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The emotional link: Leadership and the role of implict and explicit emotional contagion processes across multiple organizational levels

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Abstract

Emotional contagion processes influence a wide range of organizational and leadership outcomes. In this paper, I review emotional contagion research as it relates to multiple levels of analysis within an organization and discuss the extent to which this process can be managed by leaders. The review begins with an explanation of the processes underpinning the emotional contagion process, highlighting the neurological mechanisms that give rise to implicit and explicit forms of emotional contagion. In the following section, I discuss some individual differences that moderate the experience of these two forms of emotional contagion. Subsequently, I review how emotional contagion processes impact leadership outcomes at the interpersonal, group and finally, organizational levels. The purpose of the current review is threefold. The first is to refine under-standings of the emotional dynamics of leadership influence from a neurological perspective, highlighting how implicit and explicit emotional contagion underpins much of leader-follower interactions. Second, the review extends on conceptualizations of emotional contagion in leadership interactions often captured at the interpersonal level, and illustrates how the process is relevant in influencing group level organizational leadership outcomes. Third, the review also highlights themes emerging from this area of research, and concludes with directions for further research. Ultimately, the review aims to show how emotional contagion processes are implicated as the 'emotional links' across multiple levels in organizations and organizational leadership.

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... Emotional contagion EC refers to the tendency to automatically imitate and synchronise with others' facial expressions, voices, postures, and movements, and this tendency is converted into behaviour through emotional blending with others (Tee, 2015). EC is a psychological process whereby empathy and perceived behavioural change in one individual automatically activate the same process in another individual. ...
... Individuals bring their feelings, thoughts, and perceptions to the workplace, and these emotional states will likely impact the organisation (Vijayalakshmi & Bhattacharyya, 2012). Group-level EC processes are also evident in the sharing and transferring of emotions among multiple individuals (Tee, 2015). Therefore, an individual's actions may aff ect the beliefs and behaviours of individuals and groups within the organisation (Nica & Molnar, 2014). ...
... To achieve these positive behavioural outcomes, administrators must create conditions in which employees may develop a strong psychological bond with their organisations (Vijayakumar & Padma, 2014). Simultaneously, EC processes are critical to understanding the emotional connections among the various levels of an organisation (Tee, 2015). Indeed, the fi ndings determined that OI increased as the EC level increased, except for low-level employees. ...
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Article
This article presents empirical research that aimed to determine the direction and strength of the relationships between emotional contagion and organisational identifi cation. Our study examined the eff ect of aviation sector employees' emotional contagion levels on organisational identifi cation and the moderating role of career characteristics, such as age diff erences and seniority, in this eff ect. Data collected from 296 aviation employees were analyzed using SPSS 25 and SPSS Process Macro programs for determining moderating eff ects. The fi ndings revealed that emotional contagion has a positive and signifi cant eff ect on organisational identifi cation. It has been determined that individuals' age and seniority diff erences have a moderating role in the eff ect of emotional contagion on organisational identifi cation. The fact that the scope of the research is a single sector and organisation hinders the fi ndings' generalizability. Additionally, the cross-sectional design limits the ability to explain the cause-and-eff ect relationships between psychological factors. The results proved that positive emotions aff ect individuals faster than negative emotions and are more eff ective on OI. Hence, the establishment of an organisational climate dominated by feelings of love and happiness and devoid of feelings of fear and anger is recommended for managers seeking to foster OI. By revealing the implicit relationships among the concepts with empirical evidence, we aim to fi ll a signifi cant gap, particularly with respect to organisational psychology, and to represent new insights to scholars and practitioners.
... At this level, emotions are studied not in isolation but with the understanding that multiple emotions can be experienced simultaneously. Leaders may try to induce and spread emotions through a group (Humphrey et al., 2016;Tee, 2015). Emotion contagion affects group performance, outcomes and members' experience of emotions (Sy et al., 2005). ...
... Despite the extant literature on emotions and leadership and the importance of emotions to leadership emergence (Côté et al., 2010), leader effectiveness (Tee, 2015), leader-follower relationships (Dasborough & Ashkanasy, 2002), performance (Chi & Ho, 2014) and outcomes (Lindebaum et al., 2017), there is still considerable ambiguity and limited research on the understanding of emotions in leadership and organisations (Humphrey et al., 2016;Silard & Dasborough, 2021). This is particularly evident in the lack of research on the role of emotions in interpersonal interactions, groups and organisation-wide. ...
... Emotions can consciously and unconsciously influence ethical decisionmaking and behaviours (Salvador & Folger, 2009). However, leaders can also promote negative emotions among followers (Chi & Ho, 2014), which can spread throughout the organisation, hurting employee experiences and forming cynical perspectives towards the leader (Tee, 2015). Therefore, the role of emotions is not only relevant for effective styles of leadership but also important to furthering research on destructive and 'dark' leadership. ...
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Article
This paper examines the emotional processes in Machiavellian leadership. The leadership literature portrays Machiavellians as ‘dark’ individuals that engage in unethical actions, causing employee dissatisfaction, distress, emotional exhaustion and high turnover. However, research has seldom questioned the processes behind these unethical and negative outcomes. This study explores Machiavellian emotional processes at multiple levels—within-persons and relational levels (between-persons and interpersonal interactions in organisations). In this study, emotions and leadership are not explored in isolation but as social processes that occur in relationships between leaders and employees in evolving organisational settings. This study draws on 20 participants from four large multi-national construction firms in Sri Lanka. Open-ended semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore the emotions of Machiavellians in organisations. The findings suggest that Machiavellianism influences leader and employee emotional processes. Furthermore, the emotional processes, influenced by Machiavellianism, appear to facilitate the development of leader and employee relationships and emotional experiences at within-persons and relational levels in organisations.
... Emotional contagion relates to the transfer of emotional states between individuals, leading to the observer's emotional state corresponding to that of the sender [26]. Previous research has suggested that there are individual differences when people are infected by others' emotions [36]. Individuals who are more susceptible to emotional contagion will suffer stronger effects of emotional contagion [37]. ...
... According to AET, mistreatment by patients, as an affective event, may affect employees' attitudes and emotions [15]. Nurses who are susceptible to the negative emotional contagion process involved in the mistreatment by a patient will more readily experience negative emotional states that are consistent with those of the patients [36], and have more intense negative emotions after being mistreated because of the patients' emotions. In this case, their workplace well-being (e.g., job satisfaction and positive affect) and career commitment tend to be damaged. ...
... Unexpectedly, the moderation effect of emotional contagion susceptibility on the relationship between mistreatment by patients and workplace well-being is not supported in our study. One possible explanation is that nurses who are susceptible to emotional contagion are also better able to empathize with others; that is, they may perceive not only the patients' anger but also their worry and fears [36], thus forgiving them for their mistreatment and alleviating the negative feelings toward the current job brought about by their being mistreated. Therefore, nurses' perceived workplace wellbeing may not decrease after suffering mistreatment, at least in the case of nurses with high susceptibility to emotional contagion. ...
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Article
In recent years, patient mistreatment of healthcare workers, especially nurses, has been frequent, endangering the interests of organizations while also threatening nurses’ own development. This study aims to examine from the perspective of nurses’ personal interests whether mistreatment by patients decreases nurses’ workplace well-being and career commitment, and how their susceptibility to emotional contagion and emotional regulation ability might mitigate these negative effects. This study adopted a cross-sectional study design (data were collected through self-reported questionnaires with a two-month time lag between the months of August–October 2017). A total of 289 nurses from three hospitals in Shandong province, China, were recruited to participate in our study. The results reveal that mistreatment by patients is negatively related to nurses’ workplace well-being and career commitment. Emotional contagion susceptibility moderates the relationships between mistreatment by patients and career commitment, while there is no significant buffering effect of mistreatment by patients on workplace well-being. Emotional regulation ability moderates the relationships between mistreatment by patients and both workplace well-being and career commitment. These results suggest that improvements in nurses’ emotional regulation ability and susceptibility to emotional contagion can alleviate the harmful impacts of mistreatment by patients.
... In times of crisis, there is usually an expectation that those who find themselves in leadership or management situations are expected to contain their emotions to reassure (as manager or leader) or respond (as subordinate or follower) (Dasborough, Ashkanasy, Tee, & Tse, 2009;Hay, 2014;Tee, 2015;Troth, Lawrence, Jordan, & Ashkanasy, 2018). The dynamics in these situations are complex. ...
... Emotional containment in intense situations may involve giving the impression of coping through 'surface acting' or 'putting on a game face' (Fein & Isaacson, 2009). However, difficult organizational experiences can provoke different types of emotions (Boudens, 2005) that include positive and negative feelings for oneself and others (Fineman, 2006;Tee, 2015). Moreover, the impact of negative emotions such as contempt (Pelzer, 2005), shame (Pouthier & Sondak, 2019), jealousy and envy (Stein, 2005), or guilt and anger (Wijaya & Heugens, 2017) reveals the danger of treating such experiences as if they ought not to happen (Vince & Mazen, 2014). ...
... Our stories highlighted 'righteous anger', either in relation to one's situation or in response to harmful effects on others, although we felt overwhelmed or undermined by our reactions. We felt the need to 'contain' our own emotions to influence others (Tee, 2015) to avoid a damaging contagion of negative emotions in our organizational context (Dasborough et al., 2009). Thus, despite an initial emotional reaction, containment was still the proximal outcome. ...
