Tourism Council [WTTC], 2015). However, there is concern of the effectiveness of using tourism to deliver economic development and conservation objectives (Goodwin & Santilli, 2009;Shibia, 2010;Walpole, Goodwin, & Ward, 2001). ...
  • ... Approaches to establishing user fees in order to finance the management of PAs have been extensively documented. Perhaps one of the most extensively used approaches to researching entrance fees is contingent valuation approaches with willingness-to-pay (WTP) surveys (e.g.Asafu-Adjaye & Tapsuwan 2008;Baral, Stern & Bhattarai 2008;Barnes, Schier & Van Rooy 1997;Bruner et al. 2015;Greiner & Rolfe 2004;Kahn 2009;Kibira 2014;Mmopwlwa, Kgathi & Molefhe 2007;Moran 1994;Reyisdottir, Song & Agrusa 2008;Richer & Christensen 1999;Schultz, Pinazzo & Cifuentes 1998;Thur 2010;Walpole, Goodwin & Ward, 2001;Wang & Jia 2012). Other approaches to establishing recreational value and fees include the Travel Cost Method (e.g.Chen et al 2004;Flemming & Cook 2008;Herath & Kennedy 2004;Turpie & Joubert 2001) and price differentiation (e.g.Chase et al. 1998;Krug, Suich & Haimbodi 2002). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    User fees charged by Tanzania’s Game Reserves (GR) and Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) have not changed since 2008. Although previous research has been done on visitors’ willingness-to-pay to enter national parks in Tanzania, none has been conducted on GRs and WMAs. This article assesses the entrance fees in GRs and WMAs, by comparing them with equivalent fees charged in Tanzania (at national parks and the Ngorongoro Crater) and also with regional protected areas in Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe. Based on 28 semi-structured interviews with key stakeholder institutions working on tourism and conservation and more than 50 online survey responses from Tanzanian tourism operators, the research reviews local opinion and issues relating to adjusting current entrance fees. The article considers that while one objective for generating revenue from entrance fees is for conservation management, it is dif cult to establish appropriate fees where there are gaps in knowledge about existing levels of visitation, tourism revenue and associated management costs. Conservation implications: This article has implications for protected area management practices, as it provides information on processes by which managers can review and revise entrance fee values.
  • ... Emptaz-Collomb (2009), Ahebwa, van der Duim andSandbrook (2011) andSnyman (2014), conclude that benefiting communities are more inclined to view tourism and protected areas positively and to contribute to the conservation of natural resources. However, a study by Walpole et al. (2001) discusses how local populations that are not receiving direct benefits from tourism still have positive attitudes towards protected areas and tourism. Their perceptions and beliefs of receiving the benefits are motivating factors that instil these positive attitudes, especially based on seeing other communities receiving benefits (Walpole et al. 2001). ...
    Conference Paper
    Private game reserves contribute significantly to biodiversity conservation in South Africa. These private game reserves fund their operations predominantly through tourism activities. Private game reserves promote positive support from surrounding communities through various community development projects and benefit-sharing interventions. Rural development projects provide communities with opportunities that add value and quality to their everyday livelihoods. The development projects also bring improved infrastructure and service delivery to the local area and in some cases collaboration with other non-government and government institutes that further improves the living conditions of the community involved. In the development of Phinda Private Game Reserve in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, community development projects with the local communities have been implemented. In the past members of the community have been relocated in order to expand the game reserve. Community development projects have been implemented as a form of compensation and goodwill as part of these voluntary resettlements. However, it has been noticed that these development projects come with consequences affecting the community itself, the environment and the original stakeholders running the development projects. The increase in the population numbers in the area and the associated deterioration of the environment have resulted in a reduction in the availability of natural resources for communities to utilise. Rural communities adjacent to the protected areas have become overcrowded, resulting in negative social and health related issues. The original reason for the commencement of the community projects has become overwhelmed by increases in the size of and demands made by communities.
  • ... Our study differs from previous ones (e.g. Richer and Christensen, 1999;Dharmaratne et al., 2000;Walpole et al., 2001;Lee and Han, 2002;Baral et al., 2008;Reynisdottir et al., 2008) in two main points. First, it captures potential uncertainty in WTP responses by giving respondents the opportunity to report their values as a point estimate or an interval. ...
    Article
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    Establishment of protected areas (PAs) is a key point in national and international biodiversity conservation strategies. Economic theory suggests that their implementation is socially desirable if the benefit-cost ratio is at least equal to one. However, several PAs that have passed the cost-benefit analysis test, have failed to be functional due to financing difficulties. Successful implementation of PAs requires the adoption of adequate funding mechanisms likely to recover (even in part) the expected benefits. Entrance fees may help to capture the recreational benefits. Using the contingent valuation method, this paper explores the possibility of generating revenue for future NRs in the Gulf of Morbihan (France) through imposing tourist entrance fees. Different pricing systems (comparative rate pricing, unitary pricing and differential pricing) are analysed under three potential pricing purposes: (1) maximizing revenue; (2) prioritizing equity; (3) both generating "sufficient" revenue and promoting equity. The results show that the differential pricing is the most appropriate choice. However, the fall in the demand remains relatively high under this pricing system. This might cause reduction in revenue for tourism businesses related to the NRs. Options to mitigate this impact are suggested. Keywords: Contingent valuation; Nature-based tourism; Entrance fee; Protected Area Finance Full text: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1UbIi3Hb~073ZN
  • ... The main aim of ecotourism is to offer an alternative source of income to the natives and indirectly give them new hope to survive. Simultaneously, the natives are accessible to the outside world through the building of roads, and other types of amenities that is impossible and unaffordable to them (McAlpin, 2007;Walpole, Goodwin & Ward, 2001). This is a new avenue for the natives to get better education for themselves and their children, and indirectly, exposes them to the outside world. ...
    Conference Paper
    Full-text available
    ABSTRACT Ecotourism is an industry that is gaining popularity in 1990s, and until now to find the best model thatis suitable for this industry and business sustainability is yet to be determined. Like it or not, it israther difficult to sustain the environment, flora and fauna, and cultures, while trying to promoteecotourism. As such, this paper discusses ecotourism practices by a few countries and its implicationtowards social, economic and environmental sustainability. Recommendations are forwarded tosuggest some ways business sustainability, in relation to ecotourism, could be fostered viapreservation of cultures, environments, and economic activities of the natives that are affected byecotourism industry whether it is in Malaysia, Brunei and other countries.
  • ... In general, studies show that visitors are more than willing to pay if they are aware that all their contribution/money will be invested in conservation, improving park facilities and the quality of services. This is exemplified in the research of Walpole et al. (2001). They conducted a survey at the Komodo National Park, Indonesia, to examine the effect of hypothetical rise in the entrance fee on visitation and revenue generation. ...
    Article
    Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) is one of the approaches that have helped to assign dollar values to non-use values for non-market goods. Most of ecotourism areas such as national parks exist as public facilities. Some national parks have implemented charges such as entrance permit to visitors but it still creates problems especially for the pricing system thus related to efficient pricing policy and the sustainability of ecotourism resources. The introduction of efficient pricing policy for the utilization of parks should be given special attention, especially in developing countries. This study used the CVM, with Willingness to Pay (WTP) as the elicitation method to measure non-use value for environmental resources in Penang National Park. A total of 509 respondents completed the survey. The finding of this study discovers that visitors are willing to pay for the conservation fee. Recently, there is no charge for conservation fee. Although using WTP for economic valuation cannot provide the exact answers on the valuation of these natural resources, it can still provide a guideline on pricing strategy and postulate extra information for park management decisions, especially on park pricing.
