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BIM USE IN ADVANCED PREFABRICATED MODULAR CONSTRUCTION

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The prefabrication and modularization is a technique used in the construction of building units in the offshore site for the better quality and quicker construction of the building. BIM acts as a key integrant for the production, execution, and development of the prefabricated building panels. BIM acts as a barrier for the huge quantities construction waste produced. BIM also helps the reusing and recycling of the construction waste produced. The key factors of the construction are money, machinery, manpower, materials and time which can be effectively utilized by using BIM. BIM also helps to eradicate the skill shortage, constructional waste, slow progress of pace. BIM helps in reducing the number of change orders, better end installation results, minimizing the delays and high-quality as-build drawings increase productivity and quality of work. The prefabrication and modularization also increase the safety of the site as most it constructed in controlled environments.
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BIM USE IN ADVANCED PREFABRICATED MODULAR CONSTRUCTION
LINGA NAREN CHANDRA
Graduate student, Civil Environmental and Sustainable Engineering (MSE), Ira A.
Fulton Schools of Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ; PH (480) 335
1717; email id nlinga@asu.edu
ABSTRACT
The prefabrication and modularization is a technique used in the construction
of building units in the offshore site for the better quality and quicker construction of
the building. BIM acts as a key integrant for the production, execution, and
development of the prefabricated building panels. BIM acts as a barrier for the huge
quantities construction waste produced. BIM also helps the reusing and recycling of
the construction waste produced. The key factors of the construction are money,
machinery, manpower, materials and time which can be effectively utilized by using
BIM. BIM also helps to eradicate the skill shortage, constructional waste, slow progress
of pace. BIM helps in reducing the number of change orders, better end installation
results, minimizing the delays and high-quality as-build drawings increase productivity
and quality of work. The prefabrication and modularization also increase the safety of
the site as most it constructed in controlled environments.
INTRODUCTION
Any type of project can be benefitted from the prefabrication of any scale
depending on the type of project. But the complex projects will be benefitted more
from the prefabrication and modularization of the project. The prefabricated projects
are often managed by the contractors, project managers, civil engineers where they
prefabricate the plumbing, electrical and mechanical equipment, which can be
delivered to the job site and can be installed by the contractors when they are at a
requirement.
The working environment where the prefabrication has to be done in a close
encounter with architect, engineers, construction professionals, contractors and traders
at the conceptual design stage and the entire construction. The work processes will
need to be more collaborative than the traditional process of handing over contract
documents at specific points during the design but not leaving only to the construction
team. The controlled environment and schedule time savings of prefabrication allow
us to create the assemblies and products in a more effective and economical way, which
in turn shortens the installation time in the site. Prefabrication may able to produce an
ecologically more efficient house.
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BIM
The Building Information Model is a three-dimensional digital representation
of a building and essential characteristics of a building. BIM is made of intelligent
building components which include data attributes and primary rules for each element.
For example, a door of certain material and dimension is primarily related to a wall.
Moreover, BIM provides continuous and coordinated views and also representations
of the digital model including reliable data for each section and view. BIM saves a lot
of designer’s time since each view is coordinated through the built-in intelligence of
the model of buildings. According to the National BIM Standards, Building
Information Model is “a digital representation of physical, mechanical and functional
characteristics of a facility and a knowledge resource for information about a facility
forming a reliable basis for decisions during its life-cycle from starting to ending of the
project.
BIM is a technology tool for interdisciplinary coordination platform that
bridges communication gaps between architects, designers, and builders. BIM as a
data-rich models can also be used as a key role in enhancing the integration of the
design and construction. Designers developing a project in a 3-D digital environment
with multiple engineering consultants like electrical mechanical and structural
engineers to coordinate and collaborating in this environment. Many clashes and issues
can be resolved in a 3-D digital world rather than in the field, where modifications can
waste time and money. Now there is an opportunity existing twice build a 3-D virtual
building and another building on the construction site. BIM allowing us to coordinate
for the first time, enhancing the real build to be more economical, efficient and
effective. The collaboration enhances accuracy, speed and improves adherence to
money and schedule, and increases productivity rapidly.