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Article
We consider how reflexive practices can enable learning from negative emotional experiences. We study these experiences in academic organizations through a relationally reflexive autoethnographic method. Our findings contribute to theory in three ways. First, we show how learning involves practices with different modalities of emotion work and reflexive orientations that internalize or externalize the effects of this work. Second, the subsequent characterization of emotionally responsive reflexive practices shows how isolation and a sense of inadequacy can be avoided and, third, leads to a process model that shows how learning is potentiated in a supportive social context that accommodates emotional vulnerability.
... Additionally, the study explored the application of EI and a leader's ability to use emotional 7 display rules to control emotional contagions and emotional exhaustion during events of emotional labor. Tee (2015) explored the link between leadership and the role of implicit and explicit emotional contagion processes. However, the goal of this research was to identify factors of EI strategies for leaders in the LMX, as well as to identify the emotional contagions factors in successful business administration. ...
... The focus of the study was that leadership is an emotional process , and leaders who use EI increased engagement (Miao, Humphrey, & Qian, 2016) by the use of emotional regulation (Jordan & Lindebaum, 2015) to improve outcomes (Humphrey et al., 2015). Tee (2015) supported the held research question that effective leaders must use EI to understand the emotional contagion process. Emotions are shared between leaders and followers (Eberly & Fong, 2013), and interactions in the LMX create emotional contagions (Tse & Ashkanasy, 2015). ...
... Hatfield et al. (1994) proposed the Emotional Contagion Theory (ECT) when the unconsciously and unintentional transfer of emotions exists. Leaders need to understand the emotional contagion process (Tee, 2015) to be an effective leader. Emotional contagion is defined as the automatic tendency to mirror or synchronize one's own emotional responses accordingly to facial expressions, voice inflections, body postures, and movements of other individuals (Hatfield et al., 1994). ...
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Thesis
There is minimal empirical evidence to show the cognitive perception and regulation of emotions are a fundamental prerequisite for successful outcomes in business administration. Furthermore, there is a lack of empirical evidence on what emotional strategies and factors lead to increased performance, effectiveness, and positive emotional contagions when implementing successful outcomes for policies and procedures in the leader-member exchange. This interpretative phenomenological analysis explored leaders' experiences in the leader-member exchange. The population was leaders who created policies and implemented procedures for business administration. Leaders were from small, medium, and large enterprises who had worked in the United States or had international experience. The qualitative interpretative phenomenological analysis framework focused on an emotional leadership paradigm to provide insight into leadership's use of emotional intelligence and emotional strategies and influences in facilitating successful business administration. The four themes of emotional intelligence, emotional leadership paradigm, authentic communication, and human capital management emerged as key attributes and factors regarding emotional strategies for implementing policies and procedures for successful business administration. Emotionally intelligent leaders who used emotional strategies with an emotional leadership paradigm approach created emotionally contagious policies and processes for successful outcomes.
... In times of crisis, there is usually an expectation that those who find themselves in leadership or management situations are expected to contain their emotions to reassure (as manager or leader) or respond (as subordinate or follower) (Dasborough, Ashkanasy, Tee, & Tse, 2009;Hay, 2014;Tee, 2015;Troth, Lawrence, Jordan, & Ashkanasy, 2018). The dynamics in these situations are complex. ...
... Emotional containment in intense situations may involve giving the impression of coping through 'surface acting' or 'putting on a game face' (Fein & Isaacson, 2009). However, difficult organizational experiences can provoke different types of emotions (Boudens, 2005) that contain positive and negative feelings for oneself and others (Fineman, 2006;Tee, 2015). Moreover, the impact of negative emotions such as contempt (Pelzer, 2005), shame (Pouthier & Sondak, 2019), jealousy and envy (Stein, 2005), or guilt and anger (Wijaya & Heugens, 2017) reveals the danger of treating such experiences as if they ought not to happen (Vince & Mazen, 2014). ...
... Our stories highlighted 'righteous anger', either in relation to one's situation or in response to harmful effects on others, although we felt overwhelmed or undermined by our reactions. We felt the need to 'contain' our own emotions to influence others (Tee, 2015) to avoid a damaging contagion of negative emotions in our organizational context (Dasborough et al., 2009). Thus, despite an initial emotional reaction, containment was still the proximal outcome. ...
... A recent narrative review by Tee (2015) concluded that implicit and explicit emotional contagion processes are relevant for influencing organizational leadership outcomes with several pertinent themes for organizational leadership research identified, and the salience of contagion processes for understanding the emotional links between multiple levels of business organizations highlighted. While this review offered a highly informative integration of some key lines of inquiry, a systematic review to synthesize the existing literature which extends the social contexts of study beyond business organizations is required for several reasons. ...
... In doing so, the aim of this review is to contribute a significant and timely resource to inform research and practice. searching of key review papers on leadership and emotions literature (e.g., Gooty, Connelly, Griffith, & Gupta, 2010;Humphrey, Burch, & Adams, 2016;Joseph, Dhanani, Shen, McHugh, & McCord, 2015;Rajah, Song, & Arvey, 2011;Tee, 2015;van Knippenberg & van Kleef, 2016); and (d) a manual review of reference lists of included studies for potentially relevant articles that could have been missed during the database search. The decision was made to limit the inclusion criteria to peer-reviewed articles as methodological guidance on grey literature incorporation, analysis, and replication remains unclear (Adams, Smart, & Huff, 2017). ...
... Nevertheless, as contagion has been outlined as the "emotional links" across multiple levels in organizations (cf. Tee, 2015), we recommend researchers consider using multilevel investigations in research designs. For example, researchers might examine different power relationships that exist within multilevel organizations or leaders at multiple levels of an organization's hierarchy, which could impact the leader's influence over their followers. ...
Article
We present a systematic review of literature examining leadership and the contagion of affective phenomena, namely emotion, mood and affect. Specifically, an inductive thematic analysis approach was adopted to synthesize the findings from published studies. In addition, a mini meta‐analysis was conducted to quantify reported effects. A rigorous search identified 25 studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria for further review. Results highlighted important relationships between leadership and contagion aligned with six themes: charismatic and transformational leadership are conducive to contagion of leader and follower positive affective phenomena; greater contagion effects exists when there is congruence between leader and follower affective states; contagion of leader and follower affective phenomena is directly linked to leader effectiveness and performance; and, individual susceptibility to the contagion of affective phenomena can moderate these relationships. These findings have salient implications for conceptualization and measurement across multiple lines of inquiry and within numerous domains of application. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Often, the focus of work in this area has been on formative life experiences, with an emphasis on genuine encounters with 'real' problems (Benjamin & O'Reilly, 2011;Ligon, Hunter & Mumford, 2008). But learning from experience means being able to understand just what is going in within the context of experience and within ourselves; and that can include multiple levels of emotional processes as well as rational actions (Ashkenasy, 2003;Tee, 2015;To, Tseb, & Ashkanasy, 2015). ...
... Indeed, recent research has confirmed that dealing with real problems involves emotional work (Fein & Isaacson, 2009) alongside cognitive processing and that cognitive overload can lead to both negative emotions and unhelpful leader behaviors (Collins & Jackson, 2015). However, during the most intense experiences in times of crisis, there is usually an expectation that leaders will be able to contain their own emotions in order to influence others (Mumby & Putnam, 1992;Tee, 2015) and avoid a damaging contagion of negative emotions running through the organization (Dasborough, Ashkanasy, Tee & Tse, 2009;van Knippenberg & van Kleef 2016). In addition, as Gill and Arnold (2015) point out, there are gendered (and particularly masculinist) concepts of leadership in play that can make such emotional work more troubling and confusing. ...
... Certain charismatic leadership behaviors are associated with a restriction in the expression of emotion among followers, which might be perceived from a unitarist perspective as useful in helping to suppress 'negative emotional contagion' permeating through different levels of an organization (Dasborough, Ashkanasy, Tee & Tse , 2009;Tee, 2015;van Knippenberg & van Kleef, 2016). However, such containment involves tough emotional work for the leaders and followers, during and after the event. ...
... Studies indicate that a leader's display of positive emotions not only influences the followers' mood (Sy et al., 2005;Bono and Ilies, 2006;Sy and Choi, 2013) but also has a beneficial effect on group performance (Barsade, 2002;Visser et al., 2013). This phenomenon is known as emotional contagion, or the transfer of emotional states from one person to another (Hatfield et al., 1993;Hess and Blairy, 2001) and is likely to play an important role in organizational dynamics (Tee, 2015;Barsade et al., 2018). While emotional contagion in organizations is usually quantified using selfreport measures, methods from social neuroscience including electromyography to quantify facial mimicry (Minio-Paluello et al., 2020) or neuroimaging (Carr et al., 2003;De Gelder et al., 2004) could be applied in the future. ...
... While emotional contagion in organizations is usually quantified using selfreport measures, methods from social neuroscience including electromyography to quantify facial mimicry (Minio-Paluello et al., 2020) or neuroimaging (Carr et al., 2003;De Gelder et al., 2004) could be applied in the future. Moreover, the dialogic dynamics of emotional contagion might be investigated by taking into account the relationship between the characteristics of both the "sender" (i.e., expressivity, intensity of displayed emotions) and the "receiver" (i.e., sensitivity to emotional contagion), see Tee (2015) and Thorson et al. (2018). Future research investigating the neuroscience of emotional contagion in organizations might again rely on the hyperscanning approach, as anticipated by a recent study (Park et al., 2019) that measured emotional contagion and physiological synchrony between participants who were assigned the roles of leader (displayer of facial emotional expression) and follower (imitator of the same expression). ...
