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Power and leadership in organizations: Relationships in transition

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Abstract

The trend in research on power and leadership in organizations toward greater interest in the role of followers is examined. The historical development of this trend is reviewed, along with current applications aimed at greater follower involvement in organizations. Problems and prospects of empowering subordinates are discussed, along with challenges to be met. Although power and leadership research has made notable progress in addressing questions of relevance to organizations, suggestions are offered for additional work to be done.

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... Prevalent power understandings are associated with "power over" someone or something (Gaventa, 2006;Kabeer, 2005). Hollander and Offermann (1990) define "power over" as an implicitly or explicitly dominating power force. Female empowerment, in this understanding, refers to enabling women to participate within existent economic and political structures (Rowlands, 1997) by bestowing access to both decision-making and positions of power. ...
... Rowlands (1997) defines "power to" as well as "power with" in this category. "Power to" is a form of productive power, a form of creative force for new possibilities and actions (Rowlands, 1997); "power to" enables individuals to be self-determined through powersharing (Hollander and Offermann, 1990). "Power with" refers to pursuing power in collaboration with others, with and for a group (Rowlands, 1997). ...
... Generative forms of power are not dominated by self-interest, and they involve empowerment of others and the group through individual transformations (Pratto, 2016). A fifth form of power represents "power from", which has been considered as the capacity of an individual to resist the dominance of others (Hollander and Offermann, 1990;Riger, 1993). Power from does not mean transition of power or require decision-making power and access to scarce resources (Riger, 1993). ...
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to develop an empirically informed framework to analyze women empowerment and entrepreneurship, contextualized within a collective society. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted 15 in-depth semi-structured interviews with women entrepreneurs located in the United Arab Emirates to understand their entrepreneurial experiences and how they were empowered. Findings Findings suggest that the three aspects of power characterized as “positive” from within Rowlands’ distinctions (“power to”, “power with” and “power within”) dominate, as opposed to those emphasized in the literature (“power to” and “power over”). Findings include empowerment of the “me” (individual) also synergistically contributes to empowerment of the “we” (society), when considering empowerment within a collective society. Originality/value A psychology model was used as a basis to develop a Collective Empowerment Process Framework. This framework provides a fresh look at empowerment, allowing for explanations of how women in specific contexts experience empowerment and social change.
... In addition, members of SMWTs work with minimum supervision and are more accountable for making work-related decisions and meeting organizational objectives (Hollander & Offermann, 1990). The traditional functions of the managers from planning, organizing, and coordinating are delegated to all members of the group (Goodman et al., 1988) and there are informal leaders (emanating from members of the team) as an alternative for more formally appointed or external leaders (Druskat & Wheeler, 2003;Pearce & Sims, 2000). ...
... First, skill variety pertains to the extent to which a job requires a worker to perform a broader set of tasks. SMWTs differ with hierarchical work teams because, other than executing the core production jobs, members are also primarily in control of other managerial functions such as planning and coordinating (Hollander & Offermann, 1990;Kirkman & Rosen, 1999). Second, task identity refers to the extent to which a job requires completion of a whole piece of work. ...
... Third, the feeling that the job has an impact on the organization is referred to as task significance. Because SMWTs permit members to initiate various management tasks, they perceive their job to be more substantial in contributing to the overall operation of the organization relative to only ranked authorities controlling important decisions in hierarchical work teams (Goodman et al., 1988;Hollander & Offermann, 1990). Fourth, autonomy refers to the degree to which the job provides the worker discretion as to how tasks are carried out. ...
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An emerging paradigm shift has been pervading the work climate of many contemporary organizations-the gradual reconfiguration of hierarchical work teams to self-managed work teams or SMWTs (Cohen, Ledford, & Spreitzer, 1996; Manz, 1992). Being a "loosely coupled" system, SMWTs are characterized by autonomous decision-making (Hollenbeck & Spitzmuller, 2012). This autonomy facilitates the decision-making process within the team and leads to gains in performance. Despite the growing popularity of SMWTs throughout the years, there is a paucity of research that examined the relative effectiveness of this new form of team structure than its traditional counterpart in producing high-performing work teams. A cross-sectional study investigated the team-based performance of newly implemented SMWTs versus the existing hierarchical work teams that performed the same type of work in an electronics manufacturing company in Cebu, Philippines. The findings revealed that team performance is significantly greater among process engineers in SMWTs than among process engineers in hierarchical work teams. Nonetheless, causal inferences cannot be drawn due to the cross-sectional nature of the study design. Together, insights are offered to elucidate the benefits entailed of this organizational transition from hierarchical work teams to SMWTs in enhancing team performance.
... According to Yukul (2006), power as a leadership feature is important for influencing peers, superiors, and people outside the organization. Nevertheless, power and its usage as a feature attributed to leadership needs follower involvement and not only a leader (Hollander & Offermann 1990). ...
... Despite various arguments, many scholars see a link between leadership and power (Maccoby, 1976(Maccoby, , 1981McClelland, 1975;Zaleznik & Kets de Vries, 1975;Hollander & Offermann, 1990). Power as a feature exists in three defined forms in organizational life. ...
... -Power over -Empowerment -Power from According to Hollander and Offermann (1990), dominance is the most frequent form of power that is exhibited, mentioned above as "power over". Even so, this form of power may come with the cost of damaging relationships between leader and subordinates (Kipnis,1976). ...
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Creative leadership is a rather novel topic, despite the fact that, leadership and creativity are widely researched and have gained considerable attention these last decades. Leadership and creativity are both complex and much needed processes in everyday work. Specifically, transformational leadership and creativity have traits and attributes that correlate and predict each other. Providing new ties and linkages, as well as connecting already existing attributes, traits and facets, a more complex form of understanding these two processes is proposed, thus creating options to novel and innovative knowledge. An exploratory design with mixed methods was used to answer the questions posed. The research design started with focus group discussions, in order to deeply understand the conceptions of Kosovar engineers about creative leadership, followed by the selection of instruments and quantitative data collection. The doctoral research was conducted, as follows: Four focus groups discussions, with four participants each, were conducted and followed by quantitative part, the main data collection with 182 Kosovar engineers, from whom 103 employees were from private companies and the remaining 79 were from public companies. All of the participants were engineers. Through interpretation of findings, thesis illustrates linkages between leadership and creativity. After establishing and reconfirming the relationship between these two processes, thesis provides deeper understanding of specific characteristics of personality – as one of the key dimensions of creativity and leadership, specifically transformational leadership. Furthermore, comparative analysis between other factors, such as the status of the company (public vs. private) and gender are analyzed and presented in order to have a more complete understanding of the interactions between analyzed variables. This doctoral thesis, unfolds chapter by chapter and processes described are interlined in delivering the end result.
... Therefore, situational leadership is characterised as a trait or behavioural reflection consisting of either innate skills (traits) or responses to the demands of a distinct situation. This change of direction for leadership paved the way to consider other propositions for understanding the leader-follower relationship (Hollander & Offermann, 1990). Hence, leadership theories have evolved to explore the leader-follower relationship more than leaders' personal characteristics. ...
... As a result, in the mid-1960s, two new approaches to leadership theory emerged from the situational approach: the contingency and transactional leadership models. Both models contributed to the knowledge of leadership complexity by shifting away from trait-based or situational approaches to a new dimension of leadership (Hollander & Offermann, 1990). ...
