METHODS OF MEASURING EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVERTISING

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DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.3719.1529
In book: A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns, Edition: PhD Thesis, Chapter: 3, Publisher: University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, pp.80-120
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A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
METHODS OF MEASURING
EFFECTIVENESS
OF ADVERTISING
1.00 Advertising Research
In the absence of a well-developed body of advertising theory, advertisers
must make assumptions about the chain of events that take place between
advertisement exposure and buying behaviour. Principal advertising
decisions involve questions such as:
a) To advertise or not to advertise;
b) How much to spend on advertising;
c) The message and its content;
d) The media and their schedule.
Advertising Research means the systematic study of human beings either as
senders or receivers of overtly paid-for impersonal communication aiming
at bringing about or facilitating purchase.
The field may be subdivided as follows:
a) Studies of the production of advertising (activities and
routines within or between advertising institutions such as
producers, advertising agencies and media)
b) normative studies of marketing management
3
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
81
c) empirical studies of advertising as a business function
(effects of advertising on product awareness, attitudes,
intentions to buy, and purchases)
d) Studies of social effects of advertising (effects not directly
intended).
Arndt has given a scheme for the various kinds of Advertising Research
activity that is usually undertaken.
1
EFFECT
NATURE OF THE STIMULI
Stimulus functioning on a
MEASURES short-term basis long-term basis
One Stimulus Several
Stimulus
Stimulus Clusters
may be applicable
1. No Effect
Measures
Check Costs Content
Analysis
Historical
Content Analysis
2. One Phase in a
Decision Process
a) Motivation Research
b) Audience Measurement
Studies
c) Laboratory Studies
d) Simple Survey Studies
e) Aggregate Studies of
Advertising-Sales
Relationship
- a) Longitudinal
Laboratory
Studies
b) Panel Studies
3. Several Thesis in
a Decision
Process
Cumulative Effect
Studies
Diffusion of
Innovation
Studies
Diffusion of
Innovation Studies
4. Several Decision
Process
- Usage and
Gratification
Studies
a) Consumer
Socialisation
Studies
b) Life Style
Studies
2.00 The Premises of Advertising Research
The vast majority of advertising research is purposeful and useful in
practitioner terms but it is not clearly related to the ultimate effects of the
advertising that is tested. Because of this ambiguity, it is important to
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
82
summarize the premises that underlie contemporary advertising research
for developing advertisement and advertising campaigns.
2.01 There is an unknown. The practitioner wants to know something
and believes that a research measurement will be better than his own
guess or intuition.
2.02 The correct unknown has been identified. The practitioner believes
that what he wants to know will be more helpful to him than other
things he might want to know. Practitioners do not always agree
about how advertising works and thus do not always agree about
what they need to know to make better advertising, or appraise
what they have done.
Alfred Politz Clarifies this premise that individual advertisers
identify key unknowns that are meaningful to them:
“... if someone thinks that the ability of advertising to attract
attention is directly related to its effectiveness, he will then,
of course, measure the attention getting ability and consider
the results to be a measure of advertising effectiveness. If
someone thinks the fact that an advertising phrase is
remembered signifies effectiveness, he will use memory
measurements as a criterion of performance. If someone
believes that advertising has to give pleasure and be liked, he
may then subject the pleasantness or the aesthetic values to
measurement and will interpret a positive result as proof of
the effectiveness of the advertising. In each case the
researcher calls upon an implicit assumption about the
mechanisms by which advertising achieves its effect.”
2
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
83
The important point is that the practitioner believes, when he
undertakes research, that whatever unknown be specifies is more
meaningful to him, as a practitioner, than are other unknowns that
he may specify.
2.03 The process of advertising research will yield data that make the
specified unknown, known. This premise implies that advertising
research can be depended upon in specific ways:
a) Advertising research data collection procedures are valid. That is,
the data yielded by the research procedure do, in fact,
describe the relation of consumers to the specified unknown.
b) Research data collection procedures are reliable. That is, the
procedure will give the same answer when a measurement is
repeated under reasonably comparable circumstances.
c) Advertising research data collection procedures are sensitive. That
is, if a small but real difference exists between consumer
attitudes about a brand, or consumer reactions to an
advertisement, the research procedure will reflect that small
difference, but will not report that it is a large difference or
that no different exists.
d) Consumer research sampling procedures yield valid estimates of
population values. That is, sampling procedures are valid and
can be depended upon, day in and day out, to produce
actionable data.
2.04 Relative measurements are valuable. If an absolute measurement,
such as the percentage of people exposed to an advertisement who
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
84
can recall it, is of little relevance, relative measurements are
acceptable. Thus, if we know that 30% of all people exposed to a
television commercial for an automobile can recall the commercial,
we do not know very much. But if we know that the average
memory recall for all automobile commercials is 15% and that the
highest recall score ever attained by an automobile commercial is
32%, our knowledge is vastly increased.
2.05 It is worth delaying decisions in order to have research results. Thus,
the practitioner is willing to trade the time required to do the
research, for the research results.
2.06 Repeated standard measurements are valuable. Even though
advertisements differ, and product promises differ, and advertising
media differ, they are sufficiently similar among themselves to
justify repeated standard measurements of the same kind.
Practitioners know that standard concept tests, or standard attitude
measures, or standard media audience measures may short change
or over value some advertisements, or some concepts or some
media, but they are willing to accept this shortcoming of
standardized procedure for comparability and continuity in
measurement. Special or one-of-a-kind measurements tend to be
hard to interpret, because the results are absolute.
2.07 The effects of advertisements, advertising concepts, and advertising
media change over time, and thus advertising research-based
knowledge wears out. Advertising research tends to involve the
continuous measurement of discrete advertising events. As Charles
Ramond says:
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
85
“There are virtually no permanent data in advertising research-only data
that stay true long enough to permit a decision to be taken in the knowledge
that its consequences will be realized before the facts on which it rests have
changed. For practical budgeting purposes, this time interval is usually set at
one year.”