Figure 1 Modular vs Traditional Construction
PRE-FABRICATION
The term prefabrication is a two word symbolizing of the pre and fabrication
where pre denotes the production of the building components initially and fabrication
denotes the establishment of the building components into building at the site for
accelerated building construction. Where the modules are the components like walls
panels and sheets comprises of a room or a bathroom utilizing the benefit of the
prefabrication
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There are four different categories of Off-Site fabrication, they are component
systems, volumetric systems, penalized systems, and modular systems.
The main advantages of the prefabrication of the modules helps in the construction
by using BIM are
1. Faster assembly of units
2. Factory fitted units enhances quality of the product
3. Less construction time
4. Its weather prone as the building units are constructed under controlled
conditions
5. The construction can be continued in the extreme heat and cold conditions
6. The quality can be checked at any time
7. Cost effective methods
8. Environmental friendly like less noise and pollution at the construction site
9. Low energy consumption
10. Good designing probabilities
11. Increased safety in the construction site
12. Reduction of the constructional waste at the construction site
13. Cheaper labor costs.
Figure 2 Benefits of off-site Manufacturing
The main disadvantages of the prefabricated of the modules in the building
construction are as follows
1. Leaks at joints in the prefabricated modules
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2. Higher transportation cost for the prefabricated components to transport to the
construction site
3. The large prefabricated components need large cranes at the construction site
for reinstalling and placing of the components in the place
4. Same type of components in the set of building make the user monotonous
about it.
BIM IN PREFABRICATION
They can resolve using BIM using the design collaboration and better design
of the building for the exact sizes and spacing of the components
For example, the images given below have been taken from the source of the DPR
construction site and illustrates how the 3-D modelling (BIM) is helping to understand
the building and designing the prefabricated and modular panels for the building site.
Figure 3 differentiation between 3-D vs Real world
BIM helps in analyzing the exact data of the site with the collaboration and gives to
the traders the exact measurement of the modules needed to the sub-contractor for the
prefabrication of the modules the exact measurements for the onsite building. BIM
helps to fit the exact measurement of modules so that there will be no leakages and
gives a perfect fitting into the building.
BIM allows for a real time problem that is the transportation in a constraint space.
It allows the transportation to be feasible in a little space for the modules they can be
viewed in 3d model and can set the modules in place to have a maximum efficiency.
The transportation of modules will be having a higher efficiency with using BIM and
the problem can be addressed carefully
The major drawback in the prefabrication is lack of responsibility. The modules
made in one part of the country are transported to the other part of the country, which
makes it a problem for inspecting the materials during the offsite construction of
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materials. These factors lead to the problem of the structural failures .but these problem
can be rectified by proper surveillance of the off-site construction using the proper
utilization of BIM by monitoring using video cameras and giving the correct
instructions and measurements to the modules through the integration of BIM
methodology.
Another large problem that is the need for the large cranes that can be minimized
by the utilizing of the small cranes by small parts the utilization can be monitored by
the efficient monitoring of the cranes and the reachability of the cranes for knowing
the exact radius of the crane to the fullest utilization of the crane reachability.
The same type of building not to be monotonous can be modified by giving the
different sizes and colors in BIM to be colorful, pleasant and unique. The wastage of
the wrongly prefabricated elements can be reduced or eliminated if it is well used by
the integration BIM methodology for the correspondence and integration it into the
prefabrication and modularization of the building components.
Prefabrication requires design and field accurate measurements. BIM can provide
this level accuracy by including the specifications and 3D visual for each component.
However, the designing team must make sure that BIM is interoperable with the
software used by prefabrication. This way the contractors can use BIM and generate
details for the product in their prefabrication software. Once the detailing is approved,
the products can be prefabricated using Computer operated machines. The construction
managers must check the procurement schedule of the products. Overall, the
prefabricated product must be delivered to the job site on time.
Complex steel connections generated in BIM can be welded offsite. The welding of
the complex elements in advance can save time and money. However, BIM helps to
timely modify designs to eliminate or reduce the use of beam clashes that may result
from MEP clashes. A few beam clashes may become unavoidable for complex project.
A good coordination of these clashes with BIM technology helps in determining the
beam penetration locations and fabricate them in offsite. Prefabricated beam
penetrations would save a lot of time, money and effort in comparison to onsite beam
penetrations. However, roof penetrations for concrete rooftops should be covered prior
to concrete pour at the roof level. These penetrations can be coordinated with BIM
when the consulting personnel who are on the project.
