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Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) Manual

Authors:
  • Deacon Hill Research Associates LLC

Abstract

This is the user manual for the MSLQ. The MSLQ is in the public domain, and so you do not need permission to use the instrument. We do ask that you simply cite it appropriately (Pintrich, P.R., Smith, D.A.F., García, T., & McKeachie, W.J. (1991). A manual for the use of the motivated strategies questionnaire (MSLQ). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, National Center for Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning.). If you have any questions, please email mslq@umich.edu.
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... Considering the fact Nigerian secondary school students are highly prone to performance attrition in mathematics (Zakariya, Ibrahim, & Adisa, 2016) coupled with cultural sensitivity of personal factors such as motivation, one may argue that the motivation scales developed elsewhere could lack validity and reliability in the Nigerian context. As such, with a reliance on self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985a, 1985b and on relevant literature (e.g., Keller, 1987;Pintrich, Smith, Duncan, & Mckeachie, 1991), the present study is aimed at developing a measure that exposes motivation to learning mathematics with a focus on secondary school students in Nigeria. ...
... Another omnibus instrument designed to expose motivation is the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ). This instrument was developed by Pintrich et al. (1991) and has been adapted and validated by researchers in different countries. Some of the countries are Turkey (e.g., Karadeniz, Büyüköztürk, Akgün, Çakmak, & Demirel, 2008), Hong Kong (e.g., Lee, Yin, & Zhang, 2010), Czech Republic (e.g., Jakešová & Hrbáčková, 2014), and Pakistan (e.g., Nausheen, 2016). ...
... MSLQ is made up of two subscales: motivation and learning strategies. Both the motivation and the learning strategies subscales have several sub-components with evidence of construct validity and internal consistency of its items (Pintrich et al., 1991). ...
... The theories of SRL can help us understand the impact of BL strategies on student learning and can help us improve our delivery of the course material. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) is a validated questionnaire that has been used for SRL since 1991 [11,12]. It is commonly used to help find the relationship between the learner and educator, in relation to their learning technique and strategy in SRL [13]. ...
... Following drafting of the items, Face Validity of the questionnaire was evaluated by students who participated in the FGDs to ensure that items addressed the areas identified in the FGD and clearly reflected what was previously discussed. The items were also validated using Convergent Validation with the MSLQ [11,12]. The BLQ questionnaire contained 19 items adopting a 7-point Likert scale (1= not at all true of me to 7=very true of me), similar to the validated and extensively used MSLQ. ...
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Background A blended learning environment is multifaceted and widely used in medical education. However, there is no validated instrument for exploring students’ learning in a blended learning environment in medical programs. This study aimed to develop and validate an instrument for exploring how medical students learn in an undergraduate medical program that employs a blended learning approach. Method Using Artino’s seven step approach, we developed a questionnaire to investigate how medical students learn in a blended learning environment. For pilot testing, 120 students completed this 19-item questionnaire. These 19-items were evaluated for construct and convergent validity across an expert medical education panel. Further item testing was analysed with principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation for item reduction and factor estimation. Hence, validity was thoroughly addressed to ensure the questionnaire was representative of the key focus questions. Cronbach’s Alpha was used for item reliability testing, and Spearman’s Rho was used for the correlation between the questionnaire items and the extensively used MSLQ. Hence, validity and reliability were systematically addressed. Results Exploratory Factor analysis identified four factors F1 and F3: Resources: Accessibility & Guidance (14-items), F2: Learning behaviours: Social and Contextual (5-items), and F4: Motivational factors: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation (4-items). Internal consistency and reliability tests were satisfactory (Cronbach’s Alpha ranged from 0.764 to 0.770). Conclusions The resulting Blended Learning Questionnaire (BLQ) was determined to be a reliable instrument to explore undergraduate medical students’ learning in a blended learning environment.
... We use the MSLQ questionnaire which was developed in 1991 [8] and validated in different countries [9,10]. The students average time for answering the questionnaire was 25 min to responded to the nine scales of the MSLQ self-report questionnaire [11] consist of questions related to Task Value, Self-Efficacy for Learning and Performance, Anxiety, thinking, Repetition, Elaboration, Organization, Metacognition, Stage and Learning Environment Management, and Effort Regulation [12]. A common instrument is often used to assess fifteen different scales related to components of motivation and self-regulated learning strategy use. ...
... MSLQ manual is divided into two main categories so, We also described the results maintaining the same distinction between sections of Cognitive Learning Strategies and Motivation Strategies, by analysing the sub-scale scores according to the grouping of scales proposed by the authors [12]. ...
