ArticleLiterature Review

Epidemiology of alcohol and other drug use among American college students

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Abstract

Objective: This article provides information on the extent of alcohol use and other drug use among American college students. Method: Five different sources of data are examined for estimating recent levels of alcohol (and other drug) use among college students: Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study (CAS), the Core Institute (CORE), Monitoring the Future (MTF), National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS) and National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA). Results: Alcohol use rates are very high among college students. Approximately two of five American college students were heavy drinkers, defined as having had five or more drinks in a row in the past 2 weeks. Alcohol use is higher among male than female students. White students are highest in heavy drinking, black students are lowest and Hispanic students are intermediate. Use of alcohol--but not cigarettes, marijuana and cocaine--is higher among college students than among noncollege age-mates. Longitudinal data show that, while in high school, students who go on to attend college have lower rates of heavy drinking than do those who will not attend college. Both groups increase their heavy drinking after high school graduation, but the college students increase distinctly more and actually surpass their nonstudent age-mates. Trend data from 1980 to 1999 show some slight improvement in recent years. Conclusions: Despite improvements in the past 20 years, colleges need to do more to reduce heavy alcohol use among students.

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... Alcohol use in college students is a major public health issue in the US, as excessive consumption has contributed significantly to morbidity and mortality in young adults (35,(62)(63)(64)(65)(66)(67)(68), and negative health effects of college drinking can extend well into adulthood (69). College students tend to drink higher quantities and more often than non-college students in the same age group (70)(71)(72)(73); approximately 80% of full-time college students report drinking at least once and 40% reporting regular drinking (63,74). ...
... Alcohol use in college students is a major public health issue in the US, as excessive consumption has contributed significantly to morbidity and mortality in young adults (35,(62)(63)(64)(65)(66)(67)(68), and negative health effects of college drinking can extend well into adulthood (69). College students tend to drink higher quantities and more often than non-college students in the same age group (70)(71)(72)(73); approximately 80% of full-time college students report drinking at least once and 40% reporting regular drinking (63,74). Of those who do drink, approximately 25% drink at least ten times per month, 50% drink in order to "get drunk," and a third meet the DSM-IV criteria for alcohol abuse (75)(76)(77)(78). ...
... Generally, our population had fewer drinkers and binge drinkers than previous studies, which have found that between 60%-80% of college students drink at some point during the year (213), and of those, approximately 66% binge drink (68,234). However, our data was consistent across study years and previous research has established the validity of self-reported drinking in this population (63,235). We suspect that the January baseline survey administration may have resulted in our population's low alcohol use (226,(236)(237)(238)(239). Low binge drinking may have been a product of participants' consumption volume underestimation (240,241). ...
Thesis
Behavior, attitudes, and infection can transmit across networks of contacts via social mixing, making network analysis methods a key tool in social and infectious disease epidemiology. Through analysis of the simultaneous processes that influence and shape individuals and networks, we can better understand how to collect social network data, incorporate human behavior and its collective idiosyncrasies into models and statistics as uncertainty, and thus improve the veracity of our conclusions. Using data from a longitudinal social network study of undergraduate students, this dissertation aims to: 1) examine how social structures and contact patterns shape alcohol consumption and use in undergraduate students; 2) evaluate the strengths and limitations of different methods of measuring social contact networks; and 3) develop methods to quantify network uncertainty and hypothesis testing for trait assortativity. First, we applied social network analysis methods to two undergraduate student social networks, investigating network correlates of alcohol consumption, identifying numerous, consistent associations between alcohol use and social position in this population. Specifically, network position, alcohol exposures, and relationship strength were associated with individual alcohol use, suggesting complex relationships between drinking and network topology, as well as proximity to alcohol use. Overall, this chapter adds to the body of evidence of significant relationships between network structure, social position, and alcohol consumption. Next, we systematically compared two social network measurement methods with varying levels of granularity in order understand the unique utility of self-report vs. sensor contact data, as well as trends in data quality and quantity over time. Networks were compared across and within each measurement method, using overall network structure, dyad, and node characteristics. We found few network similarities between measurement methods, suggesting that neither empirical network measurement method are complete representations of the underlying “true” social network. These analyses highlight the impact that network measurement can have on empirical network findings and suggest that researchers should carefully consider which collection method, or combination of methods, could provide them with the highest quality data needed to answer their research questions. Finally, we outlined and defined multiple assortativity sensitivity analyses, uncertainty quantification approaches, and null model-hypothesis testing procedures and applied these methods to a measured social network of undergraduate students. These investigations showed that uncertainty and biases of attribute assortativity may be predictable, given a defined amount and type of data error. Generally, results of these analyses show the potential impacts that data quality, measurement error, and the measured network can have on observed assortativity. We suggest that it be standard practice to conduct and present assortativity sensitivity analyses, and to hypothesize possible confounding or bias related to network data quality and completeness. In toto, this dissertation describes and extensively explores social networks of undergraduate students. We investigated relationships between a risky health behavior of public health importance and network features, as well as how network analysis results using observed networks are reliant on the network measurement method and the types and amounts of data uncertainty and error present. These projects have generated new results and insights into alcohol use and social networks in a college setting, compared empirical social network observations between a traditional and novel instrument, and developed a suite of analytical social network tools. Importantly, the novel methods we defined and implemented in this dissertation provide a framework with which to evaluate network uncertainty, robustness, and hypotheses.
... Alcohol abuse is a major public health concern due to its potential negative health and social effect, especially among college students. ere was evidence showing that more than 40% of college students have experienced alcoholism [1,2], and it has been observed that binge drinking and drinking behaviors have caused negative effects in different levels on students' academic study, social relations, risk-taking, and health [3,4]. Particularly, alcohol-related injuries and deaths per 100,000 college students increased by 6% from 1998 to 2001 [5]. ...
... e assumptions for f(A) are fundamental and biologically motivated, and it is easy to check that the function satisfying the above conditions includes the bilinear and the saturation incidences. Note that the variable R in model (1) does not appear in other equations, and thus, the R equation will be neglected in the remaining analysis. e dynamics of the following system without the R equation would be the same: ...
... Furthermore, it is easy to show that system (20) may have exactly the same equilibria as P 0 and P * in the corresponding continuous system (1). e positive alcoholpresent equilibrium P * exists for all R 0 > 1 with the alcoholics determined by the following equation: ...
Article
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In this paper, an alcoholism model of SEAR type with different susceptibilities due to public health education is investigated, with the form of continuous differential equations as well as discrete differential equations by applying the Mickens nonstandard finite difference (NSFD) scheme to the continuous equations. Threshold dynamics of the continuous model are performed by constructing Lyapunov functions. The analysis of a discrete model indicates that the alcohol-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if the basic reproductive number R0<1 , and conversely, the alcohol-present equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if R0>1 , revealing the consistency and efficiency of the discrete model to preserve the dynamical properties of the corresponding continuous model. In addition, stability preserving and the impact of the parameters related with public health education are conducted by numerical simulations.
... Students who eat breakfast report lower prevalence of depressive symptoms [16,17] and higher academic achievements compared to students who do not have breakfast [18]. Further, American and British university students report higher levels of alcohol consumption compared to individuals in the same age who do not study [19,20]. Swedish male university students have previously reported more physical activity compared to female students [21]. ...
... With partner/spouse, n (%) 752 (40) 510 (42) Alone, n (%) 576 (31) 375 (31) With parent/parents, n (%) 372 (20) 222 (18) With friends, n (%) 128 (7) 77 (6) In the student dormitory, n (%) 49 (3) 26 (2) Poor sleep quality, n (%) 557 (30) 266 (22) Moderate to extremely severe levels of stress symptoms 1 , n (%) 451 (24) 189 (16) reasons. Proportion of answers were similar among participants answering this question (n = 763) at follow-up 2. Results for subgroup analyses are presented in Table 3. Mean ASSIST scores on the 42-point scale and changes in substance risk use are presented in Table 4. ...
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Background Changes in Swedish university students’ lifestyle behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic are unknown. This study aimed to assess physical activity, sitting time, meal frequency and risk substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and illicit use of drugs) in Swedish university students before and during the first six months of the COVID-19 pandemic, for all and stratified by age and sex. Methods Data were obtained from the Sustainable University Life cohort study in which web-based surveys were sent to university students repeatedly for one year. Baseline assessment (before the pandemic) was between August 2019-March 2020, follow-up 1 (FU1) between March-June 2020, and follow-up 2 (FU2) between June–September 2020. Participants reported weekly minutes of physical activity, daily sitting hours, meal frequency by weekly intake of different meals, and motivation for eating irregularly, if so. Also, harmful use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs was assessed. Population means and differences with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) in lifestyle behaviors between time points were calculated with Generalized Estimating Equations. Results 1877 students (73% women, mean age 26.5 years) answered the baseline survey. Weekly exercise decreased by -5.7 min (95% CI: -10.0, -1.5) and -7.7 min (95% CI: -12.6, -2.8) between baseline and FU1 and FU2, respectively. Weekly daily activities increased by 5.6 min (95% CI: 0.3, 11.7) and 14.2 min (95% CI: 7.9, 20.5) between baseline and FU1 and FU2. Daily sitting time decreased by -1.4 h (95% CI: -1.7, -1.2) between baseline and FU2. Breakfast intake increased by 0.2 days per week (95% CI: 0.1, 0.3) between baseline and FU2. Lunch intake decreased by -0.2 days per week (95% CI: -0.2, -0.1) between baseline and FU1 and by -0.2 days per week (95% CI: -0.3, -0.0) between baseline and FU2. Dinner intake decreased by -0.1 days per week (95% CI: -0.2, -0.0) between baseline and both FU1 and FU2. Only minor differences in risk substance use were observed. Similar changes were observed in analyses stratified by age and sex. Conclusions Lifestyle behaviors in Swedish university students slightly improved during the first six months of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to before. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04465435. 10/07/2020.