  • ... WTP studies assess the willingness and ability of the users of products and services to pay optimally for those products / services that are being enjoyed (Wedgwood and Sansom, 2003). WTP can be used to determine the appropriate price for a product / service, and such studies have been widely implemented to determine appropriate TUF price structures in numerous protected areas around the world, including: Komodo National Park in Indonesia (Walpole et al., 2001), St. Eustatius Marine Park in the Netherlands (Riley et al., 2006), Marine Sanctuaries in the Philippines (Arin and Kramer, 2002), and the Skaftafell National Park in Iceland (Reynisdottir et al., 2008). Data is collected by using a questionnaire and the study also unearths demographic and associated information about the target audiences that is important when designing any TUF system. ...
    Technical Report
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    Nusa Penida Marine Protected Area (MPA) is situated ~20 miles (32 km) off the South-East coast of Bali island. It was established as an MPA in 2010 and covers an area of 20,057 hectares, managed under the District Government of Klungkung, Bali, Indonesia. The MPA is host to highly diverse coral ecosystems (with 296 species of coral and 576 species of reef fish, including five species previously unknown to science), and is home to marine megafauna, including the mola mola (ocean sunfish) and manta rays. As a popular tourism destination the MPA receives approximately 200,000 visitors annually. The work to design and develop the MPA began in 2008, and involved a wide range of governmental and non-governmental agencies, community representatives and wider stakeholders. Through the process of design and development numerous step-wise activities were undertaken – from preliminary community consultation, to participatory zoning design, the development of a management plan, the establishment of a management unit, right through to the design of a sustainable financing mechanism. Along the way numerous lessons learned, insights and experiences were gained. Most notably these included: The critical role of the community (at all stages of MPA design, development and management); the importance of utilizing both science and traditional knowledge & practices to support MPA development; the challenges and opportunities of implementing an integrated design for livelihoods in the development of the MPA; the challenges tackled in following step-wise approaches to government policy processes; and the importance of (and mechanisms for) securing sustainable financing long-term. This report explores the experiences of the past six years of MPA development and establishment, the successes, the challenges, the paths to achievement and the obstacles tackled along the way. It provides a thorough and insightful look at the practicalities of MPA establishment in Indonesia, from an onground perspective, and shares the lessons learned in a transparent and open fashion, in support of MPA practitioners across the region who are travelling similar paths.
  • ... Pour accroître immédiatement la capacité de charge de l'environnement, une alimentation supplémentaire en grains a été utilisée avec succès pour ces animaux pendant un certain nombre d'années (Jones 2004). Les varans de Komodo ont été nourris pour accroître les revenus du tourisme à Flores pendant un certain nombre d'années mais aucune donnée ne montre l'effet de cette alimentation supplémentaire sur la capacité de charge et sur les populations (Walpole et al. 2001). ...
  • ... ANZECC, 2000;Herath, 2000;Driml and Common, 1995;Scoccimarro, 1992). This is especially so when 'protected areas are under increasing pressure to provide economic justification for their existence' (Walpole et al., 2001) and to 'reduce dependency on government funds' (Azahari, 2001). Furthermore, public protests have arisen about the introduction of entry fees to some national parks (cf. ...
  • ... Thus, discounts should be applied to low-income visitors upon appropriate certification. Dual-pricing policies charging foreign visitors higher than local ones are an equitable and socially acceptable option in developing countries (Walpole et al., 2001). ...
    Chapter
    Full-text available
    In situ conservation strategies failed by protecting only some areas on diverse criteria, and leaving the rest of the territory without any form of development control or regulation. We should change (have changed, long ago) our way of thinking and practicing conservation. Conservation should be global, literally. I mean that the entire Biosphere should be protected and, where necessary, appropriately managed, leaving only a number of places of extraordinary social and economic value out of protection for intensive development and human activities, such as mines, cities, transportation corridors, some croplands and plantations.
  • ... Protected areas, including private conservancies, are important venues for conserving biodiversity, but most are chronically underfunded (Dlamini & Masuku, 2013;Krug, 2001). Tourism and, in particular, ecotourism are often identified as revenue sources to support these natural areas (Walpole, Goodwin, & Ward, 2001). Specifically, the use of travellers' philanthropy programmes has been shown to increase funding for conservation efforts (Western, 2011); however, there is a lack of understanding about the strength of and interactions between specific psychological factors that motivate tourists to financially donate to a particular cause or programme. ...
    Article
    Parks and protected areas are often charged with addressing pressing conservation issues, but frequently face financial constraints. Travellers philanthropy is recognised as one form of ecotourism that can increase funding for conservation efforts, such as biodiversity preservation, within protected areas. While recent research has enumerated various factors that influence on-site donations in travellers philanthropy programmes, the strength of and relationships between these factors (e.g. messaging, trust, and caring) in influencing donation behaviour have not been studied. This exploratory mixed-methods study investigated factors influencing tourists motivations to donate to travellers philanthropy programmes, specifically at Sweetwater Chimpanzee Sanctuary in Kenya. Researchers examined the relationships between on-site messaging, trust in an organisation, feelings of caring for chimpanzees, on-site donation behaviour, and intentions to donate in the future. Results indicate that not all factors have equal influence on donation behaviour, and certain factors led to visitors future donation intentions, as opposed to actual on-site donations. These findings have implications for park and sanctuary managers in diverse settings seeking to implement and assess travellers philanthropy programmes, as well as design effective fundraising and outreach efforts.
  • ... WTP juga dapat digunakan untuk menentukan harga dari suatu produk/jasa. Survei WTP telah banyak dilaksanakan untuk menentukan biaya masuk kawasan di kawasan ekowisata; seperti di Taman Nasional Komodo, Indonesia (Walpole et al., 2001), Taman Laut St. Eustatius, Belanda (Riley et al., 2006), Marine Sanctuary di Filipina (Arin dan Kramer, 2002), air terjun Gullfoss dan Taman Nasional Skaftafell, Islandia (Reynisdottir et al., 2008). ...
    Technical Report
    Full-text available
    Keindahan alam di dan bawah laut Kawasan Konservasi Perairan (KKP) telah menarik perhatian ribuan turis dari dalam dan luar negeri. Seiring dengan perkembangan pariwisata di KKP Nusa Penida, sektor pariwisata dapat menjadi sumber pemasukan yang berkelanjutan karena sifatnya yang tidak ekstraktif. Penetapan biaya masuk terhadap para turis dapat menambah pemasukan KKP Nusa Penida yang dapat digunakan untuk peningkatan kegiatan konservasi laut dan infrastruktur desa. Survei Willingness to Pay (WTP) diselenggarakan untuk mengetahui kerelaan dan keinginan para turis untuk membantu pendanaan pengelolan KKP Nusa Penida. Hasil survei menunjukkan 83% turis bersedia untuk membayar biaya masuk. Adapun biaya masuk yang diinginkan berkisar antara Rp. 53,000/ 5,3 US$ ± Rp. 35,000/3,5 US$ per kedatangan dan Rp. 95,000/9,5 US$ ± Rp. 58,000/5,8 US$ per tahun. Walaupun demikian, penetapan biaya masuk masih menimbulkan banyak pro dan kontra. Studi lebih lanjut masih diperlukan untuk menetapkan besarnya biaya masuk yang sesuai, mekanisme penarikannya, dan pembentukan badan pengelola dana yang dapt dipercaya oleh masyarakat setempat dan para turis.
