Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Geum Coccineum

To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... 9,11 Previous works have shown that plants species belonging to the Geum genus produce ellagitannins, gallotannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, and phenylpropanoids. [12][13][14] Ellagitannins (tellimagrandin, stachyurin, casuarynin, gemin A, and ellagic acid derivatives), procyanidins (procyanidin B 3 , procyanidin C 2 , and catechin derivatives), gallic acid and its derivatives, steroids, and triterpenoids were isolated from the roots of G. urbanum. 11,[15][16][17][18] To our knowledge, the antioxidant and antielastase potency of G. urbanum aerial parts and their relation to chemical composition have not been reported. ...
... After 13 C NMR analyses of EAF [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] , all spectra of the fraction series were processed and submitted to hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) for the recognition of the similarity between emergence profiles of 13 C NMR peaks throughout the fractionation process. In this way, 13 C NMR signals belonging to the same compounds were grouped to build "chemical shift clusters" represented in the heat map drawn in Figure 1. As a result, 13 major chemical shift clusters corresponding to the major metabolites of the EAF (Figure 1), colored in yellow, were revealed by the heat map. ...
Full-text available
This study presents the bioguided chemical investigation of the 80% aqueous methanol extract of Geum urbanum aerial parts. Liquid–liquid partitioning of this extract in solvents of increasing polarity combined with biological screening showed that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) soluble fraction was the most active part of the extract. This fraction was chemically profiled by a 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based dereplication method, resulting in the identification of 14 compounds. The dereplication process was followed by the purification of unknown and minor compounds of the EtOAc fraction. A new glycosylated phenol, namely, 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propyl-α-l-rhamnopyranoside, together with 6 known compounds were isolated. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including NMR and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activity of fractions and isolated compounds were evaluated by 2,2,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radical scavenging, and by cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity assays. In parallel, their enzyme inhibitory property against human neutrophil elastase was assessed. Four subfractions, essentially containing polyphenols and triterpenes, exhibited a significant elastase inhibitory activity and an ellagitannin showed a very high radical scavenging activity.
... Chromatographic fingerprinting is an analytical tool, which can be applied beside diverse other approaches and different analytical techniques for authenticity testing and detection of adulteration in general, and, in particular, for detecting adulteration of EOs [2]. Nevertheless, GC-MS is the most used characterization technique which provides the possibility to identify the EOs components based on comparison of experimental mass spectra with data stored in database libraries [5][6][7][8]. However, ambiguous identifications can be obtained for co-eluting compounds that give similar spectra, reducing the possibility to achieve a complete characterization of the compounds under investigation [9]. ...
Static headspace gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (SHS GC-IMS) is a relatively new analytical technique that has considerable potential for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, SHS GC-IMS was used for the identification of the major terpene components of various essential oils (EOs). Based on the data obtained from 25 terpene standards and 50 EOs, a database for fingerprint identification of characteristic terpenes and EOs was generated utilizing SHS GC-IMS for authenticity testing of fragrances in foods, cosmetics, and personal care products. This database contains specific normalized IMS drift times and GC retention indices for 50 terpene components of EOs. Initially, the SHS GC-IMS parameters, e.g., drift gas and carrier gas flow rates, drift tube, and column temperatures, were evaluated to determine suitable operating conditions for terpene separation and identification. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used as a reference method for the identification of terpenes in EOs. The fingerprint pattern based on the normalized IMS drift times and retention indices of 50 terpenes is presented for 50 EOs. The applicability of the method was proven on examples of ten commercially available food, cosmetic, and personal care product samples. The results confirm the suitability of SHS GC-IMS as a powerful analytical technique for direct identification of terpene components in solid and liquid samples without any pretreatment.
