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English Language Teaching in the post method era

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Historically, English Language Teaching (ELT) methodologies have evolved from a constricted methodology-based to a complex post-method instructional practice. Several methodologies and approaches to ELT have been designed and applied in language classrooms worldwide, and while often successful, several challenges have emerged, possibly due to their limitation in nature. In my personal relection as an English teacher, while ELT methodologies still have their place in language classrooms, several other aspects must be considered in language learning. In this article, I will provide a brief introduction of ELT issues as a preamble to discuss what I find the most critical aspects of language teaching in the post-method era. A metaphor will also be introduced to illustrate the argument that knowledge of teaching methodologies merged with an awareness of the aspects discussed are vital for anyone who wishes to become an English language teacher in the post-method era.
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... Another conception of post-method pedagogy is the attempt of teachers to make necessary adjustments and modifications to an already-established method, with the realities of their local contexts, in order to recreate those methods as their own (Richard and Rodgers, 2001, p.251). Galante (2014) explained that the shift from a methodology-based to a postmethod instructional practice demands the involvement of teachers and learners as key players in the construction of knowledge. Instead of choosing strategies from several different methods, teachers invite learners to embark on a journey where their contexts, identities, affective and cognitive variables merge with critical practices in ELT. ...
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This chapter makes the claim that English Language Heads of Departments are best suited to lead transition efforts from a traditional to a post-method pedagogy Department of English. It claims that though they are lacking some requisite competencies, skills, and disposition to do so successfully, special training preparation to undertake this mobilization could have a positive impact. It gives a brief overview of the dynamics of HODs' operational context and illustrates why these heads are best suited to influence their department members' embrace of the post-method paradigm. Additionally, it will also discuss some of the challenges that these department heads could encounter during the transition period and ways to resolve them. Finally, it will recommend a theoretical training framework of support to bridge the gap of skills, competencies, and dispositions to make them more suited to aid transition to post-method departments.
... As a result, most of them must either devise a way to work with these students themselves, or follow the recommended procedure laid out by the government (de Schonewise & Klingner, 2012). Until recently, teaching English as a second language was considered to be a one-size-fits-all approach, without consideration of the students' L1s, their ages, or their cultural experiences (Galante, 2014). This onesize-fits-all belief, combined with the idea that these emergent bilinguals are really just "two monolinguals in one," often leads state administrators to choose immersive English environments for their students as they assume it would be the most effective way to teach (Grosjean, 2006). ...
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This article reviews commonly accepted pedagogical practices for educating school-age English language learners, especially those whose first language is Spanish, and challenges these practices on the basis of results from psycholinguistics research that cast doubt on the assumptions underlying them. Policymakers and educators have different ideas about the best methods to teach these students; to a large extent, opinions from both sides are swayed by cultural beliefs, including the idea that children benefit more from language learning when they do not use their languages together in the same context (e.g., in a classroom setting; Petitto et al., 2001; Grosjean, 2006), or that they are delayed when they learn 2 languages simultaneously (Chiocca, 1998; Watson, 1996). But this assumption is undermined by experimental findings showing that second-language learners actually benefit when they use their first language to bootstrap learning of their target language (August, Carlo, Dressler, & Snow, 2005; Dressler, Carlo, Snow, August, & White, 2011; Proctor, August, Carlo, & Snow, 2006). Moreover, recent studies show that mixed-language settings, as compared to single-language settings, do not negatively impact learning outcomes in various academic subjects (Antón, Thierry, & Duñabeitia, 2015; Antón, Thierry, Goborov, Anasagasti, & Duñabeitia, 2016). We discuss evidence that bilinguals’ 2 language systems are frequently coactive via shared representations, and how such interconnectedness can bootstrap language learning without poorly affecting scholastic achievement. In addition, we propose research-based alternatives to common pedagogical practices that would exploit similarities between vocabulary in the first and second language.
... One example is the inclusion of listening materials with speakers from English-speaking countries such as Jamaica, New Zealand, Singapore, and Tanzania, as well as speakers of English from non-English speaking countries such as Korea, Spain and Russia. It is important to note that teaching methodologies such as Communicative Original Article Galante, A. | Intercultural Communicative Competence ... Language Teaching (CLT), Task-based Learning (TBL), and the Audiolingual Method 2 , among others, still have a place in the English classroom; however, other factors such as awareness of people's identities and the sociocultural context are also critical dimensions (Galante, 2014a). These concepts are integral to ICC and its five "knowledges". ...
