Article

Pricing policy for tourism in protected areas: Lessons from Komodo National Park, Indonesia

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Abstract

Protected areas are under increasing pressure to provide economic justification for their existence, particularly in developing countries where demand for land and natural resources is high. Nature-based tourism offers a mechanism to generate substantial benefits front protected areas for both governments and local communities, and ecotourism is increasingly promoted as a sustainable use of protected areas. The extent to which ecotourism offsets the costs of a protected area has rarely been examined. We used financial data from Komodo National Park, Indonesia, and a willingness-to-pay questionnaire of independent visitors to (1) examine the financial contribution of tourism in offsetting the costs of tourism and wider management and (2) assess the effect of hypothetical fee increases on park revenues, visitation patterns, and local economies. Although only 6.9% of park management costs were recovered, visitors were willing to pay over 10 times the current entrance fee, indicating a substantial potential for increased revenue. The potential negative effect of large fee increases on visitor numbers and the resultant effect on local economic benefits from tourism may limit the extent to which greater financial benefits from Komodo National Park (KNP) can be realized. Our results suggest that a moderate, tiered increase in entrance fees is most appropriate, and that partial revenue retention by KNP would help demonstrate the conservation value of tourism to both visitors and managers and has the potential to increase visitors' willingness to pay.

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... Protected areas witness immense pressure to economically justify their existence, especially in developing nations with high demands for land and natural resources (Walpole, Goodwin & Ward 2001). Due to the increased demand and recreational pressure, national parks and other protected areas are being exposed to exploitation and environmental damages (Bal & Mohanty 2014).In developing countries like India, government policies and funding often undermine the utility or benefits derived from such resources. ...
... The cost of maintenance and conservation in most cases is borne by the respective governments (Walpole et al. 2001) and most governments do not invest sufficiently for training, infrastructure or other developments needed to support nature tourism (Eagles 2002). Also, the national parks and other ecotourism resources usually charge very nominal entrance fee from visitors (Wells 1997;Walpole et al. 2001;Eagles 2002) leading to low level of direct revenue causing considerable financial problems for the management and development of the protected areas. ...
... The cost of maintenance and conservation in most cases is borne by the respective governments (Walpole et al. 2001) and most governments do not invest sufficiently for training, infrastructure or other developments needed to support nature tourism (Eagles 2002). Also, the national parks and other ecotourism resources usually charge very nominal entrance fee from visitors (Wells 1997;Walpole et al. 2001;Eagles 2002) leading to low level of direct revenue causing considerable financial problems for the management and development of the protected areas. Environmental accounting and valuation of natural resources is, thus, very essential for proper use and allocation of such resources for sustainable development and welfare of the society (Singha 2011;Bharali & Majumder 2012).It not only helps in cost-benefit analysis and assessing environmental damages but important to determine the attitude and willingness to pay (WTP) of people towards entry fee. ...
Article
Full-text available
Tourism serves as an important means for generating revenues for protected areas to offset the costs of conservation and maintenance. However, protected areas witness immense pressure to economically justify their existence, especially in developing nations, and are being exposed to exploitation and environmental damages due to increased recreational demand. Thus, economic valuation of the environmental goods and services is important for policy formulation as well as for national income accounting. The present study is an attempt to gain some insight into the contingent valuation method and peoples’ willingness to pay (WTP) for ecotourism resources, mainly national parks. The study will briefly highlight the concept of willingness to pay and the contingent valuation method and review some existing literature in the field of ecotourism resources. Keywords: protected areas, environmental goods, stated preference method, non-use values
... Enhancing the finances of the protected areas is very crucial as it can significantly help in achieving the conservation objectives of the government authorities. The cost of maintenance and conservation is mostly undertaken by the respective governments (Walpole, Goodwin & Ward 2001;Eagles 2002). However, the assistance provided is mostly not sufficient for training activities, infrastructure development or other developments for supporting nature-based tourism (Eagles 2002). ...
... However, the assistance provided is mostly not sufficient for training activities, infrastructure development or other developments for supporting nature-based tourism (Eagles 2002). Also, the National parks and other ecotourism resources usually charge very less from visitors (Eagles 2002;Walpole et al. 2001;Wells 1997) leading to low level of direct revenue. Since, government financing is mostly irregular and insufficient in developing countries like India, the management faces considerable financial burden in their functioning. ...
... Existing literature suggests that people place high value ecotourism resources which is not justified by the traditional pricing mechanisms (Walpole et al. 2001). The market often misprices or under-prices these resources (Bharali & Majumder 2012). ...
Conference Paper
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Proper management and conservation of nature-based tourism sites call for adequate finances. Government financing is mostly irregular and insufficient in developing countries like India, the management faces considerable financial burden in their functioning. Lack of adequate finances is an obstruction in employing appropriate strategies for stopping environmental damages, maintaining the natural heritage, providing adequate facilities and services as well as maintaining and developing the infrastructure in those areas. Enhancing the finances of the protected areas is very crucial as it can significantly help in achieving the conservation objectives of the government authorities. The revenues generated through visitor entry fees and other charges can, thus, play an important role in sustainably financing such environmental resources. Assessing tourists’ willingness to pay (WTP) in this regard is very important and its economic implication is an important subject for destination marketeers as well as policymakers. Understanding the tourists’ WTP for nature based tourism could not only assist in devising appropriate pricing strategies, but also in formulating policies for promoting tourism and increasing the direct revenues for financing the running costs of managing and conservation activities of the authorities. Peoples’ WTP is affected by a wide range of factors and these factors affect their decisions in regard to their visits to particular recreational sites. The present paper is an attempt to identify the important factors determining peoples’ WTP for environmental tourism resources from review of existing literature based on which a theoretical framework has been presented by classifying the various factors identified into few broad categories. Keywords: Nature-based tourism resources, Envionmental conservation, Economic valuation, Financial sustainability, Pricing strategies
... An effective solution is to generate revenues by way of charging user fees from the visitors (Nuva et al. 2009). However, due to nominal visitation charges in most parks, the direct revenue generated from visitors are often not sufficient to cover the management expenses (Wells 1997;Walpole, Goodwin & Ward 2001;Eagles 2002). Also, financial assistance from government and other external sources are mostly inadequate, irregular and seldom based on careful assessment of the benefits derived from such resources (Walpole et al. 2001;Eagles 2002). ...
... However, due to nominal visitation charges in most parks, the direct revenue generated from visitors are often not sufficient to cover the management expenses (Wells 1997;Walpole, Goodwin & Ward 2001;Eagles 2002). Also, financial assistance from government and other external sources are mostly inadequate, irregular and seldom based on careful assessment of the benefits derived from such resources (Walpole et al. 2001;Eagles 2002). ...
... In this regard, it is important to estimate the economic value of national parks and other protected areas, especially in developing countries. Since they are valuable public resources, it becomes imperative that the public policies associated with them are justified in terms of the associated cost and benefits considering the economic demands for use of land and other natural resources and developmental priorities in the public interests (Walpole et al. 2001). In welfare economics, economic valuation of public resources is done to address the basic problem of resource allocation in a country (Tisdell & Wilson 2003). ...
Conference Paper
This paper is based on a contingent valuation face to face survey of 125 visitors to Kaziranga National Park (KNP). The primary aim of this study is to explore and understand peoples' willingness to pay (WTP) for higher entry fee in national parks. About 79% of the respondents showed willingness to pay more to visit KNP. The foreign visitors expressed comparatively high WTP with mean value of Rs. 500 whereas the mean WTP of the domestic visitors were only Rs. 217. Considering this, the national park can generate substantial additional revenue for the state by increasing the current fee levels to tap the higher WTP of visitors. Besides origin and income, factors where significant differences were observed among the categories of visitors and their maximum WTP amount were duration of stay, visit satisfaction, peoples' awareness about KNP and its problems, concern for the conservation of KNP and its wildlife and their opinion on the existing entry fee of the park. Gender was the only variable that was significantly related to whether the visitors were willing to pay higher entry fee or not.
... Entrance fees have been an important income source of funding for conservation in developing countries. However, they are frequently set below the levels international tourists are willing and able to pay (see Naidoo and Adamowicz 2005;Pandit, Dhakal, and Polyakov 2015;Walpole, Goodwin, and Ward 2001). At the same time, parks continue to be underfunded, and are unable to cover their operational budgets fully (Inamdar et al. 1999;McRae 1998;Walpole, Goodwin, and Ward 2001). ...
... However, they are frequently set below the levels international tourists are willing and able to pay (see Naidoo and Adamowicz 2005;Pandit, Dhakal, and Polyakov 2015;Walpole, Goodwin, and Ward 2001). At the same time, parks continue to be underfunded, and are unable to cover their operational budgets fully (Inamdar et al. 1999;McRae 1998;Walpole, Goodwin, and Ward 2001). ...
... There are three main ways to think about optimal entrance fees. The objective could be efficiency (Mendes 2003), revenue maximization (Alpízar 2006;Chase et al. 1998;Dikgang, Muchapondwa, and Stage 2017;Walpole, Goodwin, and Ward 2001) or equity where domestic tourists form the bulk of the tourists. 25 The main justifications for an entrance fee in many public national parks are rationing (given the uneven demand that characterizes recreation demand), equity (an application of the 'user pays' principle), and financial considerations. ...
Article
Full-text available
National park agencies in Africa often lack incentives to maximize revenue, despite the decline in conservation subsidies from the State. We explore the potential of pricing policy to generate funds for extensive conservation. We estimate recreation demand by international tourists for a popular South African park, calculate the consumer surplus and find the revenue-maximizing entrance fee. Our results suggest substantial underpricing and therefore significant forgone income. By charging low fees at popular parks despite increasing conservation mandates and declining conservation subsidies, national parks in developing countries are forgoing substantial revenue crucial for combating widespread biodiversity losses.
