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La chefferie au Bénin : une résurgence ambiguë

Authors:
  • Institute de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD)
... As Gosselain (2018) explains, this narrative structure that is found in several villages in Dendi (Bako-Arifari 2000; Walther 2012; Haour 2013) is not only a reflection of the different migratory waves and the processes of the conquest of power. This opposition also reflects contemporary concerns about access to land in the context of strong land pressures and the need for political legitimacy after the upheavals caused by colonisation and the 1972 Marxist-Leninist revolution (Le Meur and Bako-Arifari 2003). In a contemporary context where the state is trying (although without much success) to impose land registers and title deeds on the inhabitants (Simonneau 2015), asserting a situation of autochthony amounts to ensuring its capacity to maintain a land property stemming from customary law. ...
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There has been an intense discourse on the relationship between inter-stakeholder university engagements, or service learning, and the broader society that South African universities claim to serve over the past decade in both local and international academia. The inherent problem within these power structures, the challenges to achieving mutually beneficial project outcomes and the growing concern of vulnerable, unheard institutional and individual voices are critical factors. The recognition of these dynamics within the emerging field of design research and design-led teaching is less nuanced in these debates. Training institutions of architecture have a rich history of undertaking service-learning initiatives to create value and learning for both the students and the stakeholders of such projects. Still, in South Africa, they are only now seen through a post-rainbow nation lens. The FeesMustFall movement is primarily driving this change. Larger institutions are recognising previously marginalised voices that now find traction in learning and practice across South Africa. This chapter reflects the author’s experience with emergent views and concerns as a researcher, lecturer and spatial design practitioner in Johannesburg. This section centres on learning regarding city-making in Southern Africa, and it presents two case studies followed by a discussion of growth opportunities.
... La situation s'est profondément transformée depuis moins d'une dizaine d'années, avec la résurgence de la chefferie entamée dès les années 1985-1986 et favorisée par le régime issu de la transition démocratique (BAKO-ARIFARI et LE MEUR, 2003). En 1992, le roi (axôsu) de Ouessè est intronisé après quatre années de vacance du poste, suivi en 1993 par celui de Gbanlin (la charge y était restée inoccupée pendant plus de quinze ans). ...
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Depuis les années 1990, de nombreux pays africains ont engagé des décentralisations administratives, soutenus en cela par les instances internationales. Ces réformes, qui s’inscrivent à une échelle globale, bousculent les équilibres antérieurs entre différents pôles de pouvoir et redéfinissent les relations entre États et sociétés civiles. À travers une décennie d’évolution, éclairée par une histoire de longue durée, des anthropologues, géographes, historiens, politistes, sociolinguistes analysent ces processus dans cinq pays d’Afrique. Ils décrivent les nouvelles formes de compétition autour des pouvoirs et du contrôle des ressources, mais soulignent aussi l’émergence de dynamiques novatrices conjuguant communautés et citoyenneté. Une mise en regard avec l’histoire de la décentralisation et la genèse des « pays » en France apporte des éclairages inattendus sur les relations Nord/Sud, du double point de vue de la circulation des modèles et de l’existence de paradoxes communs. Ce livre intéressera tous ceux – chercheurs, acteurs ou institutions – qui travaillent sur la décentralisation, et, plus largement, sur les refontes des États en temps de mondialisation.
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This paper reconsiders some categories still frequently used in the description of rural built environments in sub-Saharan Africa that have, however, been questioned in other contexts. African rural areas are associated with concepts such as the vernacular, ethnicity and tradition, and are often opposed to the modernity embodied by cities. Through these concepts, the study of architecture contributes to some extent to the essentialisation of rural communities. Through biographical trajectories of houses this paper gives a voice to inhabitants of the Dendi region, a territory located along the Niger River, on the border between Benin and Niger, and distant from major urban centres. By analysing the transformations undergone over the centuries in this region, local categories such as permanencies, disappearances, overlappings, changes of status, branchements and local innovations emerge and bring a different vision of rural built environments within a sub-Saharan region.
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Ce document rassemble les résultats du projet de recherche CLAIMS (Changes in Land Access, Institutions and Markets in West Africa), qui s’est déroulé entre 2002 et 2005, sur financement de l’Union européenne et des contributions complémentaires de DFID (Department for International Development, Grande-Bretagne) et de l’AFD (Agence Française de Développement) Existe également en français
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Full-text available
Ce document rassemble les résultats du projet de recherche CLAIMS (Changes in Land Access, Institutions and Markets in West Africa), qui s’est déroulé entre 2002 et 2005, sur financement de l’Union européenne et des contributions complémentaires de DFID (Department for International Development, Grande-Bretagne) et de l’AFD (Agence Française de Développement) Existe également en anglais
Book
Full-text available
Ce document rassemble les résultats du projet de recherche CLAIMS (Changes in Land Access, Institutions and Markets in West Africa), qui s’est déroulé entre 2002 et 2005, sur financement de l’Union européenne et des contributions complémentaires de DFID (Department for International Development, Grande-Bretagne) et de l’AFD (Agence Française de Développement) Existe également en anglais
Article
This article discusses the particular system forest charcoal production in Senegal which illustrated in the oligopoly formed by the big traditional urban farmers. Since the early 2000s, they accommodate themselves badly of decentralization laws enacted in 1996 that now allow rural councils to control access to forests within their administrative territory. Some forest management was carried out under a project funded by the World Bank. It allowed rural communities to capture a share of royalties and forest villagers themselves become producers of charcoal, compete with urban farmers. To maintain their control over access to forest resources, they have established, with traditional forest services, areas controlled output, in which a summary management plan of resource allowed them to enjoy the same tax relief as managed areas. Political gently big charcoal bosses on one side, the democratic opening of the market of charcoal on the other, could initiate changes in power relations within the sector, in which the ecological argument has finally little weight.
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