  • ... In relative terms (the share of tourists from a given district relative to the share of inhabitants of a given district on the total population of the Czech Republic), the two Sumava districts (Klatovy, Prachatice) and the nearby Plzen-město district were prevailing. The share of foreign visitors in some well-known and even less-known national parks of the world is often higher -31% in case of Kruger NP in South Africa (TURPIE & JOUBERT 2001), 93% in case of NP Komodo in Indonesia (WALPOLE et al. 2001), 30% in NP Keoladeo in India (GOODWIN et al. 1998), etc. A comparison of the national make-up of foreign visitors of the Sumava NP and the Czech Republic shows a higher proportion of Germans in Sumava NP (71% of foreigners compared to 28% nationwide). ...
  • ... In recent years, protected areas have become some of the most popular tourist destinations (Walpole & Goodwin 2001). Tourist activities in these areas are different from the other types of tourism in natural areas. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Protected areas have great tourism potential thanks to their natural and cultural richness. For this reason, areas worldwide that are protected at various levels draw interest, and some have been opened to tourism. In this study, I examine the natural and social tourism potentials of Tunca Valley Natural Park in Turkey (established in 2013) and the types of tourist activities that could be developed there. The park attracts interest both for its natural features (rivers, glacial lakes, flora and fauna) as well as for its traditional settlements and culture. Various tourist activities, including physical activities, camping, wildlife observation and cultural tourism, could be developed within an integrated management plan in line with the principles of sustainable tourism.
  • ... There are many works that study the impact of visitors in tourist sites with protection interests such as Geoparks and other geological sites [19][20][21][22], museums [18] and other cultural and archaeological sites [16,17,23,24]. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    The characterization of the microclimatic conditions is fundamental for the preventive conservation of archaeological sites. In this context, the identification of the factors that influence the thermo-hygrometric equilibrium is key to determine the causes of cultural heritage deterioration. In this work, a characterization of the thermo-hygrometric conditions of Casa di Diana (Ostia Antica, Italy) is carried out analyzing the data of temperature and relative humidity recorded by a system of sensors with high monitoring frequency. Sensors are installed in parallel, calibrated and synchronized with a microcontroller. A data set of 793,620 data, arranged in a matrix with 66,135 rows and 12 columns, was used. Furthermore, the influence of human impact (visitors) is evaluated through a multiple linear regression model and a logistic regression model. The visitors do not affect the environmental humidity as it is very high and constant all the year. The results show a significant influence of the visitors in the upset of the thermal balance. When a tourist guide takes place, the probability that the hourly temperature variation reaches values higher than its monthly average is 10.64 times higher than it remains equal or less to its monthly average. The analysis of the regression residuals shows the influence of outdoor climatic variables in the thermal balance, such as solar radiation or ventilation.
  • ... Thus, the effects of hypothetical bias decrease when the respondent is familiar with the good in question (Mitchell and Carson, 1989). User fees are a more tangible and realistic market scenario than, for example, environmental quality (Walpole et al. 2001) and thus they helped to overcome (i) difficulties in structuring a believable scenario and (ii) the challenges of hypothetical bias. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Marine and coastal ecosystems face widespread degradation largely because market failure hides the economic value of the goods and services they provide. Marine protected areas (MPAs) can serve as structures that ensure the continued functioning of marine and coastal ecosystem goods and services. Yet, to be effective and sustainable, MPAs must be able to prove their economic worth and generate revenue. User-fee systems are used commonly to partially finance multi-use MPAs. This study applies contingent valuation as a method of economic valuation within an MPA in southern Mozambique. Using a payment card and questionnaire from November 2012 to April 2013, this study determined the willingness to pay (WTP) of three user groups for access to the Ponta do Ouro Partial Marine Reserve. The study also investigated the potential for the reserve to increase revenues for conservation through the implementation of a user fee for marine-based activities. Probit and ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions were used to determine the effects of various independent variables on WTP. The OLS model found income, African residency and environmental awareness to be significant factors that influenced visitors' WTP for access to the reserve. The mean WTP was R 43.75 (South African rands) per person per day. Using data supplied by the reserve management, conservative estimated annual revenues based on the implementation of this fee amount ranged between R 1.46 million and R 3.3 million.
  • ... Ecotourism from such areas provides a platform to generate substantial benefits for both governments and the local communities. The extent to which nature-based tourism or ecotourism offsets the costs of a PA has been examined in very few cases (Walpole et al., 2000). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    India is one of the 17 mega biodiverse countries, occupying only 2.5 % of the world’s geographical area and 1.8 % of the its forest area but supporting 16 % of the world’s human population and 17 % of its livestock population. Biotic pressure on the country’s protected areas is tremendous and managers of these areas face an uphill task in balancing divergent needs of different stakeholders of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. The job of managing such areas is highly challenging because of the many difficult issues such as human–wildlife conflicts, encroachments, overgrazing, tourists’ pressure (including pilgrimages into the forests), poaching, and an ever–increasing demand for diversion of protected areasfor development purposes. In the present article we discuss some of these issues with reference to India and emphasise the danger of losing ecosystem services (mostly of an intangible or regulating kind of nature) emanating out of these protected areas.
  • ... Protected areas, however, normally charge the users very less and thus, are not able to capture most of the value placed by the visitors (Walpole, Goodwin & Ward, 2001). In reality, the visitors hold high consumer surplus which is evident from many studies that show considerably high willingness to pay of visitors. ...
    Conference Paper
    Full-text available
    Measuring peoples’ WTP is a common approach for economic valuation of public goods or environmental amenities such as national parks. Such valuation helps in environmental accounting and assessment of costs and benefits for proper allocation of resources. It also assists in policy formulation and pricing decisions. This paper addresses the issue of willingness to pay (WTP) of visitors for access to Kaziranga National Park. The primary aim of the study was to examine the relationship of visitors’ profile and visit characteristics with their WTP for higher admission fees at the park. An attempt has been made to understand whether visitors’ profile or characteristics have any bearing on their WTP decision or whether different visitors contrast in their willingness to pay for the national park. Data were gathered through a contingent valuation survey of adult visitors to the park. A questionnaire was developed for the purpose and administered on 124 respondents. Analysis was done in the SPSS package using correlation, ANOVA and independent sample t-test. The study observed significant differences among certain classes of visitors in terms of their WTP and the determining variables.
  • ... An effective solution is to generate revenues by way of charging user fees from the visitors (Nuva et al. 2009). However, due to nominal visitation charges in most parks, the direct revenue generated from visitors are often not sufficient to cover the management expenses (Wells 1997;Walpole, Goodwin & Ward 2001;Eagles 2002). Also, financial assistance from government and other external sources are mostly inadequate, irregular and seldom based on careful assessment of the benefits derived from such resources (Walpole et al. 2001;Eagles 2002). ...
    Conference Paper
    This paper is based on a contingent valuation face to face survey of 125 visitors to Kaziranga National Park (KNP). The primary aim of this study is to explore and understand peoples' willingness to pay (WTP) for higher entry fee in national parks. About 79% of the respondents showed willingness to pay more to visit KNP. The foreign visitors expressed comparatively high WTP with mean value of Rs. 500 whereas the mean WTP of the domestic visitors were only Rs. 217. Considering this, the national park can generate substantial additional revenue for the state by increasing the current fee levels to tap the higher WTP of visitors. Besides origin and income, factors where significant differences were observed among the categories of visitors and their maximum WTP amount were duration of stay, visit satisfaction, peoples' awareness about KNP and its problems, concern for the conservation of KNP and its wildlife and their opinion on the existing entry fee of the park. Gender was the only variable that was significantly related to whether the visitors were willing to pay higher entry fee or not.
  • ... Enhancing the finances of the protected areas is very crucial as it can significantly help in achieving the conservation objectives of the government authorities. The cost of maintenance and conservation is mostly undertaken by the respective governments (Walpole, Goodwin & Ward 2001;Eagles 2002). However, the assistance provided is mostly not sufficient for training activities, infrastructure development or other developments for supporting nature-based tourism (Eagles 2002). ...