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Article
Organizations are composed of individuals working together for achieving specific goals, and interpersonal dynamics do exert a strong influence on workplace behaviour. Nevertheless, the dual and multiple perspective of interactions has been scarcely considered by Organizational Neuroscience (ON), the emerging field of study that aims at incorporating findings from cognitive and brain sciences into the investigation of organizational behaviour. This perspective article aims to highlight the potential benefits of adopting experimental settings involving two or more participants (the so-called “second person” approach) for studying the neural bases of organizational behaviour. Specifically, we stress the idea that moving beyond the individual perspective and capturing the dynamical relationships occurring within dyads or groups (e.g., leaders and followers, salespersons and clients, teams) might bring novel insights into the rising field of ON. In addition, designing research paradigms that reliably recreate real work and life situations might increase the generalizability and ecological validity of its results. We start with a brief overview of the current state of ON research and we continue by describing the second-person approach to social neuroscience. In the last paragraph, we try and outline how this approach could be extended to ON. To this end, we focus on leadership, group processes and emotional contagion as potential targets of interpersonal ON research.
... For example, Cheshin, Rafaeli [2] confirmed that the transfer of emotion also occurs in virtual teams and that these "text-based communications of emotion were detected and 'caught' by partners interacting via text-based instant messaging" (p. 3)]. And in dyadic CMC interactions partners exchanged messages slower and used shorter messages when experiencing negative emotions, compared to participants experiencing neutral emotions [11]. ...
... Interaction partners in CMC could also distinguish discrete emotions in messages, namely anger or happiness. Hence, it seems clear that when communicating electronically individuals may influence others affectively [7] and even impact behavioral outcomes [3]. ...
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Article
Do organizational leaders’ tweets influence their employees’ anxiety? And if so, have employees become more susceptible to their leader’s social media communications during the COVID-19 pandemic? Based on emotional contagion and using machine learning algorithms to track anxiety and personality traits of 197 leaders and 958 followers across 79 organizations over 316 days, we find that during the pandemic leaders’ tweets do influence follower state anxiety. In addition, followers of trait anxious leaders seem somewhat protected by sudden spikes in leader state anxiety, while followers of less trait anxious leaders are most affected by increased leader state anxiety. Multi-day lagged regressions showcase that this effect is stronger post-onset of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic crisis context.
... The importance of coaches managing their own emotions is particularly crucial within the draining Olympic competition environment and during challenging training sessions (Mallett & Coulter, 2016;Olusoga et al., 2012). Due to emotional contagion (Tee, 2015), a coach displaying positivity will help an athlete to remain in a similar state. Emotional contagion is an automatic, unintentional, and unassuming tendency to mimic or synchronize with another person (Tee, 2015). ...
... Due to emotional contagion (Tee, 2015), a coach displaying positivity will help an athlete to remain in a similar state. Emotional contagion is an automatic, unintentional, and unassuming tendency to mimic or synchronize with another person (Tee, 2015). As coaches' positive emotions are passed onto athletes, the training environment will become more energized, with the positive emotions engendering higher optimism, creativity, cooperation, and motivation (Baas, De Dreu, & Nijstad, 2008). ...
Article
Objectives Researchers investigating the psychological aspects of Olympic coaching have studied coaches as a homogenous group, and the effect of coaches' psychological characteristics on performance-related outcomes remains unclear. The objective of this research, therefore, was to examine whether psychological factors discriminate between world-leading (i.e., Olympic gold medal winning) and world-class (i.e., Olympic non-gold medal winning) coaches. Method Self-reported psychometric questionnaires were completed by 36 Olympic coaches who had collectively coached 169 swimmers to win 352 Olympic medals, of which 155 were gold medals. The questionnaires assessed 12 variables within the Big Five personality traits, the dark triad, and emotional intelligence, and the data was analyzed using three one-way multivariate analysis of variance and follow-up univariate F-tests. Results The results showed that the 21 world-leading coaches were significantly more agreeable, had greater perception of emotion, were better at managing their own emotion, and were less Machiavellian and narcissistic than the 15 world-class coaches. The groups of coaches showed no differences in levels of conscientiousness, openness to experience, extraversion, neuroticism, psychopathy, managing other emotion, or utilization of emotion. Conclusions Psychological factors discriminate between world-leading and world-class coaches. The implications of these differences are discussed for psychology researchers and practitioners operating in Olympic sport.
... According to the SCT, and at the collective level, we could expect that when a group shares efficacy beliefs about good group performance (enactive mastery and vicarious experiences), they could feel more efficacious as individuals due to psychological mechanisms such as positive emotional contagion, defined by Hatfield et al. (1994, p.5) as the "tendency to automatically mimic and synchronize facial expressions, vocalizations, postures and movements with those of another person and, consequently, to converge emotionally". This emotional contagion has been applied to many contexts, including organizations and, specifically, research on teams and leadership processes (Tee 2015;Torrente et al. 2013). We could expect that when group members feel efficacious, they also potentially exchange other positive emotions, such as joy, satisfaction, or pride in a job well done. ...
... Research has found that positive leadership behaviours (i.e., transformational, authentic, eth-ic…) predicted collaborators' self-efficacy (Afsar and Masood 2018;Dvir et al. 2002;Kark et al. 2003;Nielsen and Munir 2009;Wallumbwa et al. 2011). In his review, Tee (2015) also showed that emotional contagion processes are developed from bottom-up through intra-individual and between-individual factors to top-down from leaders to followers affecting to different organizational outcomes (Barsade and Knight 2015). ...
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Article
Using Social Cognitive Theory as our theoretical framework, we analyse how beliefs about group efficacy among team members, together with transformational leadership are two group-level constructs (aggregated members’ shared beliefs), which predicts individual members self-efficacy over time. We conducted a three-wave longitudinal study with 456 participants that were randomly distributed in 112 groups working in three simulated creative collective tasks. We computed random coefficient models in a lagged-effects design. Findings were as expected and group efficacy beliefs and grouplevel transformational leadership were relevant cross-level predictors of individual selfefficacy over time (even after controlling for baseline levels of individual self-efficacy). Results suggested that these group-level factors are relevant cross-level constructs that explain how individual self-efficacy among group members is developed over time.
... Hospitality service employees interact internally with peers and supervisors, and externally with customers. Emotional contagion occurs when service employees perceive the emotion of others and channel similar emotions in their attitudes and behaviors in a two-way approach (Tee, 2015). This exchange surfaces anytime when employees absorb and reflect emotions from customers and peers, or alternatively when they pass theirs to customers and peers. ...
... The findings from Ustrov et al. (2016) also confirms that through emotional contagion, customers and service providers can mutually trigger emotional swings in each other. Tee (2015) proffered that the 6 extent of emotional contagion varies from personality, empathy, trait affectivity, and gender differences while the perception of emotional contagion also changes. ...
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Article
Focusing on hotel restaurant service employees, this study aims to explore sources of positive and negative emotions. Through a qualitative approach, both field observation and interviews are applied. Two of the authors firstly conduct field observation through an internship at hotel restaurants. Then, semi-structured interviews are completed with questions collected from the literature review. After a three-step inductive content analysis, this study proposes five first-order sources in positive emotion that includes customer interactions, manager leadership, coworker support, personal confidence and achievement, and restoration and leisure. Nine first-order sources in negative emotion are extracted that include workplace miscommunication, destructive managerial leadership, kitchen trouble, poor task management, inadequate remuneration, career development problems, conflicts with personal relationships, customer service problems, and problems in leisure and health. The findings of this study reveal that the complexity and the structure for sources of positive and negative emotions are largely different.
... This definition addresses the "infectiousness" by mimicry and synchrony of, for example, positive emotions in the workplace (Frederickson, 2003). Emotional contagion also augments the influence of the "mimicker" and increases how liked one is (Guéguen and Martin, 2009;Tee, 2015). It is related to perceptions of closeness (Stel and Vonk, 2010) and also satisfies the need for relatedness, which is associated to work engagement (Deci and Ryan, 2000). ...
... The idea of bottom-up, automatic contagion processes is also supported by neurological research. Specifically, the mirror neuron system and parts of the default mode network (DMN) seem to support the notion of automatic emotion appraisal and emotional contagion (Arizmendi, 2011;Boyatzis, 2015;Tee, 2015). The mirror neuron network allows mimicry, and the social aspects of the DMN allow for picking up the moods and feelings of others (Boyatzis, 2015). ...
Article
Construct proliferation in the leadership field raises questions concerning parsimony and whether we should focus on joint mechanisms of leadership styles, rather than the differences between them. In this theoretical research article, we propose that positive leadership styles translate into similar leader behaviors on the work floor that influence employee work engagement through a number of shared pathways. We take a deductive approach and review several established theories as well as relevant up-to-date empirical work from a bird’s-eye view to generate a general framework. We introduce a model with three processes (one direct process and two indirect processes) and five pathways (practical, motivational, affective, cognitive, and behavioral). With regard to the indirect processes, we propose that work characteristics (material pathway) and psychological need satisfaction (intrapersonal motivational pathway) mediate the relationship between positive leadership styles and engagement. Regarding the direct interpersonal process, we propose that leaders directly influence employee engagement through three pathways: emotional contagion (affective interpersonal pathway), social exchange (cognitive interpersonal pathway), and role modeling (behavioral interpersonal pathway). Our parsimonious research model furthers the integration of different theoretical viewpoints as well as underscores joint mechanisms with regard to the effect of positive leadership styles. Practically speaking, this article also provides insight into which processes leaders can work on to stimulate employee work engagement through progressive policies and work practices.
... It has been proved that users express more positive emotions when exposed to more positive emotions from others (Kramer et al., 2014). However, mimicry is not the only way for emotional contagion, since individuals' emotions can be aroused by further observation and interpretation (Barsade, 2002;Tee, 2015). This is called conscious emotional contagion, distinguished from primitive emotional contagion based on mimicry with less consciousness (Hennig-Thurau et al., 2006). ...
