Chapter

Water Resources Assessment and Geographic Information System (GIS)-Based Stormwater Runoff Estimates for Artificial Recharge of Freshwater Aquifers in New Providence, Bahamas

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The Bahamas is a small island nation that is dealing with the problem of freshwater shortage. All of the country’s freshwater is contained in shallow lens aquifers that are recharged solely by rainfall. The country has been struggling to meet the water demands by employing a combination of overpumping of aquifers, transport of water by barge between islands, and desalination of sea water. In recent decades, new development on New Providence, where the capital city of Nassau is located, has created a large area of impervious surfaces and thereby a substantial amount of runoff with the result that several of the aquifers are not being recharged. A geodatabase was assembled to assess and estimate the quantity of runoff from these impervious surfaces and potential recharge locations were identified using a Geographic Information System (GIS). This study showed that runoff from impervious surfaces in New Providence represents a large freshwater resource that could potentially be used to recharge the lens aquifers on New Providence.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Supplementary resource (1)

... GIS is a digital database management system designed to manage large scale and spatially distributed data from various sources (Torabi-Kaveh et al., 2016), which is ideal for advanced site-selection studies since it can efficiently retrieve, analyze, and display information according to user-defined specifications (Olatona & Nduka, 2017;Shamshiry et al., 2011;Wang et al., 2009). Therefore, GIS has been widely used by many researchers to achieve artificial groundwater recharge zoning across the world (Abdolazimi et al., 2014;Ahani Amineh et al., 2017;Das & Pal, 2019;Diamond & Melesse, 2016;Hohne et al., 2021;Lee et al., 2018;Machiwal & Singh, 2015; Identification of Suitable Site-specific Recharge Areas using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) Technique: A Case Study of Iranshahr Basin (Iran) 2 Air, Soil and Water Research Mokarram et al., 2020;Rahmati et al., 2015;Rajasekhar et al., 2019;Singh et al., 2017;Tahmassebipoor et al., 2016;Vinay, 2019). Saaty (1980b) is a decision-making technique used to analyze and support decisions with multiple and even competing objectives . ...
Article
Full-text available
Iranshahr Basin is located in the Sistan and Baluchistan province, subject to severe drought and excessive groundwater utilization. Over-reliance on groundwater resources in this area has led to aquifer drawdowns and socio-economic problems. The present study aimed to identify appropriate sites for Artificial Recharge Groundwater (ARG) in a single platform by applying GIS fuzzy logic spatial modeling. Three stages were performed. In stage one, nine factors affecting ARG were collected based on the literature review. In stage two, geology, soil, and land-use layers were digitized from the existing maps. Some layers such as rainfall, unsaturated thickness, water quality, and transmissivity data were imported to ArcGIS environments, and their surface maps were made by Ordinary Kriging (OK) method. In stage three, the parameters were standardized with the fuzzy membership functions, and the GAMMA 0.5 fuzzy overlay model was applied for aggregation parameters. Results showed that 72.8%, 16.7%, 7.7%, 2.5% of the areas were classified as unsuitable, moderate, suitable, and perfectly suitable sites for planning a groundwater recharge site. Subsequently, the minimum area required regarding the possible errors based on the literature review determined six sites (A–E) as areas with higher priority. Then, the recommended unsuitable/suitable sites were validated and omitted by using some more detailed views. Finally, two sites (E and F) were omitted, and four sites (A, B, C, D) were recommended for future artificial recharge planning.
... Total demand or consumption of water resource and water supply capacity should be considered in maintaining water resource development and utilization within the scope of sustainability. Evaluation methods and indexes of freshwater resource usage are continuously improving (Diamond and Melesse 2016;Sun et al., 2016). Evaluation of water usage in a certain area usually adopts indexes, such as agricultural water consumption and industrial water consumption. ...
... Over the last 30 years, GIS have been internationally exploited to gather information needed to monitor various water bodies across the world (Naithani and Pande, 2012). Several studies were executed to apply GIS to evaluate water quality in different ecosystems included streams, rivers, lakes and groundwater (Assaf and Saadeh, 2008;Al Bassam, 2009;Selcuk, 2009;Diamond, 2011;Meixler and Bain, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present work illustrates the potential application of geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial analysis techniques to classify spatial and temporal distribution and predictions of some water characteristic. The study extended from December 2011 to November 2012. To execute the work three stations were selected based on the nature of the areas. Water samples were collected on monthly basis, from the three stations. Results revealed that water temperature ranged between 11.3-35.7 ˚C, salinity varied from 1.37 to 3.13 ‰, the pH ranged from 7.33 to 8.33. TDS differed from 1985 to 7131 mg/L, the dissolved oxygen 6.1-9.5 mg/L. Transparency fluctuated from 38.3 to 72.3 cm.
