Article

Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Triangulation in Action

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... As a model project for direct public participation, residents, experts and non-professionals were given an opportunity to develop ideas, strategies and approaches that would enable sustainable development of the riverside (Jeutner, 2011). During this 11-month period, the exhibition ran in parallel, which allowed visitors to present their ideas and comments (Jeutner, 2011). In the end, several proposals were presented and discussed, and the decision as to which proposals were recommended to the district for further development was made by three juries: a resident jury, an expert jury and voting from attendees (Jeutner, 2011). ...
... During this 11-month period, the exhibition ran in parallel, which allowed visitors to present their ideas and comments (Jeutner, 2011). In the end, several proposals were presented and discussed, and the decision as to which proposals were recommended to the district for further development was made by three juries: a resident jury, an expert jury and voting from attendees (Jeutner, 2011). With 71% of the points awarded, the project Stadt-spreeKiezspree from the U-Lab of the Technical University of Berlin achieved the best score (Jeutner, 2011). ...
... In the end, several proposals were presented and discussed, and the decision as to which proposals were recommended to the district for further development was made by three juries: a resident jury, an expert jury and voting from attendees (Jeutner, 2011). With 71% of the points awarded, the project Stadt-spreeKiezspree from the U-Lab of the Technical University of Berlin achieved the best score (Jeutner, 2011). The main idea for the project is that this area should be observed from two different perspectives: the neighbourhood and the city (Initiativkreis Mediaspree Versenken! ...
Book
Full-text available
Teheran-ro in Seoul and Mediaspree area in Berlin are pristine examples for public spaces with a history of rapid change in the context of broader political and economic transitions. This study shows that in such a transitional context, the public sector alone is incapable to provide and manage public space. Hence, it engages private sector entities in the form of privately owned public space/s (POPS). By analysing the planning instruments used for POPS in both cases, their uniqueness as well as strengths and weaknesses are revealed. Based on the results this study offers a number of policy recommendations for cities that encounter similar problems. ***Link to the license text: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/***
... As expressed by Jick (1979), scholars could have employed multiple methods to ensure a proper validation of a social phenomenon, referred to as triangulation (Denzin, 1978, pp. 291). ...
... Comme le résume Oikonomou (2011, pp.33), « les mesures inadéquates de la DSP sont le talon d'Achille de la recherche lié à la RSE... Jick (1979), les chercheurs pourraient employer plusieurs méthodes pour assurer une validation adéquate d'un phénomène social, ce que l'on appelle la triangulation (Denzin, 1978, p. 291). Bien que nous ayons recours à la triangulation de la modélisation empirique dans une certaine mesure dans certains chapitres, nous aurions pu exploiter de multiples sources pour trianguler le comportement RSE des entreprises. ...
Thesis
This thesis examines socially responsible investing (SRI) through the lens of the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and financial performance. The research presented is structured into two sections and four chapters, each of which addresses distinct questions. Taken together, these chapters contribute to a single objective, namely, to understand whether SRI is profitable for investors. The first section consists of two chapters that examine the CSR risk premium in developed equity markets (Chapter 1) and emerging markets (Chapter 2), respectively. Our results show that abnormal returns of the CSR risk premium are contingent upon the level of investor attention to CSR and on firm size. We thus argue that the relationship between CSR and financial performance is initially positive, as obtained in emerging markets and in the partition of small firms in developed countries. However, the exponential growth of SRI assets in developed count ries has contributed to make the market more efficient with respect to CSR and thus the risk premium is no longer significant, as obtained in the large firm partition. In the second section, this thesis focuses on the mechanisms of value creation for responsible investors. The two chapters that make up this section examine respectively the effect of CSR filtering on SRI portfolios (Chapter 3) and the impact of materiality on the relationship between climate and financial performance (Chapter 4). We show in the third chapter that the relationship between CSR filtering and portfolio risk-adjusted returns is curvilinear. Thus, excluding companies based on CSR criteria is beneficial until the impact on financial diversification prevails. In the last chapter, our results suggest that the impact of climate performance on companies' financial performance is moderated by the investment horizon and the materiality of climate considerations within industries. Indeed, climate performance does n ot have a significant effect on profitability in the short term. In the long term, climate performance has an impact on financial performance solely for carbon-intensive companies.
... This study used multiple data sources to avoid subject bias (Jick, 1979) and also gathered secondary data relating to Alpha's lifecycle. A search of the firm's websites, business publications, and annual reports resulted in the identification of 38 links related to the firm's early history (2003)(2004)(2005)(2006)(2007)(2008)(2009), 22 links related to the success of the Alpha brand (2009)(2010)(2011)(2012)(2013)(2014)(2015)(2016)(2017)(2018)(2019)(2020)(2021), 28 links related to Alpha's collaboration with global consumer brands (2014)(2015)(2016), and 17 links related to the creation of a movie version of an Alpha game (2016)(2017). ...
... Finally, the researchers compared their interpretations of the meanings and discussed any differences, resolving instances of disagreement through further discussion and data analysis, as suggested by Jick (1979). When they had developed a shared understanding, the researchers built the discourses together based on the meanings and followed a timeline of key events. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores accelerated internationalization among inexperienced digital entrepreneurs who lack resources such as prior experience, knowledge, and networks, which previous research regards as prerequisites for such growth. Following an in-depth qualitative research methodology, the findings reveal three theoretical mechanisms through which inexperienced entrepreneurs can make international commitment decisions with regard to the internationalization of their digital firms. The first is a novel mindset-based approach through which an entrepreneur can make an affective commitment to the international stakeholders within a digital community. Entrepreneurs do that by applying pull-based tools in digital communication to build interest among potential network contacts. The second mechanism is a means-based approach following effectuation logic resulting in an effectual form of commitment to international stakeholders in the digital community. The mechanism relies on applying push-based tools for digital communication to facilitate interactions with known network contacts. The third mechanism is continuance commitment to international business that entrepreneurs can foster over time in tandem with accumulated international experiential knowledge. This research provides an entrepreneurial decision-making model that extends effectuation theory and integrates it with extant research. The resulting holistic entrepreneurial decision-making model explains the accelerated internationalization of digital firms.
... To conduct this study, we gathered an extensive dataset through semi-structured, one-to-one interviews as our primary data source complemented with shorter follow-up interviews aimed at clarifying specific aspects that emerged, taking extensive notes from nonparticipatory observation and archival data (written and electronic documentation). We triangulated the diverse datasets to obtain a better understanding of key aspects and/or to inquire into apparent incoherencies or discrepancies among informants (Eisenhardt, 2002;Jick, 1979). ...
... To avoid respondent bias, which might lead to confusion about cause-and-effect relationships (Leonard- Barton, 1990), we triangulated our data by adding secondary data to the direct observations and interviews (Jick, 1979). We reviewed financial statements and other documents from the IIT, EPFL, and University of Cambridge websites to validate and provide context to our respondents' views, thus enabling empirical triangulation. ...
Article
This paper examines brokerage dynamics in technology transfer networks (TTNs), i.e., hybrid networks of different actors operating in the transitional area between knowledge and business ecosystems (i.e., innovation ecotones), with research organizations as anchor tenants. This particular type of network is gaining increasing attention. However, despite evidence of the importance of brokerage dynamics for knowledge mobility anchored in science and technology research, three main questions remain open: Who acts as network broker in TTNs? What are their specific functions? What mechanisms do they adopt to support these functions? To answer these questions, we conducted an in-depth multi-case study focusing on three European centers of excellence in scientific research, namely the University of Cambridge (UK), the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland), and the Italian Institute of Technology (Italy). We find that institutional actors as well as individuals act as network brokers in TTNs, and that brokerage manifests with varying degrees of formalization related to the TTN's level of maturity. We also identify six network brokerage functions, namely conflict resolution, spreading knowledge, linking idea fragments, connecting problems to solutions, expanding the network, and strengthening the network, and five mechanisms, namely endorsement, mediation, events, antennas, and digital support systems, that support these functions.