... This makes their task of estimating consumer surplus much more realistic than for an intangible good, reducing the impact of hypothetical bias on the respondents' willingness to pay estimates. [27,36,[48][49][50]. ...
... While these are some of the higher potential increases examined, there are other sites with comparable or even higher comparative willingness to pay estimates, including Komodo National Park in Indonesia (1245%), Taman Negara National Park in Malaysia (1204%), and Eduardo Avaroa Reserve in Bolivia (818%), not to mention those sites that currently charge no entrance fee. Komodo National Park and Eduardo Avaroa Reserve, in particular, share many similarities with the Mexican sites surveyed in this study: they attract a relatively large number of foreign or wealthy domestic tourists, but have pricing levels commensurate with exclusively local or low-end domestic tourism, with entrance fees of US$0.87 and US$4, respectively [48,55]. Although Taman Negara National Park attracts predominately domestic Malaysian tourists, its entrance fee level is set at a low level for an upper-middle income country such as Malaysia [68]. ...
Article
Full-text available
It can be challenging to set protected area entrance fees without information on how much visitors are willing to pay. It is particularly difficult for agencies managing multiple sites to set fees without conducting surveys at each location. In order to examine how willingness to pay estimates would vary across sites with distinctive profiles, 877 visitors at five Mexican protected sites (Calakmul, Cobá, Palenque, Sian Ka’an, and Yum Balam) were interviewed through double-bounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation surveys. The results suggest that visitors would be willing to pay higher entrance fees, with mean maximum willingness to pay estimates of 2.8–9.8 times current fees, ranging from US$15.70 to US$25.83. Visitor demand was found to be relatively inelastic, with aggregate fee rises of 26% estimated to result in a 5% decrease in visitation. These results suggest that there is room to raise revenues through moderate fee increases without a concomitant drop-off in visitation.
... Bruner et al. (2001) demonstrate that an increase in funding is the most effective way of ensuring that protected area managers can adequately mitigate against land clearing and other threats to biodiversity. The indirect or non-market nature of many of the costs and benefits associated with protected areas makes it challenging to make the case for public funding allocations or to consider protected areas in purely commercial terms (Dixon & Sherman, 1991;Walpole et al., 2001). This is especially true in the developing world, where pressing development needs provide strong competition for scarce government resources (Inamdar et al., 1999;Krug, 2000). ...
... This reliance on a combination of self-generated and external budget sources is the norm in most countries: Walpole et al. (2001) reviewed the available studies and found that it was only in a few exceptional circumstances that protected area systems were able to generate sufficient own revenue to cover management costs entirely. Reviews such as that of Bovarnick et al. (2010) demonstrate that self-generated revenue usually forms a relatively small part of overall funding for protected area systems. ...
... Approaches to establishing user fees in order to finance the management of PAs have been extensively documented. Perhaps one of the most extensively used approaches to researching entrance fees is contingent valuation approaches with willingness-to-pay (WTP) surveys (e.g.Asafu-Adjaye & Tapsuwan 2008;Baral, Stern & Bhattarai 2008;Barnes, Schier & Van Rooy 1997;Bruner et al. 2015;Greiner & Rolfe 2004;Kahn 2009;Kibira 2014;Mmopwlwa, Kgathi & Molefhe 2007;Moran 1994;Reyisdottir, Song & Agrusa 2008;Richer & Christensen 1999;Schultz, Pinazzo & Cifuentes 1998;Thur 2010;Walpole, Goodwin & Ward, 2001;Wang & Jia 2012). Other approaches to establishing recreational value and fees include the Travel Cost Method (e.g.Chen et al 2004;Flemming & Cook 2008;Herath & Kennedy 2004;Turpie & Joubert 2001) and price differentiation (e.g.Chase et al. 1998;Krug, Suich & Haimbodi 2002). ...
... For example, in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal, a WTP study found that on average visitors were willing to pay USD69, rather than the actual entrance fee of USD27 (Baral et al. 2008). Similarly, in Komodo National Park in Indonesia, an analysis of financial data and a WTP study with visitors found that although only 6.9% of park fees were recovered, tourists were willing to pay more than 10 times the current entrance fee (Walpole et al. 2001). WTP analysis done byDikgang and Muchapondwa (2016)found that the conservation fees in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park could be increased by up to 115% – which would almost double the current revenue. ...
Article
Full-text available
User fees charged by Tanzania’s Game Reserves (GR) and Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) have not changed since 2008. Although previous research has been done on visitors’ willingness-to-pay to enter national parks in Tanzania, none has been conducted on GRs and WMAs. This article assesses the entrance fees in GRs and WMAs, by comparing them with equivalent fees charged in Tanzania (at national parks and the Ngorongoro Crater) and also with regional protected areas in Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe. Based on 28 semi-structured interviews with key stakeholder institutions working on tourism and conservation and more than 50 online survey responses from Tanzanian tourism operators, the research reviews local opinion and issues relating to adjusting current entrance fees. The article considers that while one objective for generating revenue from entrance fees is for conservation management, it is difficult to establish appropriate fees where there are gaps in knowledge about existing levels of visitation, tourism revenue and associated management costs. Conservation implications: This article has implications for protected area management practices, as it provides information on processes by which managers can review and revise entrance fee values.
... Approaches to establishing user fees in order to finance the management of PAs have been extensively documented. Perhaps one of the most extensively used approaches to researching entrance fees is contingent valuation approaches with willingness-to-pay (WTP) surveys (e.g.Asafu-Adjaye & Tapsuwan 2008;Baral, Stern & Bhattarai 2008;Barnes, Schier & Van Rooy 1997;Bruner et al. 2015;Greiner & Rolfe 2004;Kahn 2009;Kibira 2014;Mmopwlwa, Kgathi & Molefhe 2007;Moran 1994;Reyisdottir, Song & Agrusa 2008;Richer & Christensen 1999;Schultz, Pinazzo & Cifuentes 1998;Thur 2010;Walpole, Goodwin & Ward, 2001;Wang & Jia 2012). Other approaches to establishing recreational value and fees include the Travel Cost Method (e.g.Chen et al 2004;Flemming & Cook 2008;Herath & Kennedy 2004;Turpie & Joubert 2001) and price differentiation (e.g.Chase et al. 1998;Krug, Suich & Haimbodi 2002). ...
... For example, in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal, a WTP study found that on average visitors were willing to pay USD69, rather than the actual entrance fee of USD27 (Baral et al. 2008). Similarly, in Komodo National Park in Indonesia, an analysis of financial data and a WTP study with visitors found that although only 6.9% of park fees were recovered, tourists were willing to pay more than 10 times the current entrance fee (Walpole et al. 2001). WTP analysis done byDikgang and Muchapondwa (2016)found that the conservation fees in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park could be increased by up to 115% – which would almost double the current revenue. ...
Article
Full-text available
User fees charged by Tanzania’s Game Reserves (GR) and Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) have not changed since 2008. Although previous research has been done on visitors’ willingness-to-pay to enter national parks in Tanzania, none has been conducted on GRs and WMAs. This article assesses the entrance fees in GRs and WMAs, by comparing them with equivalent fees charged in Tanzania (at national parks and the Ngorongoro Crater) and also with regional protected areas in Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe. Based on 28 semi-structured interviews with key stakeholder institutions working on tourism and conservation and more than 50 online survey responses from Tanzanian tourism operators, the research reviews local opinion and issues relating to adjusting current entrance fees. The article considers that while one objective for generating revenue from entrance fees is for conservation management, it is dif cult to establish appropriate fees where there are gaps in knowledge about existing levels of visitation, tourism revenue and associated management costs. Conservation implications: This article has implications for protected area management practices, as it provides information on processes by which managers can review and revise entrance fee values.
... Natural destinations like national parks and other protected areas attract a huge number of visitors every year leading to significant economic growth for developing nations. It is evident from many studies that tourists tend to have a considerably high willingness to pay (WTP) for natural destinations (Baral et al., 2008;Walpole et al., 2001) which shows that they highly value them. An appropriate pricing policy could help to tap this high consumer surplus of visitors. ...
... In the present study, the visitors were asked whether they are willing to pay an amount higher than the existing entry fee. Entry fee as the payment vehicle is considered more practical and has been used in many previous studies (Kim et al., 2007;Lee & Han, 2002;Walpole et al., 2001). The visitors were told that that the additional money will be used to manage the Parks more effectively and improve conservational efforts. ...
Chapter
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Literature suggests that Tourists tend to place a high value on natural destinations like national parks. An appropriate pricing policy could help to tap this high consumer surplus of visitors. Apart from the socio-economic characteristics, the effect of visitor satisfaction on WTP is strongly evident in past literature. It is reasonable to expect that satisfaction for individual attributes of a national park would be related to the overall satisfaction level of the visitors. But, since each national park is unique in its features, offerings, and attributes, the WTP of visitors is bound to vary accordingly. With these motivations, the present study is an effort to examine and compare the visitors’ willingness to pay behaviour in Kaziranga National Park (KNP) and Manas National Park (MNP) from a managerial perspective. The study aims at understanding the visitors’ perception regarding important attributes of the Parks and to explore the potential scope of increasing the current entry fee structure. The results indicate that considerable additional revenue could be generated by exploiting the WTP of the visitors of the two Parks which is far greater than the current entry fee levels. In KNP, WTP was found to be positively influenced by satisfaction towards services and facilities, safari experience, cost, and accommodation, thus, suggesting the need to give proper attention and priority to these areas. In MNP, only satisfaction towards infrastructure and cost was observed to be significant. The observations made during this study have strong policy implications and may guide the Park authorities in their future pricing policies and tourism-related decisions.
... Although national parks in developing countries could potentially generate more revenue than they currently do, they remain largely reliant on fiscal transfers to fund conservation activities (Alpízar 2006;Borie et al. 2014;Walpole, Goodwin, and Ward 2001). On one hand, governments are increasingly urged to focus on other national objectives, such as poverty reduction, education, and health, and this has intensified competition to secure conservation funds from the State, even though most parks in Africa are not fully government-funded. ...