Article
Freshwater resources on small island nations are already at risk from sea level rise and groundwater pumping however, increasing aridity due to climate change further stresses water availability. The amount of freshwater availability on small island nations is delicately balanced by incoming precipitation (P) and outgoing evapotranspiration (ET). As climate changes, some island nations may see increasing aridity (ET>P) which can have implications for long term freshwater sustainability. Understanding how P and ET are changing allows small island nations to make more informed planning decisions regarding sustainable management and to adapt contemporary strategies to accommodate future change. The Bahamas is one such nation made up of over 700 small islands, many of which rely on freshwater lenses for potable water and irrigation. We use precipitation obtained from the TerraClimate reanalysis dataset and satellite derived actual evapotranspiration (ETa) to analyze how seasonal and yearly water budgets have changed over the last 16 years. We show that ETa is increasing across the Bahamas at a higher rate than global averages. The cause of ETa increases is driven by both increases in temperature and water availability form shifting precipitation patterns, ultimately driving decreases in the amount of available water to recharge the freshwater lens.
Article
Artificial recharge of aquifers using flood spreading method is a way to increase the groundwater volume and decrease the trend of water table depletion. The most important step in the implementation of flood spreading is the identification of suitable zones. Hence, geographic information system (GIS) and integration methods consist of Boolean logic, fuzzy logic, and overlay index were used to identify the most suitable zones for flood spreading with the aim of artificial recharge of the Sarkhoon plain of Bandar - Abbas. Firstly, five effective factors including surface permeability, slope, alluvium thickness, the ability to water convey in the alluvium and the salinity of water were prepared in ArcGIS software environment. Then, the weights of the layers were determined using the mentioned methods. The comparison of the weighting methods was accomplished using the Kappa statistic, based on the comparison of projected layers with ground control points. According to results, Boolean logic, overlay index, and fuzzy logic respectively projected 34.4%, 35.8%, and 71.4% of the study area as suitable for flood spreading without the constraint of land us. By the use of land use constraint these areas decrease to 21.9%, 26.7%, and 45.66%, respectively. Totally, fuzzy logic with the highest similarity and the highest Kappa statistic was identified as the best method.
Book
Full-text available
To fully analyze the relationship between water management, environmental conditions and public policy, this book reviews the development of water management and evaluates it from the perspective of the quality of the natural environment. Examples are drawn from around the world, and range from local watershed management to international river basin planning, with emphasis placed on integrative approaches. Successful water management is crucial for the proper operation of natural environmental systems and for the support of human society.
Article
Full-text available
The history of remote sensing and development of different sensors for environmental and natural resources mapping and data acquisition is reviewed and reported. Application examples in urban studies, hydrological modeling such as land-cover and floodplain mapping, fractional vegetation cover and impervious surface area mapping, surface energy flux and micro-topography correlation studies is discussed. The review also discusses the use of remotely sensed-based rainfall and potential evapotranspiration for estimating crop water requirement satisfaction index and hence provides early warning information for growers. The review is not an exhaustive application of the remote sensing techniques rather a summary of some important applications in environmental studies and modeling.
Article
Information about imperviousness surface distributions is essential for several environmental applications and the planning and management of sustainable development of urban areas. Satellite remote sensing based mapping of imperviousness has shown important potentials to acquire such information in great spatial detail but the actual mapping process has been challenged by the heterogeneity of urban environment and limited spatial and spectral sensor capabilities. This study explores and compares two methods based on the vegetation fraction from linear spectral unmixing and the NDVI to map the degree of imperviousness in the urban agglomeration of Cologne/Bonn in Western Germany. The study employed data from the ASTER satellite sensor with improved spatial and spectral resolution. Fieldwork was carried out in the area of Bonn to obtain a comprehensive set of reference data with estimated degrees of imperviousness for different types of urban areas. Rural areas were excluded using data from the governmental land information system (ATKIS). The applied simple linear spectral unmixing approach revealed less suitable results for the built area fraction due to the heterogeneity of the spectral response from urban targets. The vegetation fraction and the NDVI provided sufficient results in estimating the impervious surface fraction that were used to derive related maps for the study areas.
