Article

Anti-obesity Effects of Sparassis crispa on High-fat Diet-induced Obese Mice

Authors:
  • Kaist Institute for the BioCentury
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Abstract

The present study investigated the anti-obesity effects of Sparassis crispa (SC) on mice fed a high-fat (HF, 45 kcal% fat) diet. Mice were fed either a normal control diet and an HF diet or an HF diet supplemented with SC (1%, 3%, and 5%) for 12 weeks. The consumption of an HF diet compared to the NC group resulted in increases in body weight, the food efficiency ratio (FER), retroperitoneal and subcutaneous fat weights, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, fecal fat, and liver lipids. However, the administration of SC significantly decreased body weight gain, food intake, FER, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and liver lipids in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, treatment with 5% SC significantly reduced the occurrence of fatty liver deposits and steatosis, which are associated with the increased adipocyte size in mice fed an HF diet. Therefore, these results suggested that dietary supplementation with SC exerts anti-obesity effects and could be used as a functional food to control obesity.

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... . 꽃송이버섯은 다당류가 풍부하고(3), 베타글루칸(βglucan) 함량이 건조중량 대비 40% 이상으로 풍부하여 (4,5), 면역 활성(6), 항암 (6,7), 항염 (8), 항비만 (9,10), 항균 및 항산화 (11) ...
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Sparassis crispa is an edible mushroom recently cultivable in Japan. Polysaccharide fractions were prepared from the cultured S. crispa by repeated extraction with hot water (SCHWE), cold NaOH (SCCA), and then hot NaOH (SCHA). HWE was further separated by 1 volume (SCHWE1v) or 4 volumes (SCHWE4v) of ethanol-precipitable fractions. By chemical, enzymic, and NMR analyses, the primary structures of SCHWE1v, SCCA, and SCHA were 6-branched 1,3-beta-glucan, having one branch in approximately every third mainchain unit. All of these fractions showed antitumor activity to the solid form of Sarcoma 180 in ICR mice with strong vascular dilation and hemorrhage reaction. These fractions also showed enhanced hematopoietic response to cyclophosphamide induced leukopenic mice following intraperitoneal or peroral administration.
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The rising prevalence of obesity is accompanied by an increasing number of patients with the metabolic complications of obesity. The major complications come under the heading of the metabolic syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by plasma lipid disorders (atherogenic dyslipidemia), raised blood pressure, elevated plasma glucose, and a prothrombotic state. The clinical consequences of the metabolic syndrome are coronary heart disease and stroke, type 2 diabetes and its complications, fatty liver, cholesterol gallstones, and possibly some forms of cancer. At the heart of the metabolic syndrome is insulin resistance, which represents a generalized derangement in metabolic processes. Obesity is the predominant factor leading to insulin resistance, although other factors play a role. The mechanistic link between insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome is complex. The relationship is modulated by yet other factors, such as physical activity, body fat distribution, hormones, and a person's genetic polymorphic architecture. A better understanding of the molecular basis of this relationship is needed to suggest new targets for prevention and treatment of the complications of obesity. In addition, understanding at the clinical level will lead to improved management of these complications.
Article
Sparassis crispa Fr. is an edible mushroom recently cultivable in Japan. It contains a remarkably high content of 6-branched 1,3-beta-D-glucan showing antitumor activity. Using ion-exchange chromatography, a purified beta-glucan preparation, SCG, was prepared. In this study, we examined the hematopoietic response by SCG in cyclophosphamide (CY)-induced leukopenic mice. SCG enhanced the hematopoietic response in CY induced leukopenic mice by intraperitoneal routes over a wide range of concentrations. SCG enhanced the hematopoietic response in CY-treated mice by prior or post administration. Analyzing the leukocyte population by flow cytometry, monocytes and granulocytes in the peritoneal cavity, liver, spleen and bone marrow (BM) recovered faster than in the control group. The ratio of natural killer cells and gammadelta T cells in the liver, spleen and peritoneal cavity was also increased. In contrast, CD4+ CD8+ cells in the thymus were temporarily significantly decreased by the administration of SCG. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) production of CY+SCG-treated peritoneal exdated cells (PECs), spleen cells and bone marrow cells (BMCs) were higher than that of the CY-treated group. By in vitro culture of CY-treated PEC and spleen cells, IL-6 production was enhanced by the addition of SCG. These facts suggested the possibility that IL-6 might be a key cytokine for the enhanced hematopoietic response by SCG.
Article
1. The effects of edible oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus on plasma and liver lipid profiles and on the plasma total anti-oxidant status were estimated in hyper- and normocholesterolaemic Long Evans rats. 2. The feeding of 5% powder of the fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus mushrooms to hypercholesterolaemic rats reduced their plasma total cholesterol by approximately 28%, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol by approximately 55%, triglyceride by approximately 34%, non-esterified fatty acid by approximately 30% and total liver cholesterol levels by > 34%, with a concurrent increase in plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration of > 21%. However, these effects were not observed in mushroom-fed normocholesterolaemic rats. 3. Mushroom feeding significantly increased plasma fatty acid unsaturation in both normo- and hypercholesterolaemic rats. 4. Plasma total anti-oxidant status, as estimated by the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis-[3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulphonic-acid], was significantly decreased in mushroom-fed hypercholesterolaemic rats, concomitant with a decrease in plasma total cholesterol. 5. The present study suggests that 5% P. ostreatus supplementation provides health benefits, at least partially, by acting on the atherogenic lipid profile in the hypercholesterolaemic condition.