3
The practitioner who authorises and uses advertising research accepts these
premises, even if he is unable to state them explicitly. He is indifferent to the
intricacies of research procedure as such and, in the main, depends upon the
advertising researcher to tend to the research issues and to deliver an
acceptable research product within the boundaries set by the premises. For
example, the advertising practitioner accepts the principles of sampling that
underlie survey research procedure and holds the advertising researcher
responsible for developing and executing an adequate sample plan. Or the
advertising practitioner accepts responsibility for identifying the proper
unknown and expects the advertising researcher to find an adequate
measurement of that unknown.
In the final analysis practitioners use advertising research because they hope
and expect that it will improve the quality of their advertising and improve
it at least to an extent that will recoup the costs of the research itself. But it is
often hard to prove that research does, in fact, lead to such
improvements.As Mark Albion and Paul Farris write:
“It is reasonable to suppose that companies investing time and money in
activities designed to aid the development of advertising messages and/or
test the consumer responses of advertisements before they actually purchase
space or time are likely to have more effectiveness is significant enough to
result in appreciable economies is an open question.”
4
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
86
3.00 Some Typical Advertising Effects
Advertising has multiple effects. Some intended, others are not. This stems
primarily from the fact that there are multiple objectives of advertising, the
exposure is to audience some of which is not included in the target and that
advertising seems to work in more ways than it is anticipated to work or
intended to work.
3.01 Consumer Effects of Advertising
Advertising obviously can and does have many effects on consumers,
including
a) Verbal responses on
(i) The ways in which people answer questions about
the ad, saying whether they:
Recall seeing or hearing the ad.
Liked or were influenced by the ad.
(ii) The way in which people answer questions about the
product, saying whether they :
are familiar with the product.
express favourable opinions about the product
express an intention to buy the product
have bought the product.
b) Non-verbal Responses on
(i) The ways in which people actually behave
(nonverbal) toward the product:
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
87
the choices they make in a laboratory situation;
Whether or not they shopped for the product and
inquired about it;
Whether or not they purchased the product;
how much of the product they purchased;
the ways in which they used the product.
(ii) The physiological and physical response of the
people.
The above list is not intended to be complete. It is meant only to indicate the
range of ways in which advertising might effect consumers.
3.02 Trade Effects of Advertising
A consumer advertising campaign, by its impact on members of the trade,
could effect:
a) The readiness with which the company's representative are
received and the ease of their selling job;
b) The purchase of the product by the trade;
c) The frequency and magnitude with which the trade
promotes the product;
d) The attitudes of people in the trade;
e) The price that the trade is willing to pay for the product.
This is a partial list only of the possible trade effects of consumer
advertising.
3.03 Other Effects of Advertising:
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
88
a) The use of an advertising campaign may effect the nature of
competitive actions. For example, budget increases may be
matched or exceeded by competitors. A particularly strong
theme, or the use of an unusual medium, may cause a direct
response by the competition.
b) Employees of the company may be affected by its
advertising. A campaign emphasising product quality may
cause production workers to be more careful about quality.
Similarly, a campaign stressing new uses for product may
motivate salesperson to focus their presentations toward
new ways to use the product.
c) In addition, other people in society, government, financial
Institutions, and so on, may be affected either positively or
negatively by an advertising campaign. As a result, their
anticipated and actual reactions any affect various aspects of
the company's activities.
4.00 Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
In order to use any measure of effectiveness of advertising, it is necessary to
take into account the degree and direction of change that may take place in
the market due to variations in the pattern of demand and supply and in
buyer behaviour as well as a result of the promotional efforts of the
advertisers. One should take into account all possible direct and indirect
substitutes for the product or service in question.
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
89
In the first place there has to be clarity in deciding what one must aim at
measuring and also specifying the types of measurement required. Any
evaluation of an advertising campaign will depend on the objectives of the
campaign. Basic question regarding the overall objectives of promotional
strategy and of a particular campaign under review should be asked. What
influenced the setting of these objectives? How can the achievements of
these objectives be measured? A description of the various methods which
can be used for measuring the effectiveness of an advertising campaign will
be dysfunctional without a reference to the circumstances in which a
technique becomes applicable.
4.01 Advertising Objectives and Plans
The setting of advertising objectives should be followed by defining and
prioritising the expectations of the advertiser from an advertising
programme. This should be feasible considering that advertising objectives
are expected to be in line with the firm's marketing objectives, which in turn
are derived from the overall corporate objectives.
Advertising programmes vary widely with regard to the mix of promotional
ingredients. Some firms, for instance, may omit personal selling and use
direct mail advertising as a sole promotional tool, and omitting mass media
advertising completely. The result that advertisers generally want from their
effort is an increase in the marketing performance parameters such as sales,
market shares and profits. Immediate sale may be expected from direct
mailing and retail store advertising. The role of advertising will, however, be
quite different in the marketing of items like heavy machinery, where it may
help build an image for the company as a reliable supplier of machinery, to
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
90
encourage enquiries and to make it easier for the salesmen of the company
to get a good reception.
Lack of clarity in setting advertising objectives may arise due to the
following factors.
5
a) Problem in stating objectives in quantifiable terms
b) Apparent failures in realising that results of advertising
cannot generally be measured in terms of sales.
c) Inadequate information about media, its qualitative focus
and its reach.
The actual forms which advertising objectives can take area extremely
diverse. Various communication goals, in varying situations might be
related to a single advertisement, an entire campaign for a product or a
company's overall advertising philosophy. Another way of looking at
advertising objectives is in relation to the hierarchy of psychological
processes. Considering all advertising motivation as psychological in nature,
the testing methods would also rely on psychological measurement
techniques. Some of the important categories of psychological elements of
advertising objectives cited include initial attention, reception, continuance
of favourable attitudes or interest, recall and recognition, comprehension,
feelings, emotions, motivations, beliefs, intentions, imagery, association and
other basic or situational decision parameters.
6
The overall purpose of advertising in any situation must be defined first and
then broken down into various stages. The development of advertising
goals, and a sound basis for evolving an evaluation framework, can be aided
by thinking of the following five stages in a purchase decision.