Thesis
Despite the promotion of various leadership styles based on leader-follower relationship, individual competencies, competition and goals, calls have been made for a leadership approach that is embedded in the often implicit notion of responsibility. Responsible Leadership (RL) highlights two fields of study: social responsibility and stakeholder leadership to achieve mutually beneficial business goals. RL presents an attractive and important integration of research on leadership and corporate social responsibility and offers the opportunity to provide significant advances in organisational studies. While much has been studied about social responsibility, less is known about the influence of RL on employee outcomes, such as presenteeism, organisational commitment and turnover intentions. Presenteeism is defined as attending work while being ill and unable to work, at least not at full capacity. Presenteeism costed the Australian economy $A34.1 billion (2.7% of the Gross Domestic Product) for 2009-2010 (Medibank, 2011). It is well recognised in both psychological and occupational-hazard studies but needs further exploration in the context of organisational leadership. Presenteeism indicates a substantial impact on employees’ productivity and imposes a significant economic burden both on businesses and national economies. This thesis proposes a structural model and examines the direct influence of RL on employee outcomes, including presenteeism, organisational commitment and turnover intentions. It also examines the mediating roles of both organisational commitment and employee turnover intentions on the relationship between RL and presenteeism. The proposed model was tested using a heterogeneous sample of employees from various Australian industry sectors. A web-based survey was mailed to 3500 employees and 323 responses were collected to confirm 200 complete responses. A total of 123 responses were incomplete and were therefore excluded from the findings, resulting in an overall response rate of 9.2%. Participants responded to scales measuring responsible leadership, presenteeism, organisational commitment and turnover intentions. Eight hypotheses were developed to examine the thesis aims. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to test the proposed hypotheses. The results of SEM provided support for eight hypotheses. The significant findings of the study were threefold. First, RL behaviours were negatively and significantly related to both presenteeism and employee turnover intentions in workplaces among Australian employees. The results suggest that when employees perceive their leaders to be responsible, there is greater likelihood that employees will exhibit lower presenteeism and turnover intentions at work. Second, RL was also positively and significantly related to organisational commitment. This result suggest that RL has a significant and positive influence on employees’ emotional attachments to their organisations (affective commitment) and the individual personal values (normative commitment) than their costs of resigning, such as losing attractive benefits or seniority (continuance commitment). Third, the results support the hypotheses that organisational commitment and employee turnover intentions partially mediate the relationship between RL and presenteeism. The results suggest that both organisational commitment and employees’ turnover intentions reduce the total influence of RL on presenteeism. The findings of this thesis provide valuable insights by corroborating and extending theory and research in several ways. First, the study is one of the first reported studies to test the direct and indirect relationship between RL and presenteeism with an Australian sample. Second, it empirically tests an underexplored assumption of RL theory by examining the influence of RL on employee outcomes including organisational commitment, employee turnover intentions and presenteeism. Third, the proposed model in this thesis is one of the first to examine how and why RL influences presenteeism by integrating two mediators, organisational commitment and employee turnover intentions. Fourth, several implications for practice can be highlighted including designing employee training programs to promote RL skills among managers, recognising presenteeism, incorporating organisational strategies to recover losses from presenteeism, and encouraging managers to enhance organisational commitment and reduce employee turnover intentions in organisations. In conclusion, limitations of the study are presented along with recommendations for future research. Creation Date
... Drawing from the reviews of Dinh et al. (2014), Uhl-Bien et al. (2014), and House and Aditya (1997), the main models created by leadership researchers are as follows: trait theory (Hollander and Offermann, 1990), behavioral theory (Fleishman 1953;Stodgill 1950), contingency theory (Fiedler 1981), and transformational leadership theories (Conger and Kanungo 1987). The former set emphasizes the leader, whereas relatively more recently, the attention given to the follower has increased. ...
... Although the above theories are also relational, at least implicitly, researchers have long highlighted the importance of the leader-follower duality. In this set, we may find research work carried out by, among others, Follett (1949), Hollander and Offermann (1990), and Graen et al. (1982) leader-member exchange theory, which highlights the desirability of co-working on a power-with mode, rather than on a power-over mode. ...
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Drawing from the ontology of the lack (Laclau and Mouffe 1985), aesthetic theory (Adorno 1997); practice theory (Bourdieu 2002), art perception theory (Bourdieu 1968), and storytelling theory (Boje 2001), we discuss leadership multiplicities and post-truth era phenomena. We conceptualize leadership as a heterogeneous field with an evolving incomplete set of contested narratives, at different development stages, entertained by different players. In the continuous re-occupation of the lack exists tensions, contradictions and conflicts within and between players’ narratives. This situation generates a large variability that requires acknowledgement, promotion, and some management. We relate our discussion to education. We suggest ways to create unity within diversity and resolve some of these contradictions and tensions. The concept of parallax (Zizek 2006), which offers a new gaze, illustrates how to configure sets of related leadership narratives.
... Elle représente le fait de léguer l'autorité nécessaire à l'employé pour qu'il prenne des décisions quant à la réalisation de ses tâches afin d'augmenter sa performance (Leana, 1987;Sinclair et al., 2014;Yukl & Fu, 1999). Ceci lui permet d'avoir les ressources nécessaires afin d'être responsable de certaines activités (Chen & Aryee, 2007) et d'augmenter l'utilisation de ses capacités personnelles et son autonomie (Hollander & Offermann, 1990). ...
... Il s'agit de favoriser le partage du pouvoir vers les travailleurs. Ces comportements se rattachent tous au fait de léguer l'autorité nécessaire au subalterne afin qu'il puisse prendre des décisions quant à la réalisation de ses tâches pour devenir plus autonome et favoriser l'utilisation de ses capacités personnelles (Hollander & Offermann, 1990;Leana, 1987;Sinclair et al., 2014;Yukl & Fu, 1999). D'autre part, la présente étude ne permet pas d'affirmer que l'utilisation du coaching ou de la reconnaissance comme seule pratique managériale serait efficace pour réduire l'EP. ...
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Compte tenu de la théorie de la conservation des ressources (Hobfoll, 1989), l’objectif de cette étude était de mieux comprendre les relations entre les pratiques de leadership habilitant des gestionnaires et l’épuisement professionnel de leurs employés. Deux-cent-douze travailleurs canadiens ont répondu à un questionnaire sur leur épuisement professionnel et les pratiques d'habilitation de leur gestionnaire. Les résultats révèlent que la délégation prédit une diminution significative de l’épuisement professionnel. La délégation correspond au fait de léguer davantage d’autorité et d’autonomie à l’employé dans la réalisation de ses tâches. Les interactions doubles et triples entre les dimensions du leadership habilitant sont infirmées. L’utilisation combinée des pratiques d’habilitation ne permet donc pas de maximiser l’effet apporté par la délégation. Ces résultats nuancent les propos d’études antérieures et soutiennent, pour la première fois, que la simple utilisation de la délégation contribue à prévenir l’épuisement professionnel.