... Each school cluster was composed of 10 Primary Grade 8 students and 10 High School Grade 12 or Form 4, as locally known. A structured questionnaire with open-ended and close-ended questions was used to collect data (Jick 1979) [24] , capturing both numerical findings and human experience and attitude of the students. Although the questions were set in English, the researchers had the advantage of fluency in the Somali Maay language locally communicated in the area to explain the questions to the students while filling the responses in English. ...
... Each school cluster was composed of 10 Primary Grade 8 students and 10 High School Grade 12 or Form 4, as locally known. A structured questionnaire with open-ended and close-ended questions was used to collect data (Jick 1979) [24] , capturing both numerical findings and human experience and attitude of the students. Although the questions were set in English, the researchers had the advantage of fluency in the Somali Maay language locally communicated in the area to explain the questions to the students while filling the responses in English. ...
Article
Full-text available
Somalia is a nation resuscitating from the depth of the mother of all crisis: a protracted civil war that has left a legacy of statelessness, poor governance, unaccountability, and all sorts of poor public services that affect the sectors of health and education, among others. Upon the collapse of the military regime of Siad Barre in 1991, private schools by business entrepreneurs and welfare associations revived the much-needed education sector without appropriate policy or strategy. Yet, the sector became operational without much regard for quality. Over the years, students graduated from secondary schools and higher education institutions although much research has not been conducted in the field of education. In view of that background, the current study attempts to explore factors that are concerned with the perception and attitude of students regarding their performance in math and science in two schools in Baidoa, Southwest State of Somalia.
... Conversely, a concurrent triangulation design involves collection and analysis of quantitative and qualitative data simultaneously, with limited interaction during the process but merging the results from each dataset at the end (Brannen 2005, Morse 1991). The results are merged using data transformation, by the quantification of qualitative data (Jick 1979). There are several possible outcomes: corroboration of results; elaboration of the quantitative data by the qualitative data; complementary results; or contradiction, where both types of data conflict (Brannen 2005). ...
... The results of each component can be brought together in a variety of ways . Specific data from each dataset can be combined by merging them through data transformation by the quantification of qualitative data, referred to by Jick (1979) as scaling. The qualitative data of each group of participants can be synthesised together to identify similarities and divergence. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Background Many people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) require insulin therapy to manage glucose levels and reduce the risk of diabetes complications. However, a significant proportion of patients with T2DM receiving insulin therapy do not achieve adequate control over their glucose levels, which increases their risk of complications. It is important, therefore, to increase our understanding of factors that may influence insulin use in the T2DM population to improve the insulin support provided to patients. As most insulin care for T2DM is now provided in primary care by Practice Nurses (PNs) and General Practitioners (GPs), it is important to consider these factors in that context. Therefore, this study set out to provide an integrated analysis of the perspectives of both patients and primary care healthcare professionals (PC HCPs) based on their experiences of current insulin care provision. Methods A mixed-methods approach was used to examine perspectives of insulin-treated T2DM patients and HCPs recruited from a range of general practices in terms of size and diabetes expertise within the practice teams. The research incorporated: a cross-sectional postal survey of insulin-using patients with T2DM, with supplemental structured telephone interviews; and in-depth semi-structured faceto- face qualitative interviews with patients and PC HCPs (PNs and GPs). The survey and structured interview data were analysed statistically in SPSS v22 to provide: descriptive data detailing the patient characteristics associated with different levels of glycaemic control (glycated haemoglobin; HbA1c); and bivariate analyses and logistic regression to model the associations between patient-level factors and glycaemic control. The qualitative interview data were analysed thematically using the interpretive phenomenological approach. Findings Of those invited, 50% (n = 201) of eligible patients, mean age 70 years (range 37–90), completed the primary survey, of which 62% (n = 124) participated in the supplemental structured telephone interviews. The mean HbA1c of the survey participants was 64 mmol/mol (SD = 16.9, range 37-168), and duration of T2DM and of insulin was 17 years (SD = 7.58) and eight years (SD = 6.15) respectively. The participants were grouped by HbA1c as follows: optimal control (HbA1c ≤59 n = 95, 47%); moderate control (HbA1c >59 to ≤69, n = 50, 25%); and suboptimal control (HbA1c >69, n = 56, 28%). A regression analysis using a dichotomised HbA1c (≤59 mmol/mol = 1 and >59 mmol/mol = 0) indicated that depression scores (Patient Health Questionnaire-9; PHQ-9) (p = .03) and diabetes duration (p = .04) were negatively and positively associated with glycaemic control, respectively. The interview data indicated that the following factors were important in moderating insulin use and its impact on glucose control: patient understanding of insulin and associated self-management behaviours; patient motivation; the expertise and support of the HCPs; and the type/level of insulin support provided by the primary care team. Conclusions The study findings have revealed the factors that mediate the impact of insulin on glycaemic control are multifactorial, residing at the patient, health professional and system level. The study also highlights the importance of individualising the insulin management plan in respect of insulin choice, glucose targets and most importantly the patient’s preference and capacity to self-manage. This has highlighted areas where future developments are required to improve the provision of insulin support in primary care and these include enhanced educational support for both patients and professionals, with an emphasis on patient-centred integrated care models.
... Knafl and Breitmayer (1991) emphasized that to achieve completeness through a triangulated approach, researchers must be clear about their purpose and be able to demonstrate how their approach to triangulation contributes to the completeness of the resulting findings. Jick (1983); Fielding and Fielding (1986) and Shih (1998) underlined that triangulation is a 'within' study technique that uses findings from diverse sources, bearing in mind the strengths and weaknesses of those finding, and it looks for a convergence of the evidence to draw overall conclusions. They argued that by providing multiple views, triangulation potentially reveals diverse dimensions and achieves coverage of all aspect of the topic being researched. ...
Article
Full-text available
Published by American Journals Publishing Center, USA (Website: https://www.american-journals.com/americanjournals). As the application of qualitative inquiry increases in popularity within the field of supply chain management, the construct of validity of research in the subject field continues to receive increasing attention in the methodological literature. (Erickson, 1985; Maxwell, 1992; Denzin & Lincoln, 2005). This paper presents and describes the different methods to increase accuracy and validity in qualitative enquiries, using evidence from supply chain case study research. The paper also explains how rigor (reliability and validity) was established using verification strategies for evaluating trustworthiness and utility. **Statement** **Dear scholars, Dr. Allison Qiu is a director at Journal of American Academic Research, USA (JAAR publishing center): www.american-journals.com **She is also the administrator for the ResearchGate account at JAAR publishing center, so she is not one of the authors of any listed articles (published at JAAR) at ResearchGate. **Please don't misunderstand it because her name will show in all articles ( published at JAAR publishing center) listed in ResearchGate.
... Despite following the solutions for 3 years, we had to draw on some retrospective accounts. By relying on multiple informants, several of whom covered the entire evolution of the initiative, we reduced potential retrospective biases (Golden, 1992;Jick, 1979;Leonard-Barton, 1990). Table 2 summarizes the data sources and characteristics of the four case studies. ...
Article
Digital solutions are increasingly used to address “wicked problems” that are locally embedded but require global approaches. Scaling these solutions internationally is imperative for their success, but to date we know little about this process. Using a qualitative case study methodology, our paper analyzes how four digital solutions driven by the United Nations are built and how they scale internationally. These solutions address wicked problems through artificial intelligence, blockchain, and geospatial mapping, and are embedded in networks of partners which evolve during scaling to create unique ecosystem roles and configurations. We identify different ecosystem roles and find that the specific properties of digital solutions – modularity, generativity and affordances – enable either adaptation or replication during scaling. Building on these insights, we derive a typology of four different types of international scaling, which vary in their ecosystem versatility (how the ecosystem changes across locations) and the local adaptation of the application (the problems the solution addresses). This study presents a new way to examine the replication and adaptation dilemma for ecosystems and extends internationalization theory to the digital world.
... Pour ce faire, nous avons choisi de mettre en oeuvre une méthode de collecte multiple pour étudier l'écosystème niortais dans un souci de triangulation méthodologique. Cela permet de renforcer la fiabilité et la validité du recueil de données (Jick, 1983) Ces données ont par la suite été traitées suivant une analyse de contenu qui permet de comparer « les sens des discours pour mettre à jour les systèmes de représentations véhiculés par ces discours » (Blanchet et Gotman, 1992, p. 91). Plus précisément, nous avons adopté une analyse de contenu de type thématique (Bardin, 2007), en se basant sur les thèmes composant le guide d'entretien issu préalablement de notre cadre théorique. ...