7
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
91
4.02 Areas of Assessment of Effectiveness
A meaningful measurement of the effectiveness of advertising will be
possible only by disaggregating the total area to be covered and relating it to
various stages of processing and proportion of advertising and the hierarchy
of its possible effects. Research techniques may accordingly be applied at
four stages
8
.
a) A continuous analysis of past advertising experience in
search of guidelines for an analytical framework is a very
useful first step except in the case of new advertisers or new
products. Such an analysis can provide a valuable basis for
reviewing and developing advertising strategy.
b) Surveys of buyer behaviour and consumer preference are
helpful in developing advertising objectives and strategy.
Such research will also be useful in monitoring changes in
the target market segment.
c) The third area involves pretesting advertisements before
their release. This is a very important part in the evaluation
of advertising effectiveness. Pre-testing provides an
indication of the likely acceptance of an advertisement or a
campaign by the target audience. Results of pre-testing will
obviously be used for making improvements and changes as
suggested by research. It will also bring forth limitations, if
any. Since the media costs account for most of the cost of
advertising, a qualitative as well as quantitative evaluation of
media may also be required.
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
92
d) The post-test research involves testing of reach and impact of
advertising after it has been released. Pre-production
research and post-testing are complementary. The former is
diagnostic and is concerned with what should be said or
shown, the latter is concerned with evaluation of notability,
recognition, recall, comprehension and behavioural changes,
if any, brought about by the advertising.
An ideal measure of advertising effectiveness would be on measurement of
these seven attributes:
a) Scope of advertising being measured
b) expected audiences response
c) realistic conditions of test exposure
d) precision and tolerance of measurement
e) representativeness of sample measured
f) methods of comparison against what standard
g) data handling procedures.
This would be called IMP-Idealised Measurement Procedure
9
.
5.00 Pre-Placement Evaluation of Advertising
Although past experience and a 'feel’ for the market would always remain
valuable aids for advertising executives, a systematic and methodical
approach for estimating the possible effectiveness of the advertising before
its release would be a worthwhile effort and might also be helpful in
avoiding possible adverse effects later.
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
93
One of the first advertising decisions may require searching and screening of
suitable advertising ideas. This may entail:
a) the quest for new ideas or for new expressions of old ones
b) the collection of facts about what people know or feel about a
company
c) the prediction of how people will probably react to a new
advertising idea.
Testing of creative approaches and themes prior to development of creative
strategy can give the earliest indication of effectiveness. Themes, product
ideas, brand names, slogans and other elements to be included in an
advertisement can be thus evaluated.
5.01 Concept Testing
A major feature of creative strategy that has a bearing on ultimate
effectiveness of advertising is the basic communication concept around
which a campaign may be developed. For instance, Lipton Green Label is a
premium variety tea and is the brand leader in the Darjeeling packed tea
market. The campaign introduced in 1981 emphasised the environmental
features of the area, such as the shade of Himalayas and cool mountain
winds where this tea is grown.
Concept testing would usually involve not more than 50 to 100 respondents,
using techniques such as qualitative interviews, free association tests and
various statement comparison tests.
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
94
Qualitative interviews of an informal nature may be conducted individually
or in groups from amongst people drawn from a cross-section of ages, sexes,
occupations and income levels that may represent the audience for the
advertisement in question.
Free-association tests are used to pick up secondary associations to names or
key words. These tests are conducted by having respondents mention the
first thing they think of when a given name is mentioned.
Colgate Palmolive in India decided to introduce a detergent cake under the
brand name Fab. At the stages of initial test marketing of this product, one
could conceive a free association test for the name Fab, considering that an
orange flavour soft drink under the name was already in the market. The
test could give an indication of the spontaneous association of a name like
Fab with washing material in India, although Fab is a brand name used by
the parent company for detergent powder.
Statement comparison tests are used when testing various concepts on small
groups. The Rank-order method required respondents to rank the different
concepts or themes indicating their preference or desirability in relation to
the product.
The paired comparison method requires the respondents to determine which of
the two concepts is preferred, using a series of pairs of statements
association with product related concepts and characteristics.
The Absolute Comparison method involves the comparison of each of the
concepts against an absolute standard. For example, an advertiser has the
option of highlighting certain features of the products and services
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
95
advertised. Ratings may be obtained from a sample of the audience on an
interval scale regarding those features. These ratings may then be used for
selecting features of high interest value as compared with the minimum
essential features that could serve as the benchmark for comparison.
5.02 Theme and Slogan Testing
No specific guidelines are available for classifying themes for the purpose of
analysis and research. Mohan
10
has attempted a classification of advertising
themes under the following categories:
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
96
Utilitarian
:
emphasis on the value of the product and/or service;
directed towards providing satisfaction for the money or
effort spent on obtaining the product/service.
Focused
:
an extension of utilitarian themes; which will appeal to
specific market/audience segments.
Informative
:
emphasis only on the information about the
product/service being advertised while no explicit selling
message is present.
Non-Specific
:
A vague or diffused message that contains only passing
references to products or advertisers.
Achievement
Orientation
:
highlighting the achievements in terms of sales, profits or
awards won by the advertiser.
Descriptive &
Projective
:
a combination of Informative and Achievement Oriented
themes.
New Product,
service, scheme
or idea
:
A new entry in the Market
Contributory to
economy or
industry
:
mainly relevant to institutional advertising, emphasising
the contributions made by the advertiser towards industrial
growth and economic development.
It may be noted that there is a difference between a theme and a slogan.
A slogan always says the same thing in exactly the same way, for example,
“Hamara Bajaj” (Bajaj Scooters) and “Taste the Thunder” (Thums Up). The
unchanging nature of a slogan offers advantages in its own right and its
constant repetition in unaltered form usually enables it to become so closely
associated with a company name that the slogan can almost substitute the
brand name.
Motivation research techniques such as depth interviews and group
discussions, apart from structured tests may be used for pre-testing of
themes.