Article
An experimental session on artificial recharge of groundwater was held at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, December 8-13, 1985. The session combined a state-of the-art oral presentation followed by poster papers and ending with a panel discussion about research needs.Organization of the symposium, with mixed presentation, was not straightforward. The program showed two sessions: one oral and one for posters. The program committee deleted the research needs panel from the program, but there was so much interest that AGU assigned a room and, by word of mouth, about 10 people attended. It was important to have that segment and would have been better to have had it in the program.
Article
This chapter describes the hydrogeology of the Bahamian Archipelago. The Bahamian archipelago includes the separate political units of the Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands. It stretches some 1,000 km from southern Florida to Haiti and covers a total area of 260,000 km2. The islands of the Bahamian archipelago and the surrounding banks have been a keystone in the development of depositional models of carbonate sedimentology. There is now increasing awareness of the pivotal role that the hydrology of fresh, mixed, and saline groundwaters may play in controlling the distribution and extent of carbonate diagenesis. The wide range of environments across the archipelago allow examination of a range of extrinsic controls (e.g., climate and island physiography) and intrinsic controls (e.g., sedimentology and mineralogy of depositional facies) on the various groundwater flow systems and the associated diagenesis. Thus the islands of the Bahamian archipelago may also prove to be a keystone of models of carbonate diagenesis.
Article
In light of the increasing deterioration of groundwater supplies in Rajasthan, India, rainwater harvesting practices in southern Rajasthan were studied to determine the effects of artificially recharged groundwater on the supply and quality of local groundwater. A physical and geochemical investigation utilizing environmental tracers (δ18O and Cl–), groundwater level and groundwater quality measurements, and geological surveys was conducted with two objectives: (1) to quantify the proportion of artificially recharged groundwater in wells located near rainwater harvesting structures and (2) to examine potential effects of artificial recharge on the quality of groundwater in these wells. A geochemical mixing model revealed that the proportion of artificial recharge in these wells ranged from 0 to 75%. Groundwater tracer, water table, and geological data provided evidence of complex groundwater flow and were used to explain the spatial distribution of artificial recharge. Furthermore, wells receiving artificial recharge had improved groundwater quality. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference between the water quality in these wells and wells determined not to receive artificial recharge, for electrical conductivity and SO 4–. The findings from this study provide quantitative evidence that rainwater harvesting structures in southern Rajasthan influence the groundwater supply and quality of nearby wells by artificially recharging local groundwater.
Article
Artificial recharge of groundwater is achieved by putting surface water in basins, furrows, ditches, or other facilities where it infiltrates into the soil and moves downward to recharge aquifers. Artificial recharge is increasingly used for short- or long-term underground storage, where it has several advantages over surface storage, and in water reuse. Artificial recharge requires permeable surface soils. Where these are not available, trenches or shafts in the unsaturated zone can be used, or water can be directly injected into aquifers through wells. To design a system for artificial recharge of groundwater, infiltration rates of the soil must be determined and the unsaturated zone between land surface and the aquifer must be checked for adequate permeability and absence of polluted areas. The aquifer should be sufficiently transmissive to avoid excessive buildup of groundwater mounds. Knowledge of these conditions requires field investigations and, if no fatal flaws are detected, test basins to predict system performance. Water-quality issues must be evaluated, especially with respect to formation of clogging layers on basin bottoms or other infiltration surfaces, and to geochemical reactions in the aquifer. Clogging layers are managed by desilting or other pretreatment of the water, and by remedial techniques in the infiltration system, such as drying, scraping, disking, ripping, or other tillage. Recharge wells should be pumped periodically to backwash clogging layers. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10040-001-0182-4.
Article
In the present study, potential zones for artificial recharge in Agniar-Ambuliar-Southvellar river basins in Tamilnadu, India have been delineated through integration of various thematic maps using Arc view GIS. The study area, covers an area of 4566 km2. Thematic maps pertaining to geology, permeability, effective soil depth, drainage intensity, soil texture, water holding capacity and physiography were prepared on 1:2,50,000 scale using conventional methods. These maps were scanned and registered with reference to a base map and are prepared as separate layers or coverages using Arc view. GIS has been used for the integration of various thematic maps to delineate the potential zones for artificial recharge. Each theme was assigned a weightage depending on its influence on groundwater recharge. Each class or unit in the map was assigned a knowledge based ranking from one to four depending on its significance in storage and transmittance of groundwater. The final map has been prepared showing four different categories of potential zones for artificial recharge.