... The data collection spanned from early April 2017 to September 2020. To overcome the challenges of a multiple case study approach, we collected data by a triangulation method integrating multiple sources in a multi-method design (Jick, 1979). The use of multiple sources is a necessary element of the analysis, since it ensures the variety of perspectives required by the constructivist principles. ...
Article
Although research underlines the need for SMEs to innovate their Business Model, they face considerable challenges in exploring external business opportunities and experimenting/developing their available resources in unexpected ways. We posit that one way that SMEs can innovate their Business Model is through exaptation, a discontinuous evolutionary process that allows utilizing and adapting existing resources in new application domains. Using a case study approach, we investigate the case of a SME that has successfully innovated its Business Model through exaptation. We then discuss how three key exaptation processes lead to value creation, delivery and capturing, thus supporting Business Model Innovation in SMEs.
... Surveys can also be used to target a specific audience (Andres, 2012), and are an efficient method to secure responses as they can be administered electronically (Nardi, 2018). Such empirical methods using historical and contemporary data sets can be used together, as they have been in this study, to "look again and again, several times" (Stake, 2010), discern convergence (Jick, 1979), expose differentiation (Flick, 2002) and facilitate triangulation of data (Silverman, 1993). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This study is contextualised by higher education policy reforms initiated three decades ago by the Hawke-Keating Labor Government under the leadership of John Dawkins, then Minister for Employment, Education and Training. The profound changes that these policy choices signalled have since become known as the Dawkins reforms. In a fiscally constrained environment, the Dawkins reforms aimed to improve the higher education system’s capacity to respond efficiently and effectively to Australia’s changing economic, social, and cultural conditions, as part of a broader economic reform agenda. Dawkins prescribed recasting the role of central and state governments, modernising the system structure, changing financial policies, expanding the student population, refocusing programs, and extending research capacity. At the institutional level, reforms foreshadowed included establishing more robust governance, management, and accountability practices. One of the fundamental objectives of the Dawkins reforms was a desire to drive the system towards greater diversity, with universities encouraged to forge their own teaching offerings and research specialisations. However, in recent years it has become clear that progress towards this goal has been at best limited. Indeed, universities appear to have converged their structures and disciplinary profiles, and key institutional practices. This has led policy researchers to suggest there has been a trend across the Australian higher education system towards isomorphism. How might we understand and explain the extent and nature of this isomorphism? In the aftermath of Dawkins’ radical prescriptions for reform, extensive attention has focused on Australia’s shifting higher education policy settings and universities, including studies applying insights from new institutionalism. However, there have been only limited attempts to analyse institutional policymaking in Australian universities, despite extensive public policymaking research, as well as normative and ideology-focused studies analysing discrete academic and administrative institutional policies. There has also been only limited research analysing the mechanisms and processes instituted to govern, manage, develop, and review institutional policy, and the ways, if any, Australian university policy processes mimic particular public policy models, heuristics or theories. Furthermore, studies have yet to analyse the extent to which Dawkins’ promise of diversity has been realised within the domain of institutional policy, and whether institutional policy developments might potentially be a source of isomorphism. To address these gaps in knowledge, I adopted an overall research design involving empirical mixed methods of qualitative and quantitative data collection (i.e., interviews, documents, and a survey), and thematic analysis. This study finds that despite Dawkins central promise of diversity, Australian universities show remarkable homogeneity in policy governance, policymaking processes reflecting the policy cycle heuristic, and key policy suite inclusions. Notwithstanding differences between universities with respect to the form and substance of individual policies, policy management models and technologies, this study finds that isomorphism is expressed in university policy governance and policymaking due to coercive, mimetic, and normative pressures exerted by government, system regulators and the policy practitioner professional network. Updated Threshold Standards and COVID-19 disruptions suggest imperatives for Australian universities to accommodate rapid policymaking and policy implementation evaluation to ensure robust policy governance and legitimacy.
... Our study draws on primary and secondary data collected between two to five years after the launch of Nokia's corporate start-up sponsorship in Denmark, the Bridge Program. The various sources are integrated to support triangulation of data and build a consistent and accurate examination of the case study (Jick, 1979). We applied a qualitative and inductive method because we aim to generate theory from the data (Siggelkow, 2007) and we studied a novel focal phenomenon (i.e. a corporate-sponsored self-employment program) that seemed to challenge some of the tenets of entrepreneurial transition, enabling new theorizing (Bansal and Corley, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose - This paper investigates how a new entrepreneurial identity forms in conjunction with prior work-related identities during sponsored self-employment after an emotional job loss. Design/methodology/approach - We empirically examine why some dismissed employees failed and others succeeded in transitioning from a wage-earner career via corporate sponsorship to a career as an entrepreneur, investigating how they meaningfully constructed (or did not) an entrepreneurial identity. Findings - Our findings show that it is the simultaneous preservation of central attributes of prior work-related identities and the engenderment of new entrepreneurial attributes that support the formation of an entrepreneurial identity and that a liminal state, in which people practice entrepreneurship at work, may facilitate identity transition. Originality - This paper demonstrates that the initial entrepreneurial endeavour is based on prior work-related identity and identity congruence between prior work-related identities and a projected entrepreneurial identity is of great importance for the identity transition. However, we also show that incongruence may in some cases turn into congruence if entrepreneurs are given the opportunity to experiment with provisional entrepreneurial selves in a risk-free environment (so-called liminal states). Link: https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/IJEBR-09-2021-0757/full/html
... Therefore, by combining both methods it enables the researcher to gain two different perspectives. According to Creswell & Plano Clark (2011:12) this has been the historical argument for mixed methods research for over 30 years (Jick, 1979). ...
Thesis
In 2017 24.8% of 16-18 year olds in England were studying level 2 vocational and technical qualifications. However, the demographic characteristics of this group are unknown, as is their experience of these qualifications and how these experiences shape transitions to further education and work. Moreover, opportunities and outcomes for these young people remain unequal and complex despite recent reforms to the vocational sector in England. Therefore, a better understanding of who these learners are, their perceptions of their courses and how these shape their transitions and future career choices can empower practitioners and policy makers to implement strategies to better enable these young people to make transitions that are more successful. This is particularly relevant for those young people aged 16-18 who follow vocational routes at lower levels as there is currently no clear trajectory for their subsequent progression to higher levels of learning. This mixed methods study was carried out in two phases. The first phase analysed data from the English longitudinal Next Steps study to reveal the demographic factors that characterise young peoples’ (aged 16-18) educational pathways. In the second phase, semi-structured interviews were carried out with young people in an FE college in England who were studying one of four vocational subject areas to achieve a fuller understanding of their experiences of vocational education and how it can shape their future aspirations. The findings from Phase 1 showed that young people’s post-16 choice of educational pathway was differentiated by their gender and ethnicity as well as their parents’ highest achieved level of qualification (favouring ‘female’, ‘white’ and parents with ‘degrees’ rather than ‘GCSEs A-C’). The findings from Phase 2 revealed choice influencers including: parents, teachers, careers advisors, timing of decisions, work-related learning, and technology. Most importantly, it was found that these choice influencers could change young people’s dispositions towards education and work and what they believed was within their horizons for action. These findings have implications for educational practice and policy regarding the quality, depth and breadth of careers advice, work-related learning, use of technology, and the complex pathways available to young people at post-16. For example, the use of a transition tracker to enable an integrated approach towards preparing young people for their future-plans, embedded careers information to be provided in vocational subjects and continual professional development in post-16 pathways for teachers
... MM research has received support due to its ability to compensate for areas that have been ignored by a single method (Jick 1979). Teddlie & Tashakkori (2012) called MM research as an iterative cyclical approach wherein data interpretation and legitimacy is enhanced due to increased data availability (Onwuegbuzie & Teddlie 2003). ...