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Article
Pervasive emotional expression in cyberspace has increased uncertainties and brought challenges to governance. The occurrence mechanism of emotional communication can provide more ideas to tackle such problems. This study proposed the “Arousal-Homophily-Echo” model with multi-dimensional features as a frame of fine-grained research practice. The model divided Emotional Communication into three levels and we provided their definitions and measurements. Then we creatively combined machine learning and its interpretability to predict and explain how emotional communication happens. The data of the online public discussion on a representative incident was used to fit the prediction models, based on which we summarized important features and analyzed their influences. The optimal prediction models can be utilized to evaluate and monitor crisis communication in cyberspace, while the specific influences of important factors can guide the intervention strategies to alleviate adverse effects of emotional communication.
... Additionally, those who feel optimistic display activations in the amygdala and rostral anterior cingulate cortex (Sharot et al., 2007); Third, among the diverse mechanisms underlying TL, its rewarding value is particularly important. Those who experience TL feel rewarded (Tee, 2015), a feeling which again corresponds to activation in the dopaminergic reward circuit (Liu et al., 2011). Concluding, perceiving TL is thought to trigger the dopaminergic reward circuit. ...
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Article
This study examines the neural activation of followers who believe their leader to be transformational. Therefore, 44 followers (29♀) participated in an fMRI-study and were exposed to a transformational and nontransformational leader while their neural activation was assessed. Results show that when followers believe the leader to be more transformational, they show higher activation in parts of the dopaminergic reward circuitry. Notably, followers’ neural activation correlated with their motivation at work and predicted it beyond leadership ratings. The findings support the notion that leadership is partly a social construction and further suggest that the credition model can be applied in the business context.
... Contagion has also been shown to be important in resolving the work-family conflict in business (Baral and Sampath, 2019) and service relationships (Hennig-Thurau et al., 2006). It helps leaders to influence at different organizational levels (Tee, 2015) and politicians to persuade their voters (Sullivan, 1996;Gabriel and Masch, 2017). And certainly, it is impossible not to mention the fundamental role of contagion in creation and perception of art (Koelsch et al., 2006;Fritz and Koelsch, 2008). ...
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Article
The aim of the work was to develop and test the Russian version of the Emotional Contagion Scale. A sample of 518 volunteers from the general population filled in this questionnaire. We examined the one-factor model (all the items), the two-factor model (positive/negative), and the five-factor model (love/happiness/fear/anger/sadness). To measure its construct validity, we asked different subsamples to complete questionnaires of empathy and sensation seeking. The coefficients of test–retest reliability, internal consistency, and validity were acceptable. Only the one-factor model showed acceptable properties by all psychometric criteria. We also observed the gender effect, that is women were more contagious, according to the total scale and all subscales.
... Respecto de aquella, existe evidencia de que la motivación y el compromiso de los empleados están influenciados por las relaciones interpersonales dentro del equipo de trabajo (Salanova, Llorens, Cifre y Martínez, 2012). En cuanto a esta última, estudios han determinado que los trabajadores también responden a factores presentes en la relación con sus mandos superiores, es decir, el líder o líderes (Salanova, Rodríguez y Nielsen, 2022;Sivanathan, Arnold, Turner y Barling, 2004;Tee, 2015). ...
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El objetivo de este trabajo fue validar la confiabilidad y validez estadística de la NOM-035-STPS-2018, en específico del dominio Relaciones en el trabajo. Metodológicamente, se aplicó la Guía de Referencia III para recopilar datos mediante un muestreo no probabilístico en tres compañías automotrices de Ciudad Juárez, México. En total, 250 supervisores respondieron el instrumento. En primer lugar, se verificó la confiabilidad mediante el alfa de Cronbach y alfa ordinal. Posteriormente se realizó la prueba de Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) y Bartlett. Entre los resultados, el dominio Relaciones en el trabajo obtuvo un alfa de Cronbach de 0.913, mientras que las dimensiones “Relaciones sociales en el trabajo” y “Deficiente relación con los colaboradores que supervisa” obtuvieron valores de este indicador de 0.879 y 0.975, respectivamente. Por otro lado, el alfa ordinal obtuvo valores superiores a 0.90 en las dos dimensiones. El KMO obtenido fue de 0.838 y la prueba de Bartlett resultó ser significativa (p = 0.000). En consecuencia, el análisis factorial exploratorio extrajo los dos factores propuestos por la norma. Dichos factores contribuyen a 79.11 % de la varianza acumulada. El análisis factorial confirmatorio mostró un buen ajuste del modelo. En conclusión, el instrumento y las dimensiones propuestas pueden ser utilizados como herramienta de evaluación para medir el factor psicosocial Relaciones en el trabajo (dominio de la NOM-035), ya que muestran valores aceptables en términos de confiabilidad estadística.
... A metaanalysis of 40 results from 36 studies also provided substantial overall support for the proposition that depressive symptoms and mood are contagious (32). In the field of organizational behavior study, after reviewing the related literatures, Tee suggested that leaders' management and regulation of emotional contagion processes underlies the shape, form, and outcome of organization-wide culture, climate and change outcomes (33). Based on the group of students, a teacher's job is similar to that of a leader in an organization. ...
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Background: According to the theory of emotional contagion, emotions in one person can trigger similar emotions in groups within social networks. In schools, the class just like a small social network, that teachers' emotion, such as depression, might be contagious to their students. However, until now there is few studies reporting this issue. This study aims to explore whether teachers' depression be contagious to students and what mechanics behind the phenomenon. Methods: Using Children's depression and cognitive scales to assess 2,579 students, meanwhile using teachers' depression and emotional labor scales assess 529 teachers. The nested data from 112 classes were analyzed. Results: Teachers' depression was positively correlated with emotional labor surface and deep acting, and teachers' depression cross-level predicted students' depression inversely. For teachers with higher levels of depression, the teacher's deep acting affected their students' depression significantly, the more effortful the teachers' deep acting, the lower the degree of the students' depression, however, for teachers with lower levels of depression, the deep acting was not significant. Conclusion: The results maybe state that depression in teachers is not readily transmitted to students, one of reasons is that teachers' emotional labor may alleviate the influence of their depression on students. However, considered that teachers' emotional labor was positively correlated with their depression, the teachers' emotional labor may be like a double-edged sword, while alleviating the influence of teachers' depression on students, it also deteriorated their own depression, making it impossible sustainable. For students' depression interventions based in school, including teachers maybe a better selection.
... First, centralization fosters vertical as compared to horizontal communication patterns (Tushman, 1979), thereby providing plenty opportunities for family CEOs to transmit their emotions. Although emotional contagion is a bidirectional process (Tee, 2015), the power dynamics in centralized firms are likely to work in favor of the emotions radiating out from the family CEO as the central figure to employees throughout the firm (rather than vice versa; cf. Wróbel and Imbir, 2019). ...
Article
Research suggests that firms with family CEOs differ from other types of businesses, yet surprisingly little is known about how employees in these firms feel and behave compared to those working in other firms. We draw from family science and management research to suggest that family CEOs, because of their emotion-evoking double role as family members and business leaders, are, on average, more likely to infuse employees with positive emotions, such as enthusiasm and excitement, than hired professional CEOs. We suggest that these emotions spread through firms by way of emotional contagion during interactions with employees, thereby setting the organizational affective tone. In turn, we hypothesize that in firms with family CEOs the voluntary turnover rate is lower. In considering structural features as boundary conditions, we propose that family CEOs have stronger effects in smaller and centralized firms, and weaker effects in formalized firms. Multilevel data from 41,200 employees and 2246 direct reports of CEOs from 497 firms with and without family CEOs provide support for our model. This research suggests that firms managed by family CEOs, despite often being criticized as nepotistic relics of the past, tend to offer pleasant work environments.
... The success of any drive for change depends on whether and how leaders engage their organisational culture (Jones et al., 2005;Schramm, 2017;Chou et al., 2021), all the more so in the COVID-19 situation (Spicer, 2020;Suprapti et al., 2020). However, it differs from other business topics: it is more implicit than explicit, more emotional than rational (Tee, 2015), that is why it is hard to work with, but that is why it is so essential to design it and set up HR activities, which influenced (Harrison and Bazzy, 2017;Narayana, 2017). Analysis of a practical approach to sustainable development mentions Pacana et al. (2020) and Harrison and Bazzy (2017). ...
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The importance of organisational culture for the organisation's success is already proven today, and in this situation, COVID-19 for organisations continues to grow. No previous review has focused on the role of organizational culture in the context of human resource management and its activities with a focus on Czech organizations. The article aims to identify human resources (HR) activities primarily influenced by the organisational culture of the examined organisations in the Czech Republic by quantitative and qualitative research. Exploratory factor analysis identified critical factors related to the objective of the paper. The results have shown that the HR activities most affected by the organisational culture in the examined Czech organisations are as follows: internal and external communication, friendly relationships, and HR planning. The results have also revealed that only 40% of the examined organisations deal with organisa-tional culture, and 60% do not view organisational culture as a priority. Organ-isational culture is influenced by the industry, the sector and the market, the number of employees, and the existence or non-existence of the HR department. This paper encourages other researchers to apply and popularize concepts of organizational culture in the study of human resource management.
... As a complex process, the contagion of personal moods often occurs during social interactions when people mimic each other's voices, postures, facial expressions, or body language 25 . In addition to such physiological responses and processes 6 , as well as the valence of moods and other contextual factors, the extent of mood contagion may vary due to sociodemographic and network features such as gender 26 , power 27,28 and similarity between the actors 29 during contacts. Certain events or situations further affect how strongly people express their feelings. ...