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Objective: Motivation is one of the most integral components of learning. It is influenced by the student's personality, capabilities, talent, capacities, aptitudes, interests, behaviour, knacks, teachers' behaviors, and environment. In our current we checked the potential of students by using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) from online learning during the Covid-19 Pandemic. Method: A modified pre-structured, valid, and reliable questionnaire MSLQ was used to access the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, Task value, self-efficacy for learning and performance, test anxiety, rehearsal, elaboration, cognition, metacognition, different types of resources management, academic year, and gender. The Cronbach alpha of multiple strategies of MSLQ is, ranging from .52 to .93. Results: This Descriptive Cross-sectional study was conducted at CMH Lahore Medical College from June 2021 to July 2021. Out of 121 students, 38.8% were male and 61.2% were female. First-year students were responded 55% and seniors' students 45%. MSLQ motivation items evidenced mean scores between 4.79 ± 1.39 and 5.47 ± 1.39, while MSLQ learning strategy items, mean scores ranged between 4.51 ± 1.66 and 5.45 ± 1.55. Conclusion: These results are also dependent on intrinsic factors such as one's effort, as opposed to external factors such as the teacher.
... Effort/Regulation scale describes the extent to which students can control their effort and attention in the face of distractions and uninteresting tasks. For example, one of the items on the scale is formulated: "I work hard to do well in this class even if I do not like what we are doing") The items on the scale were randomized, and respondents were required to answer each item on a 7-point scale ranging from 1 (not at all true for me) to 7 (very true for me) (Duncan et al. 2015). ...
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This dissertation addresses decreased academic participation, low engagement and poor experience as issues often related to students’ retention in online learning courses. The issues were identified at the Department of Computer Science at RWTH Aachen University, Germany, although high dropout rates are a growing problem in Computer Science studies worldwide. A solving approach often used in addressing the before mentioned problems includes gamification and personalization techniques: Gamification is a process of applying game design principles in serious contexts (i.e., learning), while personalization refers to tailoring the context to users’ needs and characteristics. In this work, the two techniques are used in combination in the Personalized Gamification Model (PeGaM), created for designing an online course for learning programming languages. PeGaM is theoretically grounded in the principles of the Gamified Learning Theory and the theory of learning tendencies. Learning tendencies define learners’ preferences for a particular form of behavior, and those behaviors are seen as possible moderators of gamification success. Moderators are a concept explained in the Gamified Learning Theory, and refer to variables that can influence the impact of gamification on the targeted outcomes. Gamification success is a measure of the extent to which students behave in a manner that leads to successful learning. The conceptual model of PeGaM is an iterative process in which learning tendencies are used to identify students who are believed to be prone to avoid certain activities. Gamification is then incorporated in activities that are recognized as ‘likely to be avoided’ to produce a specific learning-related behavior responsible for a particular learning outcome. PeGaM model includes five conceptual steps and 19 design principles required for gamification of learning environments that facilitate student engagement, participation and experience. In practice, PeGaM was applied in an introductory JavaScript course with Bachelor students of Computer Science at RWTH Aachen University. The investigation was guided by the principles of the Design-Based Research approach. Through this approach, PeGaM was created, evaluated and revised, over three iterative cycles. The first cycle had an explorative character, included one control and one treatment group, and gathered 124 participants. The second and third cycle were experimental studies, in which 69 and 171 participants were randomly distributed along one control and two treatment groups. Through the three interventions, mixed methods were used to capture students’ academic participation (a measure of students’ online behavior in the course collected through activity logs), engagement (evaluated quantitatively through a questionnaire compiled to measure behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement), and gameful experience (quantitative measure of students’ experience with the gamified system). In addition, supporting data was collected through semi-structured interviews and open-ended survey questions. The empirical findings revealed that gamification with PeGaM contributes to learning outcomes and that the success of gamification is conditioned by the applicability of game elements with learners’ preferences and learning activities. Cross case comparisons supported the application of PeGaM design principles and demonstrated its potential. Even though limited support was found to confirm the moderating role of learners’ learning tendencies, the study demonstrated that the gamification of learning activities that students are likely to avoid can increase their participation - but must be carefully designed. Most importantly, it has been shown that educational gamification can support and enhance learning-related behavior but require relevant and meaningful learning activities in combination with carefully considered reward, collaborative and feedback mechanisms. The study provides practical and theoretical insights but also highlights challenges and limitations associated with personalized gamification thus offers suggestions for further investigation.
...  After the Test scenario the trainees inscribed an online 7-point Likert questionnaire with the Self-efficacy for Learning and Performance (SELP) scale of the Motivated Strategies for Self-regulatory Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) (Duncan et al., 2015). The 8-items of the SELP were calculated to a factor average to capture the level of self-efficacy related to the training. ...