... Cannabis is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance after alcohol and tobacco. [1][2][3][4] According to the 2012 Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey, 5 41.5% of Canadian adults used cannabis at least once in their lifetime. ...
... Various epoch lengths(2,5,10,15, or 30 sec) were considered in this study to evaluate the influence of this parameter. A brief description of the extracted features is provided in the following (details in Shahidi Zandi et al.48 ):Mean, median, and SD were calculated for every given epoch of the eye-tracking timeseries depending on data category. ...
Article
Background: Cannabis is one of the drugs most often found in drivers involved in serious motor vehicle collisions. Validity and reliability of roadside cannabis detection strategies are questioned. This pilot study aimed to investigate the relationship between eye characteristics and cannabis effects in simulated driving to inform potential development of an alternative detection strategy. Materials and Methods: Multimodal data, including blood samples, eye-tracking recordings, and driving performance data, were acquired from 10 participants during a prolonged single-session driving simulator experiment. The study session included a baseline driving trial before cannabis exposure and seven trials at various times over ∼5 h after exposure. The multidimensional eye-tracking recording from each driving trial for each participant was segmented into nonoverlapping epochs (time windows); 34 features were extracted from each epoch. Blood Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration, standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), and mean vehicle speed were target variables. The cross-correlation between the temporal profile of each eye-tracking feature and target variable was assessed and a nonlinear regression analysis evaluated temporal trend of features following cannabis exposure. Results: Mean pupil diameter (r=0.81-0.86) and gaze pitch angle standard deviation (r=0.79-0.87) were significantly correlated with blood THC concentration (p<0.01) for all epoch lengths. For driving performance variables, saccade-related features were among those showing the most significant correlation (r=0.61-0.83, p<0.05). Epoch length significantly affected correlations between eye-tracking features and speed (p<0.05), but not SDLP or blood THC concentration (p>0.1). Temporal trend analysis of eye-tracking features after cannabis also showed a significant increasing trend (p<0.01) in saccade-related features, including velocity, scanpath, and duration, as the influence of cannabis decreased by time. A decreasing trend was observed for fixation percentage and mean pupil diameter. Due to the lack of placebo control in this study, these results are considered preliminary. Conclusion: Specific eye characteristics could potentially be used as nonintrusive markers of THC presence and driving-related effects of cannabis. clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03813602).
... The university/college setting is often strongly associated with alcohol use in the eyes of the general public. Some research suggests that students have a higher consumption of alcohol compared to others with similar characteristics, although this has not been consistently found (Bingham et al., 2005;Kenney et al., 2018;O'Malley & Johnston, 2002;Slutske et al., 2004). Enrolment in higher education has, however, consistently been found to predict an increase in alcohol use (Bingham et al., 2005;O'Malley & Johnston, 2002). ...
... Some research suggests that students have a higher consumption of alcohol compared to others with similar characteristics, although this has not been consistently found (Bingham et al., 2005;Kenney et al., 2018;O'Malley & Johnston, 2002;Slutske et al., 2004). Enrolment in higher education has, however, consistently been found to predict an increase in alcohol use (Bingham et al., 2005;O'Malley & Johnston, 2002). Binge drinking, i.e. consuming larger amounts of alcohol on a single occasion, is believed to be more common among university/college students than among other groups (Slutske et al., 2004;Tavolacci et al., 2016). ...
Article
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The study investigates correlates (i.e. demographics, personality, alcohol use and alcohol-related harm, alcohol expectancies, and mental health) of different alcoholic beverage preferences (i.e. beer/alcopops/cider, wine, and liquor/spirits). Data were collected by an online survey during fall 2016. Participants were invited to the survey based on participation in a former survey that was sent to students in Bergen, Norway, in fall 2015. The current sample consists of 5,217 participants. A multinomial regression analysis was conducted, where alcoholic beverage preferences comprised the dependent variable. Several correlates were associated with beverage preferences. For instance, being a woman and the personality trait conscientiousness were inversely related to a preference for beer/alcopops/cider while positively associated with a preference for wine. Preferences for wine or liquor/spirits were positively associated with depression and inversely related to anxiety. Conscientiousness as a personality trait might be a common factor in the relationship between wine preference and favourable health outcomes, and this trait should be controlled for in future studies. The current findings seem contrary to the assumed gender equality in Norway, where the strong association between sex and alcoholic beverage preferences suggests that traditional gender divisions prevail even in the current young and urban sample.
... Several large-scale surveys of alcohol use among American college students concur that college students drink more than their non-college attending peers (O'Malley & Johnston, 2002;Timberlake et al, 2007). Seventy percent of college students will have had at least one drink in the past month and 40% will have consumed five or more drinks in a row in the past two weeks, classifying them as heavy or "binge" drinkers (O' Malley & Johnston, 2002). ...
... In their Monitoring the Future national survey, Johnston, O'Malley, Bachman, and Schulenberg (2012) found that 40% of students reported that they had been drunk in the past month. Common across the large national studies is the unsurprising finding that male college students drink more than female college students (O'Malley & Johnston, 2002). ...
Article
Previous research suggests that students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) frequently have lower rates of drinking and alcohol-related problems. The etiology of such findings is still under debate although some research has suggested the African–American religious experience might account for the differences. The present study aims to provide a comprehensive picture of alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and religiosity among HBCU students and to test the hypothesis that religiosity moderates problematic drinking behavior. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the College Alcohol Problems Scale Revised (CAPS-R), the Religious Maturity Scale, and the Salience in Religious Commitment Scale was administered to 144 students at a small southern HBCU. We found that, overall, the subjects were moderate drinkers and experienced few alcohol-related problems. The relationship between religiosity and alcohol-related problems was complex and gender mediated that relationship. The results suggest that although religiosity may act as a buffer to alcohol abuse in some HBCU students, it cannot fully account for the differences in alcohol use between students at HBCUs and other institutions.
... In the 2017 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 58% of college students reported alcohol use in the last month, with approximately 30-40% substance use among college students (Bell, Wechsler, & Johnston, 1997;Krieger et al., 2018;Rigotti, Lee, & Wechsler, 2000). One important individual risk factor for substance use is gender, and studies have found higher prevalence of alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco use among male compared to female students (Evans-Polce, Vasilenko, & Lanza, 2015;McCabe et al., 2007;O'Malley & Johnston, 2002;Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2017). ...
... The association between sexual orientation and fear has not been much examined, but one study found that fear of walking alone at night was higher among sexual minorities than heterosexuals (Meyer & Grollman, 2014). Age, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation have also been associated with alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use, our outcomes (Bell et al., 1997;Evans-Polce et al., 2015;Hinds, Loukas, & Perry, 2018;Krieger et al., 2018;McCabe et al., 2007;O'Malley & Johnston, 2002;Rigotti et al., 2000;Talley, Sher, & Littlefield, 2010). All of this evidence supported our choice of controlling for age, race/ ethnicity, and sexual orientation as potential confounding variables in the multiple logistic regression models. ...
Article
Background: Fear of victimization has been associated with poorer physical and mental health, yet is understudied in public health. Few studies have examined sex differences in the effects of fear of victimization on substance use. We examined associations between fear of victimization and hazardous alcohol drinking, tobacco, and marijuana use among female and male university students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among university students in an urban location (n = 1415). Socio-demographics, substance use, and fear related to various crimes were measured using online surveys. All fear types were summed into a total fear score and categorized into quartiles: no/little fear, moderate fear, high fear, and very high fear. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression models were used to examine associations between fear of victimization, hazardous alcohol drinking, tobacco and marijuana use, by sex. Results: Females were more likely to report high and very high fear of victimization (26.6% and 33.1%) than male students (19.8% and 16.3%; p < 0.001). In multiple logistic regression models, associations differed by sex: moderate, high, and very high fear were all independently associated with hazardous drinking among females but not males. Female students with very high fear of victimization were more likely to report tobacco use. High and very high fear was also independently associated with marijuana use among female only. Conclusions: Higher fear of victimization was associated with substance use among females but not male students. Public health and health care professionals should acknowledge fear of victimization as a potential risk factor for substance use, particularly among women.
... Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that the BD group would perform significantly worse than the non-BD group on the IGT; that the BD group would show significantly smaller FRN and P3 amplitudes than the non-BD group; and that IGT performance and feedbackrelated ERPs would be positively correlated. Gender differences are observed in BD (O'Malley and Johnston, 2002;Wechsler et al., 2002;Weitzman et al., 2003), decisionmaking ( Bolla et al., 2004), and ERP amplitudes (Larson et al., 2011). For example, females tend to drink less (O'Malley and Johnston, 2002), perform poorer on the IGT ( Bolla et al., 2004) than males, and exhibit different neural activities with regard to the N2 and P3 components (Larson et al., 2011). ...
... Gender differences are observed in BD (O'Malley and Johnston, 2002;Wechsler et al., 2002;Weitzman et al., 2003), decisionmaking ( Bolla et al., 2004), and ERP amplitudes (Larson et al., 2011). For example, females tend to drink less (O'Malley and Johnston, 2002), perform poorer on the IGT ( Bolla et al., 2004) than males, and exhibit different neural activities with regard to the N2 and P3 components (Larson et al., 2011). For these reasons, only female college students were included in this study. ...
Article
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This study investigated the ability to use feedback for decision-making in female college students who binge drink (BD) using the iowa gambling task (IGT) and event-related potentials (ERPs). Twenty-seven binge drinkers and 23 non-binge drinkers (non-BD) were identified based on scores on the Korean version of the Alcohol Use Disorder Test and the Alcohol Use Questionnaire. The IGT consists of four cards, including two cards that result in a net loss, with large immediate gains but greater losses in the long term, and two cards that result in a net gain, with small immediate gains but reduced losses in the long term. Participants were required to choose one card at a time to maximize profit until the end of the task while avoiding losses. The BD group showed a significantly lower total net score than the non-BD group, indicating that the BD group chose more disadvantageous cards. The BD group showed significantly smaller ΔFRN amplitudes [difference in amplitudes of feedback-related negativity (FRN) between gain and loss feedback] but not in P3 amplitudes. Additionally, ΔFRN amplitudes in the fronto-central area were positively correlated with the total net score and net scores for sectors 4 and 5. Thus, total net scores and later performance on the IGT increased as ΔFRN amplitudes from the fronto-central area increased. FRN is known to reflect early feedback evaluation employing a bottom-up mechanism, whereas P3 is known to reflect late feedback processing and allocation of attentional resources using a top-down mechanism. These results indicate that college students who binge drink have deficits in early evaluation of positive or negative feedback and that this deficit may be related to decision-making deficits.
... Universities can be recovery hostile environments, as risky substance use is common on college campuses Laudet et al., 2015), with 38% of students reporting that they binge drink and 36% of students reporting illicit drug use in the past year (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration [SAMHSA], 2017). College students use alcohol at higher rates than their non-college-attending peers (Johnston et al., 2015;O'Malley & Johnston, 2002;Slutske, 2005), and nearly half (47%) of all students meet criteria for an alcohol or cannabis use disorder at least once in the first three years of college (Arria et al., 2017). ...
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The goals of the present study were to use data from the first national longitudinal study of students in collegiate recovery programs (CRPs) to 1) provide an updated characterization of CRP students, with respect to demographics and past problem severity; 2) characterize current psychosocial functioning and examine changes in functioning over time; and 3) examine the impact of COVID-19 on CRP students. Data came from a longitudinal cohort study focused on the impact of CRPs on participating students’ success initiated in fall 2020. Four-year universities and community colleges with CRPs were invited to be partners on this project. Three cohorts of participants were recruited. All participants who completed the baseline survey (N = 334) were invited to complete follow-up surveys. The sample was composed of mostly White, cisgender undergraduate students with an average age of 29 years at baseline. CRP students generally reported challenging personal and academic histories, including high levels of polysubstance use and substance problem severity. They evidenced high levels of current psychosocial functioning. Recovery-related functioning (i.e., recovery capital, quality of life) was generally high at baseline and decreased slightly over time. COVID-19 represented a substantial source of stress for many CRP students, impacting some individuals’ abstinence. These results from the first national longitudinal study of CRP students parallel findings from other cross-sectional and/or CRP-specific studies and provide novel insights into the stability of recovery functioning. These results can advance our understanding and characterization of the national CRP student population, with the ability to examine recovery-related constructs over time.
... We offer several explanations for this. First, in college students, alcohol consumption, particularly binge drinking, is much more prevalent than in the general public (Knight et al., 2002;O'Malley & Johnston, 2002) and the behavior is normalized and encouraged in many social groups (Barry & Goodson, 2012;Wombacher et al., 2019). This may lead to low likelihood of reporting interference from drinking, despite a high level of alcohol use. ...
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BACKGROUND In recent years, social media has become a rich source of mental health data. However, there is a lack of research on the accuracy and validity of self-reported diagnostic information online. OBJECTIVE An analysis of the degree of correspondence between self-reported diagnoses and clinical indicators will afford researchers and clinicians higher levels of trust in social media analysis. We hypothesized that self-reported diagnoses would correspond to validated disorder-specific severity questionnaires across two large online samples. METHODS Study 1 participants were 1123 adults from a national Qualtrics panel (mean age= 34.65, SD= 12.56; 56.65% female). Study 2 participants were 2237 college students from a large university in the Midwest (mean age= 19.75, SD= 2.75; 75.25% female). All participants completed an online survey about their mental health, social media use, and demographic information. Additionally, participants reported on whether they had ever been diagnosed with a series of disorders, with the option of selecting “Yes”; “No, but I should be”; “I don’t know,” and “No” for each condition. We conducted a series of analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests to determine whether there were differences between each of the four diagnostic groups and used post-hoc Tukey tests to examine the nature of the differences. RESULTS In Study 1, for self-reported mania (F(3, 1097)=2.75,P=.04) somatic symptom disorder (F(3, 1060)=26.75,P< .001) and alcohol use disorder F(3, 1097)=77.73,P< .001), the pattern of mean differences did not suggest that individuals are accurate in their insight to diagnoses. In Study 2, for all disorders but bipolar disorder (F(3, 659)=1.43,P= .23), ANOVA results were consistent with our expectations. Across both studies and for most conditions assessed, individuals who say they have been diagnosed with a disorder had the highest severity scores on self-report questionnaires, but that is closely followed by individuals who have not been diagnosed but believe they should be diagnosed. This was especially true for depression, generalized anxiety, and insomnia. For mania and bipolar disorder, questionnaire scores did not differentiate individuals who had been diagnosed from those who had not. CONCLUSIONS In general, if an individual believes they should be diagnosed with a disorder, they are experiencing a degree of psychopathology similar to those who have already been diagnosed. Self-reported diagnoses correspond well with symptom severity on a continuum and can be trusted as clinical indicators, especially in common internalizing disorders like depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Researchers can put more faith into patient self-report, including those that occur in online experiments such as social media posts, when individuals report diagnoses of depression and anxiety disorders. Replication and further study is recommended.
... Bivariate correlations were used to examine the relationship between racial discrimination related stress, each locus of control domain, and substance use, as well as age, gender, and recruitment source. Although not the aim of this study, age (Newton-Howes et al., 2019) and gender (O'Malley & Johnston, 2002) were added as covariates to control for their unique and combined contribution to substance use, and recruitment source was also added as a covariate post hoc, as it was plausible that variability on study variables may have been impacted based on the recruitment source. ...
Article
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Introduction Exposure to racial discrimination has been consistently linked with risk for substance use. However, outside of externalizing and affect-based factors, few other mechanisms have been examined. One potential candidate is locus of control, a learning processes that involves the degree to which one attributes rewards as resulting from their own control (internal locus of control) versus outside control (external locus of control). There is evidence that exposure to stressors is associated with locus of control, with a separate body of literature linking locus of control with substance use. Thus, it is plausible that locus of control may be a mechanism underlying the relationship between racial discrimination and substance use. Methods: The current study investigated this pathway among 503 racial/ethnic minority adults aged 18-35 who completed an online questionnaire including measures on racial discrimination related stress, locus of control, and substance use. Results: Results indicated a significant indirect effect between racial discrimination related stress, two external domains of locus of control (i.e., powerful others and chance), and substance use. A significant indirect effect was not found for internal locus of control. Conclusion: These findings expand our understanding on potential mechanisms that underlie the racial discrimination-substance use risk pathway among racial/ethnic minority adults, which may in turn provide important targets for substance use intervention programming.
... Background Risky drinking and substance use among college students has been a longstanding concern. Serious negative outcomes and consequences (e.g., unintentional injuries, sexual assault, heavy consumption, poisoning, and death) are consistently associated with risky use [1][2][3][4]. Although we are seeing decreases in some domains of risky substance use (e.g., binge drinking rates are on the decline [5,6], there are still areas in need of improvement (e.g., risky cannabis use, supporting students in recovery). ...