... Delegation can be regarded as a leadership behavior related to employee empowerment, i.e. "in the management literature, this idea of delegation and the decentralization of decision-making power is central to the empowerment notion" (Conger and Kanungo, 1988, p. 473). In addition, leadership scholars argue that delegation may provide more JMP empowering experiences to a follower than other leadership behaviors such as participation because delegation increases followers' autonomy and discretion rather than being simply shared decision-making with a leader, as in the case of participation (Hollander and Offermann, 1990). Previous literature has further conceptualized empowerment to include both structural and psychological aspects. ...
... For example, these supervisors could be encouraged to use delegation as a means of empowering new employees to enhance their on-the-job learning and work adjustment. At the same time, however, the organization should provide a clear signal to supervisors that risks related to providing increased autonomy and decision latitude to new employees are acknowledged in the organization and that support is available to supervisors to reduce these risks (Hollander and Offermann, 1990). ...
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Purpose Organizational socialization refers to the process by which newcomers learn to perform in their role and adjust to work after organizational entry. Unfortunately, there is little knowledge regarding organizational socialization from the supervisors’ perspectives, although the importance of supervisors in newcomer socialization is one of the most robust findings in the field. The purpose of this paper is to examine how supervisors’ perceived organizational support (supervisor POS) and the quality of their working relationships with newcomers (supervisor leader-member exchange (LMX)) relate to the delegation of authority to newcomers and how delegation in turn relates to newcomers’ work adjustment. Design/methodology/approach A sample of new employees completed questionnaires that included delegation and socialization outcome measures. Supervisors evaluated their POS and the quality of their working relationships with newcomers (LMX). Findings The results showed that supervisor POS moderated the relationship between supervisor LMX and delegation. Specifically, supervisors with high POS showed delegation to newcomers irrespective of their LMX. Conversely, when supervisors’ POS was low, a high LMX was related to delegation. The results further showed that delegation was positively related to newcomers’ role clarity, organizational knowledge, and job satisfaction. Finally, the results showed indirect effects of supervisor LMX on newcomers’ role clarity and job satisfaction through delegation contingent on supervisor POS. Originality/value This study showed that a supervisor’s social exchange relations both with the organization and with a new employee are important in the delegation of authority and responsibility to a newcomer and that this delegation in turn relates to newcomers’ work adjustment.
... Empowering involved delegating decision authority and supporting that delegation. Hollander and Offermann (1990) distinguished between sharing power [participation) and distributing power (empowerment). Our data revealed that the selfmanaging work teams were merely participating until the external leader distributed power by delegating and supporting decisions. ...
Article
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We used in-depth critical incident interviews with the external leaders of self-managing work teams and their team members, and interviews and surveys provided by managers, to understand how effective leader behaviors and strategies unfold over time. Content analyses of the data produced a process model showing that effective external leaders move back and forth across boundaries to build relationships, scout necessary information, persuade their teams and outside constituents to support one another, and empower their teams to achieve success.
... We contended in the previous section that time might shape the processes and context of servant leadership, but the sole analysis of time and the one-way effect of servant leadership is not adequate to portray the servant leadership dynamics. This is true because leadership is conceptualized with the inclusion of followership (Graen & Scandura, 1987;Hollander & Offermann, 1990), meaning that followers also play a role in determining the significance of leadership. Accordingly, it is very likely that not all followers, who have a long tenure with their servant leaders, will exhibit the same level of OCB behaviors due to the impact of follower-related factors such as followers' perceptions of leadership processes and followers' psychological experiences. ...
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The purpose of this article is to contribute to the existing servant leadership literature, especially at the individual level of analysis in new settings, by examining the potential joint effects of servant leadership, dyadic duration, and job self-efficacy, with organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) as the dependent variable. We, after analyzing survey data from 148 leader–follower dyads collected from an engineering venture, find that dyadic duration is a significant moderator of the relationship between servant leadership and OCB. Furthermore, the moderating effect of dyadic duration on the relationship between servant leadership and OCB depends on job self-efficacy, such that the interaction effect is neutralized when job self-efficacy is high rather than low. The findings about interactive effects can provide useful information that will help to better deploy servant leadership in organizations to create positive follower outcomes.
... We suggest two possible theoretical explanations for this phenomenon. Inclusive leadership theory underscores that the process of leading involves accepting interdependency and reciprocity (Hollander & Offermann, 1990). To succeed in creating inclusive environments, leaders must not only give advice to others, but also ask for and support followers' ideas (Hollander, 2012). ...
Article
Background: The Classroom-as-Organization (CAO) is an experiential learning course in which students create and manage an organization as part of class activities. Student interaction with peers is an important feature of the CAO. Educators suggested that student interactions in CAOs follow certain patterns, but these observations have not been tested in empirical research. Purpose: The research focused on exploring patterns of interaction in a CAO. Methodology/Approach: Network data were collected from students and instructors at four different times during a two-semester CAO course. The authors then used social status theory, friendship formation literature, and Simulation Investigation for Empirical Network Analysis (SIENA) to test hypotheses about interactions in the CAO. Findings/Conclusions: The authors found evidence that (a) localized informal leaders emerge in the class, (b) reciprocation ties between individuals happens within, but not necessarily between departments, and (c) there is a close connection between class-related interactions and social interactions outside of the class, impacting leadership in the CAO. Implications: Instructors need to pay close attention to understanding and managing interdepartmental relationships in CAOs. Furthermore, educators may only have a limited understanding of CAO group dynamics, given that they may not have a high awareness of student social interactions outside of class.
... Fourth, power has long been recognized as a highly relevant contextual determinant of leadership enactment and outcomes (Bennis, 1984;Hollander & Offermann, 1990). In global leadership literature, virtually no attention has been devoted to power, especially when rooted in cultural dynamics. ...
Chapter
Answering to calls for further contextualizing global leadership, this study investigates power dynamics and cultural identities in global leadership in an African context. We took a grounded theory approach to investigate how a specific cultural context shapes assets and liabilities of global leaders. Drawing on our data comprising semi-structured interviews of managers of multinational enterprises operating in Ghana, we identified key assets and liabilities for being local or foreign in one’s global leadership role. Furthermore, we theorize four specific styles of leadership leveraging: identity leveraging, power leveraging, juxtapositional leveraging, and temporal leveraging. Finally, we integrated the above-mentioned elements and proposed a framework of contextualized assets and liabilities which illustrates how specific cultural context affects the assets and liabilities of localness and foreignness for global leaders, and how these assets and liabilities constitute the four styles of leveraging in such context. Implications of our findings for research and practice are discussed.
... Aligned with the classification of "power", PAR covers the desire to make informed decisions relevant to one's contexts ("power from"). It also presents the opportunity to affirm oneself against forms of oppression, which first requires detecting pervasive expressions of inequitable power relations (Hollander and Offerman, 1990). Detecting is a first step towards self-recognition beyond the eyes of the other, a self-recognition whose finality is not (only) determined by the other but negotiated with one's community. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to nurture reflections on the colonization of the future in the present with a particular focus on Africa. This paper aims at exploring how participatory research and particularly anticipatory action research can contribute to a decolonising process. Design/methodology/approach Considering the future as a public good, this paper develops a reflection on the colonization processes that can turn it into a club or a private good. This paper mobilizes the notions of participatory knowledge production and local action research as a way to decolonize the future and empower imagination. This paper revisits the tenets of participatory action research as a means to achieve this objective and discusses the main features of a non-colonial anticipatory action research in the context of African futures. Findings This paper highlights the challenges associated with connecting anticipatory endeavours focusing on action research, the creation of collective intelligence and co-design, with the intention of encouraging the decolonisation process. It includes design principles and anticipates a possible process of counter-decolonization. Research limitations/implications This is a conceptual paper, which does not provide field-tested evidence. Yet, the authors hope it serves as an input enabling to design methodologies that will prevent the colonisation of the future when engaging in future-oriented research activities in Africa and elsewhere. Originality/value This paper provides an integral approach to the colonisation of the future, as a renewed old question. This paper also connects this process with a reflection on the nature of what could be non-colonizing anticipatory action research.