... They estimate that maximizing revenue requires locals to pay at least twice the current fee. In Nepal and Indonesia, similar patterns have been observed (Baral, Stern, and Bhattarai 2008;Walpole, Goodwin, and Ward 2001). The available studies suggest that charging higher entrance fees to popular recreational places does not significantly affect visits. ...
Article
The increasing pressure within developing countries to focus on other national objectives has led to declining fiscal transfers for conservation. This paper assesses the potential for a typical large African park such as the Kruger National Park to generate additional revenue through an entrance fee hike in order to finance park operations. This is investigated by estimating international tourists’ willingness to pay (WTP) for possible future visits. The estimated WTP is substantial, ranging from $216 to $255 per trip and $79 million to $94 million per year for all international tourists. Using a non-parametric survival function to calculate the consumer surplus that could be extracted from tourists, we show that park authorities can increase total revenue by 57% to 61% ($38 million and $40 million) per year. These findings indicate that unique African parks such as the Kruger National Park can contribute to African economies through revenues from increased entrance fees.
... Implementing a similar fee to residents would likely result in more social conflict with NPs' managers and should, in case of interest, be tackled with care and adequate local participation. An option to favour residents over visitors and compensate them for restrictions on land use would be either excluding them from the fee or having a discount rate for their access to the NP (Walpole et al. 2001;Nyaupane et al. 2009;Atmodjo et al. 2017). In some countries, only foreign visitors must pay to access PAs (Lindberg 2001). ...
... According to recent visitation figures to both NPs (MAGRAMA 2015) and our estimates excluding all residents and visitors who would be unwilling to pay an entrance fee under any circumstance, by charging an average 3€-fee to every visitor, the Spanish State could collect as much as 1,123,031 € / year from visits to Ordesa NP and 6,583,002 € / year from visits to Guadarrama NP. Even though foreseeable decreases in visitation figures to both NPs after the establishment of an entrance fee were considered (More and Stevens 2000;Walpole et al. 2001;Nyaupane et al. 2009), these figures should be regarded as somehow optimistic, as necessary equity measures such as discounts or waivers to some groups such as unemployed people, small children, students or retired people were not accounted for. In contrast, the fact that residents who were willing to pay an entrance fee (even if a smaller one) were not included in the calculation might have slightly underestimated potential income figures. ...
Article
Full-text available
Effective protected area (PA) conservation relies heavily on positive social perception, attitude and values, especially by the stakeholders most affected by PA regulations. Random samples of residents around (n = 401) and quota samples of visitors to (n = 542) two emblematic, environmentally similar National Parks (NPs) in Spain: Ordesa y Monte Perdido NP (Ordesa NP) and Sierra de Guadarrama NP (Guadarrama NP) were surveyed on their attitudes, perceptions and values using structured questionnaires. The results show similarities and differences between stakeholder groups and NPs. Most differences can be explained by the different geographic, historical and socioeconomic contexts. Residents near Guadarrama NP visited it less frequently, whereas non-residents visited the NP more frequently than Ordesa NP. Residents’ and visitors’ perception on the conservation state was better for Ordesa NP than for Guadarrama NP. The main perceived threats by both groups were wildfires, massive visitation and insufficient environmental awareness. Local participation in management was deemed improvable in both NPs. Stated importance on both NPs was similarly high for both stakeholder groups. Half of residents and over two-thirds of visitors to both NPs were willing to pay an entrance fee. A daily fee of 3 € per person would be acceptable to most. Willingness to pay (WTP) was negatively correlated with ‘frequency of visits’ in Guadarrama NP. WTP increased substantially with measures that ensure equity, transparency and accountability. These results present PA managers with updated key stakeholders’ attitudes and perceptions, and provide a feasible alternative to regulate massive visitation and enhance financial sustainability of Spanish NPs.
... Contingent Valuation (CV) was utilized as it is a tool to establish willingness to pay for an action or improvement that has yet to be undertaken (Baral, Stern, & Bhattarai, 2008;Walpole, Goodwin, & Ward, 2001). An important aspect of CV has been in the design of the questions, specifically towards placement of participants in a market setting to derive realistic responses on valuation (Baral et al., 2008). ...
... Also, it is acknowledged that with CV, respondents could make bid amount commitments based on hypothetical scenarios, but not actually practice it. Further, respondents could make strategic choices and accordingly bid to ensure implementation (Baral et al., 2008;Walpole et al., 2001). ...
Article
Based on contingent valuation methods, this study examined visitors’ level of willingness to accept as well as pay an increase in the daily entry fee to be used for proposed improvements at Kafue National Park in Zambia. Data collection was conducted via visitor intercepts at international airports, recreation sites, and accommodations. Overall, both current and non-visitors were most willing to accept and pay for improvements towards natural resources and amenities, followed by visitor facilities and services, and road networks. Likewise, they expressed a willingness to pay a higher amount than the current entry fee, with the highest for natural resources and amenities.
... Emptaz-Collomb (2009), Ahebwa, van der Duim andSandbrook (2011) andSnyman (2014), conclude that benefiting communities are more inclined to view tourism and protected areas positively and to contribute to the conservation of natural resources. However, a study by Walpole et al. (2001) discusses how local populations that are not receiving direct benefits from tourism still have positive attitudes towards protected areas and tourism. Their perceptions and beliefs of receiving the benefits are motivating factors that instil these positive attitudes, especially based on seeing other communities receiving benefits (Walpole et al. 2001). ...
... However, a study by Walpole et al. (2001) discusses how local populations that are not receiving direct benefits from tourism still have positive attitudes towards protected areas and tourism. Their perceptions and beliefs of receiving the benefits are motivating factors that instil these positive attitudes, especially based on seeing other communities receiving benefits (Walpole et al. 2001). It is this instilled positivism that creates advantages and disadvantages pros and cons to the protected area, the organisations involved in the protected areas and associated tourism ventures. ...
Conference Paper
Private game reserves contribute significantly to biodiversity conservation in South Africa. These private game reserves fund their operations predominantly through tourism activities. Private game reserves promote positive support from surrounding communities through various community development projects and benefit-sharing interventions. Rural development projects provide communities with opportunities that add value and quality to their everyday livelihoods. The development projects also bring improved infrastructure and service delivery to the local area and in some cases collaboration with other non-government and government institutes that further improves the living conditions of the community involved. In the development of Phinda Private Game Reserve in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, community development projects with the local communities have been implemented. In the past members of the community have been relocated in order to expand the game reserve. Community development projects have been implemented as a form of compensation and goodwill as part of these voluntary resettlements. However, it has been noticed that these development projects come with consequences affecting the community itself, the environment and the original stakeholders running the development projects. The increase in the population numbers in the area and the associated deterioration of the environment have resulted in a reduction in the availability of natural resources for communities to utilise. Rural communities adjacent to the protected areas have become overcrowded, resulting in negative social and health related issues. The original reason for the commencement of the community projects has become overwhelmed by increases in the size of and demands made by communities.
... It was found that the majority of respondents were willing to pay an additional 3.29 USD per visit (i.e., an additional entrance fee) to enter an urban forest with a rich level of biodiversity compared to an urban forest with a low level of biodiversity. These results supported the findings of other studies reporting positive correlations between the level of biodiversity and willingness to pay (WTP) (e.g., [49][50][51][52]). Interestingly, the preferences of urban dwellers for particular attributes of urban forests were different for the different major activity types that visitors wanted to undertake in the urban forest [53]. ...
Article
Full-text available
It is important to integrate user preferences and demands into the design, planning, and management of urban forests. This is particularly important in highly urbanized areas where land is extremely limited. Based on a survey with 600 participants selected by quota sampling in Seoul, Korea, we developed a conjoint choice model for determining the preferences of urban dwellers on urban forest attributes, the levels of attributes, and the preferences for particular attributes. Then, the preferences were transformed into monetary values. The results indicated that urban dwellers preferred broadleaved forests over coniferous forests, soil-type pavement materials over porous elastic pavement materials on trails, and relatively flat trails over trails with steep slopes. The model indicated that participants were willing to pay an additional 11.42 USD to change coniferous forest to broadleaved forest, 15.09 USD to alter porous elastic pavement materials on trails to soil-type pavement materials on trails, and 23.8 USD to modify steeply sloping trails to relatively flat trails. As previously reported, considerable distance decay effects have been observed in the user preferences for urban forests. We also found a significant difference in the amount of the mean marginal willingness to pay among sociodemographic subgroups. In particular, there were significant positive responses from the male group to changes in urban forest attributes and their levels in terms of their willingness to pay additional funds. By contrast, the elderly group had the opposite response. In this study, we were not able to integrate locality and spatial variation in user preferences for urban forests derived from locational characteristics. In future studies, the role of limiting factors in user preferences for urban forests and their attributes should be considered.
... Such discriminatory pricing methods have their own critiques and potentially have negative impacts on the wildlife tourism industry of a country (Bull, 1994;Cohen, 2002;Finch, Becherer, & Casavant, 1998;Lewis & Shoemaker, 1997). Nonetheless, as visitor willingness-to-pay research indicates, park entrance fees can be helpful in regard to the long-term financing of protected areas (Tongson & Dygico, 2004;Walpole, Goodwin, & Ward, 2001). At the same time, it should be noted that the issue of unreasonable entrance fees may be linked with other causes of visitor dissatisfaction and is a reflection of an overall perception of the tourism experience that it is not worth the money spent. ...