Article
Special attention has been paid to artificial groundwater recharge in water resource management in arid and semi-arid regions. Parameters considered in the selection of groundwater artificial recharge locations are diverse and complex. In this study factors such as: slope, infiltration rate, depth to groundwater, quality of alluvial sediments and land use are considered, to determine the areas most suitable for groundwater recharge in a coastal aquifer in the Gavbandi Drainage Basin in the southern part of Iran. Thematic layers for the above parameters were prepared, classified, weighted and integrated in a GIS environment by the means of Boolean and Fuzzy logic. To determine the relationships between geomorphological units and the appropriate sites for groundwater artificial recharge, land-use and geomorphological maps were developed from satellite images. The results of the study indicate that about 12% of the study area is considered as appropriate and 8% moderately appropriate sites for artificial groundwater recharge. The relationship between geomorphology and appropriate areas for groundwater recharge indicate that the majority of these areas are located on alluvial fans and pediment units. At the reconnaissance stage these geomorphological units can be considered as appropriate sites for artificial recharge in regions with similar characteristics.
Article
Processes of desalination of seawater are intended to reduce the deficits in potable water both at present and in the future. Water desalination processes offer various environmental benefits (related to sanitation, water softening, quality of sewage effluents), but the process is also accompanied by adverse environmental effects. These effects can be minimized by the appropriate planning. Most of the effects anticipated would then affect the local environment in the vicinity of the desalination plants. Desalination may have an impact on five domains: the use of the land, the groundwater, the marine environment, noise pollution, and finally the intensified use of energy. The impact on land use is caused by the use of the coastal land for the purpose of building factories, thus converting the coastal area into an industrial zone instead of an area of tourism and recreation. The impact on groundwater mainly occurs if pipelines carrying seawater or brine are laid above an aquifer. It also occurs in the case of feed drilling. In such cases the aquifer may be damaged either by infiltration of saline water or by disturbances of the water table. The impact on the marine environment takes place mainly in the vicinity of the concentrated brine discharge pipe. Even though the concentrated brine contains natural marine ingredients, its high specific weight causes it to sink to the sea floor without prior mixing. In addition, chemicals, which are administered to the water in the pre-treatment stages of the desalination process, may harm the marine life in the vicinity of the pipe's outlet. The actual placement of the discharge pipe may also damage sensitive marine communities. Noise pollution: A desalination plant, which is based on reverse osmosis technology, requires high-pressure pumps, which generate noise. Therefore the plant must be located at a suitable distance from population centers. Technological means may be employed in order to minimize noise intensities. A desalination plant may also affect the environment indirectly, such as via the intensified use of energy by the plant. This increased use of energy results in an increased production of electricity by the respective power station, which in turn results in increased air pollution, pollution by coal dust, thermal pollution, etc. The severity of these effects differs in different areas according to: a) the hydrogeological nature of the marine body (bathymetry, depth, tides, waves, currents); b) the biological sensitivity of the marine habitat; c) the type of desalination plant, its size, the required secondary structures and infrastructure. Environmental awareness and preliminary planning can minimize the adverse effects of the desalination process on the environment.
Article
The vast underground reservoirs formed by aquifers constitute invaluable water supply sources as well as water storage facilities. Because natural replenishment of the supply occurs very slowly, continued excessive exploitation of it causes groundwater levels to decline with time. If not corrected this leads to an eventual depletion of a valuable natural resource. To prevent mining and groundwater pollution, the artificial recharge of groundwater basins is becoming increasingly important in groundwater management as a way to increase this natural supply of water. Artificial recharge can reduce, stop, and even reverse declining levels of groundwater. In addition, it can protect underground freshwater in coastal aquifers against salt-water intrusion from the ocean, and can be used to store surface and reclaimed water for future use. This book is a treatise of the artificial recharge of groundwater, with particular emphasis on recharge with reclaimed municipal wastewater.
Remote sensing and-GIS based approach for delineation of groundwater prospect zones in a semi-arid area in Rajasthan
  • H Biswas
  • A M Melesse
  • M Mcclain
Biswas, H., Melesse, A.M., and McClain, M. 2007. Remote sensing and-GIS based approach for delineation of groundwater prospect zones in a semi-arid area in Rajasthan, India, Annual AWRA meeting, Albuquerque, NM, November 2007.