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
97
6.00 The Media Factor
The best of messages may fail in achieving their objectives, if the message
vehicle is inappropriate or inadequate in terms of its reach and coverage. In
addition to having a major bearing on the cost of advertising, media types
and advertising vehicles can influence advertising effectiveness in three
ways
11
.
a) They determine in large measure the size and characteristics
of the audience exposed to advertising; that is, how many
and what types of persons would have an opportunity to see
or hear the advertising, and how often they would see or
hear it.
b) They provide an environment that is favourable,
unfavourable or neutral for advertising copy and the
products features and/or affect the probability that the
advertisement will be seen or heard.
c) In interaction with copy and the audience, they determine
the overall impact of an advertising campaign-the
information communicated, the attitudes formed or changed,
or the action that may be taken as a result of advertising.
These media related influences taken alone, and in combination with cost
data, are frequent subjects of media research.
6.01 Media Research
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
98
An advertiser may take the following steps before undertaking media
research and using media research data gathered by others, as media
selection and scheduling are obviously linked with the accomplishment of
advertising objectives, linked with the accomplishment of advertising
objectives, which in turn are intended to support the marketing objectives.
a) Media objectives should be set. These objectives would be
determined, by the character of media, the size of the profile
the audience, the overall environment, the expected
contribution of the media or the specific media vehicle to the
total impact of a campaign.
b) The target audience for the advertiser's specific product and
brand or a particular campaign should be defined in
advance;
c) The relative advertising weight, or proportion of the
advertising budget, to be allocated to each campaign or
programme may be indicated by the management.
d) Any constraints such as frequency of appearance of media,
its availability and its reach should be fully taken into
account.
Wolfe and co-authors refer to seven key areas of media research
12
.
a) Ability of media to reach households who are in the market
for an advertiser's products/services/ideas.
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
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b) Opportunity for exposure to the advertising on any media
under consideration by those members of a household who
influence the purchase decisions.
c) Extent of the conscious impression the advertising message
in a specific media makes on an individual.
d) Ability of the advertising message placed in a specific media
to change favourably the attitude of the individual toward
product/services or idea promoted.
e) Ability of the attitude charge caused by the advertising
message in a specific media to create purchasing intention or
to modify it.
f) Extent of the action that the advertising message in the
specific medium evokes on the part of the individual
through prompting a visit to the purchase point, or being
receptive to a sales call.
g) Determination of the additional sales of the advertised
product that a message in a specific media provided.
6.02 Copy Research
The basic purpose of pretesting of various possible advertisements is to
establish whether the message content and its presentation are likely to
perform their allocated task efficiently, and what changes or improvements
may be helpful.
Pretests should be conducted in the following situations:
a) To substitute on ongoing campaign with a new campaign
b) To introduce a product, or a brand
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
100
c) When there are uncertainties or contradictory views
expressed about the content of an advertisement.
A pretest may be carried out employing relatively small samples. It is,
however, important to simulate the actual environment as the one in which
the audience would read, see or hear the advertisement. This is specially
relevant to the protesting of television advertising.
A PROGRAM OF METHODS DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH
Area Advertiser’s
Decision
What is
Measured
Methods under
Study
Methodological
Goal
Advertising Goal
Motivation
Research
What to say Consumer
Motives
Non-directed
interviews,
projective
techniques
Cheaper way of
measuring
buying motives
New appeals
Copy
Research
How to say it Recall,
recognition of
ads.
Mail
questionnaires
(posttests)
Theater Tests
(pretests)
Adequate pre-
and post- tests of
ad. memorability
More memorable
ads.
Visual
Research
How to show it Response to
visual displays
Tachistoscopic
devices
Company-wide
visual rating
service
Higher impact
for all forms of
visual
communication
Media
Research
Where to say it Audience size
and composition
Re-analyses of
existing surveys
Accurate two-
year forecasts
Best buys within
and between
media
Public
Opinion
Research
To whom to
say it
Attitudes,
demographic
characteristics
Personal
interviews
Identification of
definable attitude
groups
Correct audience
for institutional
advertising
Operations
Research
How much to
spend
Relationship
between
advertising
expenditure and
sales
Mathematical
models
Successful
prediction of
sales in test
markets
Optimal size and
allocation of ad
budgets
courtesy: Advertising Research Section, E. I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc.
Various methods and devices of pretesting, currently in use, are listed in
above. Various parameters on which measurements are possible and the
corresponding methods of protesting are indicated. Since advertisements
may generate both physiological and psychological responses, measurement
techniques cover both. Some of the common methods are directed below:
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
101
6.03 Consumer Jury
The technique involves an assembly of several people who represent views
of potential consumers. These individuals are shown the advertisements or
commercials and their comments on specific elements of content and
creative approach are obtained. A variation to this procedure is made by
having a panel of individuals who can be interviewed at their respective
places in order to obtain individual opinions which can later be collected to
obtain a representative conclusion.
6.04 Matched Samples
Two or more groups of persons comparable in respect of parameters such as
age, sex, income occupation, behavioural characteristics and product usage
as relevant to the research problem constitute matched samples. The testing
procedure involves showing one variation of the pre-test advertising or
copy, to one group and another variation to a matched group. The variations
may be made in any of the elements viz. themes, headlines, slogans, visuals
and body copy. "Before" and "after" measures of perceptions regarding
specific issues are administered and any major changes between the control
and the matched groups may be attributed to the differences in the version
being tested since all other conditions may be assumed to be similar.
6.05 Portfolio Tests
The method consists is collecting several advertisements in a portfolio with
typical editorial contents. Each of these advertisements is for a different
product. The portfolio is then individually shown to a representative sample
of respondents who are expected to flip through it just the way they would
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
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have looked through a magazine or a newspaper. The respondent is then
asked to recall the advertisements and any other relevant details.
This gives an indication of the extent of recall of the product and the
advertisements under extent of recall of the product and the advertisements
under test, as well as of elements of content. Additional measurements of
attitudinal parameters may also be made. The portfolio test may be used
with matched samples of respondents in order to study the variations in the
advertisements contained in a similar portfolio.