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Both viruses and moods are transmitted through interpersonal contacts, but it has been extremely difficult to track each unique chain of contacts through which particular moods diffuse. By analyzing 56,060 contact records from 113 interlocking, yearlong diaries collected through a web-based platform in Taiwan, we traced mood states before and after each specific contact along a triplet of persons where B contacts C and subsequently contacts A. Multilevel analyses show that both positive and negative emotions are contagious, but the two paths diverge markedly in how the diffusion stops. Positive contact between C and B (which leads to improved mood for B) spreads to A through B’s contact with A, making A feel better afterward, regardless of whether B’s mood deteriorated between the two interactions. Negative contact between C and B (which leads to worsened mood for B) also spreads to A, making A feel worse after the contact with B. However, the spread of a negative mood discontinues if B’s mood improved between the two contacts. The different patterns of diffusion suggest that a negative mood is harder to disperse, probably because people generally make efforts to keep their negative emotions from spreading to others.
... Historically, contagion was understood to be unconscious (George, 2002), but later authors allowed for conscious contagion (Bakker, Westman, & van Emmerik, 2009). With this in mind, Tee (2015) has argued that there are two types of contagion. Implicit contagion is automatic and unconscious, while explicit contagion is deliberate. ...
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In this chapter, we review the literature on leadership and emotion. Progress in understanding the junction of these two ideas has been steady but slow. To address this concern, at the conclusion of this chapter, we briefly discuss two theoretical obstacles that, in our view, have slowed progress. However, we begin with the larger substance of our chapter, which focuses on leaders’ affect at three levels of analysis – the overall climate, the work team, and, finally, the leader himself or herself. We show that leader emotion can be important at all three levels of analysis. At the highest level of analysis, leaders create emotional climate through personnel practices, by rewarding (or punishing) culturally appropriate emotion displays, and by their treatment of individual employees. Moving to teams and dyads, we will see that emotions can influence followers through contagion or emotional correspondence. Finally, looking within the leader, our review underscores how emotional intelligence is crucial for effective leadership.
... Since mental disorder diagnosis is a binary (yes/no) assessment, the probability of being diagnosed depends on the severity of symptoms. But undiagnosed individuals can also have various symptoms of mental disorders that vary on a broad continuum (Ayuso-Mateos et al., 2010;Angermeyer et al., 2015;Tebeka et al., 2018) and might therefore also be contagious. This is in line with infectious disease epidemiology showing that individuals who have not been recorded as infective cases but who show subclinical signs or symptoms of that disease can be the source of further infection (Glass, Becker, and Clements, 2007;Straif-Bourgeois, Ratard, and Kretzschmar, 2014). ...
Article
Combining management research with infectious disease epidemiology, we propose a new perspective on mental disorders in a business context. We suggest that—similar to infectious diseases—clinical diagnoses of depression, anxiety, and stress-related disorders can spread epidemically across the boundaries of organizations via social contagion. We propose a framework for assessing the patterns of disease transmission, with employee mobility as the driver of contagion across organizations. We empirically test the proposed mental disorder transmission patterns by observing more than 250,000 employees and more than 17,000 Danish firms over a period of 12 years. Our findings reveal that when organizations hire employees from other, unhealthy organizations (those with a high prevalence of mental disorders), they “implant” depression, anxiety, and stress-related disorders into their workforces. Employees leaving unhealthy organizations act as “carriers” of these disorders regardless of whether they themselves have received a formal diagnosis of a mental disorder. The effect is especially pronounced if the newcomer holds a managerial position.
... Invariably emotion applies a crucial influence upon the leader's communication, moral reasoning, and community building activities, which are all integral to the development of mutually beneficial relationships and, thus, organisational success. In this way, this research builds on the growing body of literature (see for example Lee, Stajkovic, & Cho, 2011;Sadri, Weber, & Gentry, 2011;Tee, 2015;Venus, Stam, & van Knippenberg, 2013) highlighting the important influence of the leader's emotional displays upon their leadership effectiveness. ...
... Leaders' experience of work overload should, therefore, have important detrimental effects on their subordinates, as it has previously been associated with destructive leadership behaviors (e.g. Collins and Jackson, 2015;Eissa and Lester, 2017;Lam et al., 2017) and with employee stress via emotional contagion (Johnson, 2008;Sy and Choi, 2013;Tee, 2015). Thus, the influence of leaders' perceptions of work overload on LMX relationships is indeed an interesting avenue of research (Sonnentag and Pundt, 2016). ...
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Due to the strong focus on dyadic relationships in leader-member exchange (LMX) theory, it is vital to investigate the predictors of the types of relationships that leaders and subordinates develop. This study explores the supervisor-level antecedents of LMX. Drawing from conservation of resources theory, this study tests whether leaders’ psychological flexibility moderates the relationship between leaders’ perceptions of work overload and LMX. A field study was conducted among 186 subordinates and 93 leaders from a Norwegian public service organization. Multisource field data demonstrated general support for the hypothesized relationships. The results of multilevel analyses showed a negative relation between the perceptions of work overload of leaders with lower levels of psychological flexibility and their subordinates’ perceptions of LMX. Thus, psychological flexibility seemed to mitigate the negative implications of leaders’ work overload. This study extends previous studies on managers’ perceptions of work overload by introducing an important contingency of the relationship between managers’ perceptions of work overload and the quality of their relationship with subordinates. As such, this study contributes to a more complete understanding of the factors that relate to the development of high-quality LMX.
... Although the number of studies on the impact of emotions on decision-making is accumulating, research on group-level emotional processes is surprisingly scant, given that so many organizational decisions are made in teams (Lerner et al., 2015;Johnson and Hollenbeck, 2007) and the possibility of emotional contagion (Tee, 2015). Existing research on team decision-making has emphasized the cognitive aspects of decision-making, such as identifying and ranking decision objectives, searching for information, generating alternatives and analyzing decision consequences (Jackson et al., 1995). ...
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Purpose As teamwork becomes more prevalent in organizational decision-making, the influence of emotional intelligence (EI) on team decision-making process demands more research attention. This study aims to investigate the impact of EI on team psychological safety and decision-making performance. Design/methodology/approach Team decision-making performance and decision quality from a team decision task were obtained from 54 decision-making teams composed of 241 undergraduate business students from a Mid-Atlantic university. Regression analyses were used to test individual and team’s EI relationship with team decision performance and the mediation effect of psychological safety. Findings This study provides empirical evidence that individual EI is positively related to individual influence on team decisions. Team-level EI improves team decision-making performance through increases in psychological safety. Research limitations/implications The sample size is relatively small, and the participants were business students; therefore, the research results may lack generalizability. Future research is encouraged to explore this topic further. Practical implications As teamwork becomes more prevalent in organizational decision-making, the influence of EI on team decision-making process demands more research and managerial attention. The findings of this paper provide insights on the importance of individual/team EI and psychological safety in team decision performance. Originality/value This study furthers research showing that emotions are pertinent to social interactions, including group decision-making, and therefore suggests the desirability of investigating other social processes affecting group decision-making.
... When leaders are engaged (Gutermann et al., 2017), act ethically (Mayer et al., 2009), expediently (Sumpter et al., 2017), or unethically (Mawritz et al., 2012), their followers may also engage in behaviors congruent with the leaders. Leaders' affective states also elicit similar states in followers (Bono & Ilies, 2006;Sy et al., 2005;Tee, 2015). It is important to note that leaders are also influenced by their followers' attitudes and behaviors. ...
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Leader support is critical for organizational change, yet prior research has examined support as a static construct. Drawing on social learning and change momentum theories, we hypothesized that increases in perceptions of leadership support across the first 2 years of a change effort is related to employee perceptions of positive change at Time 2 and personal commitment to change and organizational citizenship behaviors at Time 3. To test this model, we collected data in 2012, 2013, and 2015 at a state wildlife agency undergoing a large-scale change effort. Across Time 1 and Time 2, perceptions of leader support of the change increased, and this shift was related to perceptions of positive internal and external changes. Changes in perceptions of leader support also indirectly predicted personal commitment to change and organizational citizenship behaviors, mediated by perceptions of positive internal and external changes. Findings substantiate the importance of continual leadership support.
... We further aim to delve deeper into the role of follower characteristics in our laissezfaire leadership-stress framework because leader behaviours do not occur in isolation but depend on the perception of followers (Tee, 2015). This perception is shaped by follower personality, particularly follower neuroticism (Ehrhart and Klein, 2001;Felfe and Schyns, 2009). ...
Article
Previous research on laissez-faire leadership and stress has focused on between-person differences by looking at general ratings of leader behaviours. Yet, researchers have demonstrated a high situational contingency of leadership behaviours that call for a more detailed analysis of within-person differences. We adopt a role theory perspective to explain why daily laissez-faire leadership is linked to daily stress of followers. Also drawing on role theory, we further explain fluctuations of supervisors’ laissez-faire leadership behaviour over time in relation to follower perceptions of day-specific stress. Finally, we also take followers’ level of neuroticism into perspective to describe when followers are particularly vulnerable to laissez-faire leadership. We conducted a diary study spanning over 5 days within 1 working week to test whether daily laissez-faire leadership and its variability were positively related to followers’ daily stress and whether these relations were moderated by follower neuroticism. A total of 201 participants completed the diary surveys ( M = 4.79 days × 201 participants = 963 data points) and provided information in an initial survey. Results gave support for most of our hypotheses and showed a positive relationship between daily laissez-faire leadership and daily stress as well as a positive relationship between laissez-faire leadership variability and daily stress. Neuroticism moderated the positive relationship between laissez-faire leadership variability and daily stress in the way that the relationship between laissez-faire leadership variability and daily stress was stronger for individuals with high neuroticism.