    Conference Paper
    Full-text available
    Proper management and conservation of nature-based tourism sites call for adequate finances. Government financing is mostly irregular and insufficient in developing countries like India, the management faces considerable financial burden in their functioning. Lack of adequate finances is an obstruction in employing appropriate strategies for stopping environmental damages, maintaining the natural heritage, providing adequate facilities and services as well as maintaining and developing the infrastructure in those areas. Enhancing the finances of the protected areas is very crucial as it can significantly help in achieving the conservation objectives of the government authorities. The revenues generated through visitor entry fees and other charges can, thus, play an important role in sustainably financing such environmental resources. Assessing tourists’ willingness to pay (WTP) in this regard is very important and its economic implication is an important subject for destination marketeers as well as policymakers. Understanding the tourists’ WTP for nature based tourism could not only assist in devising appropriate pricing strategies, but also in formulating policies for promoting tourism and increasing the direct revenues for financing the running costs of managing and conservation activities of the authorities. Peoples’ WTP is affected by a wide range of factors and these factors affect their decisions in regard to their visits to particular recreational sites. The present paper is an attempt to identify the important factors determining peoples’ WTP for environmental tourism resources from review of existing literature based on which a theoretical framework has been presented by classifying the various factors identified into few broad categories. Keywords: Nature-based tourism resources, Envionmental conservation, Economic valuation, Financial sustainability, Pricing strategies
  • ... Protected areas witness immense pressure to economically justify their existence, especially in developing nations with high demands for land and natural resources (Walpole, Goodwin & Ward 2001). Due to the increased demand and recreational pressure, national parks and other protected areas are being exposed to exploitation and environmental damages (Bal & Mohanty 2014).In developing countries like India, government policies and funding often undermine the utility or benefits derived from such resources. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Tourism serves as an important means for generating revenues for protected areas to offset the costs of conservation and maintenance. However, protected areas witness immense pressure to economically justify their existence, especially in developing nations, and are being exposed to exploitation and environmental damages due to increased recreational demand. Thus, economic valuation of the environmental goods and services is important for policy formulation as well as for national income accounting. The present study is an attempt to gain some insight into the contingent valuation method and peoples’ willingness to pay (WTP) for ecotourism resources, mainly national parks. The study will briefly highlight the concept of willingness to pay and the contingent valuation method and review some existing literature in the field of ecotourism resources. Keywords: protected areas, environmental goods, stated preference method, non-use values
  • ... Bruner et al. (2001) demonstrate that an increase in funding is the most effective way of ensuring that protected area managers can adequately mitigate against land clearing and other threats to biodiversity. The indirect or non-market nature of many of the costs and benefits associated with protected areas makes it challenging to make the case for public funding allocations or to consider protected areas in purely commercial terms (Dixon & Sherman, 1991;Walpole et al., 2001). This is especially true in the developing world, where pressing development needs provide strong competition for scarce government resources (Inamdar et al., 1999;Krug, 2000). ...
  • ... This makes their task of estimating consumer surplus much more realistic than for an intangible good, reducing the impact of hypothetical bias on the respondents' willingness to pay estimates. [27,36,[48][49][50]. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    It can be challenging to set protected area entrance fees without information on how much visitors are willing to pay. It is particularly difficult for agencies managing multiple sites to set fees without conducting surveys at each location. In order to examine how willingness to pay estimates would vary across sites with distinctive profiles, 877 visitors at five Mexican protected sites (Calakmul, Cobá, Palenque, Sian Ka’an, and Yum Balam) were interviewed through double-bounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation surveys. The results suggest that visitors would be willing to pay higher entrance fees, with mean maximum willingness to pay estimates of 2.8–9.8 times current fees, ranging from US$15.70 to US$25.83. Visitor demand was found to be relatively inelastic, with aggregate fee rises of 26% estimated to result in a 5% decrease in visitation. These results suggest that there is room to raise revenues through moderate fee increases without a concomitant drop-off in visitation.
  • ... Le tourisme est potentiellement une source de financement des sites naturels protégés (Dhamaratne et al., 2000;Vourc'h A. et Natali J-M., 2000;Walpole et al., 2000;Eagles et al., 2002;de Oliviera, 2005;Baral et al., 2008;Reynisdottir et al., 2008; Secrétariat de la Convention sur la Biodiversité, 2008;Edwards, 2009), et ce pour plusieurs raisons. D'abord, la nature fait aujourd'hui l'objet d'une demande de plus en plus forte de la part des touristes : le tourisme de nature 14 (nature-based tourism) est la branche du tourisme qui se développe le plus, avec un taux de croissance annuel d'environ 10 à 30% (Mehmetoglu cité par Larson et Herr, 2008). ...
    Article
    This thesis is part of the context of a nature reserves program in the Gulf of Morbihan. Using contingent valuation (CV) method we estimate the economic benefits derived by tourist population from such a program, and discuss ways to recover these benefits. We estimate the benefits taking into account two issues not considered enough in the CV literature. 1) the potential sensitivity of the individuals to the payment vehicles proposed; 2) the possible existence of a selection bias related to one or several explanatory variables of the willingness to pay (WTP), selection bias which is in addition to usually controlled in CV studies, namely that corresponding to individuals' decision to pay or not. A survey was conducted in summer 2007 during which a sample of tourists stated their WTP through a home tax and another via an entrance fee. Our results show that the payment vehicles used affect the choice of the tourists to pay, on the one hand, and the amounts indicated, on the other. They also highlight the existence of the two types of selection bias suspected and therefore the need to control them when estimating the WTP model. Beyond these issues, the thesis shows that from tourists' point of view, there is an advantage to protect the Gulf of Morbihan's natural features through the implementation of nature reserves. Finally, in a hypothetical context of funding of these via the entrance fee whose amount would be estimated on the basis of the WTP obtained, this thesis discusses the practice of a single tariff, in a context of revenue maximization, and a differential tariff, in a context of equity.
  • ... Contingent Valuation (CV) was utilized as it is a tool to establish willingness to pay for an action or improvement that has yet to be undertaken (Baral, Stern, & Bhattarai, 2008;Walpole, Goodwin, & Ward, 2001). An important aspect of CV has been in the design of the questions, specifically towards placement of participants in a market setting to derive realistic responses on valuation (Baral et al., 2008). ...
    Article
    Based on contingent valuation methods, this study examined visitors’ level of willingness to accept as well as pay an increase in the daily entry fee to be used for proposed improvements at Kafue National Park in Zambia. Data collection was conducted via visitor intercepts at international airports, recreation sites, and accommodations. Overall, both current and non-visitors were most willing to accept and pay for improvements towards natural resources and amenities, followed by visitor facilities and services, and road networks. Likewise, they expressed a willingness to pay a higher amount than the current entry fee, with the highest for natural resources and amenities.
  • ... Most ecotourists are usually willing to pay directly for forest preservation in the form of park entrance fees and the hiring of local guides. The generated revenue can be allocated to the continuation of park protection, park expansion and maintenance, as well as the necessary training of guides (Walpole et al., 2001). Many new employment opportunities arise with the establishment of protected areas, including: working as wildlife guide, spotter, or protector of park boundaries; employee in service areas like restaurants, hotel accommodations, or as a driver; manufacturer or salesman of local arts and handicrafts; or as worker in park maintenance, including the construction of campsites, buildings, and infrastructure. ...