... People's naive conceptions of leadership, the so-called implicit leadership theories or leader prototypes, are socially constructed conceptions about what leaders should be (Engle & Lord, 1997;Lord, Foti, & De Vader, 1984). This literature, central to research on perceived leadership attributes (e.g., Epitropaki & Martin, 2004Lord, 1985;Lord & Maher, 1993), shows that people develop prototypes outlining the traits that characterize an ideal leader and make summary judgments of leadership effectiveness based on observations of prototypical attributes (Hollander & Offermann, 1990;Lord, 1985) using both social cues and their implicit leadership theories. People, in our case analysts, have constraints in their time or ability to access relevant information about an individual's leadership capacity and find it difficult to provide an unambiguous interpretation of past acts (Podolny, 2005) and therefore resort to comparisons between the characteristics they perceive in the leader and the leader prototype they hold when evaluating leader effectiveness. ...
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In this study we investigate the effect of CEO humility on firm's market performance. We argue and find that firms with more humble CEOs will have better market performance but not because they actually perform better but, rather, because they benefit from an expectation discount in the market. Specifically, we show that, all else equal, financial analysts announce lower earnings per share expectations for firms with more humble CEOs. This expectation discount sets the stage for those firms to meet or beat analysts' expectations resulting in improved market performance for firms with humble CEOs. We find support for our ideas with a sample of Standard & Poor's (S&P) 500 CEOs, operationalizing CEO humility with a videometric technique. In this study we investigate the effect of CEO humility on firm's market performance. We show that firms with more humble CEOs will outperform other firms in the market because financial analysts tend to set lower market expectations for firms with more humble CEOs increasing the probability that they will outperform those expectations. Rather counterintuitively, these firms do not have better market performance because they perform better but because they face lower expectations. Ultimately, the study demonstrates the importance of CEO characteristics for external evaluations and perceptions about the firm with significant effects on investment performance.
... Northouse (2016) has suggested "the following components can be identified as central to the phenomenon: (a) Leadership is a process, (b) leadership involves influence, (c) leadership occurs in groups, and (d) leadership involves common goals" (p. 6). Leaders are often seen as influential and powerful individuals (Northouse, 2016), and while power is not the same as leadership, it is often seen as a feature of it (1981,Hollander & Offermann, 1990Maccoby, 1976;McClelland, 1975;Zaelznik & Kets de Vries, 1975). Northouse further elaborated upon the importance of power and its relationship with characteristics, including conscientiousness (Barrick & Mount, 1991), locus of control (Chen & Silverthorne, 2008;Judge & Bono, 2001), and self-efficacy (Judge & Bono, 2001). ...
Article
The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of the harm of abusive leadership on followers’ performance. Student-athletes (N = 145) at a US institution completed surveys. The authors used hierarchical regression analysis and an independent samples t-test to assess the hypotheses. Consistent with core self-evaluations theory, results revealed that core self-evaluations moderate the negative relationship between abusive leader behavior and student-athlete performance, such that the negative relationship is weakened for those with higher, rather than lower, levels of core self-evaluations. Results further indicated that women student-athletes are likely to have lower levels of core self-evaluations than are men, thus highlighting the potential increased impact that abusive leadership may have on women and their performance. Implications of these findings for research, theory and practice on abusive leadership and performance are discussed.
... Furthermore, next to the leader's perceptions, followers' expectations and perceptions on the leader's eff ectiveness should be taken into account (Hollander, 1992 ;Hollander & Off ermann, 1990 ). Th e followers' attributions on the leaders' eff ectiveness aff ect the followers' responses to and relation with the leaders. ...
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This study examines how leadership self-efficacy (LSE) influences leaders’ effectiveness. Furthermore, we examine whether the relationship between self-efficacy and leadership effectiveness gets stronger when task complexity decreases. Multisource data were collected from 128 banking leaders (who responded about different aspects of leadership self-efficacy, task complexity, and leadership effectiveness) and 344 subordinates (who rated their leaders’ effectiveness in performing leadership tasks). The results support the positive relationship of leadership self-efficacy (LSE) with self-reported leadership effectiveness (LE) but not with subordinate ratings of effectiveness. Task complexity did not moderate the relationship between leadership self-efficacy and leadership effectiveness. Keywords: Leadership self-efficacy, leadership effectiveness, task complexity
... The integrated governance system analysis provides an overview of interaction contexts and agency in sustainability transitions. The intra-context analysis examines intervention points that can be implemented within social units and thus requires leadership at the individual level (e.g., selfleadership, see References [44,45]), group level (e.g., emergent leadership in group processes, see References [46,47]), organizational level (e.g., leadership in organizations, e.g., References [48,49]) and policy level (e.g., distributed leadership in policy formulation, e.g., Reference [50]). The intercontext analysis examines intervention points that require cooperation between social units, such as an organization that actively relates and reshapes its context [51,52], consisting of other organizations, civil society and policy-makers, amongst others. ...
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Sustainability transitions require societal change at multiple levels ranging from individual behavioral change to community projects, businesses that offer sustainable products as well as policy-makers that set suitable incentive structures. Concepts, methods and tools are currently lacking that help to initiate and design transition governance processes based upon an encompassing understanding of such diverse interactions of actors and intervention points. This article presents a methodological framework for the initiation and design of transition governance processes. Based upon a conceptualization of sustainability transitions as multilevel learning processes, the methodological framework includes participatory modeling, a systematic literature review and governance system analysis to identify social units (learning subjects and contexts), challenges (learning objects) and intervention points (learning factors) relevant for initiating case-specific transition governance processes. A case study on sustainable food systems in Ontario, Canada is provided to exemplify the application of the methodological framework. The results demonstrate the merit of combining stakeholder-based and expert-based methods, as several learning factors identified in the participatory process could not be found in the general literature, and vice versa. The methodological framework allowed for an integrated analysis of the diversity of existing initiatives in the case study region and specific intervention points to support place-based sustainability innovations. Initiators of transition governance processes can use the results by designing targeted interventions to facilitate and coordinate existing initiatives or by setting new impulses through purposeful action.
... The growing need for firms to become flatter and flexible by reducing interference of management in the organization has also brought about the use of self-directed team, as the work is done with less supervision from the organization (Fisher, 2000). More so, rather than having supervisors to give them instructions on what and how to operate, they gather information, make decisions and achieve the set firms" objectives (Hollander and Offermann, 1990). ...
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This paper assesses the relationship between self-directed team and employee work outcome of deposit money banks operating in Rivers State, Nigeria. A survey research design was adopted with the use of structured questionnaire to collect data on the study variables. A total of 113 employees of the deposit money banks were surveyed and the data generated were analyzed through the use of t-statistics. Pearson moment correlation was used to test the stated hypotheses with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The findings showed that self-directed teams significantly influence employee work, outcome of work place productivity and customer satisfaction. It is therefore important for banks to embrace team formation I order to foster better network of customers and employees. Hence we recommend that employees join teams in the work place as it will assist them to get current and relevant information from shared perspective that will help them to satisfy customers and enhance their productivity.