Full-text available
Fungal food spoilage plays a key role in the deterioration of food products, and finding a suitable natural preservative can solve this problem. Therefore, antifungal activity of green mandarin (Citrus reticulata) essential oil (GMEO) in the vapor phase against the growth of Penicillium (P.) expansum and P. chrysogenum inoculated on wheat bread (in situ experiment) was investigated in the current research. The volatile compounds of the GMEO were analyzed by a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS), and its antioxidant activity was determined by testing free radical-scavenging capacity (DPPH assay). Moreover, the disc diffusion method was used to analyze the antifungal activity of GMEO in in vitro conditions. The results demonstrate that the Citrus reticulata EO consisted of α-limonene as the most abundant component (71.5%), followed by γ-terpinene (13.9%), and β-pinene (3.5%), and it displayed the weak antioxidant activity with the value of inhibition 5.6 ±0.7%, which corresponds to 103.0 ±6.4 µg TEAC.mL-1. The findings from the GMEO antifungal activity determination revealed that values for the inhibition zone with disc diffusion method ranged from 0.00 ±0.00 (no antifungal effectiveness) to 5.67 ±0.58 mm (moderate antifungal activity). Finally, exposure of Penicillium strains growing on bread to GMEO in vapor phase led to the finding that 250 μL.L-1 of GMEO exhibited the lowest value for mycelial growth inhibition (MGI) of P. expansum (-51.37 ±3.01%) whose negative value reflects even supportive effect of the EO on the microscopic fungus growth. On the other hand, GMEO at this concentration (250 μL.L-1) resulted in the strongest inhibitory action (MGI: 54.15 ±1.15%) against growth of P. chrysogenum. Based on the findings it can be concluded that GMEO in the vapor phase is not an effective antifungal agent against the growth of P. expansum inoculated on bread; however, its antifungal potential manifested against P. chrysogenum suggests GMEO to be an appropriate alternative to the use of chemical inhibitors for bread preservation.
Plants have been utilized for health and medicinal benefits for hundreds of years due to their multiple beneficial attributes such as anticancer, antitumor, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antibacterial, anti-ulcer, anti-arthritic, etc. It has been estimated that there are altogether 250,000 species of higher plants on Earth and among them 35,000–70,000 species are being used to treat various diseases due to the presence of secondary metabolites (alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, glycosides, saponins, etc.). Cancer is a worldwide leading cause of morbidity and mortality. To cure this at right time, herbal drugs are more beneficial than synthetic drugs, because the synthetic medicines can cause heavy damage to normal cells while destroying the tumor cells. The present work consists of a review of 149 plant families harboring 667 species reported to possess anticancer property. Moreover, other biological properties of the bioactive compounds are also covered. This work is based on reliable data collected from multifarious databases such as CAB abstract, MEDLINE, EMBASE, J GATE, ERIC, Proquest, INMEDPLAN, NATTS, The Plant List, JSTOR, Google Scholar, Springer, Elsevier, and websites such as,,, and The complete data regarding plant names, synonyms, common names, botanical description, medicinal properties, and bioactive compounds present in the plant parts is compiled. In near future, these bioactive compounds can be deployed singly or in combination with routine chemotherapy and radiotherapy to treat various types of cancers, after proper standardization, dose optimization, and stringent clinical trials.
Full-text available
On the valorization of spontaneous plants to contribute to organic agriculture, a biological study was undertaken by using the aqueous extract of Zygophyllum album (family of Zygophyllaceae), collected from Southeastern Algeria. Three levels of treatment (100%, 50%, and 25%) diluted from the extracted solution of this plant were tested on larvae (IN = 30) and adults (IN = 30) of tomato borer Tuta absoluta. This work reveals larval mortality rates of 7.5 ± 0.58% after 24 h, 12.50 ± 2.38% after 48 h, 30 ± 4.08% after 72 h, 40 ± 4.08% after 96 h, and 42.5 ± 6.45% after 120 h, although, with 50% of the crude extract, values of 20 ± 5.77%, 40 ± 4.08%, 50 ± 4.08%, 65 ± 5.77%, and 70 ± 4.58% were recorded at the same test durations, respectively. When a 25% dose of this solution was used, a mortality rate of 35 ± 8.16% was noted after 24 h and exceeds double (77.5 ± 8.66%) in 120 h. These data show that the toxicity of Z. album aqueous extract against T. absoluta increases with time and from the highest dose to the smallest one. Females of T. absoluta lay only 10 ± 3.54 to 19 ± 3.61 eggs/leaflet on treated tomato leaves, but a double amount was recorded on the control (37.25 ± 13.15 eggs/leaflet). This observation shows a repulsive effect of Z. album against T. absoluta females.