Thesis
Previous research has highlighted that behavior is the result of both individual and situational factors. Therefore, consideration of both these factors is importantto better understand and predict human behavior. Despite this, extant literature is replete with studies which have mostly focused on studying the influence of either individual or situational factors on behavior. Given the (i) increased complexity faced by marketers due to greater number of product and channel options at different stages of customer decision journey (ii) premise involving the importance of studying both individual and situational factors to understand behaviour (iii) paucity of research involving customer decision journey and channels from the regulatory focus theory perspective, this thesis aims to provide a nuanced understanding of customer behavior from a multi-channel and customer decision journey perspective grounded in regulatory focus theory. It provides a rich customer behaviour understanding during different stages of customer decision journey based on chronic and situational regulatory orientation interaction. It provides answers to the “why” (regulatory focus theory), of “what” (means and emotions) and “where” (CDJ and channel context) questions(Ratneshwar, Mick & Huffman 2003). Specifically, this research aims to determine the influence of chronic and situational regulatory focus interaction on the choice of means and emotions faced at each stage of cutomer decision journey. For instance, what means (e.g. channels) will be chosen and what emotions will be experienced in case of chronic promotion person facing promotion situation?A mixed method approach is adopted for this thesis. The first qualitative phase involved in-depth interviews with 30 multi-channel customers. The results of this phase indicated differences in channel choice, actions taken at channels and emotions experienced at each stage of the customer decision journey among the chronic and situational regulatory orientationsinteractiongroups. The results of the first phase helped in the design of second experimental phase. This experiment was conducted in lab settingwith the aim of identifying chronic and situational regulatory focus interaction on the online customer decision journey. The first two stages provide complementarity. The results of the lab session indicate a significantinfluence of incongruent chronic-situation regulatory condition on the basket amount, significant promotion chronicsituation congruent condition on session duration and significant prevention chronic-situation congruent condition on the overall extensiveness of search and comparison. The third phase involved 14 interviews with experts from different industries. These experts highlighted the channel choices and actions of their customers. The experts also explained their implemented marketing strategies for each customer decision journey stage. The results indicate greater focus on push online marketing and separate rather than an integrated focus on each channel. This thesis contributes towards consumer behavior, regulatory focus theory and mixed method literature. It helps obtain a rich understanding of the role of both chronic and situational regulatory orientation on the channel choices and actions taken at these channels during different stages of customer decision journey. This may help marketers in targeting, channel and messagedesign. The results emphasize that marketers must use a combination approach in online channel design, involving usage of visuals and information. Product category may provide further guidance regarding the extent of trade-off between one type of design overanother. The strengths and limitations related to each stage are also provided.
... We chose this research design to fulfil two purposes of multimethod research: confirmation and expansion (Jick, 1979;Mingers, 2001;Venkatesh, Brown, & Bala, 2013). First, conducting two studies with different methods and samples allowed for triangulation of our findings regarding the core theoretical associations between agile SD and PM practices and feelings of fatigue as well as the influence of the moderator perceived workload. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
While much is known about the beneficial effects of agile information systems development (ISD), scholars have largely neglected to shed light on its potential downsides. Specifically, research has overlooked to examine the ambivalent implications of the specific demands placed on developers working in agile ISD teams, including potentially depleting effects. Drawing on ego depletion theory and literature, we provide a more balanced view and introduce self-regulatory resource depletion triggered by using agile ISD practices - encompassing software development (SD) and project management (PM) practices - as a theoretical perspective on why agile developers experience different levels of work-related fatigue that lead to stronger or weaker turnover intentions. Furthermore, we propose that due to the specific way in which agile ISD methods organize ISD project work, workload perceived by developers influences the intensity by which agile ISD practices affect self-regulatory resources and developers' feelings of fatigue. We examined our research model using a multimethod approach including quantitative and qualitative data. We found that agile SD practices use enhances developers' self-regulatory resources and reduces fatigue and turnover intention. Our results also show that perceived workload strengthens the energizing effects of agile SD practices use and reveals a depleting effect of agile PM practices use, with countervailing implications for turnover intention. This study contributes to agile ISD literature by drawing a more nuanced and balanced picture with both resource-enhancing and resource-draining effects of agile ISD practices use. Finally, we give managerial advice regarding factors to consider when designing and managing agile ISD projects.
... However, other brands have more than one decision maker. Jick (1979) stressed the importance of triangulation as a way to not only explore the existing multiple dimensions of a research issue but also to deepen our understanding, allowing the results to emerge. Selected franchisees and decision makers for each brand were interviewed for an average of 60 minutes, using open-ended questions. ...
This study evaluates franchising decisions in the food and beverage industry by incorporating an institutional perspective and an organizational learning perspective to account for both economic and social factors. Adopting a qualitative approach, multiple-case-study analysis is conducted on international franchise brands in the food and beverage industry. The results indicate how each type of franchise network-underdeveloped, developing, and developed-achieves coercive and mimetic isomorphism and how that leads to distinctive implications for both the franchisor and the franchisee. This research fills the gap in the franchising literature by providing insights into knowledge-transfer practices and institutional isomorphism.
... The qualitative results reported in this paper were part of a larger biopsychosocial study of the treatment programs at the Takiwasi Centre (O'Shaughnessy, 2017), and interviews were conducted at the same time as the collection of quantitative psychological data. The biopsychosocial design aimed to J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f combine quantitative (biological and psychometric) and qualitative (ethnographic) methods in order to "triangulate" (Jick, 1979), or converge on a better understanding of the treatment and its effects. Thus the qualitative findings presented here are set in the context of the observational within-treatment changes that we previously reported , with clinically positive changes being found across a range of measures including: health (physical and emotional), spiritual well-being, perceived stress, mental health, craving, and neuropsychological performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Traditional Amazonian medicine, and in particular the psychoactive substance ayahuasca, has generated significant research interest along with the recent revival of psychedelic medicine. Previously we published within-treatment quantitative results from a residential addiction treatment centre that predominately employs Peruvian traditional Amazonian medicine, and here we follow up that work with a qualitative study of within-treatment patient experiences. Open-ended interviews with 9 inpatients were conducted from 2014 to 2015, and later analysed using thematic analysis. Our findings support the possibility of therapeutic effects from Amazonian medicine, but also highlight the complexity of Amazonian medical practices, suggesting that the richness of such traditions should not be reduced to the use of ayahuasca only.
... By linking quantitative and qualitative methods, scholars can derive more precise inferences by evaluating diverse data sets of the same issues studied (Singleton & Straits, 2005). In other words, the triangulation approach provides a widespread and detailed understanding of the nature of the subject or component being examined (Morgan, 1998;Jick, 1979). However, Singleton & Straits (2005) pointed out that research topics must be studied in various ways due to overcoming the inherent challenges of all research methods. ...
... Regarding the data collection, analysis, and reporting algorithms of SimilarWeb, they are proprietary, but again, enough is known to validate the general implementation as state-ofthe-art. The SimilarWeb foundational principle of triangulating user, site, and network-centric data collection data [39,101] is academically sound, with triangulating data and methods used and advocated widely by scholars [5,102]. SimilarWeb data collection, analysis, and reporting methodology are outlined in reasonable detail [22], although, like Google Analytics, the proprietary specifics are not provided. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research compares four standard analytics metrics from Google Analytics with SimilarWeb using one year’s average monthly data for 86 websites from 26 countries and 19 industry verticals. The results show statistically significant differences between the two services for total visits, unique visitors, bounce rates, and average session duration. Using Google Analytics as the baseline, SimilarWeb average values were 19.4% lower for total visits, 38.7% lower for unique visitors, 25.2% higher for bounce rate, and 56.2% higher for session duration. The website rankings between SimilarWeb and Google Analytics for all metrics are significantly correlated, especially for total visits and unique visitors. The accuracy/inaccuracy of the metrics from both services is discussed from the vantage of the data collection methods employed. In the absence of a gold standard, combining the two services is a reasonable approach, with Google Analytics for onsite and SimilarWeb for network metrics. Finally, the differences between SimilarWeb and Google Analytics measures are systematic, so with Google Analytics metrics from a known site, one can reasonably generate the Google Analytics metrics for related sites based on the SimilarWeb values. The implications are that SimilarWeb provides conservative analytics in terms of visits and visitors relative to those of Google Analytics, and both tools can be utilized in a complementary fashion in situations where site analytics is not available for competitive intelligence and benchmarking analysis.