... The idea of social exchange is used in many leadership theories to explain the interaction between leaders and followers, and they often conclude that leaders should rely less on the use of power, authority, and control, which clearly limit the exchange of socioemotional resources between the two parties (Hollander & Offermann 1990). Thus, the social exchange between the leader and the follower in the Western conceptualizations of leadership is one of egalitarian exchange. ...
Article
By investigating broadly a contingency approach and implicit leadership theoretical perspectives with a multilevel lens as a starting point, this review highlights the potential for Asian conceptualizations of leadership. More specifically, by highlighting the important contingent role national culture plays in influencing leadership effectiveness, we review Asian conceptualizations of leadership that exist (e.g., paternalistic leadership style, paternalism, and guanxi in the leadership setting) in the literature and the findings that have been found in a relatively selective manner. This also allows us to advance the notion of a culturally contingent leadership perspective by developing the notion of hierarchical social exchange and various modalities associated with such a relationship. By so doing, this review enables us to underscore the advantages as well as challenges associated with Asian conceptualizations of leadership as well as future research directions that need to be undertaken to more firmly establish their utility to general leadership literature.
... 118-119). Other notable contributions outlining charismatic behaviors are Hollander and Offermann (1990) and Waldman, Ramirez, House, and Puranam's (2001) tri-fold perspectives which included (a) attitude and behavior, (b) situation, and (c) observers' characteristics and (a) articulating a vision and mission, (b) showing determination, and (c) high performance expectations, respectively (as cited in Wu & Wang, 2012, p. 4071). ...
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The conception of culture serves as a primary issue within both organization and leadership research. Examination of organizational leadership and culture provides researchers with comprehensive tools to better understand effective leadership within an increasingly globalized organizational context. Amidst the broad spectrum of leadership theory are the subsequent conceptions of three leadership theories: (a) autocratic leadership, (b) paternalistic leadership, (c) charismatic leadership. A deeper understanding of organizational leadership and its varied application and effectiveness requires fastidious consideration of the social, cultural and in some cases religious contexts in which leadership exists. The three selected theories are placed against the cultural contextual framework of Confucian Asia (China), Sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America (Mexico) as representatives of many cultural dimensions identified within the GLOBE study. Therefore, the primary objective of this investigation is to review the development of specific leadership theories and cross-cultural values informed by their application or prevalence within three selected collectivist regions. Ultimately, the research findings support the contentions of some scholars, that while the nexus of organizational leadership theories should be cross-culturally static, the reality of shifting ideals relative to interface with a diverse global marketplace, presents differing behaviors across cultures and in some cases within regional cultural clusters.
... Great Man Theory gave rise to Trait Theory in 1920s and 1930s. Carlys' work inspired Francis Galton for evolution of Trait Theory (Hollander & Offermann, 1990). ...
Thesis
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There are not direct studies about relation between transformational leadership and institutionalization. Hence, contrubition to the field was aimed from this point and the study is valuable in the name of contributing to the field about relation between two variables. Due to detailed analyses made between transformational leadership and institutionalization, researchers will be chance to be able to reach a direct study in the field. Institutionalization of the companies is important for standardization of rules, procedures and processes. Companies have to cope with challenges resulted from globalized competitiveness. Successful struggle with competitiveness necessitates adapting useful changes to the institution. However, how institutionalization can be achieved? Can institutionalization take place without any intervention? In the study, it is asserted that institutionalization cannot be achieved by itself; but a person, which is specified as transformational leader has an important role for this. Hence, the research is important in terms of deciding role of the leader in the companies for durability of them. It cannot be ignored that durable institutions are one of the key elements of economic development of the country. You can benefit from the work; but please, by quoting and by referring to the thesis in the name of academic ethical rules.
... The perception of Department Head may greatly effect on leadership behavior. These perceptions set up expectancies that may affect the leader's own sense of latitude to take or not take actions affecting followers [11]. The follower perceptions are a significant way in determining the leader behavior that may serve as constraint or check. ...
... Other criticisms assert that studies employing such approaches have adopted inherently vertical leadership (VL) themes, such as transactional, directive and empowering leadership (D'Innocenzo et al. 2016), all of which imply a vertical leader-follower relationship (Pearce and Manz 2005). D 'Innocenzo et al. (2016) question whether such leadership theories are adequate to explain instances of leadership outside downward leadership influence, suggesting that shared leaders who do not have the formal authority to lead (Hollander and Offermann, 1990) may lead in different ways. ...
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The importance of context has been well established in studies of leadership (Bryman, A. and Stephens, M. (1996). The importance of context: qualitative research and the study of leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 7, pp. 353–371; Pettigrew, A. and Whipp, R. (1991). Managing Change for Competitive Success. Oxford: Blackwell). However, recent reviews of shared leadership have tended to merge findings across commercial and non‐commercial settings, disregarding contextual differences in these distinctive domains. Acknowledging that the challenges of leadership may vary in different organizational contexts, this paper argues that a focused review of shared leadership in commercial organizations (COs) is needed. The authors thus systematically review findings from over twenty years of empirical research on the practice of shared leadership in commercial organizations, critically reviewing definitions, theoretical dispositions and measurement approaches adopted in the field, before evaluating the impact of shared leadership on performance in this context. Findings from commercial and non‐ commercial organizations are then compared, highlighting significant differences in the conceptualization of shared leadership in these distinct settings. Contributing to theory in this field, a framework is developed, mapping the landscape of current research in commercial contexts, revealing critical gaps in our present understanding of shared leadership processes. Consequently, a model summarizing a proposed research agenda for future studies is provided, highlighting the need for such research to focus on the interactions of individuals as they share in the leadership of their team.
... However, there are a number of different meanings to the term "empowerment." Most management definitions of empowerment are centered on a shared responsibility, (49) authority and control, (50)(51)(52) and competence and impact. (53,54) Other definitions focus on providing organizational information and knowledge so employees can influence organizational performance and direction. ...
Technical Report
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The implementation of onboard safety monitoring (OSM) systems involves more than installing the technology in vehicles. It requires detailed planning and involvement from all levels within a fleet. Furthermore, criticism and resistance can be expected when implementing an OSM device. The purpose of this project is to provide a manual for use by fleet management personnel prior to implementing an OSM technology (or for carriers that have implemented an OSM device but who are having problems achieving results). This manual is a practical, easy-to-understand reference guide for implementing an OSM program. It includes an overview of safety culture, a step-by-step guide for implementing a behavior-based safety (BBS) program in conjunction with an OSM device, and provides a list of commercially available OSM systems.
... Empowerment aims to eliminate the barriers as much as possible in order to free up the organization and the people who work in them, releasing them from obstacles that only slow down the reaction and inhibit their action (Stewart, 1998) (14). According to Hollander and Offerman (1990) (15) is similar to the empowerment of participatory decision making but also very different. Participation in decision making ranging from manager ask the opinion of the manager of a handful of workers to involve all employees in a group decision-making. ...