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While the use of appropriate linguistic items is essential for successful communication in any language, sociocultural factors also play an important role. Intercultural communicative competence is one dimension of sociocultural awareness that has been recognized as integral for communicative competence, but its practical application remains a challenge, possibly due to the fact that language educators tend to have more knowledge about the target language than its related cultural aspects (Celce-Murcia, 2007). While cultural references are, even if implicitly, prevalent in textbooks, teacher discourse, and the media, they are often reduced to " American " or " British " while the culture of speakers of English from many other countries, including Brazil, are often ignored. Another important dimension that positively affects language and cultural learning is the representation of one's identity (Norton, 2013). In this sense, implementing intercultural communicative competence (ICC) in English Language Teaching (ELT) allows learners to express their identities while engaging in meaningful discussions about cultural views. This article provides a brief overview of communicative competence and draws on Byram's (1997) model of ICC to suggest pedagogical applications aimed at validating student identity in English language classes, particularly but not exclusively, in Brazil.
... For the purposes of this project, focusing on a particular dominant culture would not be suitable, given that the nature of both the EAL classroom and the Canadian context are multicultural. In an earlier article (Galante, 2014a), I argued that cultural awareness is integral to language teaching in the 21st century and that interculturality is one important dimension necessary for communicative competence. ...
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Language and culture are informally integrated in many English as an Additional Language (EAL) programs, but cultural discussions are often regarded from the perspective of a particular dominant culture. Although this integration is crucial for the development of communicative competence, practical applications are still challenging as language teachers tend to know more about linguistic items than cultural aspects (Celce-Murcia, 2007). This article describes a digital literacy project implemented with language learners in an adult EAL program. Using Bennett's (1993) DMIS model for intercultural sensitivity, the project invited international students and newcomers to Canada to explore and expand on their understanding of intercultural relationships while studying in a multicultural EAL class. The learners engaged in 5 steps to complete the project (reflective discussion, script writing, video recording scenes, editing, and final reflection), with a short movie serving as the digital product. The digital literacy project is proposed as a potential tool for integrating intercultural sensitivity into EAL programs and engaging learners in discussions about diversity in cultural values, beliefs, and behaviours as a way to affirm their cultural and inter-cultural identities. Alors que plusieurs programmes d'anglais langue additionnelle (ALA) intègrent informellement la langue et la culture, les discussions portant sur la culture adoptent souvent le point de vue d'une culture dominante particulière. Bien que cette intégration soit cruciale pour le développement de la compétence communicative , les applications pratiques demeurent un problème de taille puisque les enseignants de langue ont généralement plus de connaissances relatives à la langue qu'à la culture (Celce-Murcia, 2007). Cet article décrit un projet d'initia-tion au numérique mis en oeuvre auprès d'apprenants adultes dans un programme d'ALA. S'appuyant sur le modèle DMIS de Bennett (1993) de sensibilité intercul-turelle, le projet visait à encourager des étudiants internationaux et des nouveaux arrivants au Canada à approfondir leurs connaissances des rapports interculturels tout en poursuivant leur apprentissage dans une classe d'ALA multiculturelle. Les étudiants ont suivi les 5 démarches du projet (discussion de réflexion, rédac-tion de scénarios, enregistrement vidéo de scènes, édition et réflexion finale) pour arriver à la production d'un court-métrage. Nous proposons ce projet d'initiation au numérique comme outil pouvant appuyer l'intégration de la sensibilité inter-culturelle dans les programmes d'ALA et inciter les étudiants à discuter de diver-sité en matière de valeurs, croyances et comportements culturels afin d'affirmer leurs identités culturelles et interculturelles.
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A noção de que uma língua faz parte de um sistema fechado e rígido, com regras fonológicas e gramaticais que devem ser seguidas, ficou bem consolidada através dos anos em estudos de linguística. Essa ideia apenas faz sentido se considerarmos uma comunidade linguística homogênea, em que todos seus integrantes falem uma única língua e uma única variante linguística (CHOMSKY, 1965). Porém, a noção do falante monolíngue, considerado o “falante ideal” está cada vez mais sendo contestada em muitos países, incluindo o Brasil. Nos últimos anos, uma forte reação contra o monolinguismo ganhou força e novas teorias de ensino de línguas emergiram: bilinguismo, multilinguismo e mais recentemente plurilinguismo. Neste artigo, eu foco no plurilinguismo como modelo para ser utilizado no ensino da língua portuguesa no Brasil, desde o ensino fundamental até educação universitária. Eu finalizo apresentando dois exemplos de projetos de letramento digital que possam ser usados como introdução ao plurilinguismo em diversas salas de aula de língua portuguesa. Os projetos apresentados têm potencial para sensibilizar alunos a reconhecer a diversidade linguística e cultural de um indivíduo e sua sociedade, valorizando e celebrando o pluralismo linguístico e cultural brasileiro.
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Stephen Gaies, TESOL Quarterly Editor, has invited me to start off the 21st volume with a contribution “on the growth of TESOL during its first 20 years and on the challenges and prospects which we face in the years ahead.”
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TESOL Quarterly invites commentary on current trends or practices in the TESOL profession. It also welcomes responses or rebuttals to any articles or remarks published here in The Forum or elsewhere in the Quarterly.
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