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Background Risky drinking among college campuses has been a long-standing concern and there have been dedicated efforts to develop evidence-based prevention and treatment strategies (EBSs) to decrease alcohol use and increase healthy behaviors among college students. Further, the College Alcohol Intervention Matrix (CollegeAIM) was developed as a tool with accompanying resources, to assist institutions of higher education in selecting EBSs that are appropriate and a good fit for their campuses. However, the CollegeAIM tool and selection of prevention strategies from stakeholders’ perspectives has yet to be evaluated. This study protocol describes the methodology for a research project evaluating CollegeAIM from an implementation science perspective using the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, and Sustainment framework. Methods The aims of this study will be accomplished with a mixed-method design comprised of reviews of strategic planning documents, quantitative surveys and interviews with prevention experts, and focus groups to identify key components of a decision-support program for prevention experts to support the use of CollegeAIM. Participants are members of the multi-site Missouri Partners in Prevention coalition to reduce risky substance use on college campuses across the state. Discussion The results of this study will provide key information to support the development of additional supportive tools for campuses that can improve their selection and implementation of EBSs that fit the needs of their respective campuses. This work is important to further advance the implementation and sustainment of extant EBSs for risky college alcohol use.
... Future work designed to replicate the current study findings with respect to PTSD status would be informative. Second, participants in the current study were young adults, due to this age-group demonstrating elevated risk for the onset of PTSD and AUD (Hingson et al., 2006;Jackson & Sartor, 2016;Kessler et al., 2005;O'Malley & Johnston, 2002;Overstreet et al., 2017;Read et al., 2012); the findings may not generalize to other age-groups or to individuals who have been suffering from long-standing symptoms of PTSD-AUD. Third, the participants in this study exhibited high rates of comorbid conditions, as consistent with the naturally occurring presentations of individuals with PTSD-AUD (e.g., Norman et al., 2018). ...
Article
Background Clinical research indicates that successful posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment does not lead to improvements in alcohol use outcomes in comorbid PTSD and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Emerging theory suggests that treating PTSD may not disrupt an association between negative affect and alcohol craving, which underlies negative reinforcement drinking. The goal of the current study was to determine the respective influences of PTSD symptoms, coping motives, and negative affect on trauma and alcohol cue reactivity to inform theoretical models of co-occurring PTSD and AUD. Methods The sample consisted of 189 young adults (50.3% women; 49.2% current PTSD; 84.0% current AUD) who endorsed interpersonal trauma (e.g., sexual/physical assault) and current weekly alcohol use. Participants completed a trauma and alcohol cue reactivity assessment, in which subjective (e.g., craving, affect) and physiological (i.e., salivation) measures were recorded in response to 4 narrative (i.e., personalized trauma or standard neutral) and in vivo beverage (i.e., personalized alcohol or water) cue combinations. Results Forward-fitted linear mixed-effects (LME) models confirmed that trauma cue–elicited craving was elevated among those high but not low in PTSD symptoms, consistent with prior research and theory. Trauma cue–elicited craving was fully explained by increases in negative affect, with no evidence of a direct effect of trauma cue on craving. PTSD symptoms moderated an association between trauma cue and negative affect (but not negative affect and craving), and coping motives for alcohol moderated an association between negative affect and craving (but not trauma cue and negative affect). Conclusions This study provides novel laboratory evidence for the respective contributions of negative affect, PTSD symptoms, and coping motives on alcohol craving in trauma-exposed drinkers. It offers a methodological framework in which to evaluate novel strategies that aim to disrupt negative reinforcement drinking in individuals with co-occurring PTSD and AUD.
... substance abuse are called protective factors while those that increase the risk of abuse are called risk factors [27]. ...
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Background: Substance abuse commonly known as drug abuse refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychotropic substances
... Crowded social events also, by definition, limit the ability to maintain physical distance. Because alcohol consumption is prevalent among college students [11], assessing the relationship between this behavior and SARS-CoV-2 positivity is imperative to better understand the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 transmission among college students. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the relationship between drinking behaviors and SARS-CoV-2 positivity. ...
Article
Purpose Colleges and universities across the United States are developing and implementing data-driven prevention and containment measures against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Identifying risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity could help to direct these efforts. This study aimed to estimate the associations between demographic factors and social behaviors and SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity and self-reported positive SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test. Methods In September 2020, we randomly sampled Indiana University Bloomington undergraduate students. Participants completed a cross-sectional online survey about demographics, SARS-CoV-2 testing history, relationship status, and risk behaviors. Additionally, during a subsequent appointment, participants were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using a fingerstick procedure and SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG rapid assay kit. We used unadjusted modified Poisson regression models to evaluate the associations between predictors of both SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity and self-reported positive SARS-CoV-2 infection history. Results Overall, 1,076 students were included in the serological testing analysis, and 1,239 students were included in the SARS-CoV-2 infection history analysis. Current seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was 4.6% (95% confidence interval: 3.3%, 5.8%). Prevalence of self-reported SARS-CoV-2 infection history was 10.3% (95% confidence interval: 8.6%, 12.0%). Greek membership, having multiple romantic partners, knowing someone in one's immediate environment with SARS-CoV-2 infection, drinking alcohol more than 1 day a week, and hanging out with more than five people when drinking alcohol increased both the likelihood of seropositivity and SARS-CoV-2 infection history. Conclusion Our findings have implications for American colleges and universities and could be used to inform SARS-CoV-2 prevention and control strategies on such campuses.
... A previous study by Kypri found that amongst college students in Halls of Residences in New Zealand 60% of males and 58.2% of females "typically consumed more than national safe drinking guidelines" [11]. A 2002 epidemiological study looked at five different sources of data examining the drinking habits of college students in the USA [12]. It resulted in slightly lower values with all sources finding like Weschler and Austin [13] that "approximately 2 of 5 American college students can be termed binge drinkers", in both studies binging is defined as having consumed 5 or more alcoholic drinks in one sitting. ...
Article
Background This study examines Irish undergraduate students’ behaviours and motives regarding alcohol consumption. The study explores both levels and patterns of consumption.MethodA cross-sectional design using a convenience sample of (n = 213) students from a selection of different courses in Health Sciences at Trinity College Dublin was used to obtain this data. The study used a peer-led approach to design and data collection. Peer-led research is emerging as a robust methodology. Evidence supports it as an effective approach, particularly with sensitive questions, which may be shared with more ease between persons with common interests and experiences.ResultsIn terms of alcohol consumption levels and patterns, of those who drank almost three quarters (149/71%) met the threshold for binge drinking (i.e. six of more consecutive drinks in one session). Males (n = 36/73.4%) were more likely than females (n = 113/69.7%) to binge drink. Moreover, one in 5 males (n = 10/20.4%) said that they drank ten or more drinks in one session. Males were more likely to drink for conformity reasons. Despite this, a significant proportion (69.2%) of participants reported alcohol-related problems. The Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (DMQR) results showed that overall students were more likely to drink for social and enhancement reasons rather than coping or conformity reasons, consistent with other studies. Nonetheless, males in the current study were more likely to drink for conformity reasons.Conclusion Given the high rates of hazardous drinking, the development of an alcohol intervention may be justified, given the high response rates to peer-screening, a peer-led intervention for alcohol-related harms may yield positive results.
... Substance use by college students has risen in the last 20 years, including excessive use of drugs and alcohol on college campuses. Drug use rates have been increasing among adolescents and college students since the mid-1990s, and the trend continued throughout the end of the century despite various prevention efforts [1]. Equally concerning are the trends in depression. ...
... A previous study by Kypri found that amongst college students in Halls of Residences in New Zealand 60% of males and 58.2 % of females "typically consumed more than national safe drinking guidelines" (11). A 2002 epidemiological study looked at five different sources of data examining the drinking habits of college students in the US (12). It resulted in slightly lower values with all sources finding like Weschler and Austin (13) that "approximately 2 of 5 American college students can be termed binge drinkers", in both studies binging is defined as having consumed 5 or more alcoholic drinks in one sitting. ...
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BACKGROUND: This study examines undergraduate students' behaviours and attitudes regarding alcohol consumption. AIMS: The study explores both levels and patterns of consumption, and motives for drinking. METHOD: A cross-sectional design using a convenience sample of (n=213) students from a selection of different courses in Health Sciences at Trinity College Dublin was used to obtain this data. The study used a peer-led approach to design and data collection. Peer-led research is emerging as a robust methodology. Evidence supports it as an effective approach, particularly with sensitive questions, which maybe shared with more ease between persons with common interests and experiences. RESULTS: In terms of alcohol consumption levels and patterns, of those who drank almost three quarters (149/71%) met the threshold for binge drinking (i.e. six of more consecutive drinks in one session). Males (n=36/73.4%) were more likely than females (n=113/69.7%) to binge drink. Moreover, one in 5 males (n=10/20.4%) said that they drank ten or more drinks in one session. Males were more likely to drink for conformity reasons. Despite this, a significant proportion (69.
... Keough and O'Connor, 2014;Read and O'Connor, 2006). Previous work confirms accuracy when confidentiality is ensured (Sobell and Sobell, 1992) and concurrent validity, given high correlations with both annual drinking rates (O'Malley and Johnston, 2002) and past-90-day alcohol use (Read and O'Connor, 2006). ...