Article
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The research objective to be achieved is to analyze the effect of job stress, job satisfaction, empowerment work on intention to stay. The study was conducted on 150 insurance agents 1912 in Surabaya. Analysis of data by using multiple regression and t-test as a test of the hypothesis. Research shows that higher levels of work stress experienced by the insurance agent will not dampen the agents are to remain and work in the insurance company AJB Bumiputera 1912. Perception insurance agent job satisfaction experienced by the insurance agent into the motivational factors that may increase the desire for remained. The better the psychological empowerment that arise in the insurance agent, the higher the desire of the agents are to remain and work in AJB Bumiputera. Job satisfaction is produced as the main predictor of AJB Bumiputera insurance agent wishes to stay.
... Leadership is also not the same as power; however, leadership involves the use of power (Northouse, 2016). Hollander and Offermann (1990) suggested there are only three forms of power in leadership: "implicit or explicit dominance, empowerment, and resistance to the power of others" (p. 179). ...
... Apesar dos problemas que costumam ocorrer, a burocracia é muito importante para uma estrutura organizacional.Para se ter uma boa estrutura organizacional, é relevante observar o lado formal citado acima, assim como o lado informal, já que o setor público lida diretamente com pessoas. O lado formal garante o controle dos procedimentos, já o lado informal diz respeito a uma melhor comunicação e a motivação dos agentes organizacionais (ANNOSI; BRUNETTA, 2018;HOLLANDER;OFFERMANN, 1990). Como o ser humano não é motivado unicamente por valores materiais, mas também por valores emocionais, os grupos ganham notoriedade no processo de desenvolvimento organizacional(OLIVEIRA, 2006). ...
... Power has been shown to be a critical element in social relations (French & Raven, 1959). It can increase satisfaction within individual relationships (Gray-Little & Burks, 1983) and with the broader social context (e.g., job satisfaction in organizational theory ;Hollander & Offermann, 1990;Laschinger, Purdy, & Almost, 2007;Spreitzer, 1995). It is a complex, multidetermined construct that manifests in a variety of ways (Anderson & Galinsky, 2006;Brezsnyak & Whisman, 2004;Emerson, 1962;French & Raven, 1959;Galinsky et al., 2003;Keltner et al., 2003), including in terms of how it is perceived. ...
Article
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Shared consumer decisions, particularly those made with a relationship partner, can be very different from decisions that are made alone. Across multiple studies, we investigate how shared consumer decision making affects perceptions of power and relationship satisfaction. We integrate two streams of research to create a novel theory about consumer decision making and perceived power. Specifically, we suggest that shared consumer decision making combines two necessary components of power—an individual’s influence over and a partner’s engagement in the decision—and that these combined components drive power perceptions. In other words, individuals who relinquish some control and make a decision with their partner, ironically, perceive having greater power than if they had made the decision alone. We further find that shared decision making and greater perceived power lead to greater satisfaction with the relationship in which the decisions are made. By focusing on consumer decision making within relationships, the current research contributes to the literatures on decision making, social influences in consumer behavior, close relationships, consumer well‐being, and power.
... Similarly, "the effects of congruence in implicit theories should be greater for perceivers who are schematic with respect to an implicit theory" (Engle & Lord, 1997). Thus, leadership depends on both leader and follower (Graen & Scandura, 1987;Hollander & Offermann, 1990), and a follower's selfconcept is an important predictor of the followers' behavior and perception of the leader (Lord, Brown, & Freiberg, 1999). Moreover, how followers' perceive leaders becomes even more important because leadership has been associated with organizationally relevant outcomes such as follower attitudes, performance, or motivation (Kelloway et al., 2012). ...
... c) Participation -employees have considerable influence over decision-making (e.g., Miller &Monge, 1986;Hollander & Offerman, 1990;Heller, Pusi, Strauss, & Wilpert, 1998). ...
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The organizational climate plays a vital role in determining the organizational performance. In supportive organization climate, the attrition rate will be low, which will result in higher productivity that all would motivate the employees to perform enthusiastically. Employees will utilize their knowledge and skills in everything they design, develop and serve. Organizational climate is an essential element of IT companies if the value and potential of its people is to be harnessed and grown. The most important issue in the IT sector are employee turnover and attrition. When employees are happy with their climate of the organization, they are committed to stay with the organization and are unwilling to exit from their current job. The purpose of the study is to assess the impact of demographic variables on discernment of organizational climate in Information Technology industries in Chennai city using inferential analysis tools such as Chi-square test, independent sample t test, One-way ANOVA, Correlation analysis and Friedman Test. The results of the study revealed that there is impact of demographic variables on discernment of organizational climate in Information Technology industries.
... Today academics and professionals have come to recognize that leadership is a process that includes not only leaders, but also followers and the context (Hollander, 1992;Kellerman, 2004;Lord Brown, 2004;Padilla, Hogan, Kaiser, 2007). Although the role of the followers has been studied less than that of the leaders, their role in the leadership process is now obviously important (Baker, 2007;Boccialetti, 1995;Carsten al, 2010;Carsten Uhl-Bien, 2013;then Cornelis, 2012and Camps al, 2012, as cited in Crossman Crossman, 2011Den Hartog Koopman, 2005;Hollander, 1992;Hollander Offermann, 1990;Keller, 1999;Lord Brown, 2004;Meindl, 1995;Nye, 2005;Offerman al, 1994;Sy, 2010;Uhl-Bien, 2005;and Yukl, 2005). Following a review of the literature on "followership", Baker (2007) suggests that the definitions of "followership" are better seen as relational roles, a perspective shared by Kelley (1998, cited in Crossman Crossman 2011. ...
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The new concept of “interpersonal pollution” and its antecedents and effects, i.e. on organizational members’ health and well-being and on organizational outcomes are investigated. Building upon this work this presentation proposes a model and tentative definition of a broader construct, i.e. “organizational pollution”, and identifies its potential antecedents and explores its impact on humans’ health and well-being and organizational outcomes. In particular our model explores the roles played by leaders’ and members’ dark personalities and lack of environmental concern, by unethical leadership, by both the characteristics of the community and the organization, including the latter’s physical and ethical environment, and finally their link to organizational pollution. This new model implications for organizational and environmental psychology are discussed.
... Differences in national cultural values influence the implementation of management and leadership skills in strategic alliances. National culture influences top organizational leadership which in turn permeates the design of organizational cultures and define managerial and leadership styles in the strategic alliance (Hollander and Offermann, 1990;Likert, 1961;Pothukuchi et al., 2002). ...
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This paper is aimed to analyze some of the institutional and cultural implications on internationalization analysis of multinational firms. The analysis begins questioning what the main institutional and cultural variables are considered in the involvement of internationalization of multinational firms. To answer this question, firstly it is reviewed the literature on internationalization of multinational firms based on institutional and cultural frameworks to find the main research tendencies. Secondly, these institutional and cultural variables are analyzed to integrate findings. Considering some findings of the reviewed literature on institutionalism and culture, this paper centers the analysis on the implications of intangible capital, learning and innovation on multinational firms. This paper also explores a more dynamic and multivariable approach to organizational culture to explain the complexities of multicultural distributed teams and contextual factors on performance of multinational firms. While doing so, the paper reviews the involvement of organizational culture in internationalization processes of multinational firms centered on strategic alliances and joint ventures and the creation of a third culture of management and leadership styles. Finally, it is discussed and concluded the need to design a better institutional and cultural balance among the development of a local-regional transformation, convergence and governance.