Article
We have previously shown that the C57BL/6J (B6) mouse will develop obesity and diabetes if raised on a high-fat diet. Because high fat feeding is associated with hyperphagia, the present study was designed to separate the effects of fat from those of excess caloric consumption in this animal model. B6 mice were fed a low-fat diet (LF group) diet, high-fat diet (HF group) diet, or high-fat-restricted diet (HFR group), in which intake animals were pair-fed a high-fat diet to caloric level consumed by LF for 11 weeks. Within 3 weeks, HFR were significantly heavier than LF and, after 11 weeks, weight and glucose levels, but not insulin, were significantly increased in HFR when compared to LF. Body composition analysis showed the weight increase in HFR arose from an increase in percent fat consumed. We conclude that reducing the number of kilocalories consumed from a high-fat diet attenuates but does not prevent the development of type 2 diabetes and obesity in the B6 mouse.
Article
Sparassis crispa (SC, Hanabiratake), an edible mushroom which contains beta (1 --> 6) branched beta (1 --> 3) glucan in large quantities, was studied on its immunomodulative effect. As a result, (1) Tumor size of sarcoma 180-bearing mice was smaller than that of control group after 5 weeks by oral administration of SC, and thus their survival was prolonged. (2) By administering SC orally, a blood IgE level and scratching index of NC/Nga mice, which had been induced dermatitis by a continuous application of hapten, were decreased. (3) Human NK cell cytotoxicity was enhanced by oral administration of SC without increasing the number of NK cell. These results suggest that oral administration of SC activates Th1 cell, and inhibits Th2 cell activation, thus promotes a shift in the Th1/Th2 balance toward Th1-dominant immunity.
Article
Humans in many countries are currently experiencing what has been called an epidemic of obesity. That is, the average body weight (and amount of fat stored in the body) is increasing over years, carrying with it a multitude of associated medical, psychological, and economic problems. While there is no shortage of possible causes of this epidemic, increased availability and consumption of high-fat (HF), calorically dense and generally quite palatable food is often touted as a likely culprit. In order to better assess the impact of consuming a diet with those qualities, we have developed a well-controlled animal model in which the effects of chronic consumption of a high-fat diet can be dissociated from those of becoming obese per se. Long-Evans rats are fed one of two semipurified pelleted diets, a HF diet that contains 20% fat by weight and a low-fat (LF) diet that contains 4% fat by weight. Pair-fed animals consume the HF diet but are limited to the daily caloric intake of LF rats. Another group receives pelleted chow. Relative to animals consuming diets low in fat, HF animals weigh more, have more carcass fat, are hyperinsulinemic and hyperleptinemic, and are insulin resistant. HF-fed animals, independent of whether they become obese or not, also have central insulin and MTII insensitivity. Finally, HF rats have a down-regulated hypothalamic apo A-IV system that could contribute to their hyperphagia.
Article
The First Law of Thermodynamics provides a framework for understanding the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure that produces obesity, but it does not help understand the role of genetics, the regulation of food intake, the distribution of body fat, the mechanisms by which diets work or the mechanism by which portion control has gotten out of control. In animals, increasing dietary fat increases body fat, and it is unlikely that humans escape this important biological rule. In epidemiological studies, increasing dietary fat is associated with increased prevalence of obesity probably by increasing the intake of energy dense foods. In the National Weight Loss Registry, three things were associated with weight loss: continued monitoring of food intake, lowering dietary fat intake, and increased exercise. The relation of dietary fat is most evident when physical activity is low. The speed of adaptation to dietary fat is increased by exercise. When dietary fat is reduced, weight is lost, but weight loss eventually plateaus. The rate of weight loss during the initial phase is about 1.6 g/day for each 1% decrease in fat intake. When dietary fat is replaced with olestra to reduce fat intake from 33% to 25% in obese men, weight loss continues for about 9 months reaching a maximum of nearly 6% of body weight and a loss of 18% of initial body fat. In the control group with a 25% reduced-fat diet, weight loss stopped after 3 months and was regained over the next 6 months, indicating the difficulty of adhering to a conventional low-fat diet. Thus, dietary fat is an important contributor to obesity in some people.