6.06 Story-board tests
A procedure similar to the portfolio testing can be used for film or television
advertisements. It involves developing story-boards into film strips or video
cassettes. Film strip story-boards may be shown as single frames.
Respondents are usually shown 8 to 10 such experimental advertisements.
Following the screening, measurement of recall of products and brands and
retention and comprehension of messages may be made. Respondents may
also be asked to make observations on the qualitative features.
6.07 Mechanical and other devices
There are two types of mechanical devices; those controlling the exposure
and others providing praise measurement of responses. Some of the more
common devices are the following.
Tachistoscope is a timing device as the one used in cameras. It allows the
operator to regulate the viewing time of an advertisement or a package
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
103
design. Tests of recognition are administered to representative samples of
target audience. They may also be asked to comment on the distinctive
features of the test advertisement or package and items of immediate visual
significance such as design and colour scheme. A portable version of
Tachistoscope can be made for carrying test at homes of respondents.
Eye-movement Cameras are devices that record the amount of time subjects
spend looking at advertisement and the path of eye travel from one element
of an advertisement to another.
Pupilometric devices record the changing dilation of a subject's pupil while
viewing a print advertisement or an advertising film. These changes give an
indication of attention value of an advertisement and related emotional
responses
13
.
Psycho-galvanic response measures are made through devices that record
change in electrical conductivity. Emotional excitement causes increased
sweat secretions that lead to an increase in electrical conductivity of skin and
these increases are recorded by psycho-galvano-meter. A lie-detector is
based on the same basic principle and psychogalvanic response can provide
an accurate measure of the attention catching value of a test advertisement.
6.08 Use of pre-test results
All pretesting techniques described above have certain limitations. There is
no established theory of how advertising works. Pretesting can offer only a
limited, nevertheless, valuable indication of what test advertisements
including promotional features such as package designs, can achieve.
Differences in the pretest setting and the actual situation of exposure to
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
104
advertising can make a substantial impact on overall effectiveness of
advertising and should be taken into account while selecting and designing
the tests and interpreting results.
7.00 Post-testing
Post-testing aims at ascertaining the extent to which advertising achieves its
specified objectives following its release. This aspect of evaluation of
effectiveness of an advertisement or a campaign, can serve as a valuable
feedback provided testing is undertaken by keeping the objectives of
advertising in view. The common practice of treating incremental sales
during the period of advertising as being the outcome of advertising is not
valid in most cases. The factors effecting sales are so numerous that they
defy measurement. In many cases it may be more relevant and meaningful
to limit post-testing to various stages in the buying process such as creation
of the awareness of a brand, development of favourable attitudes towards a
brand or changes in knowledge about an organization or disposition
towards it.
7.01 Measure of Audience Exposures
The mere fact that consumers subscribe to certain publications or listen to
certain programmes does not mean that they notice or remember the
advertisements they contain. There are organizations in the United States
that provide information on the exposure of readers of magazines to
advertising. Two such well-known syndicated services are Daniel Starch
and Gallup Robinson. These organisations are tying up with Indian Market
Research Organisations to conduct similar syndicated studies in India.
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
105
Daniel Starch, a pioneer in advertising research, started collection of
audience exposure data for selected American publications since 1930's.
These publications have, of course, varied over years due to changes in their
popularity and circulation. Known as Starch ratings, the data is provided
under three headings “Noted”, “Seen-Associated” and “Read-Most”.
Interviewers visit respondents at their houses and ask if they have read
certain magazines. Readers of the concerned magazines are then asked to
review page by page the advertisement they remember having seen
14
.
“Noted” score refers to the percentage of respondents who indicate having
looked at an advertisement.
“Seen-Associated” score refers to those who had looked at the brand name or
realised that the advertisement was for a particular product.
The “Read-Most” score refers to those who indicated that they had read most
of the advertisement. Cost data on the number of readers per dollar and the
cost per reader reached compared with the competition are also provided in
the Starch reports.
The other research organisation, Gallup-Robinson provide a service for
measuring the impact of an advertisement based on recall. Consumers who
have read certain magazines are identified and asked to recall the brand
names from the advertisements they have see. The score based on this data
has been termed as the Proved Name Registrations, PNR. Information about
specific copy points is also sought from them. That may help in determining
those copy points that seem to have made the greatest impression. This
information is valuable for the advertiser and the agency in developing
subsequent advertisements and campaigns
15
.
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
106
7.02 Measuring Attitudes and Attitude Change
Advertising is aimed at creating favourable impression for company and its
products and the results may be measured by attitudinal studies. The
relationship of attitudes to product usage may be a more significant measure
of advertising effectiveness as against awareness and recall studies.
Psychological Measurement techniques may be used to explore feelings
below the conscious level. Probes into the unconscious reveal the mental
“environment” in which the advertising must do its work. This could
perhaps, give clues to the types of advertising approaches that would prove
most acceptable in achieving specified objectives. Various techniques that
can be used in such attitudinal studies include Depth Interviews, focused
Group Interviews, Derivations of Thematic Apperception Tests and
Projective Tests
16
.
7.03 Analysing Sales and Product Usage
The correlation of sales to advertising can be meaningful measure of
effectiveness in providing simultaneous impact of factors like product
quality, selling effort, brand prestige, distribution channels, their reach and
loyalty, buyer attitudes or inertia, competitive situation, size and location of
displays, discount policies, delivery, seller services can be isolated. The sales
effects of advertising can be most accurately estimated under the following
conditions
17
.
a) The product or brand has no direct substitute, now or in the
future. Competing products are few and technology is
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
107
unlikely to make the item obsolete during the period of
experimentation.
b) The buyers of the product can be unambiguously defined,
can be reached easily by advertising and interviewers and
are geographically concentrated.
c) The lot size of the purchase remains unchanged from
purchase to purchase by the same buyer, and between one
buyer and another.
d) The period is constant over time, market and quantity
purchased.
e) Channels of distribution are adequate. The more channels
there are, the less unlikely the consumer is to be frustrated in
an advertising induced attempt to buy.
f) Levels of distribution are adequate. The more wholesalers,
dealers and distribution stand between the producer and
consumer, more the individuals must decide before purchase
can occur and the more levels there are that need to be
influenced by advertising.
g) The influence of personal selling is constant over time and
over markets.
h) Competitors' technical services do not differ substantially
from those of the advertisers.
i) The copy platform is constant and clear. The fewer the copy
planks, the easier it is to tell whether communication has
occurred.
j) Special promotions are not undertaken.
k) Packaging is distinctive and remains unaltered.
l) The Producer is the only advertiser of the brand -- that is,
there is no cooperative or local advertising.