... First, to identify learners' learning tendencies, the Index of Learning Style questionnaire [39] was integrated into the course as a Moodle LMS plugin [40]. For the students' engagement, we created a self-reporting instrument combining behavioral engagement scales from the Student Engagement Questionnaire (SEQ) [41], emotional and cognitive engagement scales from the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) [42], and cognitive engagement scale from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) [43]. The behavioral engagement was assessed with the Online Active (OA) scale that measures how actively students use online learning systems to enhance their learning, and Online Engagement (OE) scale measures the degree to which students have applied the e-learning system into their academic performance studies. ...
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The Gamified Learning Theory implies that gamification does not affect learning directly but stimulates a learning-related behavior in a mediating or moderating process. A learner-related behavior can, to some extent, be predicted based on the way learners tend to perceive, understand and utilize information. These different ways of learning are known as learning tendencies. This study investigates the moderator role of learning tendencies on gamification success concerning learners' academic participation, engagement, and experience. For this, Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model is used for the identification of learners' tendencies. In our study, 69 Computer Science students were randomly assigned to one control and two treatment groups. Students in the treatment groups were assigned two different gamified courses, while the control group attended a non-gamified course. This allowed us to analyze the individual effect of each gamification design and compare and see which gamification design was more appropriate for a learner with particular tendencies. Our results indicate that gamification design positively contributes to academic participation, affects learners' engagement in gamified environments, and that students' learning tendencies moderated students' engagement.
... These include: i) implicit motor imagery performance, assessed via left/right judgement tasks (accuracy and response time) for images of feet and of hands (control) [84] using the Recognise App (NOIgroup Pty Ltd) on an iPad; ii) tactile acuity at the knee assessed using callipers to determine the two-point discrimination threshold at the medial knee [85]; iii) abstract OA pain conceptualisation as assessed using an OA pain drawing task whereby participants are asked to draw their understanding of OA and why it hurts; iv) Self-regulated learning ability, assessed using 7 items from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire [86], with items rated on a 7-point Likert scale from "Not true at all for me" to "Very true for me". ...
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Background Despite well-established benefits of physical activity for knee osteoarthritis (OA), nine of ten people with knee OA are inactive. People with knee OA who are inactive often believe that physical activity is dangerous, fearing that it will further damage their joint(s). Such unhelpful beliefs can negatively influence physical activity levels. We aim to evaluate the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of integrating physiotherapist-delivered pain science education (PSE), an evidence-based conceptual change intervention targeting unhelpful pain beliefs by increasing pain knowledge, with an individualised walking, strengthening, and general education program. Methods Two-arm, parallel-design, multicentre randomised controlled trial involving 198 people aged ≥50 years with painful knee OA who do not meet physical activity guideline recommendations or walk regularly for exercise. Both groups receive an individualised physiotherapist-led walking, strengthening, and OA/activity education program via 4x weekly in-person treatment sessions, followed by 4 weeks of at-home activities (weekly check-in via telehealth), with follow-up sessions at 3 months (telehealth) and 5 and 9 months (in-person). The EPIPHA-KNEE group also receives contemporary PSE about OA/pain and activity, embedded into all aspects of the intervention. Outcomes are assessed at baseline, 12 weeks, 6 and 12 months. Primary outcomes are physical activity level (step count; wrist-based accelerometry) and self-reported knee symptoms (WOMAC Total score) at 12 months. Secondary outcomes are quality of life, pain intensity, global rating of change, self-efficacy, pain catastrophising, depression, anxiety, stress, fear of movement, knee awareness, OA/activity conceptualisation, and self-regulated learning ability. Additional measures include adherence, adverse events, blinding success, COVID-19 impact on activity, intention to exercise, treatment expectancy/perceived credibility, implicit movement/environmental bias, implicit motor imagery, two-point discrimination, and pain sensitivity to activity. Cost-utility analysis of the EPIPHA-KNEE intervention will be undertaken, in addition to evaluation of cost-effectiveness in the context of primary trial outcomes. Discussion We will determine whether the integration of PSE into an individualised OA education, walking, and strengthening program is more effective than receiving the individualised program alone. Findings will inform the development and implementation of future delivery of PSE as part of best practice for people with knee OA. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12620001041943 (13/10/2020).