... We compared this with the formal presentations of the cases made by the CEO or senior manager responsible for the business model. This allowed data triangulation (Jick, 1979) to construct reliable historical timelines for events and activities related to finding a viable business model. We constructed an overview of the sequence of significant events (van de Ven & Poole, 2005;Yin, 2003) to discover and identify theoretically important trends, and retained the interview respondents' verbatim formulations (Gioia, Corley, & Hamilton, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study explains the business model innovation processes in industrial firms. Drawing on three case studies of leading business-to-business firms shifting from product-based to service-based business models, it introduces problems as a theoretical concept to explain business model innovation processes. We show how formulating and solving problems guide the search for a viable business model and why some problem formulation and solving activities lead firms to shift between backward-looking and forward-looking searches. The decision to shift to a forward-looking search is triggered by the perception of failure to continue with an established way of working, while the shift to a backward-looking search is based on the perception of high alternative costs. We contribute to the business model innovation and servitization literature by theorizing the process of business model innovation and providing implications for managers.
... Both qualitative and quantitative research methods will be employed in this study. The researchers plan to adopt across method triangulation (Jick, 1979) for the current study as qualitative methods will be used to gain an understanding of critical success factors, underlying reasons, motivations, benefits and limitations and quantitative methods will be used to establish and test the relationships between the IMS implementation approach and the SME performance moderated by the SME characteristics. The flow of research is shown in Figure 2 followed by brief description of the data collection procedure to be employed for executing the research. ...
Conference Paper
SMEs are being recognized as important entities in most of the countries as they not only generate employment but also account for a high proportion of GDP and industrial export. Given their importance, SMEs face immense pressures to retain their competitiveness. The intense competition requires SMEs to excel in quality in order to gain competitive advantage. The ever increasing customer demand for improved service quality and the introduction of various industry specific management systems has given rise to the concept of Integrated Management System (IMS) which has become significantly important and is a top priority for the service SMEs. Thus, it becomes increasingly important to study the implementation of the Integrated Management Systems in service SMEs in order to improve the overall performance of the SME sector in India. The research aims to explore how service SMEs can achieve maximum benefits from IMS implementation based on factors, implementation approach, life cycle stages, integration strategy and SME characteristics.
... At the same time, the combination of research methods can also be used to avoid single data source bias (Denzin, 1989;Eisenhardt, 1989), particularly where retrospective analysis is involved (Golden, 1992). Multiple sources also provide the valuable information needed to develop a relatively holistic picture of strategy as practice (Jick, 1979;Pettigrew, 1990). Data collected in the present research are highly contextual and pluralist in the patterns of audio recording, photos, transcripts, field notes and collected documents. ...
Thesis
p>This study aims to gain a deeper understanding of middle managers’ roles in Chinese enterprises’ strategic change through the use of two related perspectives: the learning perspective and the power perspective. This understanding is particularly significant for managing successful strategic changes in Chinese enterprises, and for assisting Western enterprise to succeed in the Chinese market. In order to achieve the research aim, an interpretive paradigm (Burrell and Morgan, 1993; Easterby-Smith et al. 1991 and 2002) and a multiple case study method (Eisenhardt, 1989; Yin, 1994) were employed to guide the whole research process. Data were collected through interviews, observations and document studies in three Chinese enterprises over a period of more than 2 years. Miles and Huberman’s (1994) methods were used to analyse the qualitative data. The research revealed two roles, ‘strategists in the middle’ and ‘implementers’, played by middle managers in the three cases. Two theoretical models, a communication model and an interpretation model, were constructed to explain both roles. Finally, a ‘guanxi’-centred explanation network was developed to explain the differences in middle managers’ roles across cases. It was argued that middle managers could only become ‘strategists in the middle’ by actively exploring the interactions of knowledge and power. Formal and informal communication was widely employed by ‘strategists in the middle’. A trust and balanced ‘guanxi’ between middle mangers and senior managers was critical for middle managers to play a proactive role. These findings contribute to remedying the current lack of knowledge about middle managers’ roles in strategic change. They also enhance our insights into the relationship between organizational learning and power. Relevant implications for strategic change management are also provided for both Chinese enterprises and Western enterprises.</p
... to facilitate analysis. We will systematically search for disconfirming evidence [84], interview multiple participants in each health system for triangulation [85], and maintain a detailed audit trail to document analytic decisions [76]. To our knowledge, this will be one of the largest longitudinal qualitative data sets in the country [83], and could support sub-investigations on the nature of structural racism and health [31,86]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Sepsis affects 1.7 million patients in the US annually, is one of the leading causes of mortality, and is a major driver of US healthcare costs. African American/Black and LatinX populations experience higher rates of sepsis complications, deviations from standard care, and readmissions compared with Non-Hispanic White populations. Despite clear evidence of structural racism in sepsis care and outcomes, there are no prospective interventions to mitigate structural racism in sepsis care, nor are we aware of studies that report reductions in racial inequities in sepsis care as an outcome. Therefore, we will deliver and evaluate a coalition-based intervention to equip health systems and their surrounding communities to mitigate structural racism, driving measurable reductions in inequities in sepsis outcomes. This paper presents the theoretical foundation for the study, summarizes key elements of the intervention, and describes the methodology to evaluate the intervention. Methods Our aims are to: (1) deliver a coalition-based leadership intervention in eight U.S. health systems and their surrounding communities; (2) evaluate the impact of the intervention on organizational culture using a longitudinal, convergent mixed methods approach, and (3) evaluate the impact of the intervention on reduction of racial inequities in three clinical outcomes: a) early identification (time to antibiotic), b) clinical management (in-hospital sepsis mortality) and c) standards-based follow up (same-hospital, all-cause sepsis readmissions) using interrupted time series analysis. Discussion This study is aligned with calls to action by the NIH and the Sepsis Alliance to address inequities in sepsis care and outcomes. It is the first to intervene to mitigate effects of structural racism by developing the domains of organizational culture that are required for anti-racist action, with implications for inequities in complex health outcomes beyond sepsis.
... We also adopt a case study approach as it typically allows for a variety of perspectives, taking advantage of a range of data collection methods and multiple views of various characters in an organisational setting (Eisenhardt, 1989;Eisenhardt and Graebner, 2007;Yin, 1994), the data triangulation approach to ensure data validity (Jick, 1979). The case study method also allows us to utilise a variety of data sources, including interviews, published documents, and observations, thus enhancing validity of our findings. ...
... This is important, as the quality of the data is supported by the children's natural behaviours during the data collection process. In our research design we use the theory of triangulation, defined as "the multiple employment of sources of data, observers, methods, or theories" [21], to foster a richer understanding and deeper dimensions of interpretations of a phenomenon ( [22]; [23]). In the present study, which is a part of a larger research endeavour, triangulation is achieved through analysing the collected feedback forms and video recordings to better understand children's experiences with mobile eye tracking glasses. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The increasing pervasiveness of inclusive educational environments poses an urgent need to implement research methodologies and practices that could shed light on how children's social interactions unfold in such contexts. Our work explores the use of mobile eye tracking technology in naturalistic, inclusive K12 education settings towards a richer understanding of the children's interactive behaviours. This paper presents the children's responses to, experiences with and impressions about the naturalness of using mobile eye tracking glasses during a collaborative group task. Results highlight the importance of understanding the children's experiences to foster naturalistic research environments that closely reflect real-life complexity. Our work contributes towards the deployment of research designs in naturalistic contexts, providing important clues towards the collection of ecologically valid real-world data.