... Die Emotionen der SL stehen durch Transmissionseffekte bzw. emotional contagion offenbar in engem Zusammenhang mit dem Reformerleben der Lehrkräfte (Tee, 2015;Turner, Waugh, Summers & Grove, 2009). ...
Article
Die vorliegende Studie stellt ein deutschsprachiges Instrument zur Messung der tätigkeitsspezifischen Selbstwirksamkeitserwartungen von Schulleitern und Schulleiterinnen vor, das auf Basis der „Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale“ (NPSES) von Federici und Skaalvik (2011) entwickelt wurde. Es wurden 359 Schweizer Schulleiterinnen und Schulleiter schriftlich befragt. Die Ergebnisse belegen die mehrdimensionale Struktur des Fragebogens zu den tätigkeitsspezifischen Selbstwirksamkeitserwartungen von Schulleiterinnen und Schulleitern. Insgesamt konnten acht Dimensionen differenziert werden (z. B. Selbstwirksamkeitserwartungen in der Unterrichtsentwicklung, im Finanzmanagement, in der Personalführung). Zudem korrelierten hohe tätigkeitsspezifische Selbstwirksamkeitserwartungen mit den kontextspezifischen Selbstwirksamkeitserwartungen in der Umsetzung einer Lehrplanreform (Lehrplan 21), den damit verbundenen Emotionen und der Veränderungsbereitschaft. Hohe allgemeine tätigkeitsspezifische Selbstwirksamkeitserwartungen hängen folglich eng zusammen mit den Selbstwirksamkeitserwartungen ausgelöst durch spezifische situative Anforderungen (wie z. B. in der Umsetzung eines neuen Curriculums). Schlagwörter: Lehrplaneinführung – Schulleitung – Selbstwirksamkeitserwartungen – Validierung
... Our research paves the way for an enhanced understanding of the reasons why entrepreneurial passion contributes to firm performance. In line with research on contagion effects on different organizational levels (Tee, 2015), entrepreneurs' passion seems to be not only capable of enhancing emotion-related outcomes, as suggested previously (Breugst et al., 2012), but also enhancing performance-relevant employee outcomes. Exploring passion contagion in entrepreneurial leadership (Gupta, MacMillan, & Surie, 2004;Hmieleski & Ensley, 2007;Renko, El Tarabishy, Carsrud, & Brännback, 2015) could be a fruitful avenue for future research. ...
Article
This article analyzes the contagion process of entrepreneurial passion and its effects on employee outcomes. We develop a mediation model showing entrepreneurs’ entrepreneurial passion affects an employee passion response, which in turn affects employee outcomes. We draw on a dual-process perspective to analyze how entrepreneurs’ emotional and identity displays interact to create employees’ perceptions of entrepreneurs’ passion, and question whether the contagion effect uniformly works for all employees. Our empirical studies, one field study and one experiment, provide empirical support for a contagion effect of entrepreneurial passion, and show the particularities of the effects of entrepreneurs’ passion on employee outcomes.
... Empathic concern H5 H5 Figure 1. Theoretical model of mindfulness of employees and leaders, perceptions of compassion at work, empathic concern, and cyberloafing PR Prior work shows that emotional contagion (Tee, 2015) and witnessing another person's altruistic behavior elicit "moral elevation"the perception of moral beauty or moral excellence (Haidt, 2006) which also increases altruism in the witness (Schnall et al., 2010). In this regard, Vianello et al. (2010) found that leaders' moral excellence (self-sacrifice and interpersonal justice) elicits "moral elevation" in followers, which, in turn, fully mediates leaders' effects on followers' compassion (Karakas and Sarigollu, 2013). ...
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Purpose- This study examines whether the appearance of cyberloafing at work, that is, the use of the company’s Internet connection for personal purposes, may be due to a workplace that lacks mindfulness and compassion. We first hypothesize that supervisors’ mindfulness is related to the mindfulness of their direct followers, and that both are related to employees’ compassion at work. We also hypothesize that compassion mediates the link between supervisors’ and followers’ mindfulness and cyberloafing, and that empathic concern mediates the link from compassion to cyberloafing. Design/methodology/approach- A questionnaire was distributed to followers working in groups of three with the same leader in all of the 100 banks in London (UK). Supervisors and their direct reports (n=100) and 100 triads of followers (n=300) participated. We applied structural equation modeling (SEM) for analyses. Findings- Results showed that supervisors’ and followers’ mindfulness were significantly related to each other and to compassion at work, but compassion acted as a mediator only in the case of supervisors’ mindfulness. Empathic concern mediated the compassion-cyberloafing link. Research limitations/implications- The study could suffer from mono-method/source bias, and specificities of banks and their work processes can raise concerns about the generalizability of the results. Practical implications– Findings suggest that mindfulness training may facilitate compassion at work, which, in turn, will restrain the occurrence of cyberloafing at work. Originality/value- This is the first study to analyze how and why employees refrain from harming their organizations out of compassion.
... We included similarity in tenure to control for the possibility that employees with similar length of employment with the organization had similar levels of emotional exhaustion as a result of having similar experiences (Zagenczyk et al., 2010). Likewise, we controlled for similarity in hierarchical level because employees at different hierarchical levels are likely to experience different levels of stress (Tee, 2015). We controlled for similarity in the quality of the social exchange relationship that employees had with the organization (Social Exchange Relationship Scale (SERS), Colquitt et al., 2014; (α = 0.85)), as the employer-employee relationship tends to correlate highly with a wide array of stress variables including emotional exhaustion (e.g., Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002). ...
... Ultimately, their emotions tend to be similar to or consistent with the emotions of people around them. This phenomenon is called emotional contagion (Hatfield et al., 1994;Tee, 2015). ...
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Article
Using a sample of 32 work teams (32 work team leaders and their 321 followers) in Chinese cultural context, this study investigated the relationships between leaders’ and their followers’ psychological capital and the multilevel multiple mediation effects of social exchange and emotional contagion. PsyCap questionnaire (PCQ), leader-member exchange scale, and the positive affect scale in the positive and negative affect scale (PANAS) were adopted to measure variables. A total of 430 questionnaires were distributed in 2014 and the response rates were 90.2%. Structural equation model and hierarchical linear model were applied to analyze the survey data. The results revealed that leaders’ psychological capital had a positive influence on their followers’ psychological capital. Leader-member exchange was the cross-level mediator between leaders’ psychological capital and their followers’. The cross-level mediating effect of leaders’ positive emotions perceived by followers was not significant. The results of this study extended the social exchange theory and enriched researches on leadership. The implication was discussed in details.
... Indeed, negative outcomes of stress have been widely theorized (Cheng & McCarthy, 2018), and empirical findings support these predictions, with meta-analytic results indicating that stress is related to a broad range of negative outcomes, including lower levels of job performance and satisfaction (Fried et al., 2008;Miraglia & Johns, 2016) and higher levels of work-family conflict (Nohe, Meier, Sonnentag, & Michel, 2015). Further, when we look beyond the effects of employee stress and examine manager levels of stress, there is evidence that managerial stress is associated with abusive leadership behaviors (Burton, Hoobler, & Scheuer, 2012) and that managerial stress can have a detrimental impact on employee stress via emotional contagion (e.g., Johnson, 2008;Sy & Choi, 2013;Tee, 2015). ...
... Enthusiasm and associated positive emotions are contagious, fostering positive school climate for both personnel and students (Frenzel et al., 2018;Owens et al., 2016). It is considerable, that emotions are easily spread from organization leaders and managers "down" to personnel (Tee, 2015) and students (Frenzel et al., 2018). Leaders' positive behavior can facilitate positive emotions and enhance well-being of their followers (Kelloway, Weigand, McKee, & Das, 2013). ...
... If left unchallenged, respect develops as the norm within the group and subsequent intentions to challenge the norm, such as engaging in uncivil behavior, will be ignored or sanctioned (Bettenhausen & Murnighan, 1991;Walsh et al., 2012). Numerous studies point to the ability for affective states present within a team to spread through social or emotional contagion processes and to have lasting effects on macro-level organizational processes (Dasborough, Ashkanasy, Tee, & Tse, 2009;Harvey, Treadway, & Heames, 2007;Tee, 2015). The findings of this body of research underscore the need for organizations to invest resources to improve team affective states since these can ostensibly influence organizational outcomes. ...
Article
Workplace incivility is a common problem within organizations. Recent data estimates that 96% of the total workforce population in the United States has experienced incivility at one time or another. Individual targets of incivility face detrimental effects to their psychological and professional well-being. Workplace incivility also leads to poor outcomes for workgroups and for organizations as a whole. Results are mixed for the use of formal training programs to curb incivility in organizations. A workshop designed to train employees on behaving in a civil manner in the workplace, as well as how to respond to workplace incivility, was implemented across multiple facilities of a healthcare organization. Pre- and post-training survey measures of team civility experiences, team cohesion, team-level norms for civility, interpersonal citizenship behaviors (OCB-I), and team performance served as dependent variables. Longitudinal data analysis methods using quasi-simplex four-wave cross-lagged panel analysis were employed to analyze the data. Results indicate that experiences of incivility may be reduced across time as a result of the civility intervention and that civility norms may be enhanced by the civility training. Positive trends in proximal and distal outcomes were also observed, though additional research is needed to support the efficacy of civility interventions to positively impact these outcomes. Practical implications for organizations wishing to curb workplace incivility through implementation of an intervention are also discussed.