... Blau [97] argued that the SET could be used to explain the influence of leadership on human interactions. In addition, Hollander and Offermann [98] confirmed the importance of social exchange between leaders and subordinates through their mutual influence and interpersonal perception. In other words, the ability of individuals to behave in a manner consistent with their identity and to refer to others' identity may be influenced by the social context. ...
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Benevolent leadership has emerged as a contemporary leadership style that has been studied only scantly. To fill this gap, this work has two goals. The first is the identification and assessment of the relationship between benevolent leadership and employees’ affective commitment in the context of Polish organizations. Secondly, it will be investigated whether all constructs of benevolent leadership contribute to affective commitment. Data were obtained from 415 company employees. The relationships were investigated using structural equation models (SEMs). Analyses of the results showed that benevolent leadership has a positive relationship with affective commitment. The more benevolent leadership qualities a supervisor has, the more commitment employees show. All dimensions of benevolent leadership are positively correlated with affective commitment. However, the greatest was found in the “community dimension.” All analyzed dimensions correlate positively with each other, so there is a high probability that if a leader displays one BL dimension, he will also display another.
... Empowering involved delegating decision authority and supporting that delegation. Hollander and Offermann (1990) distinguished between sharing power (participation) and distributing power (empowerment). Our data revealed that the selfmanaging work teams were merely participating until the external leader distributed power by delegating and supporting decisions. ...
Article
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The use of self-managing work teams (SMWTs) has increased dramatically in the last decade. Despite this increase, the question of how to effectively lead SMWTs remains unanswered. This paper presents an inductive grounded theory building study that incorporates multiple sources of information from the respective constituents, i.e., the external team leader, the team members, and senior management. More specifically, the research questions asked about: 1) the behaviors commonly used by external leaders as they carry out their role, 2) how, when, and why they engage in specific behaviors, and 3) the link between specific leader behavior and team effectiveness. To answer these questions two research methodologies were blended: the comparative case study method and grounded theory. In doing so, we were able to determine empirically the leadership behaviors exhibited by external leaders of SMWTs that most support multidimensional leader effectiveness. A conceptual model of the full leadership process is presented. It suggests that the external leader role exists on the boundary between the broader organization and the teams for which the leader is held responsible. Further, the model suggests that there are 13 behaviors that define the leadership role. These fall into four clusters: relating, scouting, persuading, and empowering. Twelve of these behaviors representing all four dimensions were found to support superior leadership performance. Findings also suggest that behaviors involved in supporting team self-management and external boundary management are the most critical to leader success.
... In traditional researches relating to team, IPO (input-process-output) model was proposed by McGrath [5][6][7] in 1964 and is the framework which is most commonly used. Input is a factor influencing team effectiveness, process is interactive process among team members and output means team effectiveness. ...
... The past decade has seen an interest in "transactional and transformational leadership theories" (Bennis & Nanus, 1985;Hollander & Offerman, 1990;Y ammarino & Bass, 1990). The basic difference in these two models is in the process by which the leader is thought to motivate followers. ...
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Človek prežíva svoj život v kontakte s inými ľuďmi v skupinách. Rodí sa do skupiny, obvykle v podobe rodiny a celý život je spojený s rôznymi primárnymi a sekundárnymi skupinami. Rodina je prvá skupina, ktorá zabezpečuje jeho socializáciu, poskytuje mu sociálnu oporu a pomáha mu zvládať záťažové situácie. Je to miesto, ktoré poskytuje ochranu a pomoc aj v tých najťažších chvíľach. Je to miesto bezpečia, opory a porozumenia. Jednotlivec sa aj po opustení rodiny v ďalšom svojom živote zapája do ďalších skupín, v ktorých prebieha jeho socializácia. Začleňovanie sa do skupín sa deje buď na základe spoločenskej požiadavky, alebo dobrovoľného rozhodnutia jednotlivca. Medzi ďalšie skupiny môžeme zaradiť skupiny v materskej škôlke, základnej škole, záujmových krúžkoch, rovesnícke skupiny, pracovné skupiny, svojpomocné skupiny a ďalšie. Vo všetkých týchto skupinách prebieha proces začleňovania, ktorý je zameraný na to, aby sa jednotlivec stal členom skupiny. Proces začleňovania je spojený s prijímaním skupinových noriem, hodnôt a cieľov, prijatím spôsobov skupinového života a podriadením sa skupinovým sankciám. V prostredí skupín si jednotlivec vytvára aj individuálne vzťahy. Skupina sa tak stáva naším sprievodcom, ktorý nám pomáha v osobnom raste, ale zároveň nás aj obmedzuje počas celého nášho života. Skupina nie je len sociálnym fenoménom, ale aj metódou práce, ktorá sa uplatňuje najmä v pomáhajúcich profesiách. Je to metóda, ktorá je čoraz viac využívaná pre prácu s rôznorodými klientskymi skupinami. Skupinu využívajú ľudia pri realizácii svojich záujmov a potrieb, riešení svojich problémov. Na tento účel vzniká veľké množstvo špecificky orientovaných skupín akými sú záujmové skupiny, vzdelávacie skupiny, zážitkové skupiny, skupiny zamerané ochranársky, skupiny zamerané na environmentálne otázky, skupiny s politickým zameraním, extrémistické skupiny, ale aj skupiny so špecifickým zameraním ako svojpomocné skupiny, podporné skupiny, terapeutické či iné skupiny. Obdobne skupinu využívajú aj pomáhajúci profesionáli, či iní odborníci pri analyzovaní problémov, podpore riešenia problémov, sebazdokonaľovaní, či rozvoji vzťahov a zručností. Poznanie skupiny z pohľadu jej vzniku, štruktúry, obsahových veličín, vývojových fáz, limitujúcich faktorov, vzťahov a rozhodovacieho procesu je predpokladom pre orientáciu sa v problematike skupín a ich využívaní pri práci so skupinou. Monografia ponúka ucelený pohľad na problematiku skupín a práce so skupinou a to s príslušnými odporúčaniami, ktoré sa týkajú vodcu skupiny, ale aj členov skupiny. Vychádza z najnovších poznatkov, ktoré modifikujú klasický pohľad na prácu so skupinou ale aj na skupinu ako takú. Monografiu vhodne dopĺňajú výsledky z praktického výkonu práce so skupinou a výskumov, ktoré sa v tejto oblasti uskutočnili. Monografia využíva realizované výskumy, ich empirické výsledky a praktický výkon práce so skupinou. Ponúka ucelený pohľad na sociálnu skupinu, na ktorú nazerá ako na prirodzenú súčasť ľudského života, Preto venuje pozornosť inštitútom, ktoré štrukturuju skupinu, ovplyvňujú jej tvorbu a rozvoj. Pred čitateľom monografie sa postupne otvárajú jednotlivé inštitúty, ktorých poznanie je nevyhnutné nielen pre tvorbu a rozvoj skupiny, ale aj samotnej práce so skupinou. Aplikovanie poznatkov na špecifické podmienky každej skupiny sú ponechané už na čitateľovi, ktorý si musí uvedomiť, že úspech či neúspech v skupinách, v ktorých vedie sociálny život, súvisí s jeho napĺňaním životných cieľov. Monografia sa neorientuje len na jednu oblasť poznania alebo na jednu oblasť, v ktorej je využívaná práca so skupinou. Poskytuje poznanie tak, aby našlo široké uplatnenie pri práci s rodinou, klientskymi skupinami, záujmovými skupinami, pracovnými skupinami, zážitkovými skupinami, ale i v prípade riešenia špecifických problémov prostredníctvom na to uspôsobených skupín.