... Ekoturisme memiliki potensi untuk menghasilkan manfaat jangka panjang jika mampu menyediakan sumber ekonomi tambahan kepada pengelola taman nasional atau kesempatan kerja bagi masyarakat lokal (Walpole, Goodwin & Ward 2001). Akan tetapi, ekspansi aktivitas ekoturisme harus dipertimbangkan dengan seksama untuk mengurangi dampak negatif terhadap populasi biawak komodo yang dapat menyebabkan konsekuensi tidak diinginkan terhadap manusia (pemangsaan ternak atau serangan terhadap manusia) (Schoenecker & Krausman 2002;Ellenberg et al. 2006;Amo, López & Martı´n 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how threatened wildlife can coexist with humans over the long term is a central issue in conservation and wildlife management. Komodo National Park in Eastern Indonesia, harbors the largest extant populations of the endemic Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis). Consistent with global trends, this species is expected to be increasingly exposed to human activities and in particular growing ecotourism activities. Here we comprehensively evaluated how human activities affected individual and population level attributes of Komodo dragons. We compared Komodo dragons phenotypic (behaviour, body size, and body condition) and demographic (age structure, sex ratio, survival, and density) responses to variation in human activities across national park. Komodo dragons were found to exhibit pronounced responses to high human activity level relative to sites with low and negligible human activities. Komodo dragons exposed to ecotourism exhibited significantly less wariness, larger body mass, better body condition, and higher survival. These results are entirely consistent with ecotourism activities that provided Komodo dragons with long-term and substantial nutritional subsidies as a consequence of feeding and human food refuse. However, we also noted the potential negative consequences of altered behaviour and adult-biased populations in ecotourism areas which may influence demographic processes through intraspecific competition or predation. To address this issue, we recommend that three management strategies to be implemented in future include: (1) removal of human-mediated nutritional subsidies, (2) alternative ecotourism, and (3) spatial regulation of ecotourism. Furthermore, we advocate the development of approaches to achieve a socio–ecological sustainability that benefits both people and wildlife conservation.
... Continuous study on the sal forest has been focused the most widely accepted mean of sal forest conservation supported by national and international researchers (Hales, 1989;Sekhar, 2003;Walpole et al., 2001). Study findings revealed that the respondents in the study area varied with age, education occupation, annual income and family size (Table 1 and Fig.1). ...
... Furthermore, different developing countries are facing a similar problem in providing sufficient funding for regular maintenance and sustainable management (Krug, 2000). Keeping in view all the benefits in implementing STM in PAs and to solve managerial problems of PAs, many scholars (Nepal, 2000;Walpole et al., 2001;Eagles et al., 2002;Jayawardena, 2003;Bushell and Eagles, 2006;Plummer and Fennell, 2009;Jamal and Stronza, 2009;Jonathon, 2012;Yadav et al., 2016) have addressed the ongoing challenges and other management issues. ...
Article
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Purpose This study is intended to explore the barriers to sustainable tourism management (STM) implementation in a Protected Area (PA) of a developing country, India by taking a case study of National Chambal Sanctuary (NCS). Design/methodology/approach The research develops a framework to analyse the interaction among a set of barriers of STM using the interpretive structural modelling (ISM) approach. Findings In this study, 16 relevant barriers responsible for the failure of STM in Indian scenario have been selected. Lack of coordination among various stakeholders and lack of government incentives are found as the most significant barriers among the selected barriers of STM implementation in the sanctuary. Research limitations/implications This study provides most influencing barriers and how these barriers hinder the sustainability efforts in NCS. The study’s main limitation is its generalisation. The problems in implementing sustainable practices may differ with the region. Practical implications This research study provides strong practical inferences, for both practitioners as well as academicians. The practitioners are suggested to focus on identified barriers and formulating strategies to achieve sustainability in the tourism sector. Academicians may propose the solutions and necessary interventions for identified barriers. Originality/value Identification and presentation of barriers to STM implementation in the context of a protected area are rare to find in literature.
... In developing countries, where public funds are limited and new areas are being conferred protected area status, development of such mechanisms is of critical importance for the sustainable management of these areas (Becken & Job, 2014;Chen & Jim, 2012;Karanth & DeFries, 2011;Mitchell, Wooliscroft, & Higham, 2013). Park activity and entrance fees are often important sources of revenue for park operations and maintenance as public budget allocations to protected areas are commonly insufficient (Manning, 1999;Walpole, Goodwin, & Ward, 2001;Whitelaw et al., 2014). Furthermore, park fees can help compensate for the opportunity cost of protected areas (Buckley, 2003). ...
Article
Rwanda's Nyungwe National Park is a biodiversity hotspot with the most endemic species in the ecoregion and the highest number of threatened species internationally. Nyungwe supplies critical ecosystem services to the Rwandan population including water provisioning and tourism services. Tourism in the Park has strong potential for financing enhanced visitor experiences and the sustainable management of the Park. This paper explores quantitatively the economic impacts of adjustment in Park visitation fees and tourism demand as a source of revenues to improve Park tourism opportunities and ongoing operations and maintenance. The methods developed in this paper are novel in integrating the results of stated preference techniques with a regional computable general equilibrium modelling approach to capture multisectoral, direct, indirect and induced impacts. Such methods have strong potential for assessing revenue generation alternatives in other contexts where park managers are faced with the need to generate additional revenue for sustainable park management while facing diminishing budget allocations. Results of this analysis demonstrate that adjustment of Park fees has a relatively small impact on the regional economy and well-being when compared with a strategy aimed at generating increased tourism demand through investment in improving the visitor experience at Nyungwe National Park.
... There are many works that study the impact of visitors in tourist sites with protection interests such as Geoparks and other geological sites [19][20][21][22], museums [18] and other cultural and archaeological sites [16,17,23,24]. ...
Article
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The characterization of the microclimatic conditions is fundamental for the preventive conservation of archaeological sites. In this context, the identification of the factors that influence the thermo-hygrometric equilibrium is key to determine the causes of cultural heritage deterioration. In this work, a characterization of the thermo-hygrometric conditions of Casa di Diana (Ostia Antica, Italy) is carried out analyzing the data of temperature and relative humidity recorded by a system of sensors with high monitoring frequency. Sensors are installed in parallel, calibrated and synchronized with a microcontroller. A data set of 793,620 data, arranged in a matrix with 66,135 rows and 12 columns, was used. Furthermore, the influence of human impact (visitors) is evaluated through a multiple linear regression model and a logistic regression model. The visitors do not affect the environmental humidity as it is very high and constant all the year. The results show a significant influence of the visitors in the upset of the thermal balance. When a tourist guide takes place, the probability that the hourly temperature variation reaches values higher than its monthly average is 10.64 times higher than it remains equal or less to its monthly average. The analysis of the regression residuals shows the influence of outdoor climatic variables in the thermal balance, such as solar radiation or ventilation.
... In recent years, protected areas have become some of the most popular tourist destinations (Walpole & Goodwin 2001). Tourist activities in these areas are different from the other types of tourism in natural areas. ...
Article
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Protected areas have great tourism potential thanks to their natural and cultural richness. For this reason, areas worldwide that are protected at various levels draw interest, and some have been opened to tourism. In this study, I examine the natural and social tourism potentials of Tunca Valley Natural Park in Turkey (established in 2013) and the types of tourist activities that could be developed there. The park attracts interest both for its natural features (rivers, glacial lakes, flora and fauna) as well as for its traditional settlements and culture. Various tourist activities, including physical activities, camping, wildlife observation and cultural tourism, could be developed within an integrated management plan in line with the principles of sustainable tourism.
... Notably, tourism supported 277 million jobs in 2014, which is 1 in 11 of the world's total jobs (World Travel and Tourism Council [WTTC], 2015). However, there is concern of the effectiveness of using tourism to deliver economic development and conservation objectives (Goodwin & Santilli, 2009;Shibia, 2010;Walpole, Goodwin, & Ward, 2001). ...
Article
A prerequisite for the sustainability of protected areas in Africa is the meaningful inclusion of local populations in conservation and tourism. This has been demonstrated in numerous destinations where communities receive benefits from tourism in terrestrial protected areas, they are more inclined to view it positively and conserve natural resources. This paper presents a review of revenue-sharing literature, and also an analysis of the evidence of quantified benefits accrued by local communities in Africa through institutional arrangements to share revenue or finance development projects by (1) protected areas, and (2) tourism enterprises. The review highlights the challenges of revenue sharing as well as four key components of successful revenue-sharing systems: (1) economic benefits must be clearly identified and communicated, (2) benefits are appropriate to the scale of threats to biodiversity, (3) involvement of communities in decision-making on the structure and process of the distribution system, and also how the revenues are used and (4) sufficient regulatory and institutional support is necessary to develop clear objectives, aims, goals and responsibilities. This paper constitutes the first multi-country, multi-scheme analysis of revenue sharing in terrestrial African protected areas.
... Notably, tourism supported 277 million jobs in 2014, which is 1 in 11 of the world's total jobs (World Travel and Tourism Council [WTTC], 2015). However, there is concern of the effectiveness of using tourism to deliver economic development and conservation objectives (Goodwin & Santilli, 2009;Shibia, 2010;Walpole, Goodwin, & Ward, 2001). ...
Article
Protected areas (PAs) are one way of conserving biodiversity, and ecosystem services and human well-being and are now recognized as an integral part of sustainable development strategies. Over the past four decades there has been a ten-fold increase in the number of protected areas globally. Increasingly however, park management agencies do not have sufficient funds to finance their conservation management activities, and most governments do not fund PA budgets fully. Furthermore, efforts to determine how much money is spent or required for PA financing has been hampered by significant data shortages, especially in the most underfunded countries as many are still unable to quantify the relative adequacy of their levels of conservation finance. This research assesses the extent to which tourism contributes towards biodiversity financing for PA management in southern African countries. It analyzes Fifth National Country Reports (produced in 2014/2015) submitted to the Convention for Biological Diversity produced for all southern African countries to determine the actual contribution of tourism to overall PA financing. It highlights that although tourism is a significant revenue source for PA authorities in southern Africa, how it is retained and reinvested back into conservation management remains ambiguous. The incompleteness and inconsistency of national level reporting presents a missed opportunity for justifying greater financing support.