    Thesis
    Tropical forests are facing an unprecedented number of threats worldwide and many species are in decline. The survival of lemurs, a diverse group of primates in Madagascar, is highly threatened by human disturbances. I examined the responses of these endemic primates to forest logging. Although anthropogenic disturbances have long-lasting effects on forest structure and composition, regenerating forests have considerable conservation potential as lemur habitat and facilitate coexistence of closely-related lemur species. However, disturbances may exert stress on lemurs and influence the presence of nematodes and microbiota composition and can affect the animals’ resistance against diseases. Some lemur species only appear to survive in undisturbed forests, others prefer selectively-logged forests. But very few can live without forests. Proper conservation actions, based on the results of this thesis, can help to ensure the long-term viability of lemurs, keeping the raft called Madagascar, including its unique flora and fauna, afloat.
  • ... Such discriminatory pricing methods have their own critiques and potentially have negative impacts on the wildlife tourism industry of a country (Bull, 1994;Cohen, 2002;Finch, Becherer, & Casavant, 1998;Lewis & Shoemaker, 1997). Nonetheless, as visitor willingness-to-pay research indicates, park entrance fees can be helpful in regard to the long-term financing of protected areas (Tongson & Dygico, 2004;Walpole, Goodwin, & Ward, 2001). At the same time, it should be noted that the issue of unreasonable entrance fees may be linked with other causes of visitor dissatisfaction and is a reflection of an overall perception of the tourism experience that it is not worth the money spent. ...
  • ... It was found that the majority of respondents were willing to pay an additional 3.29 USD per visit (i.e., an additional entrance fee) to enter an urban forest with a rich level of biodiversity compared to an urban forest with a low level of biodiversity. These results supported the findings of other studies reporting positive correlations between the level of biodiversity and willingness to pay (WTP) (e.g., [49][50][51][52]). Interestingly, the preferences of urban dwellers for particular attributes of urban forests were different for the different major activity types that visitors wanted to undertake in the urban forest [53]. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    It is important to integrate user preferences and demands into the design, planning, and management of urban forests. This is particularly important in highly urbanized areas where land is extremely limited. Based on a survey with 600 participants selected by quota sampling in Seoul, Korea, we developed a conjoint choice model for determining the preferences of urban dwellers on urban forest attributes, the levels of attributes, and the preferences for particular attributes. Then, the preferences were transformed into monetary values. The results indicated that urban dwellers preferred broadleaved forests over coniferous forests, soil-type pavement materials over porous elastic pavement materials on trails, and relatively flat trails over trails with steep slopes. The model indicated that participants were willing to pay an additional 11.42 USD to change coniferous forest to broadleaved forest, 15.09 USD to alter porous elastic pavement materials on trails to soil-type pavement materials on trails, and 23.8 USD to modify steeply sloping trails to relatively flat trails. As previously reported, considerable distance decay effects have been observed in the user preferences for urban forests. We also found a significant difference in the amount of the mean marginal willingness to pay among sociodemographic subgroups. In particular, there were significant positive responses from the male group to changes in urban forest attributes and their levels in terms of their willingness to pay additional funds. By contrast, the elderly group had the opposite response. In this study, we were not able to integrate locality and spatial variation in user preferences for urban forests derived from locational characteristics. In future studies, the role of limiting factors in user preferences for urban forests and their attributes should be considered.
  • ... Furthermore, different developing countries are facing a similar problem in providing sufficient funding for regular maintenance and sustainable management (Krug, 2000). Keeping in view all the benefits in implementing STM in PAs and to solve managerial problems of PAs, many scholars (Nepal, 2000;Walpole et al., 2001;Eagles et al., 2002;Jayawardena, 2003;Bushell and Eagles, 2006;Plummer and Fennell, 2009;Jamal and Stronza, 2009;Jonathon, 2012;Yadav et al., 2016) have addressed the ongoing challenges and other management issues. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Purpose This study is intended to explore the barriers to sustainable tourism management (STM) implementation in a Protected Area (PA) of a developing country, India by taking a case study of National Chambal Sanctuary (NCS). Design/methodology/approach The research develops a framework to analyse the interaction among a set of barriers of STM using the interpretive structural modelling (ISM) approach. Findings In this study, 16 relevant barriers responsible for the failure of STM in Indian scenario have been selected. Lack of coordination among various stakeholders and lack of government incentives are found as the most significant barriers among the selected barriers of STM implementation in the sanctuary. Research limitations/implications This study provides most influencing barriers and how these barriers hinder the sustainability efforts in NCS. The study’s main limitation is its generalisation. The problems in implementing sustainable practices may differ with the region. Practical implications This research study provides strong practical inferences, for both practitioners as well as academicians. The practitioners are suggested to focus on identified barriers and formulating strategies to achieve sustainability in the tourism sector. Academicians may propose the solutions and necessary interventions for identified barriers. Originality/value Identification and presentation of barriers to STM implementation in the context of a protected area are rare to find in literature.
  • ... In developing countries, where public funds are limited and new areas are being conferred protected area status, development of such mechanisms is of critical importance for the sustainable management of these areas (Becken & Job, 2014;Chen & Jim, 2012;Karanth & DeFries, 2011;Mitchell, Wooliscroft, & Higham, 2013). Park activity and entrance fees are often important sources of revenue for park operations and maintenance as public budget allocations to protected areas are commonly insufficient (Manning, 1999;Walpole, Goodwin, & Ward, 2001;Whitelaw et al., 2014). Furthermore, park fees can help compensate for the opportunity cost of protected areas (Buckley, 2003). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Rwanda's Nyungwe National Park is a biodiversity hotspot with the most endemic species in the ecoregion and the highest number of threatened species internationally. Nyungwe supplies critical ecosystem services to the Rwandan population including water provisioning and tourism services. Tourism in the Park has strong potential for financing enhanced visitor experiences and the sustainable management of the Park. This paper explores quantitatively the economic impacts of adjustment in Park visitation fees and tourism demand as a source of revenues to improve Park tourism opportunities and ongoing operations and maintenance. The methods developed in this paper are novel in integrating the results of stated preference techniques with a regional computable general equilibrium modelling approach to capture multisectoral, direct, indirect and induced impacts. Such methods have strong potential for assessing revenue generation alternatives in other contexts where park managers are faced with the need to generate additional revenue for sustainable park management while facing diminishing budget allocations. Results of this analysis demonstrate that adjustment of Park fees has a relatively small impact on the regional economy and well-being when compared with a strategy aimed at generating increased tourism demand through investment in improving the visitor experience at Nyungwe National Park.
  • ... Besides, National Tourism Policy was declared in 1992 with the objectives, among others, to create interest in tourism among the people, to preserve, protect, develop, and maintain tourism resources, to take steps for poverty-alleviation through creating employment, and to open up a recognized sector for private capital investment (NTO 2009). PA based ecotourism that can give rise to economic benefits to local communities as well as to the nation (Ite 1996;Goodwin 1996;Walpole and Goodwin 2000;Walpole et al. 2001). Yet, PA based ecotourism industry is not properly developed in Bangladesh as lack of attention it. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Protected area based ecotourism is now the most interesting topic to the nature lover and policy maker throughout the world because of its linkage with economic benefits, protected area management and biodiversity conservation. Based on this premise our study explores the visitors' perception on the recreational potential of Kaptai National park and its potentiality in ecotourism development in Bangladesh. The field survey was carried out both in holidays and non-holidays of the week from the late winter season in 2009 to the spring season in 2010. A total of 118 visitors were interviewed with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. Study findings revealed that about 62% male constitute the visitors group with the maximum number of visitors in the age of between 15-25 years (35.59%). The tourists were very much attracted by boat riding (93.22%) followed by scenic beauty of Rampahar-Sitapahar (85.59%). A major portion of about 57.14% tourists wished to visit the park within a year because they got a lot of pleasure from Natural and green environment (86.44%) followed by boating on Kaptai Lake (85.59%). Most of the visitors (36%) were happy about existing facilities but defined some problems such as tour guiding facility, food and drinking water supply, etc. About 71% and 66% respondents perceived that Kaptai National Park made them to be concerned and protective of nature and supports and sustains local ecosystem respectively and 43% respondents agreed that Kaptai National Park ensures the social equity and involve local people in ecotourism which are the most important elements of sustainable ecotourism. The present study results also predict that the park might be a good recreational area for enjoying with family members and group of friends through proper management and promoting the relationships among tourism, local people and biodiversity conservation.