... The cyclic development and refinement of interview questions (Bositis, 1988;Becker, 1958;Miles, 1979;Sanday, 1979;Schwartz and Schwartz, 1955), along with the use of analytical triangulation through using multiple researchers to code the data (Gronhaug and Olson, 1999;Eden and Huxham, 1996;Jick, 1979), improve the robustness of interpretive research and assist in achieving theoretical saturation (Guest et al., 2012;Glaser and Strauss, 1967). Consent was obtained from each participant prior to beginning data collection (Van den Hoonard, 2003), project names and details have been anonymised, and all participants are referred to using the convention [P1]…[P3] in the analyses (Duclos, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in huge disruption to the healthcare sector. In response to this, there have been collaborative efforts between many different public and private organizations to foster medical innovations. The effect of crisis upon innovation, particularly medical innovation, remains a debatable subject. In addition, the role of inter-personal relations is becoming more widely acknowledged as a critical feature of innovation. Drawing upon exaptation literature, the study aims to understand the nature of the micro-relations within medical innovations that are undertaken in response to COVID-19. The findings of this paper contribute to the limited literature that examines the performance of medical innovation in response to crisis. In addition to confirming the importance of exaptive pools, exaptive events, and exaptive forums in fostering serendipitous developments, the study makes a contribution to theory by identifying a further form of serendipitous encounter that is ‘exaptive relations’.
... Interviews are widely accepted as the most common method for gathering data and is seen as reliab different forms, which is However, it has been argued that a triangular approach could be the preferred way to efficiently collect reliable data. Triangulation is defined in this study as the process of utilizing multiple methodological approaches to minimize research errors such as biases, errors, and limitations that a single approach could be exposed to (Denzin, 1978;Jick, 1979). Nielsen et al. (2020) conducted a meta study with the intention of mapping fifty years of published academic research in the Journal of International Business Studies, between the years 1970-2019. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Numerous government bodies have begun enacting increased due diligence requirements on business supply chains to curb harmful externalities that affect global sustainability initiatives. At the international level the EU has recently proposed mandatory human rights due diligence (MHRDD) for global value chains, which is a mandated form of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Traditionally, due diligence and CSR have been voluntary tools to appease stakeholders. However, these voluntary approaches have been unsuccessful at curbing unsustainable business practices. Research combining sustainability and supply chain management has been increasing in recent years, as well as evolving to include themes found outside management research. Furthermore, the research environment has identified tools that explain how to manage global value chains in a sustainable way—e.g., reliable audits, visibility initiatives, intra-industry collaborations—but hasn't specifically addressed the changing legal environment, nor how to manage greater due diligence requirements. Using primary data gathered from both virtual semi-structured interviews and a quantitative survey, a triangular approach was used to investigate how firms work with different initiatives regarding sustainability in supply chains—both in terms of environmental and social sustainability. Furthermore, reactions to recently enacted and upcoming supply chain legislation were documented. The quantitative data was mainly used to supplement findings from the qualitative interviews. Selected respondents were featured through mini-cases that highlighted firm sustainability initiatives pertaining to supply chain management. From the analyzed data, four distinct propositions—each with circumstantial sub- propositions—were developed that highlight four interlinked themes concerning sustainability and supply chain management: leverage, information exchange, visibility, and supplier upgrading. The propositions can be used by business managers as a source of direction while designing, implementing, and managing sustainability initiatives in their respective supply chains in response to increasing due diligence requirements. Furthermore, legislators may review respondent concerns as well as the developed propositions to address externalities stemming from global value chains and update the legislation accordingly. Overall, our findings contribute to the growing field of sustainable supply chain management and may easily be tested and expanded upon by future research.
... This study adopts a mixed method approach (Jick, 2011). Mixed methods is a research approach whereby researchers collect and analyse both quantitative and qualitative data within the same study (Shorten and Smith, 2017). ...
Article
Purpose Prior research studies have discussed the role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) during crisis situations in increasing the resilience and sustainability of the companies. There are two basic models of crisis management – reactive and proactive. When a crisis occurs, suddenly firms tend to act reactively and progressively take proactive steps to manage the crisis. CSR can also be reactive and proactive during crisis situations. Against this backdrop, this paper aims to explore whether CSR during the COVID-19 pandemic moved from a reactive to a proactive stance, with specific focus on CSR legislation, corporate CSR response and corporate thinking about CSR. Design/methodology/approach This paper adopts a mixed methods approach, using both qualitative and quantitative research designs. This study draws upon both primary and secondary data. Findings The results highlighted the change in the CSR approach from being reactive to being proactive as the pandemic progressed. This was observed through the increase in frequency of CSR legislation, and the shift in the intent of CSR legislation from “prompting to donate” to “prompting to volunteer.” Similarly, the shift in reactive to proactive CSR corporate response was observed through the increased spending on CSR and improved COVID-related CSR reporting. Practical implications This study recommends companies to manage crises by becoming more proactive. CSR activities need to be closely aligned with national developmental objectives, and collaborate with various stakeholders to achieve the intended outcomes of the activities. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this research paper is one of the few to study the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on CSR in India at a time when India went through three waves of the pandemic. This study corroborates with other studies in terms of managing crisis.
... The use of mixed-methods research designs makes it possible to better understand the diverse social, economic, environmental, and political parts that make up natural hazards and disasters (Eriksen et al., 2011). Using different data or methods to test a hypothesis is an effective way to check its validity and reliability (Jick, 1979), because when different methods produce the same or similar results they are less likely to be artefacts (Munafò and Davey Smith, 2018). Mixed-methods approaches can enhance our confidence in the findings and be used to assess whether data agree (convergence), complement one another (complementarity), or contradict each other (O'Cathain et al., 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Given the recent developments in socio-hydrology and its potential contributions to disaster risk reduction (DRR), we conducted a systematic literature review of socio-hydrological studies aiming to identify persisting gaps and discuss tractable approaches for tackling them. A total of 44 articles that address natural hazards or disasters were reviewed in detail. Our results indicated that: (i) most of the studies addressed floods, whereas few applications were applied to droughts and compound or multi-hazard events; (ii) none of the reviewed articles investigated interactions across temporal and spatial scales; (iii) there is a wide range of understandings of what “social” means in socio-hydrology; (iv) quantitative approaches were used more often in comparison with mixed and qualitative approaches; (v) monodisciplinary studies prevailed over multi- or interdisciplinary ones; and (vi) one-third of the articles involved stakeholder participation. In summary, we observed a fragmentation in the field, with a multitude of social and physical components, methods, and data sources being used. Based on these findings, we point out potential ways of tackling the identified challenges to advance socio-hydrology, including studying multiple hazards in a joint framework and exploiting new methods for integrating results from qualitative and quantitative analyses to leverage the strengths of different fields of knowledge. Addressing these challenges will improve our understanding of human–water interactions to support DRR.
... According to Bryman (2016), mixed methods helps to reduce bias because more than one method is being used to collect the data (although, this also is dependent on other factors, for example, how well the data collection is carried out by the researcher). A mixed methods approach can also produce greater confidence in the research findings, (Clarke and Dawson, 1999, Jick, 1983and Webb et al 1966. ...
... We triangulated the data to reduce the possibility of biases (Denzin, 1978;Jick, 1979). The third author, who did not visit the field, took an outsider's perspective to attain balance between etic and emic perspectives (Peng, Peterson, & Shyi, 1991). ...
... Triangulation refers to combining different methodology for validating the results (Jick, 1979). Considering the qualitative nature of this research, triangulation was added by using the quantitative method to make the results more reliable and valid (Harris & Brown, 2010;Marmor-Lavie, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Consumers get irritated and distracted while watching the Ramadan TV commercials due to the non-availability of the consumers' religio-spiritual insights and this irritation can sometimes create a negative brand image. Marketers have 'christmasised' this spiritual month of Ramadan as they are considering Ramadan a seasonal shopping festival like other western festivals. Marketers reserve almost half of their annual budget for advertising during Ramadan but they are not considering the spiritual aura during this spiritual month when the spiritual contemplations of Muslims are higher than any other Islamic month. This study provides a comprehensive framework that will help marketers to incorporate consumers' religio-spiritual insights in Ramadan TV commercials so that consumers cannot be irritated and distracted. Some of the important constructs explored in this study include spirituality, religiosity, entertainment, information, and credibility of the source. This exploratory research is conducted by following the guidelines of grounded theory. 25 in-depth semi-structured interviews have been conducted from the consumers having religious, non-religious, and sports/yoga orientations to understand the consumers' spiritual insights and propose a comprehensive framework.