... Therefore, people who experience an elevated degree of positive affectivity, in general, exhibit better engagement levels and demonstrate more disposition and proactivity towards executing their work duties. This behavior differs from that of an individual in a state of negative affectivity, which is pervaded by discouragement and is frequently associated with dissatisfaction (Gooty et al., 2010;Tee, 2015). Furthermore, researchers point to the importance of affective states as conditioning factors for the influence of transformational leaders (Gilmore et al., 2013). ...
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Article
Purpose: In this study we investigate the influence of organizational contextual factors and individual characteristics on the relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative research, with data collected through electronic questionnaires, answered by 166 individuals from different types of organizations, areas of professional training, and gender, subsequently applying sequential regression analyses. Findings: The results indicate that the relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction is moderated by the followers’ gender, being stronger for female followers. The relationship is not affected by the followers’ area of professional training, nor by type of organization (public/private). The study also evidenced the importance of taking into account individual affective states in studies of work attitudes. Originality/value: The research examines boundary conditions for the effect of transformational leaders in modern organizations, expanding the knowledge on organizational contextual factors that strengthen their influence on employee attitudes, while also controlling for individual differences.
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To identify the causal impact of emotional contagion, recent studies mainly rely on online or lab experiments. This paper examines the causal impact of emotional contagion among middle school students, using a nationally representative school-based survey in China. We focus on schools that randomly assign students to classrooms and isolate the variations in classmates’ emotions based on a factor that originates outside the classroom: whether the classmate had a serious illness before primary school. We find that the effect of emotional contagion in a real-world setting is larger than previous findings from experimental studies have shown.
Article
Recognizing the dynamic nature of affect, we consider observed leader affect and its variability as important social signals that jointly impact employees’ daily affective reactions and work engagement. Integrating the emotion as social information model and adaptation-level theory, we hypothesized that the impact of daily observed leader affect on employees’ affect and subsequent work engagement is moderated by observed leader affect variability. To test the model, an experience sampling method (ESM) involving two surveys per day over 10 days was employed with a sample of 75 employees. Results indicated that observed leader affect variability weakened the positive relationship between observed leader positive affect and employee work engagement via employee positive affect. Also, observed leader negative affect was negatively related to employee work engagement via employee negative affect, but this indirect effect was not moderated by observed leader affect variability. Our results highlight the critical role of observed leader affect variability in understanding leaders’ affective influence on employee affect and engagement.
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Article
Background Recent theoretical work suggests that self-reflection on daily stressors and the efficacy of coping strategies and resources is beneficial for the enhancement of resilient capacities. However, coping insights emerging from self-reflection, and their relationship to resilient capacities, is an existing gap in our understanding. Objectives Given that insights come in many forms, the objective of this paper is to delineate exemplar coping insights that strengthen the capacity for resilience. Methods After providing an overview of self-reflection and insight, we extend the Systematic Self-Reflection model of resilience strengthening by introducing the Self-Reflection and Coping Insight Framework to articulate how the emergence of coping insights may mediate the relationship between five self-reflective practices and the enhancement of resilient capacities. Results We explore the potential for coping insights to convey complex ideas about the self in the context of stressor exposure, an awareness of response patterns to stressors, and principles about the nature of stress and coping across time and contexts. Conclusions This framework adds to existing scholarship by providing a characterization of how coping insight may strengthen resilient capacities, allowing for a guided exploration of coping insight during future research.
Article
Informational diversity is perceived as the key to improving team creativity. However, alignment along multiple informational diversity attributes, known as information-based faultlines, can both provide diverse knowledge and form subgroup bias. The key to reaping the benefits of information-based faultlines is to understand how to utilize the diversified knowledge and, meanwhile, reduce subgroup bias. This study aims to examine how team leaders’ cognitive reappraisal can play a such role. Based on data from 68 teams, we found that (1) information-based faultlines had a positive effect on knowledge utilization when team leaders’ cognitive reappraisal was high, (2) knowledge utilization had a positive effect on team creativity, and (3) team leaders’ cognitive reappraisal moderated the indirect relationship between information-based faultlines and team creativity through knowledge utilization.
Thesis
ABSTRACT Organizational cognitive neuroscience is defined as appling neuroscientific methods to analyze and understand human behaviour within the applied setting of organizations (Butler and Senior, 2007a: 8). Over the years, the tendency to benefit from developing neuroscientific research strategies is increasing in the analysis of organizational processes. In Turkey, there is very few published study on organizational cognitive neuroscience literature and there are no study considering literature survey and discovering a new field. This thesis study hopes to be an academic guide to the management researchers who desire to include the organizational cognitive neuroscience into their studies. Additonally, it aims to describe the organizational cognitive neuroscience which is a brand new branch in management and to answer the questions of how organizational cognitive neuroscience is defined, what the topics, contributions and methods are. In this study, the contents of 51 English-published articles about organizational cognitive neuroscience are analysed by using the qualitative content analysis. Thoroughly examined articles are gathered around three themes representing the research questions: “Theory and Method”, “Organizational Behaviour”, “Leadership.” The effort for a field definition and different research topics take a large part in the field of organizational cognitive neuroscience in which there is a big divergence about the boundaries. In the theoretical framework, this study provides a synthesis of management literature by exploring the field of organizational cognitive neuroscience that focuses on the underlying causes of human behaviour in the organization. In the practical framework, it points out to management researchers new issues about how to apply neuroscientific knowledge into the work environment.
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Does emotional exhaustion cross over between employees? Departing from the traditional within‐person view, we draw on the crossover model to argue and test an interpersonal model of emotional exhaustion. We conducted a sociocentric social network study in a U.S. construction company and found that employees had similar levels of emotional exhaustion to co‐workers with whom they had interaction and advice ties and structurally equivalent network positions, but that they did not have similar emotional exhaustion to friends or supervisors. We advance scholarly understanding of emotion crossover by theorizing and simultaneously testing important organizationally structured patterns of interaction and transfer previously unexamined, examined only in isolation or examined in a piecemeal manner. Our results highlight the importance of exploring the influence of structural and relational patterns embedded in the organization’s formal and informal structures and provide a theoretical and methodological platform to advance our understanding of crossover, emotional contagion and important outcomes at work.
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Little research in IS has examined the contagion mechanisms of conflicts during IT deployment between organizational members in a network. A focus on an organizational network’s contagion mechanisms is important to anticipate potential contagious conflicts that may lead to the failure of a mutual IT project. The paper delivers the results of a 4-year action research project conducted at a leading French federation of agriculture cooperatives. The study reveals that identifying contagion mechanisms at the very preliminary phases of implementation may be strategic for a successful IT deployment, despite the tools’ imperfections. Destabilizing “automatic” conflict contagion between cooperatives have led to engaging contagious survival mechanisms, limiting conflict contagion and accelerating the tool’s adoption. For IS managers and practitioners, considering conflict contagion in the translation process, one can work to more actively contain and resolve conflicts before they have a chance to affect the rest of the members.
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Abusive supervision is associated with many detrimental consequences. In this theory-review chapter, we extend the abusive supervision literature in two ways. First, we argue that more attention needs to be given to the emotion contagion processes between the leader and followers. More specifically, leaders’ negative affect can lead to followers’ experiences of negative affect, thereby influencing followers’ perception of abusive supervision. Second, we explore how employees draw upon their cognitive prototypes of an ideal leader or Implicit Leadership Theories (ILTs) to evaluate leader behaviors. In this regard, we argue that ILTs can influence the (negative) emotional contagion process between the leaders’ negative affect and followers’ perception of abusive supervision. In our proposed model, leaders’ expressions of negative affect, via emotional contagion, influence followers’ negative affect, perception of abusive supervision, and two behavioral responses: affect- and judgment-driven. The negative emotional contagion process between the leader and followers also differs depending on followers’ susceptibility to emotional contagion and their ILTs. We conclude by discussing the theoretical and practical implications of our model.
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The phenomenon of empathy entails the ability to share the affective experiences of others. In recent years social neuroscience made considerable progress in revealing the mechanisms that enable a person to feel what another is feeling. The present review provides an in-depth and critical discussion of these findings. Consistent evidence shows that sharing the emotions of others is associated with activation in neural structures that are also active during the first-hand experience of that emotion. Part of the neural activation shared between self- and other-related experiences seems to be rather automatically activated. However, recent studies also show that empathy is a highly flexible phenomenon, and that vicarious responses are malleable with respect to a number of factors--such as contextual appraisal, the interpersonal relationship between empathizer and other, or the perspective adopted during observation of the other. Future investigations are needed to provide more detailed insights into these factors and their neural underpinnings. Questions such as whether individual differences in empathy can be explained by stable personality traits, whether we can train ourselves to be more empathic, and how empathy relates to prosocial behavior are of utmost relevance for both science and society.
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I present a multilevel theory of emotion and change, which focuses on attributes of emotional intelligence at the individual level and emotional capability at the organizational level. Emotional intelligence facilitates individual adaptation and change, and emotional capability increases the likelihood for organizations to realize radical change. I also present a mesolevel framework relating emotion-attending behaviors to three dynamics of change: receptivity, mobilization, and learning. These behaviors, which I term emotional dynamics, constitute the organization's emotional capability.
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Reference: Torrente, P., Salanova, M., & Llorens, S. (2013). Spreading engagement: On the role of similarity in the positive contagion of team work engagement. Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 29, 153-159. Emotional contagion theory applied to work and organizations posits that positive emotions are shared among team members, thus enabling them to converge in desirable shared states such as team work engagement. The aim of this study is to analyze how similarity among team members in terms of gender and company tenure is related to convergence in work engagement at the team level. Similarity in terms of gender and company tenure was expected to be positively related with convergence in team work engagement. Hierarchical regression modeling in 161 work teams showed that similarity in terms of gender was positively related to convergence in team work engagement, whereas, unexpectedly, similarity in company tenure was negatively related to convergence in team work engagement.