  • ... Continuous study on the sal forest has been focused the most widely accepted mean of sal forest conservation supported by national and international researchers (Hales, 1989;Sekhar, 2003;Walpole et al., 2001). Study findings revealed that the respondents in the study area varied with age, education occupation, annual income and family size (Table 1 and Fig.1). ...
  • Research
    Full-text available
    This manual is designed to provide practical guidance for protected areas on more effective methods of developing links between protected areas and tourism, in order to promote conservation and site protection. Tourism is a major management issue for many protected areas and World Heritage sites. Travel to protected areas is increasing, both because of the overall expansion of tourism and development of international transport networks, and because of the growing interest amongst tourists in learning more about the natural and cultural heritage of the destinations they visit. It is estimated that about 10 percent of international tourists wish to purchase tours involving natural and cultural heritage sites, and this segment is the fastest growing within the tourism sector overall. Domestic tourism is also considerable at many of these sites. Protected areas and World Heritage sites, offer tourism companies important possibilities to ‘add value’ to the tourism excursions they offer, and many companies include visits to such sites as part of their programmes. For specialist tour operators, visits to high-quality sites that have global recognition can be an important selling point. The manual aims to provide site managers with an overall perspective on what they need to know in order to be able to improve their relationships with the tourism sector. For more information on topics related to tourism and protected areas, a list of references and further sources of information is provided at the end of the document. Protected areas can benefit from tourism in several ways: • Additional funds for conservation can be generated from tourism; this is important, as many protected areas face serious financial constraints. • By raising awareness amongst visitors and raising the profile of the protected area at the local and national level, tourism can help promote conservation of the site. • By providing alternative income opportunities for people living in and around the protected area, tourism may help to reduce unsustainable exploitation of natural resources and promote conservation awareness within local communities. • By establishing closer links with the tourism sector, protected areas staff can learn the realities of tourist demands and more effectively meet the requirements of tourism companies; these relationships can also encourage a greater understanding of conservation priorities amongst tourism companies. Nevertheless, it is important to bear in mind that tourism can also add to the costs of managing protected areas, since sites have to invest in, manage and maintain tourism facilities in order to prevent damage to sensitive areas. In addition, the presence and actions of visitors can present serious problems for biodiversity conservation. Therefore tourism has to be managed with care, and site managers must assess and balance the costs and benefits of tourism in protected areas. It is also important to find ways for local people and communities to benefit from tourism linked to conservation, as this helps to demonstrate the economic value of the natural resources being conserved. The main challenges for protected areas faced with significant levels of tourism are: • finding ways to become integrated into the tourism economy, in order to gain a share of tourist expenditure; and • effectively managing tourism to prevent it from undermining conservation goals. The manual is divided into three sections: 1. Understanding Tourism gives an overview of the tourism sector and its components, provides a summary of tourism markets, and describes tourism companies’ key requirements when preparing tours and excursions. 2. Identifying Opportunities for Support details the main types of support that sites may be able to expect from tourism companies. 3. Steps for Linking with the Tourism Sector sets out a three-step process for use in approaching the tourism industry for the types of support described in Section 2.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    A major component attracting ecotourists is a flagship species, characterized traditionally as a large and charismatic avian or mammalian species. This preliminary study uses questionnaires and interviews from two focal audiences to address the possibility of establishing protected areas and promoting ecotourism in The Bahamas using the Andros iguana as a non-traditional flagship species. This study was carried out using questionnaires distributed to Andros visitors to assess tourist perceptions of the native iguana and iguana-related activities, as well as the willingness to pay for guide services and entrance fees into hypothetical national parks. Using in-depth interviews, I also assessed potential support for protected areas in the local population and attempted to gauge historic and contemporary illegal iguana hunting practices given that they have never been quantified and their effects on ecotourism and the ultimate survival of the Andros iguana remain equivocal. The results suggest that visitors to Andros are nature-oriented and supportive of national parks and associated fees. There also is interest in guided field tours to observe iguanas and other wildlife on the island. With notable exceptions, I conclude cautiously that contemporary hunting on Andros is an opportunistic event and occurs at lower levels than in the past. This study did not reveal many negative local attitudes towards future protected areas. Provided that opportunistic poaching pressure is curtailed and the other threats perturbing iguana populations are mitigated, Andros Island has the potential to highlight a large charismatic reptile as a flagship species.
  • Article
    Surfing tourism has the potential to provide significant economic income and employment opportunities. However, the development of surfing tourism in the Mentawai Islands, Indonesia, has raised important questions regarding its impacts and sustainability. Economic leakages, increased pressure on the environment and resources, and adverse effects on local communities have been shown as the major barriers to sustainable development. This article provides insights into how surfing tourism operators perceive the development and impacts of the Mentawai Islands surfing tourism industry. This research project uses an interpretive qualitative approach and follows a case study methodology utilising semi-structured interviews with resort and charter boat surfing tourism operators. The study also investigated possible future directions for creating a more sustainable surfing tourism industry in the Mentawai Islands. Findings from the research showed that charter boat operators and resort operators had differing views as to how surfing tourism had developed: resort operators believed it to be sustainable, while charter boat operators felt it was unsustainable. A key finding of this study was that operators felt that surfing tourism had dramatically altered the traditional Mentawai village of Katiet and was producing adverse socio-cultural impacts on the local community. It is recommended that future research explore the issue of the impacts of surfing tourism development on other remote locations in Indonesia and other surfing tourism destinations around the globe.
  • Chapter
    Multi-dimensional threat factors occur in the protected areas of Bangladesh, making the country’s biodiversity conservation program fragile. Understanding the type, pattern, and extent of the threats is a crucial issue in controlling their magnitude. This study attempted to assess the relative severity of threats to protected areas and the degree of susceptibility of protected areas to those threats. 102 officials from the 34 protected areas were interviewed electronically. Ten potential threats were identified. The most severe threats were fund shortage and policy level disorganization, illegal tree cutting, unsustainable forest resource extraction, forestland encroachment, and wildlife poaching and smuggling. The findings indicate that protected areas throughout the entire ecosystem are at risk, and that threats vary geographically. One-third of the protected areas were susceptible to 80 % of the threats. Protected areas in the tropical moist evergreen and semi-evergreen forests of hilly regions were highly subject to illegal wood cutting; while those in tropical moist deciduous forests of plain land area were prone to encroachment for settlement and agriculture, and those in mangrove forests of littoral zones were extremely vulnerable to wildlife poaching. Developing rapid strategies to mitigate for these threats, with multi-sectorial coordination and stakeholder involvement, is essential to managing protected areas properly and to reduce the continuing loss of biodiversity in Bangladesh.