... To address our research question, we relied on multiple sources to facilitate the synergistic effects of triangulation (Eisenhardt 1989;Gibbert, Ruigrok, and Wicki 2008;Jick 1979). First, historic Ford archival documents and secondary sources were consulted by one of the authors at the Benson Ford Research Center between July and August 2018. ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic severely hit the tourism industry in China and worldwide. Chinese government adopted extensive nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to control it. COVID-19 has been well under control since April 2020 and China entered into a unique recovering period. The aim of this study is to examine how the COVID-19 pandemic changed residents' travel behaviors and intentions and investigate the theoretical factors associated with these changes during the pandemic and the recovery period. This study used a mixed-methods approach by combining quantitative surveys (N = 1,423) and qualitative interviews (N = 34). We extended the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to include other emerging factors in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, such as risk perception, tourist trust, and charitable attitude. Our findings show that COVID-19 changed respondents' travel preferences in different ways, for example, tend to choose natural/outdoor/uncrowded attractions over cultural/indoor/crowded attractions. Second, respondents' domestic travel behaviors and intentions were positively associated with constructs in TPB, charitable attitude to contribute to the recovery of the tourism industry, tourists' trust in domestic COVID-19 control, and awareness of destinations' promotion strategies, while domestic travel intentions were negatively associated with risk perception. Third, concerns about the international COVID-19 control and travel restrictions were the two major factors affecting residents' intentions to travel abroad. Finally, we highlighted the management implications including implementing strict preventive measures while improving the effectiveness, increasing tourists’ trust, and adopting diverse marketing and promotion strategies.
Article
The relevance of co-operative values and principles has long been discussed in co-operative literature. Building on a structured literature review and expert interviews, I develop a measure of perceived co-operative member value. Using a multivariate data analysis method, I establish a structural path model that incorporates this new measure. In a sample of 390 members of German co-operative banks, perceived co-operative member value is found to be an important predictor of sustainable satisfaction, next to corporate reputation. The study’s main contributions are twofold: First, I develop an understanding of perceived co-operative member value building upon relevant literature and expert interviews. Second, I enhance the existing knowledge on co-operative principle and value’s importance by situating it in the broader context of co-operative members’ sustainable satisfaction, thereby combining it with marketing literature. In conclusion, I indicate how these contributions have implications for both co-operative theory and practice.
Article
Full-text available
ntrodução: Apesar dos avanços tecnológicos, as doenças transmitidas por alimentos (DTA) continuam sendo um problema de saúde pública global. Nesse contexto, o manipulador de alimentos tem sido associado a muitos surtos, principalmente em função de falhas na higiene pessoal e na manipulação inadequada dos alimentos. Objetivo: Avaliar o conhecimento em Boas Práticas de Manipulação (BPM), a percepção de risco em DTA e a existência do fenômeno conhecido como viés otimista em manipuladores de alimentos de um hospital público. Método: Foi realizado um estudo de caso exploratório, utilizando um questionário estruturado dividido em três blocos de perguntas (1 - perfil sociodemográfico; 2 - avaliação do conhecimento de Boas Práticas de Manipulação; e 3 - percepção de risco em Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos e viés otimista) com 50 respondentes. Os dados foram analisados por estatística descritiva, utilizando os testes Qui-quadrado, para identificar associações, e t-Student, para análise de similaridade entre variáveis. Resultados: O perfil da amostra foi de ≥ 41 anos (70%), sexo feminino (82%), ensino médio completo (46%) e experiência ≥ 6 anos na função (64%), com participação em treinamento há menos de três meses (84%). A média do grau de conhecimento em BPM foi satisfatória. Com relação à percepção de risco em DTA, os respondentes demonstraram alta percepção para identificar fatores de risco sanitário, não sendo observado viés otimista nas respostas. Conclusão: Apesar de os manipuladores apresentarem conhecimentos satisfatórios em BPM, algumas lacunas foram observadas, sendo importante ainda analisar se o conhecimento se transforma em atitudes e práticas adequadas e seguras.
Article
Full-text available
In Pakistan, the construction industry plays a major role in economic and physical development. The construction industry has been heavily dependent on the adequate supply of skilled workers, and as a result of the skilled worker shortage in construction industry has received considerable attention in recent years. This problem has been identified and surveyed by various researchers and found to be one of the important and ever-increasing problems in the construction industry. There are existing initiatives to reduce the impact of skilled worker shortages, but most of the research has focused on increasing the skill levels of the existing workforce through training. Since the focus of this thesis is aimed to explore the factors effecting the skilled workers shortage and mitigation measures to reduce those impacts due to skilled workers shortages in construction industry. Literature was gathered to identify the impacts due to skilled worker shortages. Pilot study was conducted to discover the existing impacts of skilled workers shortages and to rank them accordingly from the construction industry experts. A survey questionnaire was developed to confirm the obtained data from a wide population. In last, interviews were conducted with experts to identify the effective strategies to reduce the impacts due to skilled workers shortages.
Article
The present study examines how organizational designers of Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) form an ensemble of structures, routines, and tools, consistent with the field-level ideal type. This longitudinal case study is theoretically informed by literature on decoupling and recoupling to account for these actors' efforts. The case studied demonstrates that recoupling actors draw on three modes of action—discursive, material, and relational—to address the two forms of decoupling identified by Bromley and Powell [2012. From smoke and mirrors to walking the talk: Decoupling in the contemporary world. The Academy of Management Annals, 1(6), 483–530]: policy–practice and means–ends. This study contributes to current research in three ways. First, it unpacks risk experts' efforts to address different forms of decoupling, reinvigorating debates on recoupling. Second, it shows that ideal-typical ERM is shaped by a succession of external templates. Third, it draws attention to the preeminent role of double-embedded actors who link successive templates to enable the formation of an organizational ERM that is consistent with the field-level ideal type. Together, these findings contrast with those of previous studies that argued that ERM working ensembles are inexorably inconsistent with the ideal type.
Article
We explore the concept of Business Model Innovation (BMI) in the transition from the embryonic to the growth phase of industry lifecycle. Grounded in the extensive data obtained from qualitative case studies of three New Space Economy firms (Nanoracks, D-Orbit, AIKO), we suggest that the changing structural characteristics in the organization's operational environment underlie the need for specific and recurring BMI mechanisms. Our results mainly contribute to the identification of a consistent relationship between BMI and time, with the latter interpreted as the progression in industry lifecycle. Specifically, we find that embryonic industries call for a focus on exploratory activities to understand market needs, implying frequent adaptations to the BM strategy. Growing industries are instead correlated with organizational ambidexterity, as environmental conflicts underlie strategic trade-offs between exploration and exploitation. This work also adds to the very limited managerial studies of the fast-growing and increasingly relevant New Space Economy.
Article
This paper investigates how sharing economy platform multinational corporations (SEP-MNCs) orchestrate ecosystem resources to drive sustainable growth in a different country, through a dynamic capability perspective. Based on a multiple-case design, we offer a process perspective that identifies three sets of distinct integrative capabilities that come to the fore at different stages of the SEP-MNC's ecosystem development in a different country. By arguing that dynamic capabilities need to be co-created, we posit that, ultimately, the platform ecosystem value creation requires collective engagements of both internal and external resources of the platform ecosystem in building and preserving the collaborative action that amplified their individual resources to identify new and novel opportunities. We therefore re-conceptualizing dynamic capabilities of SEP-MNCs resides at the ecosystem level where the capabilities become an emergent and highly integrated property, with recurrent patterns that only become apparent from continuous interactions with their ecosystem partners. We also contribute to the IB literature by offering a holistic view that infuses dynamic capabilities with the themes of interdependence, sub-national network coordination, and data intelligence; themes that are yet to be fully incorporated into IB scholarship.