Article
Aims Alcohol use follows a developmental trajectory—steadily increasing and peaking in the early stages of emerging adulthood (e.g. first year of university) and declining thereafter. While most individuals ‘mature out’ of problem drinking as they move through emerging adulthood, some continue to drink heavily and experience serious problems. Tension reduction theory identifies social anxiety (SA) as a potential risk factor for problem drinking during emerging adulthood. However, mixed data suggest that the associations between SA and drinking behaviours are not straightforward. Cross-sectional studies demonstrate that socially anxious emerging adults are at risk for problem drinking, but only if they are also high in trait impulsivity. This study aimed to expand on previous work by examining trait impulsivity as moderator of the prospective associations between SA and maturing out of problem drinking in emerging adulthood. Methods Undergraduates (N = 302) completed online self-reports at regular intervals (6-months) over an 18-month period, resulting in four waves of data. Results Unconditional latent growth curve models indicated that alcohol problems (but not use) declined linearly over time. Next, conditional growth curve models revealed that SA was associated with impeded maturing out of alcohol problems, but this effect was only present in socially anxious participants with high levels of trait impulsivity. Conclusion Our study advances growing literature on the crucial moderating role that impulsivity plays in the SA pathway to problem drinking. Clinical interventions for problem drinking among socially anxious students should both assess for and target concurrent impulsivity.
... Given the social environment and relatively unstructured peer context, experimenting with drugs is not uncommon among college students (O'Malley & Johnston, 2002). Estimates derived over the last two decades suggest that between 5% and 35% of undergraduate students engage in NMPSU in a given year DeSantis et al., 2008;DuPont et al., 2008;Garnier-Dykstra et al., 2012;Low & Gendaszek, 2002;McCabe et al., 2018;SAMHSA, 2019). ...
Article
The nonmedical use of prescription stimulants has been prevalent on college campuses in recent years. Previously, nonmedical prescription stimulant use (NMPSU) has been associated with increased use of other illicit substances, drug abuse, school dropout, and arrest. It is, therefore, imperative to understand the etiology of NMPSU for prevention, intervention, and harm reduction purposes. This study builds upon previous research on the role of academic strain in NMPSU by (a) considering a measure of strain that is more consistent with strain theory and (b) extending the examination to include graduate students. By utilizing an original data set of 1,121 undergraduate and graduate students at a Southern urban university, our overall results are consistent with general strain theory but mixed with respect to the role of academic strain in particular. The implications of our study for academic strain are discussed.
... Although college students may show less substance use than non-students in the same age range [2], it remains true that smoking, heavy alcohol use, and illicit drug use are not uncommon [3][4][5] among college students and are considered pressing health issues [6]. O'Mally and Johnston's [7] influential study shows a high prevalence of heavy alcohol use and smoking among college students, with only a slight improvement from 1980 to late 1990. Even the most recent national survey data suggest that substance use remains a pressing health concern of the college-age population. ...
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Background Numerous studies have documented factors that are associated with substance use behaviors among college-aged individuals. However, relatively few studies have considered the heterogeneity of the college experience by field of study (i.e., college major) and how that educational context might affect students’ health behaviors differently. Drawing from theories and prior research, this study investigates whether college majors are associated with different substance use behaviors, both during college and upon graduation. Methods The study analyzed longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 97 (N = 1031), specifically data on individuals who obtained a bachelor’s degree, to examine the associations between college fields of study and trajectories of three substance use behaviors: smoking, heavy alcohol use, and marijuana use. Results The results indicate that social science and business majors were associated with more substance use behaviors than arts and humanities and STEM majors. However, social science majors were associated with a faster decrease in substance use behaviors over time. Importantly, the differences we found in mean levels of substance use behaviors and trajectories were not explained by demographic characteristics, family SES background, childhood health conditions, and employment experience. Further analysis that examined college major and each substance use behavior individually suggests that the associations were stronger for heavy alcohol use and marijuana use. Moreover, we found the associations were more pronounced in men than women. Conclusions The study finds that not all college majors show the same level of engagement in substance use behaviors over time, and that the associations also vary by (1) the specific substance use behavior examined and (2) by gender. These findings suggest it is important to consider that the different learning and educational contexts that college majors provide may also be more or less supportive of certain health behaviors, such as substance use. Practical implications are discussed.
... Third, it has to be pointed out that most studies on the mediated observational learning of drinking behaviour used student samples (Kulick & Rosenberg, 2001;Osberg et al., 2012), as did studies on similarity in the context of alcohol-related topics (see Andsager et al., 2006;Pinkleton, Weintraub-Austin, & van de Vord, 2010). Yet comparisons of students and the general population are important because the former tend to consume more alcohol than the latter (O'Malley & Johnston, 2002). Thus, to extend the work of other researchers on the topic, we used a student sample and a more diverse, non-student sample. ...
Article
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Aim The depiction of alcohol on television is an important explanatory variable for drinking behaviour. Even though alcohol consumption is frequently shown on popular TV shows, research on the impact of TV characters as models of drinking behaviour remains scarce. We theorise that the perceived similarity to a TV character is a key mechanism to explain recipients' expectancies about alcohol consumption. Methods We conducted two experiments in which we manipulated the drinking behaviour of a TV character and the consequences of drinking. We measured perceived similarity to the character as amediating variable and treated participants' alcohol consumption as a moderator. Results In both studies, perceived similarity to models predicted positive expectancies about alcohol consumption, and perceived similarity decreased with the portrayal of an alcoholic character. In Study 1, participants who reported drinking rarely perceived themselves to be more similar to a rare drinker, which suggests that viewers' own alcohol consumption affects similarity judgments. In Study 2, portrayals of consequences of drinking directly affected expectancies about alcohol, moderated by participants' alcohol consumption. Conclusion Overall, our findings suggest that perceived similarity is a key variable to understand how alcohol on television affects viewers’ expectancies toward alcohol.
... College-aged young adults are an ideal population for studying etiological factors underlying PTSD-AUD https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106596 Received 23 May 2020; Received in revised form 16 July 2020; Accepted 30 July 2020 comorbidity, as they have increased risk for interpersonal trauma (e.g., Kessler et al., 1995), and given that AUD tends to emerge during this developmental period (O'Malley & Johnston, 2002;Knight et al., 2002). ...
Article
Despite support for the role of self-medication alcohol use in the etiology and maintenance of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD), theoretical and empirical models of PTSD-AUD rarely account for the role of common comorbidities in risk processes, such as major depressive disorder (MDD). The current study examined the main and interactive effects of PTSD and depressive symptoms on patterns of trauma and alcohol cue reactivity to elucidate potential influences of depression on conditioned craving responses to trauma memories. It was hypothesized that depressive symptoms would be associated with greater cue reactivity (i.e., craving and salivation) to personalized trauma cues, above and beyond the influence of PTSD symptoms. Participants were 184 trauma-exposed young adults (50% female) endorsing current weekly alcohol use. Patterns of craving and salivation were assessed in response to four combinations of narrative (trauma vs. neutral) and beverage (alcohol vs. water) cues. Forward-fitted linear mixed effects models with deviance testing were conducted to ascertain the impact of the within-subjects factors (narrative and beverage cues) and covariates (PTSD and depressive symptoms) on self-reported and physiological (salivation) alcohol craving. Depressive symptoms were associated with elevated drinking coping motives, AUD symptom severity, and alcohol use problems at baseline; however, depressive symptoms did not show main or interactive effects with narrative or beverage cues to predict craving or salivation, p’s > .05. Results suggest that, in the context of PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms may not exacerbate alcohol craving responses to trauma reminders or alcohol cues.
... Many students in colleges and universities indulge in excessive alcohol use, which, in turn, adversely impacts on their lives. The adverse effects of excessive alcohol use on students' lives include poor academic performance or drop out (O'Malley, & Johnston, 2002), poor social and emotional functioning (Villarosa-Hurlocker, Madson, Mohn, Zeigler-Hill, & Nicholson, 2018), risky sexual behaviours and violence (Gilmore, Lewis, George, 2015;Tsai, Leiter, Heisler, et al., 2011), unintentional injuries or even deaths (Woolsey, Williams Jr, Housman, Barry, Jacobson, & Evans Jr, 2015), and a plethora of physical and mental health problems (Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health, 2018). ...
Article
Worldwide, harmful alcohol use by college or university students is a public health concern. Many students in colleges and universities indulge in excessive alcohol use, which, in turn, adversely impacts on their health and diminishes opportunities to realise their full potentials. This study assessed the influence of self-efficacy on alcohol use among students at a university in Botswana. The study utilised data from a cross-sectional survey of 266 young adults (age=20.40; SD=20.10; 18-25) enrolled at a university in Botswana. Descriptive statistics, t-tests and regression analyses were performed to assess socio-demographic characteristics, sub-population differences, and the extent to which self-efficacy predicted alcohol use. Forty-six per cent of respondents (n=124) use alcohol, 40 per cent (n=49) of whom were hazardous users. Female students were younger, used less alcohol, and were more self-efficacious than their male peers. The female gender [β = 0.15, 95% (CI: 0.01, 0.28)] and the social [β =-0.24, 95% (CI:-0.45,-0.09)] and substance use [β =-0.35, 95% (CI:-0.45,-0.09)] domains of self-efficacy significantly and uniquely predicted alcohol use. University management and healthcare providers should target self-efficacy as a potential strategy to reduce alcohol abuse and enhance self-care among young adults. Self-efficacy as a strategy empowers young adults to manage their alcohol use better than an authoritarian model of managing alcohol abuse by employed by university authorities. The empowerment model shifts power to the young adults, thus enabling them to think critically, take control of their lives, creates awareness and allows them to make their own decisions based on health literacy and self-care behaviours.