Numerical Groundwater Flow Modeling in the Wakal River Basin, India
  • H Biswas
Biswas, H. "Numerical Groundwater Flow Modeling in the Wakal River Basin, India." Thesis. Florida International University, 2008. Print.
Mapping imperviousness using NDVI and linear spectral unmixing of ASTER data in the Cologne- Bonn region (Germany) Proceedings of the SPIE 10th International Symposium on Remote Sensing0 rescuing a planet under stress and a civilization in trouble
  • M Braun
  • M Herol
Braun, M. and Herol, M. " Mapping imperviousness using NDVI and linear spectral unmixing of ASTER data in the Cologne- Bonn region (Germany) " Proceedings of the SPIE 10th International Symposium on Remote Sensing, 8-12 September 2003, Barcelona, Spain Brown, L. R. Plan B 2.0 rescuing a planet under stress and a civilization in trouble. New York, N.Y: W. W. Norton & Company, 2006. Print.
Bahamas water and sewerage production 2004-2008
  • R Middleton
Middleton, R. " Bahamas Water and Sewerage Production 2004- 2008. " 2008. Microsoft Excel file.
Water resources assessment of the Bahamas
  • L Roebuck
  • T Ortiz
  • J Pochatila
Roebuck, L., Ortiz, T. and Pochatila, J. Water Resources Assessment of The Bahamas. Rep. US Army Corps of Engineers, 22 Nov. 2004. Web. 6 Feb. 2011. <http://www.sam.usace.army.mil/en/wra/Bahamas/BAHAM ASWRA.pdf>.
World water and food to 2025 dealing with scarcity
  • Mw Rosegrant
  • X Cai
  • Sa Cline
Rosegrant, M. W., Cai, X. and Cline, S.A.. World Water and Food to 2025 Dealing With Scarcity. Detroit: Intl Food Policy Re- search Inst, 2002.
Bahamian Landscapes An Introduction to the Geography of the Bahamas. Grand Rapids: Media
  • N E Sealey
Sealey, N.E. Bahamian Landscapes An Introduction to the Geography of the Bahamas. Grand Rapids: Media, 1995. Print.
World Fresh Water Resources Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World's Fresh Water Resources
  • I Shiklomanov
Shiklomanov, I. ""World Fresh Water Resources"" Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World's Fresh Water Resources. Ed. Peter H. Gleick. New York: Oxford UP, 1993. USGS Website. Web.
The impact of artificial recharge from rainwater harvesting structures on the groundwater of nearby wells in rural Rajasthan. International groundwater conference on groundwater dynamics and global Change
  • Jm Stiefel
  • Am Melesse
  • Me Mcclain
  • Rm Price
  • Nk Chauhan
Stiefel, J.M., Melesse, A.M, M.E. McClain, R.M. Price, N.K. Chauhan. 2008. The Impact of Artificial Recharge from Rainwater Harvesting Structures on the Groundwater of Nearby Wells in Rural Rajasthan. International Groundwater Conference on Groundwater Dynamics and Global Change, March 11 –14, 2008, Jaipur, India Stiefel, J., Melesse, A.M, M. McClain, R. Price, 2007. Rainwater Harvesting In: Rajasthan, India: Recharge Estimation Using Tracers, 13th International Rainwater Catchment Systems Conference and 5 th International Water Sensitive Urban Design Conference, 21-23 August 2007. Sydney, Australia, 8pp (CD proceeding).
SSI) New Providence Island Stormwater Masterplan -Final Report
  • Stormwater Solutions
  • Inc
Stormwater Solutions, Inc. (SSI) New Providence Island Stormwater Masterplan -Final Report. Rep. Unpublished, 2009.
Soil Conservation Service, Engineering Division. CPESC, Inc. Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds
  • U S Dept
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), Soil Conservation Service, Engineering Division. CPESC, Inc. Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. [Washington, D.C.] 1986. <http://www.cpesc.org/reference/tr55.pdf>. Water and Sewerage History. 2014. Web. 20 April 2014. <http://www.wsc.com.bs/History.aspx>.