Thesis
Online and offline community are both studied but not as an intersection. There is a gap in the literature on the nature of community that is blended online with offline and geographically situated. SPENCE, a Model of online/offline community with measurement principles - capabilities - was formulated. It aims to provide an integrated view of residential online/offline community that offers a lens of synthesis. It is based on the definition: social exchange using channels of digital multi-media and physical expression, leading to permanent social ties connected across social graphs, from proximity informed by a diversity of values, interests and needs, bounded in settlement combining physical and cyber place, curated by an entrepreneur. SPENCE has six facets - settlement, proximity, exchange, net/latticework, channels and entrepreneur; and four capabilities - trust, influence, information and intelligence. iii Two Case Studies, based on online/offline communities in London, deployed the methods of interview, survey and online social network study to discover the nature of online/offline community, how to investigate it and what policy initiatives could be implemented to develop it. The Survey and Twitter Study methods were merged into a Twofold Instrument. The contributions of the thesis are: the Model SPENCE; novel concepts derived from the Model i.e. decile fabric, net/latticework, VINs ratio, diverse cohesion, specific cohesion, and capabilities, which offer updates on established concepts. The affordances of online/offline community include situated cognition, blended relations between people with cohesions in the social fabric predicated on a greater exchange of informal/formal assets. It is recommended that national digital infrastructure is developed to extend online/offline community, either as independent instances or as an integrated national platform. A twofold investigation method, measuring the national total of decile fabric, would offer a pragmatic automated approach to assist a national development programme.<br/
Article
Cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) are highly emotional events for the employees of involved organizations. The strength and directionality of emotional reactions can result in positive or negative employee outcomes contributing to success or failure of cross-border M&As. Existing studies on emotions and cross-border M&As have identified various underlying mechanisms and factors that influence employee emotions in cross-border M&A activities, leading to a fragmentation of current research on this topic. In this article, we systematically review the interdisciplinary literature on the role played by emotions in cross-border M&As by analyzing a sample of 78 articles published between 2000 and 2021. We contribute to the current literature by (1) providing a holistic and deeper understanding of the role played by emotions in cross-border M&As; (2) mapping the current state of the interdisciplinary literature on emotions and cross-border M&As; and (3) developing a multi-level framework, and identifying key theories and emerging themes to be examined in future studies.
Book
Full-text available
The legal services market in Poland and throughout the European Union is changing rapidly in the 21st century. Cross-border and international legal services, cooperation with foreign lawyers and collaboration with foreign clients are now increasingly common. Simultaneously, the conditions for lawyers to work internationally, the goals of legal services and the methods and forms of legal work are changing. Finally, lawyers evolve and become more and more international. The study indicates that Polish lawyers are very reluctant to integrate into the European legal services market: they rarely work with foreign clients, do not establish relationships with foreign lawyers, do not work in other European countries and are distanced from the global development of legal services. Furthermore, the international legal services market rarely finds in Poland clients and associate lawyers. Polish lawyers and the entire domestic legal services market appear to be strongly isolated from the increasingly internationalised European legal services market. However, a small number of Polish lawyers practising abroad or with foreign nationals are reluctant to establish business links in the country. Reasons for this are mainly: defective education of lawyers in the international field, absence of internships abroad, ossification of structures of national bar associations, no international networking, poor integration of the Polish services market with the market of other European Union countries and cultural lack of need for transnational legal services. The research was conducted between 2017 and 2021 by semi-structured interviews (SSI) among representatives of the boards of Polish regional bar associations as well as by questionnaire surveys performed on a representative sample of Polish advocates and legal advisers. The study is supported by a content analysis of Polish lawyers' websites and desk research. The study is part of the canon of sociology of law. Based on the research outcomes, changes and reforms are proposed in Polish legislation, corporate law, education, and in day-to-day legal practice.
Article
Full-text available
This article presents an analysis of Negotiation of Meaning (NoM) episodes found in three audiovisual telecollaborative interactions. The study was conducted within the VELCOME project, which carried out a telecollaborative partnership between Japanese (Kwansei Gakuin University) and Spanish (Universitat de València) students. The main objective is to ascertain the presence of NoM episodes in these audiovisual telecollaborative experiences, together with determining the relevance and nature of said episodes. A mixed methodology is employed in this study, since the quantitative results provide the basis for the subsequent qualitative analysis of the data. The NoM episodes were analysed based on Smith’s (2003, 2005) expansion of the model of Negotiation of Meaning formulated by Varonis and Gass (1985). In addition, the triggers found in the corpus were later on classified into two categories: attended and unattended. Then, so as to determine if students avoid attending mistakes or issues of a specific nature, the attended and unattended triggers were classified into different categories (linguistic, content-related, technical problems, material-related, and overlapping). Finally, the attended triggers were likewise classified as resolved or unresolved as a manner to determine the success of students at solving these breakdowns. The findings obtained suggest that NoM episodes represent a relevant portion of the interactions, emphasising the significance of these breakdowns in communicative processes. Hence, this may imply that further insights into the presence of these NoM episodes and their pedagogical implications are needed, especially in the context of highly communicative activities such as telecollaboration.
Article
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) transparency has predominantly been treated as an organizational outcome in previous literature. Drawing on rich qualitative data, we find that CSR transparency can emerge through sensemaking processes where employees are instrumental in exercising moral judgements, engaging with stakeholders, and creating shared narratives. The study contributes to our understanding of CSR transparency by showing that the phenomenon is reflected by social processes and should not be narrowly conceptualized as an outcome of information disclosure at the corporate level. The study also provides fine-grained details about the cognitive and organizational mechanisms at play in the shaping of CSR transparency. Specifically, we introduce a bottom-up model which explains how reserved and non-reserved approaches of CSR transparency are developed.
Article
The phenomenon of transformation from an internal platform to an external platform has attracted increasing research attention. However, the transformation process is still unclear. This study aims to uncover how internal platforms transform into external platforms. By adopting a case study method and taking resource orchestration as a theoretical lens, our findings generate a three-stage process model, which specifies the relationships among strategic sense-making of platform owners, resource orchestration, and capability in the path breaking, path creation, and path dependence stages. This study contributes to understanding the transformation process from an internal platform to an external one and thus bridges the literature on internal platforms and external platforms.
Article
This article focuses on Chinese Internet firms' overseas expansion, particularly in the European market. By relying on an exploratory approach and by conducting in-depth case studies of three high-profile firms – Alibaba (AliExpress), Tencent (WeChat) and ByteDance (TikTok), the research provides rich insights into such expansion, and more specifically, an understanding of their motives, strategies and challenges. The research contributes to the limited literature on the internationalization of Chinese service firms. While largely affirming the literature on internationalization, the multiple case study approach adopted provides rich granular insights into the distinctive motives, strategies and challenges that Chinese Internet firms can face in the European market. It identifies particular nuances that are easily missed in studies based on secondary data. In particular, two clearly distinct processes of internationalization in Europe emerge. While existing work on the internationalization of Chinese Internet firms has mostly regarded them as a cohesive and homogeneous set of companies, our findings suggest that we are dealing with two different sets of companies whose approaches toward internationalization seem to be radically different, revealing two tales of internationalization. From the findings it emerges that differently from the Internet firms that started to internationalize earlier as part of a “first wave” of internationalization, the firms that started to internationalize later as a part of a “second wave” have done so, with a significant speedier pace by also adopting a bolder internationalization strategy that shares some common features with the first movers but that also displays a remarkably higher level of sophistication. Significantly, this type of firm does not seem to suffer from any liability of any kind.
Chapter
One of the most critical roles of disaster nursing is “caring for health” in a local cultural environment. Nurses must develop an understanding of the local context of the study area to ensure a culturally appropriate program. Disaster nursing should be developed research-wise while emphasizing health and well-being’s universality on human security. These methods are organized by the interdisciplinary team focusing on finding commonality. Workable data collection will be considered for each study, which research approach will be used for data collection and analysis, whether the questions will be open-ended or structured, and whether the data analysis will focus on quantified or unquantified data. The appearance of new information and science technology means the systematic leveraging of knowledge assets. As with the definition of knowledge, strategies have diversified in recent years as computer technology has advanced data analysis and analyzes complex models that contribute to disaster and social research approaches. There is a lack of research on emergencies and disaster response, as well as a lack of comprehensive information systems and standardized global health indicators for effective decision-making and policy recommendations. Geospatial and temporal data delivery methods should be more comprehensive and indicate the role of national, local governments, local communities, and international organizations, as well as other sophisticated tools for epidemiological approaches to link environmental causes and associated diseases, because many things happen after a disaster, disaster nursing needs to be contributed to an energy source for people to do their best.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.