... Further, as was done during the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S., local jurisdictions should consider relaxing interjurisdictional practice guidelines for college students so that college counseling centers can continue to serve them if they return to a family home out of state. Third, college mental health providers should also consider that alcohol use and associated problems are typically elevated among college students (O'Malley & Johnston, 2002). As indicated by the AUDIT scores in the present study, alcohol use increases to the point of risky or even more elevated levels during the pandemic for some college students. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic caused significant disruption during the spring of 2020. Many college students were told to leave campus at spring break and to complete the semester remotely. This study evaluates effects of this disruption on student well-being. A sample of 148 students (86.5% female, 49.3% White) completed measures of psychological symptoms, perceived stress, and alcohol use during the spring 2020 semester at a university in the southeastern U.S. Their results were compared to those of 240 students (87.9% female, 64.2% White) who completed the same measures in the fall 2019 semester. Participants in spring 2020 reported more mood disorder symptoms, perceived stress, and alcohol use than did pre-pandemic participants. Worry about COVID-19 was negatively associated with well-being in multiple domains. Additionally, White students reported a greater effect of the pandemic on well-being than did African American students. Young adults appear to be less vulnerable to the most serious medical complications associated with COVID-19 but nonetheless experience psychological effects from the pandemic. Universities and practitioners who work with college students can help young adults manage their symptoms and avoid behaviors like risky alcohol use when confronted with stressors such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Instead, it is rather evident that the vast majority of non-addicted human users consume psychoactive drugs as a normal part of their lives with a high degree of environmental selectivity [225,301] and to use subsequent drug effects for their personal goals in these microenvironments. ...
Article
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Psychoactive drugs with addiction potential are widely used by people of virtually all cultures in a non-addictive way. In order to understand this behaviour, its population penetrance, and its persistence, drug instrumentalization was suggested as a driving force for this consumption. Drug instrumentalization theory holds that psychoactive drugs are consumed in a very systematic way in order to make other, non-drug-related behaviours more efficient. Here, we review the evolutionary origin of this behaviour and its psychological mechanisms and explore the neurobiological and neuropharmacological mechanisms underlying them. Instrumentalization goals are discussed, for which an environmentally selective and mental state-dependent consumption of psychoactive drugs can be learned and maintained in a non-addictive way. A small percentage of people who regularly instrumentalize psychoactive drugs make a transition to addiction, which often starts with qualitative and quantitative changes in the instrumentalization goals. As such, addiction is proposed to develop from previously established long-term drug instrumentalization. Thus, preventing and treating drug addiction in an individualized medicine approach may essentially require understanding and supporting personal instrumentalization goals.
... Regarding the association between DUIA and high education in Brazil and in two macroregions, individuals with this characteristic generally have more access to vehicles, increasing the likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors, such as DUIA [37]. Also, a possible explanation for this association is that higher levels of schooling have the highest comparative rate of alcohol abuse and problems related to alcohol use [49]. Elementary education was found to be a protective factor in the North macroregion, suggesting a higher prevalence in drivers with low educational level in this macroregion. ...
Article
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Objective: To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with driving under the influence of alcohol (DUIA) in Brazil, according to macroregion. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from individuals aged 18 years or older who participated in the 2013 National Health Survey in Brazil. Subjects were selected by probabilistic sampling and interviewed through home visits. Prevalence of DUIA was estimated according to the number of drivers and/or motorcyclists who reported consuming alcohol in the previous 30 days (n = 9537). Poisson regression was used to analyze the factors associated with DUIA to Brazil and in each macroregion of the country. Results: The prevalence of DUIA was 27.5%, 29.4%, 29.6%, 22.9%, and 20.8% in the North, Northeast, Central-West, South, and Southeast macroregions, respectively. The overall prevalence of Brazil was 24.3%. In most macroregions, the main predictors of DUIA were male sex, high educational level, living in outside the capital or metropolitan regions (other regions), and binge drinking in the previous 30 days. Depression was a predictor in Brazil and two macroregions. Conclusion: A high prevalence of DUIA was observed in Brazil, especially in the Central-West, Northeast and, North macro-regions. Factors associated with DUIA can be incorporated to develop effective interventions to reduce this behavior in Brazil.
... All participants recruited for the study were males, probably because the prevalence of ADS was more among males; this was consistent with previous findings. [8][9][10] It could also suggest that women in India with alcohol use disorders did not present to healthcare services because of the social stigma. The majority of participants belonged to the lower middle socioeconomic status and were mostly semi-skilled workers, farmers and shopkeepers, with an educational profile ranging from higher primary to high school. ...
Article
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Background.: Losses to follow-up impact the collection of outcomes among patients with alcohol dependence syndrome (ADS). We aimed to study the feasibility and acceptability of using telephonic contact as a means of following up new patients with ADS. The outcomes assessed were complete abstinence at the end of 6 months and associated factors. Methods.: We followed up a cohort of 54 new patients diagnosed with ADS after 6 months, in the psychiatry department of a tertiary care hospital in India. We also assessed sociodemographic, alcohol-related, medical and treatmentrelated details of the patients; and scores on the Short Alcohol Dependence Data Questionnaire, Rotter's scale for the locus of control, and the Clinical Institute of Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol scale-revised. The primary outcome was complete abstinence at the end of 6 months. The data at follow-up were collected through a combination of in-person and telephonic interviews with the patients and caregivers and supplemented with chart reviews. Results.: Follow-up at 6 months could be carried out for 51 of 54 patients enrolled (94.4%; 32 through direct, and 19 through telephonic interviews). The proportion of patients who achieved and maintained complete abstinence during this period was 27.5%. The factors found to be associated with abstinence were regularity of follow-up, adherence to medicines and having had the habit of drinking alcohol with friends, as opposed to solitary drinking. Conclusion.: Using mobile telephonic technology, we were able to obtain an excellent follow-up and improve the collection of outcomes by 35.2% at the end of a 6-month period among new patients with ADS. This potentially effective tool is widely available and cost-effective, and could have a role in improving outcomes among patients with ADS.
... Individual and environmental factors associated with increased use include alcohol expectancies, drinking motives, and perceived norms; involvement in fraternities or sororities; type of residence; college size; location; and alcohol availability [1]. The growing body of literature and public health concern over heavy drinking and alcohol related consequences as individuals transition into college has resulted in increasing research on effective alcohol reduction interventions [2][3][4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Brief alcohol interventions are an effective strategy for reducing harmful and risky alcohol use and misuse. Many effective brief alcohol interventions include information and advice about an individual's alcohol use, changing their use, and assistance in developing strategies and goals to help reduce their use. Emerging research suggests that brief interventions can also be expanded to address multiple health outcomes; recognizing that the flexible nature of these approaches can be helpful in tailoring information to specific population groups. This scoping review synthesizes evidence on the inclusion of sex and gender in brief alcohol interventions on college campuses, highlighting available evidence on gender responsiveness in these interventions. Furthermore, this scoping review offers strategies on how brief alcohol interventions can be gender transformative, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions as harm reduction and prevention strategies, and in promoting gender equity.
... Moreover, national samples report high levels of alcohol consumption among college students (Schulenberg et al., 2017;Wechsler et al., 2000), and almost five college students have an alcohol-related fatality each day (White & Hingson, 2014). Over 40% of college students drink heavily (Hingson et al., 2017;O'Malley & Johnston, 2002;SAMHSA, 2011). Not only are college students regular consumers of alcohol, they also experience a large proportion of the negative outcomes associated with alcohol (e.g., drinking and driving, sexual assault; Merrill & Carey, 2016), and the rate of negative outcomes is increasing (NCASA, 2007). ...
Article
When trying to prevent deaths from alcohol overdose, potentially intoxicated companions of the inebriated person must know when to intervene. The current project examined the relation between intoxication level and the signs of alcohol poisoning. In a local bar district, interviewers asked college students (N = 178; 52% female students) to generate signs that someone was so intoxicated that they needed help. On average, intoxicated and sober students recalled one correct symptom and one incorrect symptom. The most common symptoms generated by the students were nonspecific (e.g., passing out). The number of correct and incorrect symptoms were not related to intoxication level. In addition, students tended to generate ambiguous concepts that may or may not be symptoms of alcohol poisoning.
... According to a survey conducted by researchers at the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, binge drinking was most prevalent among young people aged 18-34 years, and occurs at a significantly higher rate compared to older age groups [1]. Young students in colleges are more likely to drink heavily than non-college students of the sameage who do not live with their parents [2,3]. Another national report shows that about 60% of college students between 18-22 years old have drunk excessively within the past month [4]. ...
