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In vitro and in vivo Antiviral Potential of Hot Aqueous Extract of Ocimum sanctum and Argemone mexicana Leaves

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Abstract

The present study was undertaken to explore the in vitro antiviral potential of hot aqueous extract (HAE) of Ocimum sanctum (OS) and Argemone mexicana (AM) leaves against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and Infectious bursal disease virus(IBDV) in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell culture. First the nontoxic dose of HAE of OS and AM was determined in CEF. Doses of OS and AM below 20 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL respectively were found to be nontoxic to CEF in RPMI 1640 media. Anti NDV activity was determined by absence/lower cytopathic effect (CPE) in CEF and lower HA titer of cell culture supernatant. Anti IBDV activity was determined by absence/lower CPE in CEF. Besides in vivo antiviral effects of HAE of OS and AM against NDV and IBDV were evaluated in chicken model. 250 mg/kg body weight oral dose of HAE of OS and AM was found ideal and nontoxic in chickens and experimental chickens were fed this dose for 21 days for determination of in vivo antiviral effect. On 22 nd day respective groups of chickens were challenged orally with ID 50 dose of NDV and IBDV. OS and AM fed chickens challenged with either of the virus were better protected as compared to unfed controls.

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