  • Article
    Paracas National Reserve (PNR) is one of the fifty-seven protected areas that belong to the National System of Protected Areas (SINANPE) of Peru. Located in Ica Department, on the Pacific coast of Peru, it is the only coastal-marine ecosystem currently protected by the Peruvian government. PNR has been internationally recognized, principally as a wintering area for bird migrations. It has been designated as a Regional Shorebird Reserve by the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network (1991), a Ramsar site by the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (1992), and a Particular Sensitive Sea Area by the International Marine Organization (2003). In addition, its scenic beauty and the ninety-five archaeological sites attributed to the Nazca culture located inside its boundaries are main attractions of the protected area (GTZ, 1999, and INRENA, 2003a). Currently, PNR is the third most visited protected area of Peru and receives around one hundred thousand national and foreign tourists per year (INRENA, 2002). The agency in charge of the management of SINANPE (INRENA) charges a flat fee to enter the protected areas that have local administration and defined tourism zones. This flat fee has been established without economic evaluations and does not take into consideration the specific protected areas visitors' willingness and ability to pay. Some exceptions to the flat fee have been implemented in selected protected areas, but not in PNR. The revenues collected are directed to a central fund, which distributes the money back to the protected area local administration. The goal interest of this research is to provide an evaluation of possible fee policies for PNR by addressing a series of questions namely: does the current fee correspond to the tourists' willingness to pay (WTP) at PNR's present conditions? If INRENA decides to improve the infrastructure and services inside PNR through changes in the fee, what are the protected area's attributes that enhance the tourists' recreation experience, or the attributes that the users appreciate the most?, and what would be the visitors' marginal WTP for each of them? In addition, what would be the potential impact of changing the fee in the different income groups? Finally, what would be the fair fees for PNR, considering the potential revenues and the effects of the fees in the different types of tourists who visit the protected area (national local tourists, national non local tourists, foreign tourists, wildlife recreation and beach recreation tourists)? In this thesis, contingent behavior (CB) and conjoint analysis (CA) models were used to answer the policy-related questions indicated above. The data for the models were collected from a survey conducted on site and off site PNR in August 2003. The results indicate that the mean WTP were S1.10.8 (wildlife recreation), 9.5 (national local), 8.6 (national non local), 7.9 (beach recreation), and 23.9 (foreign tourists). The mean marginal willingness to pay for potential infrastructure and service improvements in PNR are between Sl.6.2 and 10.0 for availability of interpretative signs at landscape and wildlife point of interests, Sf. 5.6 and 17.5 for implementation of monitoring activities of endangered endemic species, and S1.5.1 and 13.6 for availability of operative and well-maintained rustic toilets (the former amounts correspond to national tourists and the latter to foreign tourists). The analysis of the impact of fees on different income groups for national tourists, divided according to Peruvian socio-economic classes, suggests that PNR is an inferior good for lower income non local tourists. Local tourists do not present different preferences in WTP according to socio-economic classes. Thus, in the case of an increase in the fee, there is not statistical evidence that lower income national tourists would be affected by a larger proportion than higher income national tourists. The hypothetical demand curves constructed from the probability of rejection curves for national tourists are highly elastic; therefore, increases in fee could cause elevated drops in the number of national tourists who visit the protected area. This is not the case for foreign tourists. Fee option evaluations that included profit maximization with and without price differentiation suggest that fair fee policies need to consider the implementation of differential fees for national and foreign tourists and the establishment of fees that would not significantly reduce the number of future tourists to the protected area.
  • Data
    Full-text available
    Case studies included for value transfer functions. The table gives an overview of the case study references that were included for the boosted regression trees. (PDF)
  • Article
    Full-text available
    This review attempts to present the most important problems raised by ecosystem services evaluation, together with the juridical framework needed for endorsing a long run system of payments. In Romania the legal framework wherein the payments for ecosystem services shall be implemented has been created by the all three Forest Acts adopted by the Parliament since 1996 and the article highlights the pitfalls of the legal provisions referring to these payments. The key-word of the two law articles referred to by the study is the fair price of the ecosystem services, a price which cannot be captured by the market since such a market doesn’t exist neither in Romania nor in other similar countries. Another important issue we have brought into discussion is the inappropriateness of any system of payments in the context of illegal cuttings, simply because the opportunity costs that shall be compensated doesn’t exist when illegal cuttings occur. Some methodological details are also presented in order to demonstrate that a fair price always depends on the context of evaluation and the statistical imprecision is inherent as long as the any evaluation is carried out on sample of data. However these monetary assessments can be used as economic arguments in any public debate or bargain between ecosystem services providers and users.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Green" tourism in Regional Natural Parks (RNPs) is an important element for local development and environmental conservation. As tourism production and consumption could harm the environment, therefore, it is necessary to improve the relationship between visitors and the environment. RNPs Authorities play a key role in establishing and managing environmental conservation policies that enable to keep under control the risk of harming environmental resources. A limitation to such activities is a lack of adequate financial resources. Introducing an entry fee to visit park areas could be a way to reach financial autonomy and enhance environmental policies. This paper analyses visitors' willingness to pay (WTP) within the main RNPs of Sicily throughout a contingent valuation (CV) method. The final outcome of this survey indicates that most visitors are willing to pay an entry fee in order to better protect the environment. Although there is no fee to visit RNPs at the moment, our results indicate that there is an opportunity to introduce an entry fee. Classificazione JEL: Q5; F64; C33.
  • Article
    The Vulnerable snow leopard Panthera uncia experiences persecution across its habitat in Central Asia, particularly from herders because of livestock losses. Given the popularity of snow leopards worldwide, transferring some of the value attributed by the international community to these predators may secure funds and support for their conservation. We administered contingent valuation surveys to 406 international visitors to the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal, between May and June 2014, to determine their willingness to pay a fee to support the implementation of a Snow Leopard Conservation Action Plan. Of the 49% of visitors who stated they would pay a snow leopard conservation fee in addition to the existing entry fee, the mean amount that they were willing to pay was USD 59 per trip. The logit regression model showed that the bid amount, the level of support for implementing the Action Plan, and the number of days spent in the Conservation Area were significant predictors of visitors’ willingness to pay. The main reasons stated by visitors for their willingness to pay were a desire to protect the environment and an affordable fee. A major reason for visitors’ unwillingness to pay was that the proposed conservation fee was too expensive for them. This study represents the first application of economic valuation to snow leopards, and is relevant to the conservation of threatened species in the Annapurna Conservation Area and elsewhere.
  • Preprint
    Green" tourism in Regional Natural Parks (RNPs) is an important element for local development and environmental conservation. As tourism production and consumption could harm the environment, therefore, it is necessary to improve the relationship between visitors and the environment. RNPs Authorities play a key role in establishing and managing environmental conservation policies that enable to keep under control the risk of harming environmental resources. A limitation to such activities is a lack of adequate financial resources. Introducing an entry fee to visit park areas could be a way to reach financial autonomy and enhance environmental policies. This paper analyses visitors' willingness to pay (WTP) within the main RNPs of Sicily throughout a contingent valuation (CV) method. The final outcome of this survey indicates that most visitors are willing to pay an entry fee in order to better protect the environment. Although there is no fee to visit RNPs at the moment, our results indicate that there is an opportunity to introduce an entry fee. Classificazione JEL: Q5; F64; C33.