Article
This study explores current drinking practices and attitudes of college students and design opportunities for encouraging safe and responsible drinking behaviors in this population. With 86 participants in total, we conducted surveys, interviews, and a two-week user study that involved the use of BACtrack Mobile Pro, an FDA-approved personal breathalyzer which can be connected to a smartphone app. For the user study, we conducted pre-study and weekly surveys, user experience evaluations, and in-depth post-study interviews with 24 college students who regularly consume alcohol. We identified and compared two groups of participants based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), which is a screening test for risky drinking behaviors. We propose a new system, smartphone app user interface, and experiences based on our findings. Finally, we discuss the role and implications of future technological interventions that could lead to safe and responsible drinking behaviors among college students.
... [6][7][8] Alcohol abuse may be related to the high road traffic accidents especially among the commercial motorcyclists (Okada riders) in Nigeria and the victims are mainly young adult with high potential to use alcohol. 9,10 Nigeria is a developing country that has not maximally utilized her resources to achieve socioeconomic development. 11, 12 One of the consequences is poor infrastructure with extremely poor road network and poor public transportation system in the country. ...
Article
Background: Alcohol is classified among legal substances, but its excess consumption can result in road traffic accidents via impairing psychomotor activity and concentration. This study investigated the prevalence of early morning alcohol consumption and its health consequences among commercial motorcycle (Okada) riders in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Methods: Systematic sampling technique was used to recruit subjects for this study. Cutting down alcohol; annoyed by comments on alcohol; guilt of alcohol use; early morning use of alcohol; eye opener (CAGE) questionnaire was used to estimate the prevalence of problematic alcohol use among Okada riders in Ado Ekiti. Results: One hundred and seven Okada riders were assessed. Majority of them were young adults. Majority of the riders know another rider who have had a serious road traffic accident riding Okada in the past 12 months and 29% of them know a rider who had died riding Okada in the past 12 months. About 28.6% of them admit early morning alcohol consumption. Suppression of cold (45.5%), keeping awake (19.4%) and peer group effect (14.5%) were the major identified factors influencing them to use alcohol. The commonest types of injuries sustained were bruises and lacerations (51.1%) and fractures of upper and lower limbs (18.7%). Conclusion: The early morning alcohol consumption among Okada riders contributed to road traffic accidents in Ekiti state, Nigeria.
... Some studies indicate family and peer influence to be the strongest motivators of drug and alcohol use in teens and they have further reported that despite a general reduction in alcohol use among adolescents and young adults over the past decade, heavy alcohol use remains a big problem, particularly in college populations where heavy episodic or binge drinking is especially prevalent (Kandel, 1999;Johnston, O'Malley, Bachman, & Schulenberg, 2013) and Chirunga undergraduate students have shown a similar pattern. Research has suggested that alcohol and marijuana ab/use in the university tend to be adopted as a mechanism to cope with stress of work (Thomas et al., 2006;O'Malley, & Johnston, 2002 and 2005 and the rate of riskier drinking also increased substantially (CASA, 2007). The number of US college students who reported binge drinking three or more times increased by 16% from 199316% from to 200116% from (CASA, 2007. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of use of psychoactive substances among undergraduate students at Chirunga College in Malawi. The study was guided by Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behaviour. Mixed research methodologies were used, in which both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies were employed in data generation and analysis. SPSSv20 and Excel were used in quantitative data analysis and qualitative data was analyzed thematically. The study involved 147 participants and the findings revealed that (34%) of students used psychoactive substances. It recommends that undergraduate students who use psychoactive substances like any other user of these substances, require help. Accordingly, as an institution of higher learning, Chirunga College has to take the necessary steps to address this problem; including introducing counselling and psychotherapy services at the institution
... This finding was unexpected, especially for those with 'early-onset persistent' CPs, and it may be that excessive drinking in the early 20s is explained by more proximal factors, such as concurrent mental health problems, or significant life events; alternatively, it may be because excessive drinking becomes normative at this age in the United Kingdom, meaning that risk factor effects are diluted. Additionally, the weakening of associations with problematic alcohol use could also be explained by transitions to college or university given that the early 20s is when drinking patterns diverge most for those that do and do not attend university (Derefinko et al., 2016;O'Malley & Johnston, 2002;Reckdenwald et al., 2016) and therefore drinking assessments at this age are thought to be more unstable than those occurring slightly earlier or later making prediction more difficult (Zucker, 2008). ...
Article
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Background: Both 'early-onset persistent' and 'adolescent-onset' conduct problems (CPs) are associated with alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood. The escalation of early CPs into criminal behaviour and heavy alcohol consumption prior to emerging adulthood are both likely to be important pathways. Methods: Data were analysed from 3,038 young people in a UK birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. The exposure was developmental trajectories of CPs ('low', 'childhood-limited', 'adolescent-onset' and 'early-onset persistent') between ages 4 and 13 years. The mediator was latent classes representing heavy alcohol consumption and/ or criminal behaviour at age 15 years. For the outcome, a quadratic latent growth curve was estimated to capture nonlinear change in alcohol-related problems between ages 18 and 23 years. Results: Those with 'early-onset persistent' [b(95% CI) = 1.16 (0.17, 2.14)] and 'adolescent-onset' CPs [b(95% CI) = 1.31 (0.17, 2.45)] had higher levels of alcohol-related problems at age 18 years compared to those with 'low' CPs', but there was little evidence of an association with alcohol-related problems after age 19 years. There was evidence for an indirect effect of 'early-onset persistent' CPs [b(95% CI) = 1.12 (0.52, 1.72)] on alcohol-related problems at age 18 years via the latent classes of alcohol and criminal behaviour in adolescence. This was not found for 'adolescent-onset' CPs [b(95% CI) = 0.35 (-0.36, 1.07)]. Conclusions: Strong associations exist between early CPs, adolescent alcohol consumption and criminal behaviour and alcohol-related problems at age 18 years. Associations between early CPs and alcohol-related problems weakened considerably across emerging adulthood.
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There is a drastic increase in alcohol and drug abuse, especially among the youth in many parts of the World.it has been reported that University students are the most affected by the challenge of alcohol and drug abuse the world over. According to National Campaign against Drug Abuse (NACADA), 84% of youth between 16 to 24 years in Kenya are involved in alcohol and drug abuse. University students fall under this age bracket. To mitigate this all universities in Kenya are required to have Alcohol and Drugs Abuse prevention committees and policies. This study aimed at finding out the effects of Alcohol and Drug Abuse among students at Chuka University. The study adopted a descriptive research design. The target population was 15,290 Chuka University students. A simple random sampling technique was employed to choose 384 respondents. Questionnaires were used to collect data. Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0 for windows was used to analyze data. Data was presented in frequency distribution tables, bar charts, and pie charts.
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Background and objectives: Discrimination due to race and/or ethnicity can be a pervasive stressor for Black college students in the United States beyond general negative life events and has demonstrated associations with adverse health and alcohol outcomes. Genetics may confer individual differences in the risk of drinking to cope with discrimination-related stress. This study tested whether associations of racial/ethnic discrimination with coping drinking motives and alcohol use differ as a function of a well-documented variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B*3). Methods: Cross-sectional data were obtained from 241 Black students (Mage = 20.04 [range = 18-53]; 66% female) attending a predominantly White university in the northeastern United States. Participants provided a saliva sample for genotyping and self-reported on their racial/ethnic discrimination experiences, coping drinking motives, and past-month total alcohol quantity. Results: Path models demonstrated that associations of discrimination with alcohol quantity directly or indirectly through coping drinking motives did not differ as a function of ADH1B*3, after controlling for gender, age, negative life events, and potential confounding interactions of covariates with model predictors. Regardless of ADH1B*3, greater experience of negative life events was associated with higher coping drinking motives, which in turn were associated with greater alcohol quantity. CONCLUSION AND SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: Findings represent a novel investigation into gene-environment interplay in associations of alcohol use with racial/ethnic discrimination. Findings demonstrate coping-motivated drinking associated with negative life events within Black college drinkers regardless of ADH1B*3. Future research should leverage longitudinal designs to characterize associations of genetics, stressful experiences, and coping-motivated drinking over time.
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Alcohol and drugs abuse is on serious increase, especially among the youth in many parts of the World. It has been reported that the most affected persons by the challenge of alcohol and drugs abuse the world over are University students. In Kenya, the National Campaign against Drug Abuse (NACADA) report indicates that 84% of youth between 16 to 24 years are involved in alcohol and drug abuse. University students fall under this age bracket. To mitigate this NACADA requires that all universities in Kenya to have Alcohol and Drugs Abuse prevention committees and policies. This study aimed at finding out the causes of Alcohol and Drugs Abuse at Chuka University. The study employed a descriptive research design. The target population was 15,290 Chuka University students. Simple random sampling technique was employed to choose 384 respondents. Questionnaires were used to collect data. statistical package of social sciences (SPSS) version 21.0 for windows was used to analyze data. Data was presented in frequency distribution tables, bar charts, and pie charts.