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
108
m) Competitors are slow to respond to changes in the
advertiser's marketing strategy and maintain the same
marketing policies.
n) Competitors' advertising and marketing policies are
relatively constant in all markets.
o) Potential sales can be accurately estimated for small
geographical units and during short time periods such as
weeks or months.
p) Government controls over product design, price, competition
and advertising are minimal or at least not subject to rapid
changes.
Depending on the fulfillment of the above conditions, measures of changes
in an outlet's share of company's business and changes in a brand's share of
the market may be made. It must also be noted that the appropriate
measures of sales will relate to sales made to the final buyer and not by the
company to its first point of sale. In the case of most consumer products,
such data may be obtained from retail audit surveys that are conducted on a
continuing basis. The Operations Research Group (ORG) in India collects
and provides such data.
7.04 Enquiries and Returns
Advertising may be aimed at generating mail orders, inquiries, requests for
literature or getting an invitation for a salesperson to make in a call. By
classifying replies to coupons included in advertisements, it may be possible
to evaluate apparent effectiveness of advertising in various media.
7.05 Controlled Field Experiments
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
109
Controlled field experiments simulate the approach of laboratory
experiments and are run under realistic conditions.
Split-run is a known technique used for print advertising. Research consists
in using two versions of an advertisement that are prepared and inserted in
the same issue of a magazine or a newspaper. However, the two versions
are carried by two different sets of copies, some of which are meant for
delivery in one location/area and the remaining in a `matched' location in
terms of relevant audience characteristics. This experiment can be used to
measure the immediate effectiveness of advertising by comparing the
difference in sales between the two areas for the product advertised. The
technique is obviously more relevant for consumer products that have a
high recency of purchase and sales data may be analysed for short periods,
say on a weekly.
7.06 Other Methods
Sometimes other methods are also used for measuring the results of
advertising.
a) Playback audit: is a means of verifying the wholesalers and
retails salespersons' use of advertising themes or phrases in
their own selling efforts. In this method, interviewers pose as
prospective purchasers of the advertised product to see what
advertising themes are played back by the salesperson in
their sales presentation.
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
110
b) Analysis of secondary effects: This involves measuring some
related secondary effect and not the sales. For example, in
case of advertising that not only promotes a product but
offers free maintenance service; variations in requests for
maintenance service may prove to be a good indicator of the
impact of advertising and a more appropriate measure than
sales.
c) Analysis of reader's use of advertising: may be used by retail
stores and other agencies that distribute promotional
literature/material such as catalogues. They try to find out
the actual use to which the advertising is put to by the
people, assuming that such action indicates the interest of the
audience.
7.07 Limitations in Post-testing
A partial measurement of advertising results is usually possible. However,
measuring all effects of advertising may not be feasible. Some of the results
of advertising such as development of brand preferences and loyalties and
repeat purchase of a brand in the case of products having low usage rate
take time to show up and may not be traceable to specific advertisements.
These results need to be measured over long periods of time, during which
the changes occurring in other marketing parameters might invalidate the
results.
There is obviously, considerable need to expand the application of various
methods of measurement and equally numerous are the problems and
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
111
unresolved issues in such effort. Some of the major problems of research in
the effectiveness of advertising are:
a) Frequency effects: Does scheduling spacing and timing of
advertisements contribute to their effectiveness?
b) Is there a threshold of advertising expenditure that, if not
reached, will render such advertising largely ineffective?
c) What is the rate at which advertisements wear out? How many
different advertisements should be made for a campaign?
For how long is campaign useful?
d) The unresolved dilemma over the effectiveness of the
`continuous' or the `intermittent' flow of advertising. Should a
`big' impact or a continuous presence be made periodically ?
The execution of advertising is a very important factor in its
overall effectiveness. Krugman suggests that multiple
exposures over a short period of time may lead to confusion
in the minds of target audience that may result in a diffused
message
18
.
e) Will a change in attitudes prompt a change in behaviour?
Are attitudinal changes necessary and really possible
through advertising?
8.00 Ideal Measure Of Advertising Effectiveness
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
112
The Idealised Measurement Procedure (IMP) as discussed at para 4.02 above
can now be compared with the various Advertising Measurement
Technique as have been discussed in the preceding paragraphs.
This comparision is presented in three consecutive tables, the first two
referring to various syndicated techniques available commercially while
the last table relates to non-syndicated procedures.
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
113
COMPARISION OF IDEALISED MEASUREMENT PROCEDURE (IMP) WITH VARIOUS ADVERTISING MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES
Seven Basic Attributes of a Idealised Syndicated Techniques
Measurement Technique Measurement
Procedure (IMP)
Audience Studies Inc. Gallop & Robinson
Magazine Impact
Service
Gallop & Robinson
Total Prime Time
Monder Ad Evaluation
Program
1. Scope of Advertising being
Measured
Insertions
Many One One One One
Media
All relevant media for
planned campaign
TV Magazine TV Magazine
2. Responses Measured
Natural Purchase (over
time)
Simulated Purchase Advertisement Recall Advertisement Recall Brand Awareness and
Attitude
3. Conditions of Exposure
Exposure Environment
Natural Theater Natural Natural Natural
Advertising Context
Natural TV-Pilot Programme
(out of context)
Natural Natural Natural
4. Conditions of Measurement
Methods of Data Collection
Unobserved audit Subject questionnaire
mechanical
Personal Interview Telephone Interview Telephone Interview
Measurement Environment
Natural Awareness of
Advertising Test
Awareness of
Advertising Test
Awareness of
Advertising Test
Awareness of Test
5. Sampling Procedure
Sample Element
Individual Purchase
unit
Individual Individual Individual Individual
Restrictions
None Geography,
Participation, Others
Participation Geography, Media,
Participation
Geography, Media,
Participation
Method
Probability Non-Probability Quota Non-Probability Probability Probability
Size
Optional Batch (250) Standard (400) Standard (2800) Standard (4800)
6. Type of Comparision
Alternative
advertisement or
Campaign
Norm or Alternative
advertisement
Norm or Alternative
advertisement
Norm or Alternative
advertisement
Alternative
advertisement or
Campaign and control
7. Data Handling
Unweighted Unweighted Weighted Unweighted Unweighted
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
114
COMPARISION OF IDEALISED MEASUREMENT PROCEDURE (IMP) WITH VARIOUS ADVERTISING MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES
(contd....)