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between self-regulated learning skills and smartphone usage in relation to studying. It is unclear whether poor learning habits related to smartphone usage are unique traits or a reflection of existing self-regulated learning skills. The self-regulatory skills (a) regulation, (b) knowledge, and (c) management of cognition were measured and compared to the smartphone practices (a) multitasking, (b) avoiding distractions, and (c) mindful use. First-year undergraduates (n = 227) completed an online survey of self-regulatory skills and common phone practices. The results support the predictions that self-regulatory skills are negatively correlated with multitasking while studying and are positively correlated with distraction avoidance and mindful use of the phone. The management of cognition factor, which includes effort, time, and planning, was strongly correlated with multitasking (r = −0.20) and avoiding distractions (r = 0.45). Regulation of cognition was strongly correlated with mindful use (r = 0.33). These results support the need to consider the relationship between self-regulation and smartphone use as it relates to learning.
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The primary purpose of this research is to investigate students’ perceptions of the presence of transparency in their university teaching/learning processes. Effects of transparency in achievement, motivation, and anxiety were explored from the perspective of teachers’, one’s own, and peers’ behaviour. The secondary objective of the study was to create a valid tool for investigating “transparency” perception in university educational practices, based on the theoretical assumption that transparency reduces performance anxiety, stimulates study motivation, and represents a universal construct across universities, countries, cultures and courses of study. A sample of 439 undergraduates from leading research universities in Russia and Italy completed self-report scales and reported demographic data. The scales showed internal consistency and structural invariance in both countries. Research results confirmed the hypothesis from which the investigation originated. Based on the findings, essential tips for future investigations of transparency perception at universities have been developed.
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Introduction Appropriate anatomy education for speech and language therapists is a crucial part of preparation for clinical practice. While much research has been conducted regarding the anatomical education of medical students, there is a paucity of evidence for speech and language therapy students. Materials and Methods This study assessed the methods employed by a cohort of first year speech and language therapy students to learn anatomy, their perceptions of the clinical importance of anatomy and motivation to learn anatomy (using a modified version of the motivation strategies for learning questionnaire) and how this related to potential barriers to motivation such as mental well-being (using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS). Results Analysis revealed that 92% of students agreed or strongly agreed that a sound knowledge of anatomy is important for clinical practice, 74% agreed or strongly agreed that listening at lectures was how they primarily learned anatomy, and 91% of students agreed or strongly agreed that they worried a great deal about tests. The latter statement was negatively correlated with a number of statements on the WEMWBS. Conclusions Overall, the data revealed that first year speech and language therapy students place importance on anatomy and its role in their future clinical practice, that they have different preferences for learning anatomy compared to medical students, and also have significant anxiety surrounding anatomy examinations. Multiple significant correlations between responses to the motivation and mental well-being questionnaires suggests that there is a significant relationship between first-year student motivation to learn anatomy and well-being. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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A correlational study examined relationships between motivational orientation, self-regulated learning, and classroom academic performance for 173 seventh graders from eight science and seven English classes. A self-report measure of student self-efficacy, intrinsic value, test anxiety, self-regulation, and use of learning strategies was administered, and performance data were obtained from work on classroom assignments. Self-efficacy and intrinsic value were positively related to cognitive engagement and performance. Regression analyses revealed that, depending on the outcome measure, self-regulation, self-efficacy, and test anxiety emerged as the best predictors of performance. Intrinsic value did not have a direct influence on performance but was strongly related to self-regulation and cognitive strategy use, regardless of prior achievement level. The implications of individual differences in motivational orientation for cognitive engagement and self-regulation in the classroom are discussed.
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Contemporary teaching is concerned not only with imparting knowledge but with developing skills and strategies for further learning. This article describes issues related to the teaching of learning strategies in the context of evaluating an introductory cognitive psychology course. The course is intended to teach both the concepts of cognitive psychology and their application to learning strategies. The evaluation revealed substantial success in affecting students' self-reported study habits and modest success in affecting achievement in later semesters. An Attribute x Treatment interaction revealed that students high in anxiety were particularly helped by the course.
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Teaching students to be life-long learners is an important goal of higher education. Students need to be taught explicitly how to use learning strategies to achieve this goal. We have designed a course to teach college students a variety of learning strategies. The course provides instruction in theory and research in cognitive psychology and in the application of learning strategies for studying. Topics covered include learning from lectures, texts, and discussions; memory models and strategies; motivation; writing skills; test-taking strategies; problem solving; and self-management. The course promises to be a useful approach to teaching learning strategies.
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LISREL: Analysis of linear structural relationships by the method of maximum likelihood: User's guide
  • K G Joreskog
  • D Sorbom
Joreskog, K.G., & Sorbom, D. (1986). LISREL: Analysis of linear structural relationships by the method of maximum likelihood: User's guide. Mooresville, IN: Scientific Software Inc.