Using Itinerant Consultation to Support Teachers in Inclusive Elementary Schools: A Model

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本研究は, 通常学級の軽度発達障害児等の教育実践を支援する巡回相談のあり方を検討するための支援モデルを提示することを目的として, 一つのタイプの巡回相談を分析の対象とした。研究1で, 成功した相談事例の相談過程と相談後の関係者による評価を分析したところ, アセスメントに基づいた所見と助言によって, 教師は対象児の障害などについて理解し, それまでの教育実践を評価し, 教育実践方針を作成するという第1次支援が実現され, その結果, 教職員の協力関係や保護者との関係, 専門機関との連携という第2次支援が実現された。それらの結果, 教師は心理的に安定し, 実践への意欲が高まるという第3次支援が実現された。研究2で, 12事例の支援機能について教師からの評価を分析したところ, 巡回相談によって有効に支援できた事例から, 支援が限定的であった事例まで, 支援効果のレベルで3群に分けることができた。対象児の障害と学年, 学級の状態, 家庭での養育などの要因が, 支援が有効に機能する際に影響を与えることが示唆された。最後に, 巡回相談のあり方は, 心理学的な方法論と, 実務的な制約の2つの点から検討されるべきであることを考察した。

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The purpose of the present study was to examine the approach of school counselors (SCs) in supporting collaboration between school teachers and guardians of elementary school children with developmental disabilities. From semi-structured interviews with 17 school counselors, 30 examples of such collaborations were obtained. The interview data were analyzed using grounded theory. From a 4-step analysis, 5 hypotheses and models were generated. In light of those hypotheses and models, the school counselors' approach was defined as prioritizing the growth of the child, while considering the diverse opinions of the child's guardian and school teachers. Moreover, the viewpoints of the guardians and school teachers interacted. The school counselors' role with respect to guardians included understanding guardians' needs, support, and following guardians' fluctuations. The school counselors' role with respect to school teachers included backup and advice with respect to other institutions. The connections of guardians and school teachers were classified into communication, child-understanding, and consideration of both sides, and the relationships of these were also discussed. Limitations of the models generated from these data from interviews with school counselors were also considered.
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