Seven Basic Attributes of a Idealised Syndicated Techniques
Measurement Technique Measurement
Procedure (IMP)
Monder Ad Evaluation
Program
Milwaukee Advertising
Laboratory
Schwerin Standard TV
Testing Service
Starch Readership
Service
1. Scope of Advertising being
Measured
Insertions
Many One Many One One
Media
All relevant media for
planned campaign
Magazine TV, Newspaper Sunday
Supplement
TV Magazine
2. Responses Measured
Natural Purchase (over
time)
Brand Awareness and
Attitude
3. Conditions of Exposure
Exposure Environment
Natural Natural Natural Theater Natural
Advertising Context
Natural Natural Natural TV-Pilot Programme Natural
4. Conditions of Measurement
Methods of Data Collection
Unobserved audit Telephone Interview Subject Diary Subject Questionnaire Personal Interview
Measurement Environment
Natural Awareness of Test Awareness of Test Awareness of Test Awareness of
Advertising Test
5. Sampling Procedure
Sample Element
Individual Purchase
unit
Individual Family Individual Individual
Restrictions
None Geography, Media,
Participation
Geography, Media,
Participation
Geographic
Participation
Media, Participation
Method
Probability Probability Non-Probability Probability Non-Probability
Size
Optional Standard (4800) Standard (1500) Batch (300 to 700) Standard (200 - 300)
6. Type of Comparision
Alternative
advertisement or
Campaign
Alternative
advertisement or
Campaign and control
Alternative
advertisement or
Campaign and control
Norm or Alternative
advertisement
Norm or Alternative
advertisement
7. Data Handling
Unweighted Unweighted Unweighted Weighted Unweighted
COMPARISION OF IDEALISED MEASUREMENT PROCEDURE (IMP) WITH VARIOUS ADVERTISING MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES
(contd....)
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
115
Seven Basic Attributes of a Idealised Non-Syndicated Techniques
Measurement Technique Measurement
Procedure (IMP)
Market Test On-Air TV Test Psycho-galvanometer
Test
Split Run Test
1. Scope of Advertising being
Measured
Insertions
Many One One One Usually One
Media
All relevant media for
planned campaign
All relevant for planned
campaign
TV All relevant for planned
campaign
Newspaper or
Magazine or Sunday
Supplement
2. Responses Measured
Natural Purchase (over
time)
3. Conditions of Exposure
Exposure Environment
Natural Natural Natural Laboratory Natural
Advertising Context
Natural Natural Natural Often out of context Natural
4. Conditions of Measurement
Methods of Data Collection
Unobserved audit Audit or Dairy Telephone Interview Mechanical Recording Personal Interview or
Subject Response
Measurement Environment
Natural Natural Awareness of Test Laboratory Awareness of Test
5. Sampling Procedure
Sample Element
Individual Purchase
unit
Reselling Organisation
(Store)
Individual Individual Individual or Family
Restrictions
None Geographic
Participation
Geography, Media,
Participation
Participation Media, Participation
Method
Probability Probability Probability Non-Probability Probability
Size
Optional Optional Optional Optional Optional
6. Type of Comparision
Alternative
advertisement or
Campaign
Goal Norm Alternative
advertisement
Alternative
advertisement or
control
7. Data Handling
Unweighted Unweighted Unweighted Unweighted Unweighted
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
116
9.00 Interpretation Of Research Findings
A lot of research has gone into improving the accuracy of the measurement
of the effectiveness of advertising and much can be done by following an
objective and methodical approach. The whole purpose of the effort is not
just an improvement in the measurement of effectiveness but obviously in
mailing the advertising itself more effective. Some points for consideration
in this context are the following:
a) It is a big assumption that a favourable consumer attitude
will lead to desired buying behaviour, which may not be
wholly true
19
.
b) Sales objectives are basically marketing objectives and they
cannot be realised by advertising alone. Relating sales to
advertising without a reference to other factors may be
unrealistic
20
.
10.00 Application Of Effectiveness Research
The measurement of effectiveness of advertising must be cost-effective. The
need for evaluating has to be appraised in terms of information gained.
Although the value of intuition and judgment cannot be denied, objectivity
in measurement cannot also be relegated to a less important place. A small
advertiser is more prone to using a subjective approach, often because of
resource constraints and the level of comprehension of the need for such
research and the capability of interpreting it and using it in a fruitful
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
117
manner. An advertiser must go in for a unique advertising strategy
according to the individual situation of a product. Copying or reacting to a
competitor's activities without a reference to one' s own marketing and
advertising objectives may be suicidal
21
.
11.00 Improving on Effectiveness of Advertising
It is important to note that the study of effectiveness of advertising is a joint
responsibility of an advertiser and its advertising agency, regardless of who
is paying for research and under what head of account it is allocated. A
proper understanding of various aspects of effectiveness requires continuity
of observation and use of appropriate research, as and when called for.
There can be a strong temptation to pass superficial judgment on the so
called effectiveness of an advertisement or a campaign. It is, however, quite
possible that a campaign may have proved effective owing to intrinsic merit
and appropriateness or favourable conditions or a combination of both.