The aim of present chapter is to gather the information about chemical composition, biological activities and possible applications of essential oils from seven different species of Genus Salvia growing in Bulgaria (S. officinalis L., S. sclarea L., S. tomentosa Mill, S. scabiosifolia Lam., S. ringens Sibth. et Sm., S. amplexicaulis Lam. and S. aethiopis L.). The chapter is focused on the variations in chemical composition of the essential oil caused by different climate and agro-industrial factors. Different forms of bioactivities of essential oils from Salvia spp. growing in Bulgaria and their possible applications are also discussed.
Monoterpenes are C10 chemical compounds with carbon skeletons consisting of two isopentane (isoprene) units joined together and are a major component of the steam-volatile part of oleoresin produced in tissues of most conifers. Most of them are monoterpene hydro-carbons (C10H16). But often the volatiles in oleoresin include oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and n-hydrocarbons and are often studied along with the monoterpene hydrocarbons. In the literature, these chemical are variously termed “monoterpenes”, “terpenes”, “volatile oils”, “essential oils” or “turpentine”. For the chemistry of these compounds see Simonsen and Owen (1953, 1957) and de Mayo (1959).
Full-text available
The essential oils and hydrolats of the aerial part and root of Geum iranicum Khatamasaz grown at Shirvan, in the northeast of Iran, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The essential oil and hydrolat of the root were characterized by a high amount of eugenol (83.9%, 65.4%) and myrtenol (2.3%, 9.9%) respectively, whereas the essential oil of the aerial part of the plant had palmitic acid (10.6%) and linoleic acid (9.6%) as characteristic constituents. Eugenol (45.7%) and linalool (7.3%) were identified as major components in the hydrolat of the aerial part of G. iranicum.
Full-text available
Free fatty acids (FFAs), which are considered to be closely related with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), are not only the main energy source as nutrients, but also signaling molecules in insulin secretion. In this study, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) coupled with two chemometric resolution methods, heuristic evolving latent projections (HELP) and selective ion analysis (SIA), was successfully applied to investigate plasma FFAs profiling of T2DM. Totally, twenty-three FFAs were identified and quantified. The results showed that HELP and SIA methods could be used to effectively handle overlapping peaks of GC–MS data and hence improve the qualitative and quantitative accuracy. Furthermore, a newly proposed competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) method coupled with partial least squares linear discriminant analysis (PLS-LDA) was introduced to seek the potential biomarkers. Finally, three fatty acids, oleic acid (OLA C18:1n-9), α-linolenic acid (ALA C18:3n-3), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA C20:5n-3), were identified as the potential biomarkers of T2DM for their powerful discriminant ability of T2DM patients from healthy controls. The study indicated that GC–MS combining with chemometric methods was a useful strategy to analyze metabolites and further screen the potential biomarkers of T2DM. KeywordsFree fatty acids (FFAs)-Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-Heuristic evolving latent projections (HELP)-Selective ion analysis (SIA)-Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS)-Biomarkers
The Carpathian flora occurs not only in the Carpathian Mountains, but also in large lowlands extending towards the south, north and east and involves introduced and invading flora of more than 7,500 species. Since the morphological characteristics of the seeds are usually constant they are very important for determination of systematic units. The present atlas of seeds with nearly 4,800 seed illustrations is supplemented with detailed seed descriptions, brief plant descriptions, locality and the native source of plants. This publication is unique, both in its extent – with so many plant seeds from such a wide-ranging region - and in the form of its presentation – with such detailed descriptions.