Curtain wall systems panelized or stick system can be using BIM to prefabricate
parts and components. Walls, rooms, and houses can be virtually designed and
constructed with BIM. These walls, rooms, and houses can be prefabricated with
mechanical, electrical and plumbing components. MEP connections can be done once
the prefabricated components are assembled at the construction site.
BIM is used to enhancing the information exchange of the different products
between personnel. Moreover, it is used to virtually coordinate the location and routing
of the products produced. Based on the information processed, the products can be
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detailed using the fabrication technology. Once the material is prefabricated and arrives
on site, the supervisor of the specialty trade coordinates with the general manager to
ensure that he is making the virtual design and construction a reality.
PRE-FABRICATION AND MODULARIZATION TRENDS
The following survey gave the results for the impact of the
prefabrication/modularization on the project schedule decreased by sixty-six
percentages. The survey results are taken from the construction companies over a
period of the past seven years and is conducted by the McGraw-Hill Construction.
Figure 4 impact of Prefabrication/Modularization on project schedule
The following survey gave the results for the impact of the
prefabrication/modularization on the project Budget decreased by sixty-five
percentages. The survey results are taken from the construction companies over a
period of the past seven years and is conducted by the McGraw-Hill Construction.
Figure 5 impact of Prefabrication/Modularization on project Budget
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The following survey gave the results for the impact of the
prefabrication/modularization on the project Material use decreased significantly more
than six percentage by twenty-seven percentages. The survey results are taken from the
construction companies over a period of the past seven years and is conducted by the
McGraw-Hill Construction 2011.
Figure 6 impact of Prefabrication/Modularization on project Material use
The following survey gave the results for the impact of the
prefabrication/modularization on the project modularization of site safety were
improved by thirty-four percentages. The survey results are taken from the construction
companies over a period of the past seven years and is conducted by the McGraw-Hill
Construction 2011.
Figure 7 impact of Prefabrication/Modularization on Site safety
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The following survey gave the results for the impact of the
prefabrication/modularization on the purchase and installation prices are lowered by
forty-seven percentages. The survey results are taken from the construction companies
over a period of the past seven years and is conducted by the McGraw-Hill
Construction 2011.
Figure 8 impact of Prefabrication/Modularization on Purchase and Material Use
The percentage of respondents using the prefabrication/modularization are as
follows when the survey done by the McGraw-Hill in 2011.
Figure 9 percentage of Respondents Using prefabrication/Modularization
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The following survey clearly states by using BIM in the prefabrication and
modularization that there is an increase in the productivity and safety in the site,
decrease in the project schedule and the cost by a significant number.
These numbers are generated by surveying a group of 800 people from various groups
of engineers, architects, designers for a time frame from 2004 to 2011.
CONCLUSION
The 3D BIM coordination is being utilized to detect and eliminate clashes and
conflicts. In addition to them, detailed prefabrication drawings can be produced to
review and coordinate work between trades. Once the drawings are produced for the
prefabrication components they can start the production of the components in large
scale.
Construction industry is keeping up with technology and innovation once led
by manufacturing industry. BIM and its tools are becoming widely adopted. BIM
utilizes coordination, construction and prefabrication make construction projects more
economical, efficient and achieves green building objectives. In other words, BIM
provides time and cost savings and yields better quality construction products. Overall,
BIM use in PREFABRICATION is a great concept, but BIM tools are not perfect and
require improvements.
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REFERENCES:
1. http://www.modular.org/marketing/documents/Whitepaper_ImprovingConstr
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2. http://construction.com/market_research/freereport/prefabsmr/
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remove-waste-and-save-money/
4. http://www.div15mechanical.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/UBC-DIV-15-
Productivity-Study-with-Executive-Summary.pdf
5. https://mclachlanlister.wordpress.com/tag/bim/
6. http://www.dodge.construction.com/Analytics/marketdynamics/2011/jul_feat
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7. Offsite manufacturing construction: a big opportunity for housing delivery in
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11. BENEFITS OF BUILDING INFORMATION MODELING FOR
CONSTRUCTION MANAGER AND BIM BASED SCHEDULING By
Mehmet F. Hergunsel
12. BIM Standard in Off-Site Construction BY Nawari O. Nawari, Ph.D., P.E.,
M.ASC
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