Article
Differential meal fat uptake into adipose tissue depots may be a determinant of body fat distribution. We used the meal fat tracer/adipose tissue biopsy approach to compare the effects of meal fat content on the fat uptake into visceral and upper and lower body subcutaneous fat depots in 21 premenopausal women. [(3)H]triolein was used to trace the fate of fatty acids from a normal-fat or high-fat meal. The proportion of dietary fat uptake into the three depots did not differ between meals; visceral fat accounted for only approximately 5% of meal fat disposal irrespective of visceral fat mass. For the women consuming the normal-fat meal, the uptake of meal fatty acid into femoral fat (milligrams meal fat per gram lipid) increased as a function of leg fat mass (r = 0.68, P < 0.05), which we interpret as increased efficiency of uptake. The opposite pattern was seen in omental fat with the normal-fat meal and in all depots after the high-fat meal. For both meals, approximately 40% of meal fat was oxidized ((3)H(2)O production) after 24 h. We conclude that greater thigh adipose tissue in women is associated with greater efficiency of meal fat storage under conditions of energy balance, whereas the opposite is seen with visceral fat. These findings imply that different mechanisms may regulate fatty acid uptake in different depots, which may in turn impact on body fat distribution.
Article
SCG, a purified beta-d-glucan, obtained from Sparassis crispa, exhibits various biological activities including an antitumor effect, enhancement of the hematopoietic response in cyclophosphamide-induced leukopenic mice, and induction of the production of cytokines. The mechanisms of these effects have been extensively investigated; however, an unambiguous structural characterization of SCG is yet to be achieved. It is well accepted that the biological effects of beta-glucan depend on its primary structures, conformation, and molecular weight. In the present study, we examine the difference of biological effects among beta-glucans, elucidate the primary structure of SCG, and compare with SPG from Schizophyllum commune using NMR spectroscopy. Our data reveal that SCG but not SPG induce cytokine production from bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and their major structural units are a beta-(1-->3)-d-glucan backbone with single beta-(1-->6)-d-glucosyl side branching units every three residues.
Article
The impaired wound healing in diabetes mellitus is a major clinical problem. Sparassis crispa (SC) is a medicinal mushroom and its beta-glucan content is more than 40%. This study investigated whether oral administration of SC could improve the impaired wound healing in diabetic rats. Full-thickness skin wounds were created on the backs of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were then divided into 2 groups: SC-treated group that was orally administered doses of 1,000 mg/kg body weight per day of SC for 4 weeks and a control group without SC administration. Moreover, collagen synthesis of purified beta-glucan from SC was estimated in vitro. Wound closure was significantly accelerated by oral administration of SC. Furthermore, in SC-treated wounds there were significant increases in macrophage and fibroblast migration, collagen regeneration, and epithelialization compared with the control group. The levels of type I collagen synthesized by cultured human dermal fibroblasts for the SC group were significantly higher than those for the control group. SC can improve the impaired healing of diabetic wounds. This effect might involve an increase in the migration of macrophages and fibroblasts, and beta-glucan from SC directly increases the synthesis of type I collagen. Therefore, the use of SC may be extended to the clinical setting and prove an effective promoter of wound healing in patients with diabetes.
NMR characterization 초록:고지방식이로 유도한 비만 흰쥐에 대한 꽃송이 버섯의 항비만 효과 이미라 1 ․하지강 1 ․샤나즈베검 1 ․왕운보 1 ․오득실 2 ․위안진 2 ․윤병선 2
  • R Tada
  • T Harada
  • N Nagi-Miura
  • Y Adachi
  • M Nakajima
  • T Yadomae
  • N Ohno
Tada, R., Harada, T., Nagi-Miura, N., Adachi, Y., Nakajima, M., Yadomae, T. and Ohno, N. 2007. NMR characterization 초록:고지방식이로 유도한 비만 흰쥐에 대한 꽃송이 버섯의 항비만 효과 이미라 1 ․하지강 1 ․샤나즈베검 1 ․왕운보 1 ․오득실 2 ․위안진 2 ․윤병선 2 ․성창근 1 * ( 1 충남대학교 식품공학과, 2 전라남도 산림자원연구소)
of the structure of a beta (1→3)-D-glucan isolate from cultured fruit bodies of Sparassis crispa
  • 에서는 체중증가
  • 간 식이섭취 및 식이효율
  • 내장지방 콜레스테롤 함량
  • 무게가
  • 버섯
  • 따라
  • 였다
  • 특히
  • 꽃송이버섯
  • 간세포의
  • 지방간
  • 부고환 현저히 개선되었으며
  • 지방조직
  • 지방세포
  • 본 현저히 감소하였다
  • 꽃송이 연구결과를 통하여 볼 때
  • 버섯은
  • 항비만
  • 비만 조절을 위한 기능성 식품으로의 이용이 가능할 것으로 가지고 있어
  • 사료된다
에서는 체중증가, 식이섭취 및 식이효율, 간 콜레스테롤 함량, 내장지방 무게가 꽃송이 버섯 첨가량에 따라 감소하 였다. 특히, 5% 꽃송이버섯 첨가군은 간세포의 지방축적과 지방간 현상이 현저히 개선되었으며, 부고환 지방조직 에서의 지방세포 크기도 현저히 감소하였다. 본 연구결과를 통하여 볼 때, 꽃송이 버섯은 뛰어난 항비만 효과를 가지고 있어, 비만 조절을 위한 기능성 식품으로의 이용이 가능할 것으로 사료된다. of the structure of a beta (1→3)-D-glucan isolate from cultured fruit bodies of Sparassis crispa. Carbohydr Res 342, 2611-2618.