Water resources evaluation of the Bahamas. Ministry of Works and Utilities
  • Rv Cant
  • Ps Weech
Bahamian landscapes an introduction to the geography of the Bahamas
  • Ne Sealey
Rainwater harvesting in Rajasthan, India: recharge estimation using tracers. 13th international rainwater catchment systems conference and 5th international water sensitive urban design conference
  • J Stiefel
  • Am Melesse
  • M Mcclain
  • R Price
Hydrogeology of the Bahamian Archipelago Hydrogeology of Carbonate Islands
  • Ff Whitaker
  • Pl Smart
Numerical groundwater flow modeling in the Wakal River Basin
  • H Biswas
World fresh water resources Water in crisis: a guide to the world’s fresh water resources, USGS Website
  • I Shiklomanov
Mapping imperviousness using NDVI and linear spectral unmixing of ASTER data in the Cologne-Bonn region (Germany
  • M Braun
  • M Herol
Braun, M. and Herol, M. "Mapping imperviousness using NDVI and linear spectral unmixing of ASTER data in the Cologne-Bonn region (Germany)" Proceedings of the SPIE 10th International Symposium on Remote Sensing, 8-12 September 2003, Barcelona, Spain
  • R V Cant
  • P S Weech
Cant, R. V., and Weech, P.S. Water Resources Evaluation of the Bahamas. Tech. Nassau, Bahamas: Ministry of Works and Utilities, 1980. Print.
Geology and Hydrogeology of Carbonate Islands
  • J L Carew
  • J E Mylroie
Carew, J. L., and Mylroie, J. E.. "Geology of the Bahamas." Geology and Hydrogeology of Carbonate Islands. Ed. H. L. Vacher and T. M. Quinn. St. Louis: Elsevier, 1997. 91-139.
Summary table: Renewable water resources in the world by country
  • Fao
FAO. "Summary table: Renewable water resources in the world by country." Aquastat. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 13 May 2003. Web. 15 Feb. 2009. <http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/water_res/waterres_ta b.htm>.
Bahamas Water and Sewerage Production
  • R Middleton
Middleton, R. "Bahamas Water and Sewerage Production 2004-2008." 2008. Microsoft Excel file.
Source book of alternative technologies for freshwater augmentation in Latin America and the Caribbean
OAS. Source book of alternative technologies for freshwater augmentation in Latin America and the Caribbean. Washington: OAS, 1997.
Water Resources Assessment of The Bahamas. Rep. US Army Corps of Engineers
  • L Roebuck
  • T Ortiz
  • J Pochatila
Roebuck, L., Ortiz, T. and Pochatila, J. Water Resources Assessment of The Bahamas. Rep. US Army Corps of Engineers, 22 Nov. 2004. Web. 6 Feb. 2011. <http://www.sam.usace.army.mil/en/wra/Bahamas/BAHAM ASWRA.pdf>.
World Water and Food to 2025 Dealing With Scarcity. Detroit: Intl Food Policy Research Inst
  • M W Rosegrant
  • X Cai
  • S A Cline
Rosegrant, M. W., Cai, X. and Cline, S.A.. World Water and Food to 2025 Dealing With Scarcity. Detroit: Intl Food Policy Research Inst, 2002. Http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/water202
  • J Stiefel
  • A Melesse
  • M Mcclain
  • R M Price
  • A P Anderson
  • N K Chauhan
Stiefel, J., Melesse, A., McClain, M., Price, R.M., Anderson, A.P., Chauhan, N.K. 2009. Effects of rainwater harvesting induced artificial recharge on the groundwater of wells in Rajasthan, India, Hydrogeology Journal 17(8): 2061-2073.
The Impact of Artificial Recharge from Rainwater Harvesting Structures on the Groundwater of Nearby Wells in Rural Rajasthan
  • J M Stiefel
  • A M Melesse
  • M E Mcclain
  • R M Price
  • N K Chauhan
Stiefel, J.M., Melesse, A.M, M.E. McClain, R.M. Price, N.K. Chauhan. 2008. The Impact of Artificial Recharge from Rainwater Harvesting Structures on the Groundwater of Nearby Wells in Rural Rajasthan. International Groundwater Conference on Groundwater Dynamics and Global Change, March 11 -14, 2008, Jaipur, India
Vital Water Graphics -An Overview of the State of the World's Fresh and Marine Waters
UNEP (2008), Vital Water Graphics -An Overview of the State of the World's Fresh and Marine Waters. 2nd Edition. UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya. ISBN: 92-807-2236-0
Geology and Hydrogeology of Carbonate Islands
  • F F Whitaker
  • P L Smart
Whitaker, F. F., and Smart P.L.. "Hydrogeology of the Bahamian Archipelago." Geology and Hydrogeology of Carbonate Islands. Ed. H. L. Vacher and T. M. Quinn. St. Louis: Elsevier, 2004. 183-216.