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Although leadership is fundamentally a social psychological (and group) phenomenon, interest in the social psychology of leadership has waxed and waned over the years. The present article briefly reviews this chequered history and then discusses recent theoretical and empirical developments that extend the study of social cognition and social identity to the domain of leadership. In addition, we consider how the eight empirical articles that constitute this Special Issue relate to, and further, the study of leadership as a group process, and conclude by identifying fertile areas for future research.
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Extraversion is a broad, multifaceted trait, yet researchers are still unsure of its defining characteristics. One possibility is that the essential feature of extraversion is the tendency to enjoy social situations. An alternative possibility is that extraversion represents sensitivity to rewards and the tendency to experience pleasant affect. In three studies, participants rated situations that varied on two dimensions: (a) whether they were social or nonsocial and (b) whether they were very pleasant, moderately pleasant, moderately unpleasant, or very unpleasant. Extraverts only rated social situations more positively than introverts did when the situations were pleasant, and extraverts also rated nonsocial situations more positively than introverts did if the situations were pleasant. Thus, the pleasantness of situations was more important than whether they were social or nonsocial in determining extraverts' and introverts' enjoyment.
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The project aims at an analysis of interactions of personality variables and individual peculiarities of self-regulation of one's voluntary activity. A questionnaire to diagnose individual peculiarities of self-regulation has been developed. It includes the following scales: planning of achievements, modeling of significant achievement conditions, programming of activities and assessment of results, independence and reliability, general level of self-regulation. The results of the study showed a unique finding-the existence of several profiles of self-regulation for extraverts and introverts. Thus, the typical Eysenck classification of personality types has been extended to the emerging domain of self-regulation of voluntary activity.
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The chameleon effect refers to nonconscious mimicry of the postures, mannerisms, facial expressions, and other behaviors of one's interaction partners, such that one's behavior passively rind unintentionally changes to match that of others in one's current social environment. The authors suggest that the mechanism involved is the perception-behavior link, the recently documented finding (e.g., J. A. Bargh, M. Chen, & L. Burrows, 1996) that the mere perception of another' s behavior automatically increases the likelihood of engaging in that behavior oneself Experiment 1 showed that the motor behavior of participants unintentionally matched that of strangers with whom they worked on a task. Experiment 2 had confederates mimic the posture and movements of participants and showed that mimicry facilitates the smoothness of interactions and increases liking between interaction partners. Experiment 3 showed that dispositionally empathic individuals exhibit the chameleon effect to a greater extent than do other people.
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This research presents a "meso" level approach that models charismatic leadership in organizations as a function of contextual factors (such as work unit structure, work group collectivism, and crisis), an issue that has rarely been explored in charismatic leadership research. Data were collected from 596 managers and subordinates embedded in 101 work units in a large, complex organization and were analyzed at the individual, group, and cross-levels of analysis. Results indicate that organic structure and collectivistic cultural orientation were positively associated with the emergence of charismatic leadership, whereas perceptions of crisis were negatively related to charismatic leadership. Further, subordinates' ratings of leader charisma were related to leader ratings of work unit performance. The implications of these results for research and practice are discussed.
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This study examined the effects of vision content, delivery and organizational performance on perceptions of leader charisma and effectiveness. Subjects included 304 undergraduates who were presented videotaped speeches by a bogus CEO of a software company. A 2 × 2 × 2 design was employed in which message content (visionary/non-visionary), delivery (strong/weak), and organizational performance (high/low) were manipulated. A modified, 7-item version of Meindl and Ehrlich's (1988) Romance of Leadership Scale (RLS-D) served as a covariate. A MANCOVA analysis indicated significant effects of delivery, content, and organizational performance on both perceived leader charisma and effectiveness. The RLS-D was unrelated to either dependent variable as a covariate. The results suggest that strength of delivery is an especially important determinant of perceptions' of leader charisma and effectiveness. Although speech content and organizational performance cues likewise accounted for variance in these perceptions, their effects were at times offset by those of delivery.
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Stimulus-response compatibility (SRC)-the fact that some stimulus-response pairs are faster than others-is attributed in part to automatic activation of the stimulus-compatible response representation. Cognitive models of SRC propose that automatic response activation can be strategically suppressed if the automatic response is likely to interfere with behavior; in particular, suppression is thought to occur in preparation for incompatible responses and when the required stimulus-response mapping is unknown before stimulus presentation. We test this preparatory suppression hypothesis in the context of imitation, a special form of SRC particularly relevant to human social behavior. Using TMS, we measured muscle-specific corticospinal excitability during action observation (motor resonance) while human participants prepared to perform imitative and counterimitative responses to action videos. Motor resonance was suppressed during preparation to counterimitate and for unknown mappings, compared to preparation to imitate and a baseline measure of motor resonance. These results provide novel neurophysiological evidence that automatic activation of stimulus-compatible responses can be strategically suppressed when it is likely to interfere with task goals. Insofar as motor resonance measures mirror neuron system activity, these results also suggest that preparatory control of automatic imitative tendencies occurs through modulation of mirror neuron system activity.
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How do followers react to their leaders' emotional expressions, and how do these reactions influence followers' perceptions of their leaders' effectiveness? This research examines cognitive and emotional reactions to leaders' expressions of positive and negative emotions, and demonstrates how these reactions affect perceptions of leadership effectiveness. We show that follower interdependence (dispositional or manipulated) plays an important moderating role in understanding reactions to leaders' emotions. Results of three studies demonstrate that followers not only share their leaders' emotions, but also make attributions about the sincerity of their leaders' intentions, and these attributions affect their perceptions of their leader's effectiveness. Results also demonstrate that interdependent followers are sensitive to leader emotional valence and react more positively to leader positivity; non-interdependent followers do not differentiate positive from negative emotions in their leader. We discuss the implications of our research for the literature on leadership.
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Based on the notion that leadership involves affective exchange (Dasborough, Ashkanasy, Tee & Tse, 2009), we hypothesize that a leader's mood and task performance can be determined in part by follower mood displays. In two laboratory experiments, leaders supervised teams where the team members were confederates instructed to display positive or negative moods. Results were that followers' mood influenced leader mood and task performance. Moreover, leaders of positive mood followers were judged to have performed more effectively and expediently than leaders of followers who expressed negative mood states. We replicated these findings in Study 2 and found further that leaders high on neuroticism performed less effectively than their low neuroticism counterparts when interacting with negative-mood followers. Collectively, by demonstrating that follower moods influence leader affect and behaviors, our studies provide support for a core element of the Dasborough et al. (2009) reciprocal affect theory of leadership.
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Departing from the static perspective of leader charisma that prevails in the literature, we propose a dynamic perspective of charismatic leadership in which group perceptions of leader charisma influence and are influenced by group mood. Based on a longitudinal experimental study conducted for 3 weeks involving 116 intact, self-managing student groups, we found that T1 group perceptions of leader charisma mediate the effect of leader trait expressivity on T2 positive and negative group moods. T2 positive and negative group moods influence T3 distal charisma perceptions by affecting T2 proximal perceptions of leader effectiveness. The current findings offer critical insights into (a) the reciprocal relationship between group perceptions of leader charisma and group mood, (b) the dynamic and transient nature of group perceptions of leader charisma, (c) the importance of understanding negative mood in charismatic leadership, and (d) the mechanism through which charismatic leadership perceptions can be formed and sustained over time.
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We provide an overview of how the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience can be linked to leadership theory and practice. A number of challenges are addressed, including theory development, as well as technical, measurement and methodological issues. In addition, we review recent leadership research that involves neuroscience applications, as well as areas that are closely related to leadership, such as emotional regulation and ethical reasoning and decision-making. Consideration is also given to how neuroscience might inform leadership development processes. We conclude with a discussion of the institutional challenges in conducting leadership research that incorporates neuroscience, and we consider potential limitations of such applications.
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We extended past research on the display of positive emotions within customer service settings by focusing on customer traits. Adopting an emotional contagion perspective, we found that customer traits relate to the display of positive emotions by the service provider. This display of positive emotions was also found to relate to customer satisfaction. Implications for emotion management and service personnel training are discussed.
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This study examined the moderating effects of emotional contagion, including leaders' emotional contagion and subordinates' emotional susceptibility, on the relationship between transformational leadership and subordinates' job involvement. By investigating 210 soldiers from eight companies of the Taiwan Army, a three-way interaction effect was found. For leaders with high emotional contagion, the positive relationship between transformational leadership and subordinates' job involvement was stronger for subordinates' with high (versus low) susceptibility. For leaders with low emotional contagion, no such interaction was found. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research in this area.
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Abstract Affective displays of front-line employees predict beneficial customer reactions, but employees,cannot feel positively at all times. Surface acting (modifying facial expressions) and deep acting (modifying inner feelings) are tested as predictors of emotional exhaustion, and coworker-rated affective service delivery. As predicted by the dramaturgical perspective, surface acting was more detrimental for both stress and service delivery than deep acting, beyond job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Implications for future research and service work are discussed. Submitted as a Research Note 3 “Employers are wise to want workers to be sincere, to go well beyond the smile that’s ‘just painted on’” (Hochschild, 1983: 33). Research has shown that positive affective displays in service interactions, such as smiling and conveying friendliness, predicts important customer outcomes such as the intentions to return, to recommend the store to others, and overall service quality (e.g., Parasuraman, et al., 1985; Pugh, 2001; Tsai, 2001). Service providers do not always feel positively, however, and qualitative research