  • Technical Report
    Full-text available
    We conduct a meta-analysis (MA) of around 100 studies valuing nature conservation in Asia and Oceania. Dividing our dataset into two levels of heterogeneity in terms of good characteristics (endangered species vs. nature conservation more generally) and valuation methods, we show that the degree of regularity and conformity with theory and empirical expectations is higher for the more homogenous dataset of contingent valuation of endangered species. For example, we find that willingness to pay (WTP) for preservation of mammals tends to be higher than other species and that WTP for species preservation increases with income. Increasing the degree of heterogeneity in the valuation data, however, preserves much of the regularity, and the explanatory power of some of our models is in the range of other MA studies of goods typically assumed to be more homogenous (such as water quality). Subjecting our best MA models to a simple test forecasting values for out-of-sample observations, shows median (mean) forecasting errors of 24 (46) percent for endangered species and 46 (89) percent for nature conservation more generally, approaching levels that may be acceptable in benefit transfer for policy use. We recommend that the most prudent MA practice is to control for heterogeneity in regressions and sensitivity analysis, rather than to limit datasets by non-transparent criteria to a level of heterogeneity deemed acceptable to the individual analyst. However, the trade-off will always be present and the issue of acceptable level of heterogeneity in MA is far fromsettled.
  • Article
    National parks located in economically underdeveloped areas frequently face the problem of inadequate financing. Efficient park management, good organization, and control of park attendance, together with package tours, not only improve park financing but also contribute to the welfare of the area. The park is in Yugoslavia.-from Author
  • Article
    Many observers voice the concern that ecotourism has not reached its potential as a tool of conservation or economic development. In an effort to expand ecotourism's contribution, this chapter outlines strategies for: setting tourism fees; using these fees to finance ecotourism development and traditional conservation management; and increasing ecotourism's contribution to the economic development of communities near ecotourism destinations. There is tremendous variation between locations not only with respect to the ecotourism attractions themselves but also with respect to socioeconomic and political conditions. Therefore, this chapter outlines basic principles, together with a mix of strategies for achieving common economic goals relating to ecotourism. Each location must determine its economic objectives and choose the management strategies which best meet those objectives. Information needs are discussed: effective management will require collection and utilization of basic data. -from Authors
  • Article
    Visitors to publicly owned national parks, wildlife reserves and other natural areas pay entrance fees and other charges for their access and use. What principles and criteria contribute to an appropriate pricing policy? The answers to this are complex because of multiple pricing objectives, visitor categories, visitor activities, fee instruments and philosophical positions. In this review paper, these issues are examined from the perspective of public agencies that are working to improve their pricing practices. Pricing is a potentially powerful tool to move towards greater efficiency, fairness and environmentally sustainable management. To date, this tool is underutilized.
  • Article
    Tourism in Zimbabwe relies heavily on the Parks and Wild Life Estate and associated wildlife populations, giving these resources a tangible value. Protected areas, competing with conventional agriculture for space, can be justified in the context of a developing country only if their total benefits remain competitive with other forms of land use. In this paper we argue that, by underselling the Parks and Wild Life Estate, Zimbabwe is discouraging the development of an economically important rural resource in favor of its less environmentally sustainable agricultural competitors. Low prices are threatening the retention of large protected areas and the very resources on which future tourism, as a desirable, sustainable form of land use, is likely to depend. Yet, wildlife‐based tourism provides one of the few ways to reverse the trend toward human destitution in Africa's marginal areas and provides a major justification for conserving Africa's wildlife.
  • Article
    Nepal's spectacular parks and reserves have attracted dramatically increasing numbers of foreign visitors. It might be expected that these protected areas would be nurtured as valuable and irreplaceable economic assets. However they are becoming seriously degraded and the financial resources provided for their management have been inadequate. This paper explores why — starting with the hypothesis that so little of the economic value of protected area tourism in Nepal is captured through fees and other charges assessed on foreign visitors that the protected areas are perceived as being of inconsequential value. It is conservatively estimated that $27 million of tourists' total expenditure in Nepal were attributable to the protected area network in 1988, when the costs of managing the parks were less than $5 million but direct fees colleeted from tourists visiting the protected areas amounted to less than $1 million. These figures suggest the parks are a good investment. But it could also be argued that the costs of park management were more than five times the revenues collected by the government from park tourists. Policy measures are identified which could help Nepal increase the economic as well as environmental benefits from nature tourism. Case studies of Nepal's most-visited protected areas emphasize that the lack of funds for protected area management is not the only constraint on effective management. Some important economic and institutional interests have yet to be effectively reconciled with conservation in the protected areas. Most problematic are local people's economic aspirations and the operating practices of the principal government agencies involved — the Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation and the Ministry of Tourism. Fortunately there have recently been some encouraging signs of change within both of these agencies.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Indonesia, like many other developing countries, is turning to ecotourism in an attempt to integrate the goals of development and nature conservation. Although ecotourism may be a valuable tool for preservation of biodiversity, it can have long-term negative effects on reserves, wildlife and local communities if improperly managed. In this study the authors evaluated ecotourism in the Tangkoko DuaSudara Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi, by examining trends in visitor numbers, the tourist experience, the distribution of tourist revenues, and tourist impact on the Sulawesi black macaque Macaca nigra and spectral tarsier Tarsier spectrum. The data collected showed that, although tourism is expanding rapidly, local benefits are not being fully realized, the reserve does not generate enough money to implement management, and primate behaviour is being affected. There is urgent need for a change in legal status of the reserve if ecotourism is to be managed. National park status would accommodate ecotourism planning and development, provide for greater participation by the local community, and allow for increased revenues for management.
  • Article
    Confining themselves to terrestrial protected areas (PAs) and considering in turn the benefits and costs of PAs to human society, the authors examine why most PAs were originally established, ways in which scientists have improved PA design, how theoretical and practical considerations must be reconciled in PA design. Because biological diversity is under great threat in tropical areas, most of which are in developing countries, the different implications for PA design between developed and developing countries are explored. -from Authors
  • Article
    The financial returns to Kenyan tourism demonstrate the importance of the country's tourist potential to its economic development. Protected areas and their inhabitants are the principal focus of the tourist industry, the nations's main foreign exchange earner, and a source of wonder and value for a global population of non-users. It might be expected that such assets would be accorded some degree of security with sufficient funding to safeguard current and potential economic benefits. Yet park use is haphazard, and there is frequently little coincidence between those that benefit and those that pay for the continued existence of such areas. Growing economic and demographic pressures which threaten to swamp protected areas only emphasize the implicit subsidy currently paid by Kenyans to support conservation for the benefit of the world at large. In this climate the case for conservation depends on the measurement and capture of economic benefits. Using a contingent valuation survey of expressed preference this study estimates the consumer surplus attached to current non-consumptive use of protected areas by foreign visitors at some $450 million per annum. This sum alone is more than double the best available estimate of opportunity cost and appears to justify current resource use. The estimate is additional to current financial returns from tourism and makes no allowance for other direct and indirect benefits and potential returns from consumptive uses. Measured consumer surplus contains some margin of willingness to pay that could be captured through the current fee structure. Moreover, park fees represent the most accessible market mechanism to finance revenue sharing and additional park investment before potential recourse to emerging global market institutions.
  • Article
    The travel clost method (TCM) and contingent valuation method (CVM) were used to evaluate the economic value of six different ecotourism activities involving observation of wildlife in Pennsylvania. The six activities were: catch-and-release trout fishing; catch-and-release trout fishing with fly-fishing equipment; viewing waterfowl; watching elk; observing migration flights of raptors; and seeing live wildlife in an environmental education setting. TCM results provided significant statistical relationships between level of use and travel costs for the two types of trout fishing activities. CVM provided estimates of consumer surplus for the other four sites. The consumers' surplus value (1988 dollars) of all six activities to participants amounted to a total of more than $1.28 million annually—twice the total out-of-pocket expenditures of approximately $1.28 million annually—twice the total out-of-pocket expenditures of approximately 640,000 spent to visit the sites. The economic amenity values of the six activities compare favorably with similarly derived values in other studies for hunting, fishing, hiking, and backpacking in dispersed recreation environments and wilderness areas in western states.