... Our study differs from previous ones (e.g. Richer and Christensen, 1999;Dharmaratne et al., 2000;Walpole et al., 2001;Lee and Han, 2002;Baral et al., 2008;Reynisdottir et al., 2008) in two main points. First, it captures potential uncertainty in WTP responses by giving respondents the opportunity to report their values as a point estimate or an interval. ...
Article
Establishment of protected areas (PAs) is a key point in national and international biodiversity conservation strategies. Economic theory suggests that their implementation is socially desirable if the benefit-cost ratio is at least equal to one. However, several PAs that have passed the cost-benefit analysis test, have failed to be functional due to financing difficulties. Successful implementation of PAs requires the adoption of adequate funding mechanisms likely to recover (even in part) the expected benefits. Entrance fees may help to capture the recreational benefits. Using the contingent valuation method, this paper explores the possibility of generating revenue for future NRs in the Gulf of Morbihan (France) through imposing tourist entrance fees. Different pricing systems (comparative rate pricing, unitary pricing and differential pricing) are analysed under three potential pricing purposes: (1) maximizing revenue; (2) prioritizing equity; (3) both generating "sufficient" revenue and promoting equity. The results show that the differential pricing is the most appropriate choice. However, the fall in the demand remains relatively high under this pricing system. This might cause reduction in revenue for tourism businesses related to the NRs. Options to mitigate this impact are suggested. Keywords: Contingent valuation; Nature-based tourism; Entrance fee; Protected Area Finance Full text: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1UbIi3Hb~073ZN
... It can also help recover the cost associated with establishing and managing parks, as well as compensate for the opportunity costs associated with preserving and protecting sites (Buckley, 2003). Modifications to the fee structure can also help avoid loss of revenue, prevent underproduction of park services, address the relatively high overhead cost associated with charging no fee or too low a fee (Walpole, Goodwin, & Ward, 2001;Whitelaw, King, & Tolkach, 2014). This is valuable especially when there are competing needs, including development projects, for limited funds available to decision makers and park managers (Adams et al., 2008;Baral, Stern, & Bhattarai, 2008). ...
Article
Policymakers and recreation site managers use changes in fee structure, either introducing park entrance fees or increasing existing ones, to generate revenues, improve services, and reduce damages associated with over-use. Increase in park usage fee, however, can make the park inaccessible to certain segments of tourists. Understanding park users' response to changes in fees and its implication on park use equity is, thus, important to achieving a park's full potential in a socially and environmentally responsible way. This information is crucial especially for developing countries, where the issue has received relatively less attention and national park systems are chronically underfunded. This paper contributes to the literature on park access fees by: empirically assessing park use equity between and among international and national tourists visiting Nyungwe National Park, Rwanda, and; developing an approach for determining predictors and mean willingness to pay values for park entrance. Results of our survey-based approach show a positive willingness to pay values for park entrance and fee increases. Our results also show that it is possible to raise revenue without exacerbating existing park use differences.
... Most ecotourists are usually willing to pay directly for forest preservation in the form of park entrance fees and the hiring of local guides. The generated revenue can be allocated to the continuation of park protection, park expansion and maintenance, as well as the necessary training of guides (Walpole et al., 2001). Many new employment opportunities arise with the establishment of protected areas, including: working as wildlife guide, spotter, or protector of park boundaries; employee in service areas like restaurants, hotel accommodations, or as a driver; manufacturer or salesman of local arts and handicrafts; or as worker in park maintenance, including the construction of campsites, buildings, and infrastructure. ...
Thesis
Tropical forests are facing an unprecedented number of threats worldwide and many species are in decline. The survival of lemurs, a diverse group of primates in Madagascar, is highly threatened by human disturbances. I examined the responses of these endemic primates to forest logging. Although anthropogenic disturbances have long-lasting effects on forest structure and composition, regenerating forests have considerable conservation potential as lemur habitat and facilitate coexistence of closely-related lemur species. However, disturbances may exert stress on lemurs and influence the presence of nematodes and microbiota composition and can affect the animals’ resistance against diseases. Some lemur species only appear to survive in undisturbed forests, others prefer selectively-logged forests. But very few can live without forests. Proper conservation actions, based on the results of this thesis, can help to ensure the long-term viability of lemurs, keeping the raft called Madagascar, including its unique flora and fauna, afloat.
... These seven national parks under the management of MoEF have shown a steady increase in domestic and international visits from 2012-2018, with 3.4 million to 7.3 million domestic visits and 216,000 to 511,000 international visits, exceeding the target of 4 million visitors a year (Figure 8. 2B Dirjen KSDAE 2016Kemenhut RI 2012 MMAF and MoEF have given particular attention to marine tourism as a sustainable financing mechanism and to provide livelihoods for local communities within MPAs (Gallegos, Vaahtera, and Wolfs 2005;Kurniawan et al. 2016;Pradati 2017) via national development laws (UU RI No. 5/1990, No. 31/2004juncto No. 45/2009, No. 26/2007; and government regulations (PP RI No. 36/2010, No. 60/2007. Many MPAs under MoEF implemented an entrance fee system more than 20 years ago to support sustainable financing for each MPA (Walpole, Goodwin, and Ward 2001), while only a few MMAF MPAs applied a similar entrance fee system in the last several years. Since 2014, nontax state income from entrance fees from seven MPAs under MoEF has increased each year, with a steep hike from 2017 to 2018 (Figure 8.2B). ...
Chapter
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Good governance is one of the principles to ensure the effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas (MPA) management. Governance refers to the formal and informal structures and processes, agencies, and institutions, technical expertise, and traditions that shape management. This could refer to the national and local legislative and regulatory frameworks, the roles and responsibilities of different agencies and individuals, and the processes and relationships through which these are carried out. Management on the other hand, comprises the different tools available to the management authority. This chapter discusses the formal governance – which is governance by government – of MPAs in Indonesia in term of institutional framework and the current challenges. Global MPA governance will be provided as a sharing experience.
... Ecotourism from such areas provides a platform to generate substantial benefits for both governments and the local communities. The extent to which nature-based tourism or ecotourism offsets the costs of a PA has been examined in very few cases (Walpole et al., 2000). ...
Article
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India is one of the 17 mega biodiverse countries, occupying only 2.5 % of the world’s geographical area and 1.8 % of the its forest area but supporting 16 % of the world’s human population and 17 % of its livestock population. Biotic pressure on the country’s protected areas is tremendous and managers of these areas face an uphill task in balancing divergent needs of different stakeholders of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. The job of managing such areas is highly challenging because of the many difficult issues such as human–wildlife conflicts, encroachments, overgrazing, tourists’ pressure (including pilgrimages into the forests), poaching, and an ever–increasing demand for diversion of protected areasfor development purposes. In the present article we discuss some of these issues with reference to India and emphasise the danger of losing ecosystem services (mostly of an intangible or regulating kind of nature) emanating out of these protected areas.
... These seven national parks under the management of MoEF have shown a steady increase in domestic and international visits from 2012-2018, with 3.4 million to 7.3 million domestic visits and 216,000 to 511,000 international visits, exceeding the target of 4 million visitors a year (Figure 8. 2B Dirjen KSDAE 2016Kemenhut RI 2012 MMAF and MoEF have given particular attention to marine tourism as a sustainable financing mechanism and to provide livelihoods for local communities within MPAs (Gallegos, Vaahtera, and Wolfs 2005;Kurniawan et al. 2016;Pradati 2017) via national development laws (UU RI No. 5/1990, No. 31/2004juncto No. 45/2009, No. 26/2007; and government regulations (PP RI No. 36/2010, No. 60/2007. Many MPAs under MoEF implemented an entrance fee system more than 20 years ago to support sustainable financing for each MPA (Walpole, Goodwin, and Ward 2001), while only a few MMAF MPAs applied a similar entrance fee system in the last several years. Since 2014, nontax state income from entrance fees from seven MPAs under MoEF has increased each year, with a steep hike from 2017 to 2018 (Figure 8.2B). ...
... Protected areas, however, normally charge the users very less and thus, are not able to capture most of the value placed by the visitors (Walpole, Goodwin & Ward, 2001). In reality, the visitors hold high consumer surplus which is evident from many studies that show considerably high willingness to pay of visitors. ...
Conference Paper
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Measuring peoples’ WTP is a common approach for economic valuation of public goods or environmental amenities such as national parks. Such valuation helps in environmental accounting and assessment of costs and benefits for proper allocation of resources. It also assists in policy formulation and pricing decisions. This paper addresses the issue of willingness to pay (WTP) of visitors for access to Kaziranga National Park. The primary aim of the study was to examine the relationship of visitors’ profile and visit characteristics with their WTP for higher admission fees at the park. An attempt has been made to understand whether visitors’ profile or characteristics have any bearing on their WTP decision or whether different visitors contrast in their willingness to pay for the national park. Data were gathered through a contingent valuation survey of adult visitors to the park. A questionnaire was developed for the purpose and administered on 124 respondents. Analysis was done in the SPSS package using correlation, ANOVA and independent sample t-test. The study observed significant differences among certain classes of visitors in terms of their WTP and the determining variables.