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In this paper, we consider the classic multidimensional consumer empowerment construct and modify it for application in the retail business. We provide an empirical basis for the store strategy using retail shopper empowerment scores. We propose a measure of retail shopper empowerment with appropriate psychometric properties as a consumer-centric and nonfinancial performance metric. By using the retail shopper empowerment metric, the retailers would have an understanding of the consumer preferences regarding store experience. We posit that it is possible to improve customer experience and, in turn, the financial performance of the store by implementing and modifying the retail shopper empowerment framework.
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This study took the employees working in the institutional food service of schools in northern Taiwan as subjects to explore the influences of leadership style and organizational climate on food safety and hygiene behaviors. In this study, 400 questionnaires were distributed and 324 valid questionnaires were collected, for a valid return rate of 81%. The results showed that leadership style and organizational climate positively correlate with employees' behaviors with respect to food safety and hygiene. Transactional and transformational leadership have a significantly positive effect on organizational climate. Organizational climate has a significantly positive impact on employees' food safety and hygiene behaviors. Transactional and transformational leadership have a significantly positive effect on employees' food safety and hygiene behaviors, but the difference between the two factors is not obvious. Organizational climate has a complete mediating effect on the process of transactional and transformational leadership affecting food safety and hygiene behaviors. The leadership style and organizational climate positively correlate with employees' behaviors with food safety and hygiene. Transactional leadership and transformational leadership have a significantly positive effect on organizational climate, and organizational climate has a significantly positive impact on employees' food safety and hygiene behaviors. Organizational climate has a complete mediating effect on the process of leadership affecting food safety and hygiene behaviors.
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Teksty opublikowane w numerze tematycznym Przeglądu Kulturoznawczego, przesłane w odpowiedzi na CfP: https://bit.ly/3aMGi9q /// Texts published in the thematic issue of Cultural Studies Review, in a response to the CfP: https://bit.ly/3obQzPr /// Redakcja merytoryczna: Michał Pałasz /// Edited by: Michal Palasz /// Przegląd Kulturoznawczy (Cultural Studies Review) 1 (47) 2021
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Liderlikle ilgili yaklaşımlar ve çalışmalar, uzun zamandır gerek iş hayatında gerekse ilgili akademik yazında, lideri de izleyicilerini de yüksek oranda farklılaşan rolleri ile tanımlamaya devam etmektedir. Geleneksel kuramcılardan Weber (1947) liderlik yaklaşımlarını baskın bir tepe yönetimiyle açıklarken, Fayol (1949) otoriteyi emir verme hakkını elde etmek ve bu hakla beraber çalışanların emirlere uymasını sağlama gücü olarak tanımlamıştır. Ancak Fayol, yöneticinin görevinden dolayı elde ettiği otorite ile zekâsı, deneyimi, ahlakı, liderlik edebilme becerisi ve geçmişte neler yaptığı gibi kişisel durumlardan gelen otorite arasındaki farka da dikkat çekmiştir. Sonraları, özellikle Ohio ve Michigan Üniversitelerinde yürütülen çalışmaların önderliğinde liderliğin kişilerarası etkileşim ve davranış boyutlarına odaklanılmıştır (Hollander and Julian, 1969). Değişen konjonktürler ve koşullarda, liderliğin etkisine ve tanımına dair tek bir reçete veya genel bir yaklaşımda karar kılınamadığı için durumsallık yaklaşımları (Fiedler, 1967) ortaya konulmuştur (Davis ve Luthans 1979). Tüm bu çalışmaların ortak olarak karar kıldığı liderlik tanımı, liderin etkileşimde bulunduğu çalışanları etkileyebilme kabiliyeti olarak yazında yer alır. Genel olarak, lider, etki yaratarak örgüt için iyi sonuçlar almayı hedefler. Bunun sürdürülmesi önemlidir ve burada güç olgusu devreye girer. Örgütlerde güç, belli bir kişinin veya departmanın diğerlerini etkileyerek, istenen sonuçları elde etmesi olarak tanımlanır (Salancik ve Pfeffer, 1974). Güç, genel olarak etki yaratmada önemli bir unsur olarak karşımıza çıkar (French ve Raven, 1959). Bu da gücün, resmi bir pozisyondan kaynaklansın ya da kaynaklanmasın, liderlikle olan ilişkisini, özellikle de takımları etkileyebilme ve olumlu sonuçlar yaratabilme açısından ortaya koyar (Tost vd., 2013). Bu noktadan hareketle, bu bölümde, liderlik ve gücün etkili iş sonuçlarına ulaşmadaki rolü tartışılacaktır. Dolayısıyla ilerleyen başlıklarda, liderlik, liderliğin güç ile olan ilişkisi, bu ilişkinin etkili iş sonuçlarına dönüşmesinin sebepleri ve son olarak da Türk kültüründe etkili liderlik yaklaşımları ele alınacaktır.
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Το ζήτημα της ηγεσίας απασχολεί πολύ τη σχετική βιβλιογραφία: αναπτύσσονται νέες θεωρίες, προτείνονται νέα μοντέλα διοίκησης και διεξάγονται συνεχώς έρευνες επιβεβαίωσής τους. Ωστόσο, η ηγεσία ως ξεχωριστό είδος χαρισματικότητας δεν έχει τύχει μεγάλης προσοχής, ούτε από άποψη έρευνας ούτε από αυτή της ανάπτυξης προγραμμάτων εκπαίδευσης χαρισματικών ατόμων. Επιπλέον, δεν υπάρχει ομοφωνία ως προς τη σχέση μεταξύ ηγετικής ικανότητας και χαρισματικής συμπεριφοράς. Η παρούσα εργασία επιχειρεί να δείξει τις διαφορές της χαρισματικής από άλλες μορφές ηγεσίας, με βάση κοινωνικοσυναισθηματικές, συμπεριφορικές και παιδαγωγικές διαστάσεις. Επιχειρείται μια εκτενής βιβλιογραφική επισκόπηση της σχετικής αρθρογραφίας και βιβλιογραφίας, με σκοπό τη διερεύνηση των παραμέτρων που καθιστούν ένα άτομο «χαρισματικό» ηγέτη. Γίνεται προσπάθεια να αποσαφηνιστούν κρίσιμοι όροι και να απαντηθούν καίρια ερωτήματα: Τι είναι χαρισματικότητα; Τι είναι ηγετική ικανότητα; Υπάρχει το χάρισμα της ηγεσίας; H ηγετική ικανότητα προέρχεται από χάρισμα ή είναι επίκτητη; Η ηγεσία μπορεί να διδαχθεί; Παράλληλα, διερευνώνται τα χαρακτηριστικά του «χαρισματικού» ηγετικού στελέχους και της συμπεριφοράς του, ώστε να ελεγχθεί η άποψη ότι η «χαρισματική» ηγεσία ενέχει αρνητικές συνδηλώσεις.
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