This is a molecular phylogenetic study of the group formerly known as Dryadeae, based on DNA sequences from the internal transcribed spacers, ITS, of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the trnL intron and the trnL-trnF intergenic spacer of the chloroplast. A total of 1.9 kb, for 26 ingroup species, were analyzed using parsimony and model-based Bayesian inference. Some clades are well supported by both data sets: the ingroup, with Fallugia as the sister to the rest of the clade; Sieversia in a strict sense; a clade consisting of all the herbaceous perennials, and some clades within this last group. Other clades, within the group of herbaceous perennials, differ between the analyses. The data sets in the present study do not support any previous circumscriptions of Geum nor any of the suggested segregate genera, except for the southern hemi- sphere Oncostylus. Morphological characters, notably fruit characters, mapped onto the combined tree show patterns of widespread parallel evolution and reversals—or possibly the effects of reticulations. Allopolyploidy has been suggested by previous workers and there are some indications of this in our results. Geum andicola appears in different well supported groups in the two separate analyses. This may be caused by inheritance of chloroplast DNA from one parental species and homogenization of ribosomal DNA from the other. Also, the intricate fruit type present in, for example, the type species of Geum, G. urbanum, appears to have evolved twice from progenitors with plumose styles. We propose the name Colurieae for this entire clade and the name Geinae for the group of herbaceous perennials.
The antimicrobial activity of extracts of Geum rivale (Rosaceae) and that of some isolated constituents, on bacteria and fungi, was evaluated. The activity was concentrated in the triterpenes fraction and, for gram+ and gram− bacteria, also in the flavonoids fraction. Copyright
The antimicrobial activity of extracts of Geum rivale (Rosaceae) and that of some isolated constituents, on bacteria and fungi, was evaluated. The activity was concentrated in the triterpenes fraction and, for gram+ and gram- bacteria, also in the flavonoids fraction.
  • W Deng
  • Z C Li
  • Guizhou Med
W. Deng and Z. C. Li, Guizhou Med. J., 30, 1126 (2006).
  • L Panizzi
  • S Catalano
  • C Miarelli
  • P L Cioni
  • E Campeol
L. Panizzi, S. Catalano, C. Miarelli, P. L. Cioni, and E. Campeol, Phytother. Res., 14, 561 (2000). 11. B. Tan, Y. Liang, L. Yi, H. Li, Z. Zhou, X. Ji, and J. Deng, Metabolomics, 6, 219 (2010).
  • X R Cheng
  • H Z Jin
  • J J Qin
  • J J Fu
  • W D Zhang
X. R. Cheng, H. Z. Jin, J. J. Qin, J. J. Fu, and W. D. Zhang, Chem. Biodiv., 8, 203 (2011).
Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, Allured Publishing Corporation, Carol Stream
  • R P Adams
  • S Shahani
  • H R Monsef-Esfahani
  • R Hajiaghaee
  • A R Gohari
R. P. Adams, Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, Allured Publishing Corporation, Carol Stream, 2007. 13. S. Shahani, H. R. Monsef-Esfahani, R. Hajiaghaee, and A. R. Gohari, J. Essent. Oil Res., 23, 29 (2011).
  • J E E Smedmark
  • T Eriksson
J. E. E. Smedmark and T. Eriksson, Syst. Bot., 27, 303 (2002).
  • M A Faramarzi
  • M Moghimi
  • H R Monsef-Esfahani
  • A R Shahverdi
  • S Khodaee
M. A. Faramarzi, M. Moghimi, H. R. Monsef-Esfahani, A. R. Shahverdi, and S. Khodaee, Chem. Nat. Compd., 44, 811 (2008).
  • J K Li
  • H W Liu
  • N L Wang
  • M Li
  • X S Yao
J. K. Li, H. W. Liu, N. L. Wang, M. Li, and X. S. Yao, J. Shenyang Pharm. Univ., 23, 694 (2006).
  • Y Q Gao
  • E Y Wang
  • D G Zhao
  • J H Liu
  • Y Liu
Y. Q. Gao, E. Y. Wang, D. G. Zhao, J. H. Liu, and Y. Liu, Biotechnol., 15, 52 (2005).
  • Y M Xu
  • L S Dong
  • J Guiyang College
  • Trad
Y. M. Xu and L. S. Dong, J. Guiyang College Trad. Chin. Med., 14, 58 (1992).
  • T Liu
  • J F Wang
  • Z Q Liu
  • L C Zhang
  • G L Shang
  • J X Yang
  • Y Lai
T. Liu, J. F. Wang, Z. Q. Liu, L. C. Zhang, G. L. Shang, J. X. Yang, and Y. Lai, J. Dali Univ., 5, 4 (2006).