... These seven national parks under the management of MoEF have shown a steady increase in domestic and international visits from 2012-2018, with 3.4 million to 7.3 million domestic visits and 216,000 to 511,000 international visits, exceeding the target of 4 million visitors a year (Figure 8. 2B Dirjen KSDAE 2016Kemenhut RI 2012 MMAF and MoEF have given particular attention to marine tourism as a sustainable financing mechanism and to provide livelihoods for local communities within MPAs (Gallegos, Vaahtera, and Wolfs 2005;Kurniawan et al. 2016;Pradati 2017) via national development laws (UU RI No. 5/1990, No. 31/2004juncto No. 45/2009, No. 26/2007; and government regulations (PP RI No. 36/2010, No. 60/2007. Many MPAs under MoEF implemented an entrance fee system more than 20 years ago to support sustainable financing for each MPA (Walpole, Goodwin, and Ward 2001), while only a few MMAF MPAs applied a similar entrance fee system in the last several years. Since 2014, nontax state income from entrance fees from seven MPAs under MoEF has increased each year, with a steep hike from 2017 to 2018 (Figure 8.2B). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Good governance is a key indicator for effective management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Community involvement is an integral part of this governance. Community involvement is important to ensure that people’s inclusive rights in the sustainable use of marine resources can be fulfilled, that knowledge and practices of community-based management (customary and modern society) are recognized and accommodated in MPA management plans. This chapter provides an introduction to the principles of governance and how they are applied within the formal Indonesian MPA context. This includes literature review and case studies on how communities are involved in MPA governance, and the importance of community ownership and appropriateness to the local context. The final section of this chapter highlights opportunities for an increased role that communities can play in the governance of MPAs in Indonesia. With a rich and diverse history of local and customary wisdom for managing marine resources, there are opportunities to revitalize and transform customary institutions to co-manage effective and inclusive MPAs to achieve positive conservation and socio-economic outcomes.
... Increasing entrance fees to tourist sites may raise the operating revenues of those sites, but it may also result in a decrease in visitation (Walpole, Goodwin, et al., 2001) and could further lead to unnecessary administrative costs and may harm scenic areas' profits (United States Department of the Interior[USDI] & United States Department of Agriculture [USDA], 2001). Previous research has reported that excessively high entrance fees may even harm the overall social welfare (Knapman & Stoeckl, 1995). ...
... These seven national parks under the management of MoEF have shown a steady increase in domestic and international visits from 2012-2018, with 3.4 million to 7.3 million domestic visits and 216,000 to 511,000 international visits, exceeding the target of 4 million visitors a year (Figure 8. 2B Dirjen KSDAE 2016Kemenhut RI 2012 MMAF and MoEF have given particular attention to marine tourism as a sustainable financing mechanism and to provide livelihoods for local communities within MPAs (Gallegos, Vaahtera, and Wolfs 2005;Kurniawan et al. 2016;Pradati 2017) via national development laws (UU RI No. 5/1990, No. 31/2004juncto No. 45/2009, No. 26/2007; and government regulations (PP RI No. 36/2010, No. 60/2007. Many MPAs under MoEF implemented an entrance fee system more than 20 years ago to support sustainable financing for each MPA (Walpole, Goodwin, and Ward 2001), while only a few MMAF MPAs applied a similar entrance fee system in the last several years. Since 2014, nontax state income from entrance fees from seven MPAs under MoEF has increased each year, with a steep hike from 2017 to 2018 (Figure 8.2B). ...
Book
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Marine Protected Areas Management in Indonesia: Status and Challenges report is a part of the MPA Vision framework for 2030, initiated by MMAF (The Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries of Indonesia) along with a consortium of NGOs (WWF-Indonesia, CTC, WCS-IP, YKAN, CII, RARE). It is intended to review the status and trends of marine protected areas in Indonesia. The document uses a knowledge based approach in describing the condition of marine protected areas in Indonesia, with four main topics, namely: (1) marine protected areas Governance in Indonesia; (2) marine protected areas Implementation in Indonesia – Progress Towards National and Global Targets; (3) Balancing Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use in marine protected areas; and (4) Building the marine protected areas Network – New Threats and Approaches to Improve marine protected areas Outcomes.
... However, a study by Hall and Piggin (2001) found that this status is believed to also contribute to the popularity of tourism destinations among visitors. KNP funding sources were recorded in the work by Walpole, Goodwin, and Kari (2001) who revealed the primary funding of the park came from the government. This fund was used for regular expenditure, such as "staff wages, equipment, maintenance, and transport" (p.220). ...
Thesis
The importance of understanding visitors’ experiences has been acknowledged in the tourism field. It is believed that in order to create a successful tourism destination, the local tourism government, management, and providers should explore visitors’ motivations, expectations, satisfaction, and what kind of experiences and benefits visitors want to gain. Thus, destination managers and tourism providers have applied research conducted by tourism scholars into visitors’ experiences in a variety of tourism settings. However, little research has focused on national parks as a tourism destination in a conservation area. This area may be under-researched as the development may be perceived as a threat to the conservation agenda. In fact, tourism development in national parks may have positive impacts for the local community of the nation, and for the park itself by providing a support to its environmental preservation. Studies have shown that tourism has occurred since the early establishment of national parks. In addition to that, nature-based tourism is a significant source of income in the tourism industry of developing countries. Thus, in most cases, tourism activities in national parks are inevitable. Nevertheless, only little attention has been paid to tourism development in national parks in developing countries in Asia, especially in Indonesia. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the experiences of visitors to a national park in Indonesia, namely Komodo National Park (KNP), as an example of nature-based tourism in a conservation area in Asia. The knowledge gained from this study can be used to improve the quality of visitors’ experiences by maximising the product development of the site, and to strengthen visitors’ support of sustainable tourism practices. This study adopts a qualitative interpretivist approach. It focuses on the examination of visitors’ motivations, expectations, satisfaction, and on understanding the benefits that visitors gain from visiting the park. The method used involved the collection of 31 semi-structured interviews and 26 photographs. The data were described and analysed using qualitative content analysis, which was then applied to the ASEB Grid Analysis concept. The results highlight that the environmental setting is a strong influential factor in visitors’ motivations to visit the park. This aspect also has a strong influence on visitors’ satisfaction. Furthermore, visitors indicated that wilderness encounters were a strong influential factor that motivated them to visit the park. The study also found that the experiences exceeded visitors’ expectations, due to the opportunity to engage in multiple activities in one location. The findings indicate some weaknesses and threats to the site that were identified by the visitors, but all of them expressed satisfaction towards their overall experiences. The benefits gained by visitors from their leisure experiences in KNP include immediate benefits, such as learning benefits, improved mood, and mindfulness benefits. In addition to that, visitors also gained long-term benefits which come from self-reflection that triggers personal growth, such as changing habits to be more environmentally conscious, and increasing self-esteem. From the analysis, opportunities arise for the park’s management to create a better quality of visitors’ experiences including adding more variation in educational activities.
... The literature on the relationship between sustainable livelihoods and MPAs has focussed on sustainable capture fisheries management (Adhuri et al., 2015;Christie, 2004;McLeod et al., 2009;White et al., 2021) and eco-tourism (Cochrane, 2006;Fauzi and Buchary, 2002;Walpole et al., 2001). Very few studies have examined the sustainability of fish farming or mariculture in Indonesian MPAs, particularly for multi-purpose MPAs where economic activities can be carried out, albeit under controlled conditions. ...
Article
Mariculture is viewed by some as an unsustainable economic activity in marine protected areas (MPAs). Surprisingly, no study has confirmed or rejected the veracity of the view. In Indonesia's multi-purpose MPAs, mariculture is considered as part of the local communities' livelihood and resilience strategy. This study aimed to determine whether small-scale fish farming, along with small-scale fisheries and eco-tourism, contributes to the livelihood sustainability of communities in Indonesia's small island MPAs, and if the practice is compatible with the overall MPA objectives. The study was conducted in the Anambas Archipelago MPA and interviewed 66 respondents from three household groups (small-scale fish farmers, fishers, and eco-tourism operators) from 15 villages. A closed- and open-ended questionnaire was developed to determine the sustainability profile of each livelihood group. The questionnaire consisted of 75 questions representing the sustainability indicators (SIs) of the five capital assets described in the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (SLF). The SIs were measured using a Likert-scale and a Likert-type scale with multiple scales. The data were standardised using linear transformation and aggregated to calculate the SIs composite values. The study found that the livelihood sustainability of the small-scale fish farmer group is comparable to small-scale fisher and tourism operator groups. Interestingly, the fish farmer group outperformed the other two groups in relation to human capital assets by developing a strong social network. Small-scale fish farmer, fisher and eco-tourism operator groups have a composite sustainability index value of 0.55, 0.61, and 0.50, respectively, categorised as intermediate sustainability. This study concluded that the sustainability profile of each livelihood group could be improved for the specific underperforming capital assets by increasing support from the government and MPA authority.
... Ahebwa, van der Duim, & Sandbrook, 2011;Alexander, 2000;Bauer, 2003;Chandralal, 2010;Currie, 2001;Emptaz-Collomb, 2009;Gillingham & Lee, 1999;Hulme & Murphree, 2001;Infield, 1988;Lepp, 2007;Mbaiwa, 2004aMbaiwa, , 2004bMehta & Heinen, 2001;Mehta & Heinen, 2001;Sekhar, 2003;Snyman, 2014;Tumusiime & Vedeld, 2012;Wang & Pfister, 2008;Waylen, McGowan, Pawi Study Group, & Milner-Gulland, 2009;Weladji et al., 2003;Yitbarek, Tadie, Timer, & Fisher, 2013). For those community members not receiving direct benefits from tourism, the perception or belief that they could receive benefits in the future can also serve as a motivating factor in instilling positive attitudes (Walpole, Goodwin, & Ward, 2001). This anticipation of future benefits could also explain the initial enthusiasm of communities towards tourism operations (Alexander, 2000;Doxey, 1975;Sekhar, 2003). ...
... As revealed by the visitors' responses, "cost of the safari ride" is the top priority for corrective management action at BNP since it was the least performed attribute which had the highest negative performance gap. Credibility concerns can be raised especially among foreign visitors, because of the present discrepancy in prices of safari rides and two-tiered pricing adopted by private safari vehicle owners at the destination, and this can result in visitor dissatisfaction (Laarman and Gregersen, 1996;Walpole et al., 2001). Hence, safari ride operations should be standardised by encouraging the service providers to clearly communicate the tour package details via printed, verbal and online means, thus the visitors will be well-informed about the tour before making the purchasing decisions. ...