Advertising effectiveness should not be confused with the winning of
awards such as those given by the Advertising Club, Bombay in
coordination with the Commercial Artists' Guild. These All India awards for
excellence in advertising have the following guidelines for judging the
entries:
a) Attention value
b) Comprehensibility
c) Credibility
d) Technical execution
e) Overall impact
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
118
f) Originality
The jury for such awards evaluate the entries on the basis of their
knowledge and experience and obviously no research can be used. An
award winning entry may however, have the makings of an effective
advertisement.
Improvements in effectiveness of advertising can be brought about by
careful and considered changes introduced through combined efforts of an
advertiser and the advertising agency because both marketing and
advertising considerations have to be taken into account while evaluating
the effectiveness of advertising. Requisite research provides the basis for the
specific situations as well as for an objective comparison with earlier
experiences and can help considerably in making better decisions regarding
various aspects of advertising.
1
Arndt, Johan, “What is Wrong With Advertising Research, ”Journal of
Advertising Research, Vol. 16, no. 3, June 1976 pp.9-18
2
Politz, Alfred, “How Advertising Affects Attitudes & Buying Decisions”
supplement to Vol. VII of Evaluating Advertising Effectiveness, Advertising
Management Guidebook series, New York: Association of National Advertisers,
Inc. 1961, p.2.
3
Charles Ramond, Advertising Research : The State of the Art, New York :
Association of National Advertisers, Inc., 1976, p. 96.
4
Mark S. Albion and Paul W. Farris, Appraising Research On Advertising Economic
Impacts, Cambridge, Mass: Marketing Science Institute, Report #79, 115,1979, p.
131.
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
119
5
Corkindale, David R. and Sherril H. Kennedy, Measuring the Effect of Advertising:
A Comprehensive Approach, DC Health Ltd., Saxen House, Hants, 1975, p. 10.
6
Lucas, Darrell Blaine and Steward Handerson Britt, Advertising Psychology and
Research, McGraw Hill Goak Company, Inc., New York 1950, chap. 1 to 4.
7
Wolfe, Harry Dean, James K Brown and G. Clark Thompson, Measuring
Advertising Results, National Industrial Conference Board, New York, 1962, at p.
7.
8
Lucas and Britt, op, cit., p. 393
9
Dalbey, Homer M.; Irwin Gross and Yoram Wind; Advertising Measurement and
Decision Making, Patrick J Robinson, editor andDirector, Boston: Allyn & Becon,
Inc., 1968.
10
Mohan, Manendra, “A Survey of Advertising Themes in 1970's”, Indian
Management, vol. 4, April 1982. pp. 39-45
11
Wolfe, Haray Dean, et.al., Evaluating Media, 1966, New York: National
Industrial Conference Board.
12
ibid.
13
Krugman, Herbert, E., “Some Applications of Pupil Measurement”, Journal of
Marketing Research, Nov. 1964, pp. 15-19.
14
Starch, Danial, Measuring Advertising Readership and Results, McGraw-Hill Book
Co., New York, 1966.
15
Faison, EWJ, Advertising: A Behaviour Approach for Managers, John Wiley & Sons,
New York, Chapter 23.
16
Lovell, Mark and Jack Potter, Assessing the Effectiveness of Advertising, Business
Books, London, 1975, for details of such techniques and their applications.
17
Ramond, Charles, “Measurement of Sales Effectivess of Advertising”, In Hand
Book of Advertising Management, Roger Burton, ed., New York: McGraw Hill
Book Company, 1970 pp. 228-9
18
Krugman, Herbert E, “Memory without Recall, Exposure Without Perception”,
Journal of Advertising Research, 17-4, August 1977, pp. 7-12.
Chapter 3. Methods of Measuring Effectiveness of Advertising
A Framework to Understand Advertising Effects for Development
of a Model For Evaluating Advertising Campaigns
120
19
Mitchel, Andrew A., and Jerry C. Olson, “Are Product Attribute Beliefs the Only
Mediator of Advertising Effects on Brand Attitudes?” Journal of Marketing
Research, August 1981, pp 318-32
20
Brown, Robert George, “Sales Response to Promotion and Advertising”, Journal
of Advertising Research, vol. 14, No. 4, August 1974, pp 33-39.
21
Vaughm, Richard, “The Consumer Mind- How to Tailor Ad Strategies”,
`Advertising Age' June 1981, pp 45-46.
________
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    A new device that measures changes in pupil diameter while subjects view advertisements, packages, etc., offers promise of becoming a powerful tool for studying the interest-arousing qualities of stimuli. Encouraging evidence of the reliability and validity of this device has been found in a series of studies-two of which are described in this article.
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    This book summarizes and appraises current knowledge and practice in the field of advertising research. The material is presented under the following chapter headings: aim and scope, how advertising communicates, how advertising sells, theme research, selecting target audiences, copy research, studies of advertising frequency, media research, budget research, and the future of advertising research. Appendixes listing advertising research reviews and references are included. (RL)
  • Article
    A search of relevant literature indicates that despite the nature of the underlying "model of man" used in advertising research, the research effort would gain by developing more breadth in its ideas of behavior, space, and time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Book review of Advertising Psychology and Research, by D. B. Lucas and S. H. Britt, (see record 1951-04925-000). The first four sections discuss the conventional topics of attention, memory, motivation, and mechanical factors involved in advertising effectiveness. The last two sections are devoted to techniques of measurement. According to the reviewer, a book with the scholarship and scope of this one has long been overdue in the field of psychology in advertising. No book of recent vintage has encompassed such a wide variety of topics with such adequacy. In the main, this reviewer has had to refer students to original references. With the publication of Advertising Psychology and Research, the necessity of this practice will be substantially reduced. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    This paper is one of 18 selected by the Editorial Review Board of The Journal of Advertising Research to be a ‘classic’ - an article that has withstood the test of time. First published in 1977, Krugman reviews two areas that have implications on how advertisements work: the first concerns brain function, the second definitions of exposure and perception. This leads to a tempting conclusion that it is the right brain's picture-taking ability that permits the rapid screening of the environment - to select what it is that the left brain should focus attention on.