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Substance use disorders during pregnancy is a major public health concern. Alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs are identified as one of the single most preventable public health and social problems affecting women. Identification of substance use during pregnancy continues to be underreported by women as the possible legal ramifications are a major concern. In recent years, the legalization of marijuana has seen an increase in use and is now one of the most commonly used substances. Many of these substances have a negative impact on fetal development, including growth restriction and preterm delivery. Some of the sequelae continue during infant and child growth and development. The use of screening tools such as brief office interventions assists in identifying women at risk or currently using harmful substances and is one strategy providers may implement to support a positive and healthy pregnancy outcome.
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Suicidal behaviors are increasingly prevalent among college students. Although emotion dysregulation is theorized to increase suicide risk, research supporting this relationship is mixed. Engagement in self-damaging behaviors may play a role in the relationship between emotion dysregulation and suicide risk, theoretically by increasing one's capability of engaging in suicidal behaviors. Such behaviors may interact with emotion dysregulation to predict suicide risk. Alternatively, engaging in self-damaging behaviors may mediate the emotion dysregulation-suicide risk relationship. We examined the potential moderating and mediating roles of engagement in multiple self-damaging behaviors in the relationship between emotion dysregulation and suicide risk among college students. Participants were 181 undergraduate students who reported a history of self-damaging behaviors (i.e., non-suicidal self-injury, alcohol misuse, drug misuse, disordered eating), overall emotion dysregulation, and suicide risk. Findings revealed an interactive effect of emotion dysregulation and self-damaging behaviors on suicide risk, with engagement in more forms of self-damaging behaviors conferring higher risk for suicide, particularly in the context of greater emotion dysregulation. The model testing self-damaging behaviors as a mediator was also significant, such that greater emotion dysregulation had an indirect effect on elevated suicide risk via number of self-damaging behaviors. These findings help clarify associations among emotion dysregulation, self-damaging behaviors, and suicide risk, and have implications for specific targets of intervention and for the prevention of suicide by college students.
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Background and aims: College students report high levels of alcohol use, which can be exacerbated by interpersonal trauma exposure (IPT). Romantic relationships may represent salient contexts for moderating associations between IPT and alcohol use. We examined whether relationship status, partner alcohol use and relationship satisfaction moderated associations between IPT and alcohol use, and whether these associations varied in a sex-specific manner. Design: University-wide longitudinal survey of college students. Setting: Large, urban public university in mid-Atlantic United States. Participants: We used two subsets of participants (n = 5673 and 3195) from the Spit for Science project, a longitudinal study of college students. Participants completed baseline assessments during the autumn of their freshman year and were invited to complete follow-up assessments every spring thereafter. Participants were included in the present study if they completed surveys at baseline and at least one follow-up assessment (meanfollow-ups = 1.70, range = 1-4). Measurements: Predictors included precollege and college-onset IPT, relationship status, partner alcohol use, relationship satisfaction and sex. Alcohol consumption was the primary outcome of interest. Pre-college IPT was measured at baseline and all other measures were assessed at each follow-up. Findings: Individuals with pre-college IPT consumed more alcohol than those without IPT, but this was mitigated for those in relationships (β = -0.15, P = 0.046, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.29, 0.00). Individuals with college-onset IPT consumed more alcohol than those without IPT, and this was more pronounced for those with higher partner alcohol use (β = -0.18, P = 0.001, 95% CI = -0.29, -0.07). Relationship satisfaction was not a significant moderator of the associations between IPT and alcohol use (Ps > 0.05 and 95% CIs include 0). Conclusions: Involvement in relationships, but not relationship satisfaction, appears to reduce the effects of interpersonal trauma exposure (IPT) on alcohol use among US college students, while high partner alcohol use appears to exacerbate it. The moderating effects of relationship characteristics depend on the developmental timing of IPT.
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The COVID-19 pandemic caused significant disruption during the spring of 2020. Many college students were told to leave campus at spring break and to complete the semester remotely. This study evaluates effects of this disruption on student well-being. Measures of psychological symptoms, perceived stress, and alcohol use during the pandemic were completed by 148 students in spring 2020 and 352 students in fall 2020 at a university in the southeastern U.S. Results from both cohorts were compared to 240 students who completed the same measures in the fall 2019 semester. Participants in spring 2020 reported more mood disorder symptoms, perceived stress, and alcohol use than did pre-pandemic participants and worry about COVID-19 was negatively associated with well-being. By fall 2020 symptoms had largely returned to pre-pandemic levels. In general, White students reported a greater effect of the pandemic on well-being than did African American students. Young adults appear to be less vulnerable to the most serious medical complications associated with COVID-19 but nonetheless experience psychological effects from the pandemic. Universities and practitioners who work with college students can help young adults manage their symptoms and avoid behaviors like risky alcohol use when confronted with stressors such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
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The practice of drug abuse is one of the pressing issues in educational institutions. Here, we investigate the causes, effects, and the acuteness of this issue from Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad. University of Peshawar, Punjab University Lahore, University of Karachi. & University of Baluchistan. We also studied the role of authorities to overcome this practice. A quantitative research method was used in this research by employing multi-stage cluster sampling. The data for this study was obtained through the close-ended questionnaire involving 2667 individuals. Among many negative effects of drug abuse, some are poor academic performance, damage to the cognitive system resulting in weaker memory, inclination towards crime to fulfil the demand of drugs, and stigmatization in the society. In this study, we found out that the negligence of authorities and administration of campus, and lack of sanctions to avoid this practice are causing the rise in numbers of students practicing drug abuse. There should be compulsory drug tests and strict drug policies to curb the practice of the drug abuse.
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Background: Substance use disorders (SUD) are serious social problems that cause physiological and psychological disorders. Adolescents and youth are known as high-risk groups for SUD. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the pattern, prevalence, incidence, and etiology of SUD among all students studying at the Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam (Iran), during the academic year 2018 - 2019. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, a multistage random sampling method was used to select the participants. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. This questionnaire was designed to collect information about the participant’s demographic data, social data, medical and behavioral data. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS 16 software. Results: Participants’ ages mean ± SD was 23.5 ± 3.2 years old. The incidence of substance abuse was higher among men compared to women. The main observed pattern of SUD was Marijuana among consumers. The curiosity and increased memory had the highest and lowest incidence, respectively. Conclusions: The incidence of SUD is high among Iranian students, and most of them have begun SUD in adolescence and because of curiosity. It is necessary to augment adolescents’ and young people’s awareness of the SUD and addiction consequences.
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Objective The beginning of college is a period in which increased alcohol use often coincides with greater involvement in romantic relationships. Existing literature yields inconsistent findings regarding the influence of relationship types on drinking behavior, perhaps because these studies have not accounted for recent changes in the way college students engage in dating/sexual relationships. Methods The present study sought to address this issue using a longitudinal study design by examining the effects of both relationship type and sexual activity on heavy episodic drinking (HED) among 1,847 college students over the course of the first three semesters of college. Results Results indicated that the effects of relationship type depended on whether an individual was sexually active. Non‐dating but sexually active students reported rates of HED comparable to students who defined themselves as casual daters. Conversely, non‐dating students who were not sexually active reported drinking behavior similar to those involved in exclusive relationships. Further, transitions between low and high‐risk relationship/sexual activity types were associated with corresponding changes in HED. Transitioning into a high‐risk relationship was associated with significant increases in levels of HED, whereas transitioning into a low risk relationship was associated with significant decreases in HED. Conclusions Together, results indicate that engaging in non‐exclusive dating or casual sexual relationships may play an important role in the development of problematic patterns of alcohol use during the early college years. These findings have potentially important implications both for future research and for prevention and intervention efforts targeting high risk college drinkers.
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Substance use in the college-age population is an important public health and educational concern. This study compared rates of use among college students and nonstudents, including high school dropouts, from a single data source representative of the nation. Rates of use were estimated from the combined National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse from 1991 to 1993. Logistic regression models were used to test the effects of educational status and living arrangement. Educational status and living arrangement were found to be significant predictors of substance use. Rates of illicit drug and cigarette use were highest among high school dropouts, while current and heavy alcohol use were highest among college students who did not live with their parents. Substantial variation in substance use patterns within the college-age population suggests that overall rates of use for young adults should not be used to characterize specific subgroups of young adults. These data from a single source will thus help planners more clearly distinguish the service needs of the diverse subgroups within this population.
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California college students (1,864 students from 15 colleges) were compared with students who participated in the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study, which surveyed 17,592 students in 140 colleges nationwide. California college students, in comparison with the remainder of the nation, were less frequent drinkers; less frequent binge drinkers; exhibited fewer personal problems and risks associated with heavy episodic drinking, including drinking and driving; and reported fewer "secondhand" effects of binge drinking, such as being physically assaulted or experiencing an unwanted sexual advance. Many of these differences appear to be related to the California college students' being older, more likely to be married, and less likely to live on campus than those in the Harvard study. The findings suggest that, in developing programs tailored to local needs, there is significant value in augmenting national surveillance of college student health risk behaviors with the development of regional, state, and local surveillance systems.