Article
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With the rising demand for nature-based tourism in coastal environments in biodiversity rich tropical countries such as Sri Lanka, an understanding on visitor perceptions on nature-based tourism performance is vital to ensure sustainable destination development. Bundala National Park (BNP) is one of the famous tourist destinations which attracts both local and foreign wildlife tourists. However, given the diverse biodiversity features, the wildlife tourism operations at BNP has the potential for sustainable growth. An understanding of the visitor perceptions on current performance of the destination, and visitor expectations is essential in making informed decisions to bridge the performance-expectation gap and develop strategies for sustainable wildlife tourism development based on coastal wetlands in BNP. This study used the Importance-Performance Analysis aided by a self-reporting structured questionnaire to understand visitor motivation, onsite activities and perceptions on the tourism experience. Respondents rated ‘to be in a natural setting’ as their main motivation for visiting this destination (79.6%), followed by ‘to observe ecological landscape’ (60.8%), and ‘to learn more about new things/ nature’ (45.3%). Viewing wildlife (92.8%), enjoying safari rides (88.4%), and bird watching (82.9%) were the most popular activities among visitors. Gap Analysis IPA identified significant negative gaps in attributes such as ‘cost of the safari tour’, ‘feeling safe on the safari ride’, ‘guide’s knowledge about the park and flora and fauna’ as well as ‘behaviour of other visitors at the park’, where the performance was below visitor expectations (i.e. Performance < Importance). Overall result of the study highlights the importance of management/regulation of recreational activities and maintaining the quality of natural environment, to enhance the visitor experience and satisfaction. Management implications and recommendations are further discussed. Keywords: coastal tourism, importance, satisfaction, motivations, visitor perception, wildlife
Article
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This review attempts to present the most important problems raised by ecosystem services evaluation, together with the juridical framework needed for endorsing a long run system of payments. In Romania the legal framework wherein the payments for ecosystem services shall be implemented has been created by the all three Forest Acts adopted by the Parliament since 1996 and the article highlights the pitfalls of the legal provisions referring to these payments. The key-word of the two law articles referred to by the study is the fair price of the ecosystem services, a price which cannot be captured by the market since such a market doesn’t exist neither in Romania nor in other similar countries. Another important issue we have brought into discussion is the inappropriateness of any system of payments in the context of illegal cuttings, simply because the opportunity costs that shall be compensated doesn’t exist when illegal cuttings occur. Some methodological details are also presented in order to demonstrate that a fair price always depends on the context of evaluation and the statistical imprecision is inherent as long as the any evaluation is carried out on sample of data. However these monetary assessments can be used as economic arguments in any public debate or bargain between ecosystem services providers and users.
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Tata kelola yang baik merupakan salah satu pilar yang harus tersedia untuk memastikan efektivitas pengelolaan Kawasan Konservasi Perairan (KKP). Tata kelola mengacu pada struktur kelembagaan baik formal maupun informal, keahlian teknis, dan proses kerja yang membentuk sebuah pengelolaan. Hal ini bisa mengacu pada kerangka kerja legislasi dan peraturan baik nasional maupun lokal, serta peran dan tanggung jawab lembaga maupun individu dan interaksinya. Pengelolaan di sisi lain terdiri dari berbagai perangkat pengelolaan yang tersedia bagi lembaga pengelola. Bab ini akan membahas tata kelola KKP dilihat dari kelembagaan formal — tipe pengelolaan oleh pemerintah — kerangka kelembagaan dan tantangannya saat ini. Informasi mengenai tata kelola KKP di tingkat global disajikan sebagai sebuah pembelajaran.
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Laporan Pengelolaan Kawasan Konservasi Perairan di Indonesia: Status dan Tantangan merupakan bagian dari Dokumen MPA Vision 2030, yang diinisiasi oleh Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan bersama dengan konsorsium Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (WWF, CTC, WCS-IP, YKAN, CII, RARE), dalam rangka mengkaji status dan tren kawasan konservasi perairan di Indonesia. Laporan ini dibuat berdasarkan data dan informasi ilmiah dalam menguraikan status dan tren kondisi kawasan konservasi perairan di Indonesia dengan empat (4) bagian utama, yaitu: (1) Tata Kelola Kawasan Konservasi Perairan di Indonesia; (2) Implementasi Kawasan Konservasi Perairan di Indonesia – Kemajuan Terhadap Target Nasional dan Global; (3) Menyeimbangkan Konservasi Keanekaragaman Hayati dan Pemanfaatan Berkelanjutan di Kawasan Konservasi Perairan; dan (4) Membangun Jejaring Kawasan Konservasi Perairan – Ancaman dan Pendekatan Baru untuk Meningkatkan Capaian Kawasan Konservasi Perairan.
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Budući da izvori nafte i prirodnog plina nisu neiscrpni, postoji potreba za razvojem obnovljivih izvora energije. Osim same sigurnosti opskrbe energijom, jedan od glavnih ciljeva europske energetske politike usmjeren je na zaštitu okoliša kroz smanjenje potrošnje energije te povećanje korištenja obnovljivih izvora. Tijekom poljoprivredne proizvodnje, biomasa često ostaje na poljima ili u proizvodnom procesu kao nusprodukt kojeg treba zbrinuti, no istovremeno poljoprivredni otpad predstavlja i vrlo vrijedan izvor energije. U radu će biti dan opis procesa kojima se dobiva energija iz poljoprivrednog otpada. Korištenje poljoprivredne biomase u svrhu energije ima svoje prednosti i nedostatke, a kroz te dvije stavke bit će razjašnjeno zašto je poljoprivredna biomasa bolja za proizvodnju energije od konvencionalnog načina, odnosno, po čemu su fosilna goriva bolja za proizvodnju energije naspram poljoprivredne biomase. Zaključno, naglasak će biti stavljen na mogućnosti korištenja biomase iz poljoprivrednog otpada u kontekstu ekološke krize.
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Green" tourism in Regional Natural Parks (RNPs) is an important element for local development and environmental conservation. As tourism production and consumption could harm the environment, therefore, it is necessary to improve the relationship between visitors and the environment. RNPs Authorities play a key role in establishing and managing environmental conservation policies that enable to keep under control the risk of harming environmental resources. A limitation to such activities is a lack of adequate financial resources. Introducing an entry fee to visit park areas could be a way to reach financial autonomy and enhance environmental policies. This paper analyses visitors' willingness to pay (WTP) within the main RNPs of Sicily throughout a contingent valuation (CV) method. The final outcome of this survey indicates that most visitors are willing to pay an entry fee in order to better protect the environment. Although there is no fee to visit RNPs at the moment, our results indicate that there is an opportunity to introduce an entry fee. Classificazione JEL: Q5; F64; C33.
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1.Nature‐based recreation substantially benefits human wellbeing, for example, by improving physical and mental health. However, recreation can also have severe ecological impacts. The recreational value of landscapes and natural areas is often used to generate support for public spending in conservation. However, we still don't know whether nature‐based recreationists place greater recreational value on natural areas that have high conservation value compared to other green spaces. 2.Here, we determine which attributes of nature‐based tourism provide recreational services. We used pictures of wildlife posted on Flickr to quantify wildlife watching activities in Scotland. We then determined the environmental variables key to attracting wildlife watchers to a destination, such as protected areas (PAs), the perceived naturalness, and the presence of different types of infrastructure. 3.Infrastructure best predicts the intensity of wildlife watching activities in Scotland, while areas of high natural value are rarely used. PAs are weak attractors of wildlife watchers, with PAs designated to protect threatened habitats or species having low recreational value. In accessible and highly visited areas, higher biodiversity increases the intensity of wildlife watching activities. 4.Synthesis and applications. Areas of high natural and conservation value and areas of high recreational value do not tend to overlap. Recreational ecosystem services are mainly provided by the wider countryside and highly transformed landscapes, as opposed to wild ecosystems and protected areas designated to protect environmental features of high conservation value. These results question the synergy between the goals of recreation and those of conservation and the use of recreation as a justification for economic investment in conservation. During wildlife watching activities most people experience an urbanised, highly transformed nature; it will be important to determine how this human‐dominated nature can influence support for conservation of wild and remote areas. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
The Vulnerable snow leopard Panthera uncia experiences persecution across its habitat in Central Asia, particularly from herders because of livestock losses. Given the popularity of snow leopards worldwide, transferring some of the value attributed by the international community to these predators may secure funds and support for their conservation. We administered contingent valuation surveys to 406 international visitors to the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal, between May and June 2014, to determine their willingness to pay a fee to support the implementation of a Snow Leopard Conservation Action Plan. Of the 49% of visitors who stated they would pay a snow leopard conservation fee in addition to the existing entry fee, the mean amount that they were willing to pay was USD 59 per trip. The logit regression model showed that the bid amount, the level of support for implementing the Action Plan, and the number of days spent in the Conservation Area were significant predictors of visitors’ willingness to pay. The main reasons stated by visitors for their willingness to pay were a desire to protect the environment and an affordable fee. A major reason for visitors’ unwillingness to pay was that the proposed conservation fee was too expensive for them. This study represents the first application of economic valuation to snow leopards, and is relevant to the conservation of threatened species in the Annapurna Conservation Area and elsewhere.
Preprint
Green" tourism in Regional Natural Parks (RNPs) is an important element for local development and environmental conservation. As tourism production and consumption could harm the environment, therefore, it is necessary to improve the relationship between visitors and the environment. RNPs Authorities play a key role in establishing and managing environmental conservation policies that enable to keep under control the risk of harming environmental resources. A limitation to such activities is a lack of adequate financial resources. Introducing an entry fee to visit park areas could be a way to reach financial autonomy and enhance environmental policies. This paper analyses visitors' willingness to pay (WTP) within the main RNPs of Sicily throughout a contingent valuation (CV) method. The final outcome of this survey indicates that most visitors are willing to pay an entry fee in order to better protect the environment. Although there is no fee to visit RNPs at the moment, our results indicate that there is an opportunity to introduce an entry fee. Classificazione JEL: Q5; F64; C33.
Article
Komodo National Park (PKA Balai Taman Nasional Komodo) was created on March 6, 1980. It includes 29 small islands scattered on the Flores sea with three straits. The three largest islands play the key role: Komodo, Rinca and Padar. This land is one of the many national parks in Indonesia, yet it stands out against other such locations. It is the only place in the world where we can find a unique, endemic species of the world's largest lizard - Komodo Dragon Komodo (Varanus komodoensis). ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Park Narodowy Komodo (PKA Balai Taman Nasional Komodo) utworzono 6 marca 1980 roku. Obejmuje on 29 małych wysp rozrzuconych po morzu Flores wraz z trzema cieśninami. Kluczową rolę odgrywają w nim trzy największe wyspy: Komodo, Rinca oraz Padar. Kraina ta jest jednym z wielu parków narodowych na terenie Indonezji, a jednak wyróżnia się na tle innych tego typu lokalizacji. Jest to bowiem jedyne na świecie miejsce, gdzie możemy spotkać wyjątkowy, endemiczny gatunek największej na świecie jaszczurki – varan z Komodo (Varanus komodoensis), zwanego często smokiem.
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Tata kelola yang baik merupakan salah satu indikator yang perlu dicapai dalam pengelolaan Kawasan Konservasi Perairan (KKP) yang efektif. Keterlibatan masyarakat merupakan bagian yang tak terpisahkan dalam tata kelola tersebut. Keterlibatan masyarakat penting untuk memastikan hak-hak inklusif masyarakat dalam pemanfaatan sumber daya laut secara berkelanjutan bisa terpenuhi, pengetahuan dan praktik pengelolaan berbasis masyarakat (masyarakat adat dan modern) diakui dan terakomodir dalam rencana pengelolaan KKP. Bab ini memberikan pengantar tentang prinsip tata kelola dan regulasi-regulasi yang terkait. Bagaimana masyarakat dapat dilibatkan dalam tata kelola, rasa kepemilikan, kepengurusan, dan kesesuaian dengan konteks lokal disajikan melalui kajian literatur dan studi kasus. Bagian terakhir dari bab ini menyoroti peluang yang muncul untuk peningkatan peran yang dapat dimainkan masyarakat dalam tata kelola KKP di Indonesia. Dengan sejarah yang kaya dan beragam terkait kearifan lokal maupun adat untuk mengelola sumber daya laut, ada peluang untuk merevitalisasi dan mentransformasi lembaga adat menjadi KKP yang efektif dan inklusif untuk mencapai hasil positif konservasi dan sosial ekonomi.
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Case studies included for value transfer functions. The table gives an overview of the case study references that were included for the boosted regression trees. (PDF)
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Indonesia, like many other developing countries, is turning to ecotourism in an attempt to integrate the goals of development and nature conservation. Although ecotourism may be a valuable tool for preservation of biodiversity, it can have long-term negative effects on reserves, wildlife and local communities if improperly managed. In this study the authors evaluated ecotourism in the Tangkoko DuaSudara Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi, by examining trends in visitor numbers, the tourist experience, the distribution of tourist revenues, and tourist impact on the Sulawesi black macaque Macaca nigra and spectral tarsier Tarsier spectrum. The data collected showed that, although tourism is expanding rapidly, local benefits are not being fully realized, the reserve does not generate enough money to implement management, and primate behaviour is being affected. There is urgent need for a change in legal status of the reserve if ecotourism is to be managed. National park status would accommodate ecotourism planning and development, provide for greater participation by the local community, and allow for increased revenues for management.
Article
National parks located in economically underdeveloped areas frequently face the problem of inadequate financing. Efficient park management, good organization, and control of park attendance, together with package tours, not only improve park financing but also contribute to the welfare of the area. The park is in Yugoslavia.-from Author
Article
Many observers voice the concern that ecotourism has not reached its potential as a tool of conservation or economic development. In an effort to expand ecotourism's contribution, this chapter outlines strategies for: setting tourism fees; using these fees to finance ecotourism development and traditional conservation management; and increasing ecotourism's contribution to the economic development of communities near ecotourism destinations. There is tremendous variation between locations not only with respect to the ecotourism attractions themselves but also with respect to socioeconomic and political conditions. Therefore, this chapter outlines basic principles, together with a mix of strategies for achieving common economic goals relating to ecotourism. Each location must determine its economic objectives and choose the management strategies which best meet those objectives. Information needs are discussed: effective management will require collection and utilization of basic data. -from Authors
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Visitors to publicly owned national parks, wildlife reserves and other natural areas pay entrance fees and other charges for their access and use. What principles and criteria contribute to an appropriate pricing policy? The answers to this are complex because of multiple pricing objectives, visitor categories, visitor activities, fee instruments and philosophical positions. In this review paper, these issues are examined from the perspective of public agencies that are working to improve their pricing practices. Pricing is a potentially powerful tool to move towards greater efficiency, fairness and environmentally sustainable management. To date, this tool is underutilized.
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Tourism in Zimbabwe relies heavily on the Parks and Wild Life Estate and associated wildlife populations, giving these resources a tangible value. Protected areas, competing with conventional agriculture for space, can be justified in the context of a developing country only if their total benefits remain competitive with other forms of land use. In this paper we argue that, by underselling the Parks and Wild Life Estate, Zimbabwe is discouraging the development of an economically important rural resource in favor of its less environmentally sustainable agricultural competitors. Low prices are threatening the retention of large protected areas and the very resources on which future tourism, as a desirable, sustainable form of land use, is likely to depend. Yet, wildlife‐based tourism provides one of the few ways to reverse the trend toward human destitution in Africa's marginal areas and provides a major justification for conserving Africa's wildlife.
Article
Nepal's spectacular parks and reserves have attracted dramatically increasing numbers of foreign visitors. It might be expected that these protected areas would be nurtured as valuable and irreplaceable economic assets. However they are becoming seriously degraded and the financial resources provided for their management have been inadequate. This paper explores why — starting with the hypothesis that so little of the economic value of protected area tourism in Nepal is captured through fees and other charges assessed on foreign visitors that the protected areas are perceived as being of inconsequential value. It is conservatively estimated that $27 million of tourists' total expenditure in Nepal were attributable to the protected area network in 1988, when the costs of managing the parks were less than $5 million but direct fees colleeted from tourists visiting the protected areas amounted to less than $1 million. These figures suggest the parks are a good investment. But it could also be argued that the costs of park management were more than five times the revenues collected by the government from park tourists. Policy measures are identified which could help Nepal increase the economic as well as environmental benefits from nature tourism. Case studies of Nepal's most-visited protected areas emphasize that the lack of funds for protected area management is not the only constraint on effective management. Some important economic and institutional interests have yet to be effectively reconciled with conservation in the protected areas. Most problematic are local people's economic aspirations and the operating practices of the principal government agencies involved — the Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation and the Ministry of Tourism. Fortunately there have recently been some encouraging signs of change within both of these agencies.
Article
Confining themselves to terrestrial protected areas (PAs) and considering in turn the benefits and costs of PAs to human society, the authors examine why most PAs were originally established, ways in which scientists have improved PA design, how theoretical and practical considerations must be reconciled in PA design. Because biological diversity is under great threat in tropical areas, most of which are in developing countries, the different implications for PA design between developed and developing countries are explored. -from Authors
Article
The financial returns to Kenyan tourism demonstrate the importance of the country's tourist potential to its economic development. Protected areas and their inhabitants are the principal focus of the tourist industry, the nations's main foreign exchange earner, and a source of wonder and value for a global population of non-users. It might be expected that such assets would be accorded some degree of security with sufficient funding to safeguard current and potential economic benefits. Yet park use is haphazard, and there is frequently little coincidence between those that benefit and those that pay for the continued existence of such areas. Growing economic and demographic pressures which threaten to swamp protected areas only emphasize the implicit subsidy currently paid by Kenyans to support conservation for the benefit of the world at large. In this climate the case for conservation depends on the measurement and capture of economic benefits. Using a contingent valuation survey of expressed preference this study estimates the consumer surplus attached to current non-consumptive use of protected areas by foreign visitors at some $450 million per annum. This sum alone is more than double the best available estimate of opportunity cost and appears to justify current resource use. The estimate is additional to current financial returns from tourism and makes no allowance for other direct and indirect benefits and potential returns from consumptive uses. Measured consumer surplus contains some margin of willingness to pay that could be captured through the current fee structure. Moreover, park fees represent the most accessible market mechanism to finance revenue sharing and additional park investment before potential recourse to emerging global market institutions.
Article
The travel clost method (TCM) and contingent valuation method (CVM) were used to evaluate the economic value of six different ecotourism activities involving observation of wildlife in Pennsylvania. The six activities were: catch-and-release trout fishing; catch-and-release trout fishing with fly-fishing equipment; viewing waterfowl; watching elk; observing migration flights of raptors; and seeing live wildlife in an environmental education setting. TCM results provided significant statistical relationships between level of use and travel costs for the two types of trout fishing activities. CVM provided estimates of consumer surplus for the other four sites. The consumers' surplus value (1988 dollars) of all six activities to participants amounted to a total of more than $1.28 million annually—twice the total out-of-pocket expenditures of approximately $1.28 million annually—twice the total out-of-pocket expenditures of approximately 640,000 spent to visit the sites. The economic amenity values of the six activities compare favorably with similarly derived values in other studies for hunting, fishing, hiking, and backpacking in dispersed recreation environments and wilderness areas in western states.