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Extending the 'Five Domains' model for animal welfare assessment to incorporate positive welfare states

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Extending the 'Five Domains' model for animal welfare assessment to incorporate positive welfare states

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Contemporary animal welfare thinking is increasingly emphasising the promotion of positive states. There is a need for existing assessment frameworks to accommodate this shift in emphasis. This paper describes extensions to the Five Domains model, originally devised to assess welfare compromise, that facilitate consideration of positive experiences that may enhance welfare. As originally configured, the model provided a systematic method for identifying compromise in four physical/functional domains (nutrition, environment, health, behaviour) and in one mental domain that reflects the animal's overall welfare state understood in terms of its affective experiences. The specific modifications described here now facilitate additional identification in each domain of experiences animals have which may be accompanied by positive affects that would enhance welfare. It is explained why the grading scale and indices for evaluating welfare compromise necessarily differ from those for assessing welfare enhancement. Also, it is shown that the compromise and enhancement grades can be combined to provide a single informative symbol, the scaled use of which covers the range from severe welfare compromise and no enhancement to no compromise and high-level enhancement. Adapted thus, the Five Domains model facilitates systematic and structured assessment of positive as well as negative welfare-related affects, the circumstances that give rise to them and potential interactions between both types of affect, all of which extend the utility of the model. Moreover, clarification of the extended conceptual framework of the model itself contributes to the growing contextual shift in animal welfare science towards the promotion of positive states whilst continuing to minimise negative states.
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... Current welfare concepts agree that the animal's mental states deserve increased attention, and that positive affect and emotions are a crucial feature of positive welfare (Boissy et al., 2007;Yeates and Main, 2008;Lawrence et al., 2019). The advance in research on animal consciousness and sentience, and the capacity to experience emotions surely supported this shift in the conceptual approach to animal welfare (Mellor and Beausoleil, 2015;Dawkins, 2017). Emotions have evolved along the process of adaptation, evoke behavioral or physiological processes, and function to maximize fitness (Revord et al., 2021). ...
... This study has presented a framework that revolves around the concept of the (limit of) adaptability of an animal and the combined effects of sporadic or lasting adverse internal and external factors over time. The Dynamic Animal Welfare Concept combines and adds onto existing welfare concepts, such as the Five Freedoms (FAWC -Farm Animal Welfare Council, 1979a, 1979b, the Five Domains (Mellor and Beausoleil, 2015;Mellor, 2017), and Quality of Life (Green and Mellor, 2011). The DAWCon assumes the viewpoint of the individual animal and defines welfare as a state that the animal perceives as positive and that evokes positive emotions. ...
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Animal welfare is a multifaceted issue that can be approached from different viewpoints, depending on human interests, ethical assumptions, and culture. To properly assess, safeguard and promote animal welfare, concepts are needed to serve as guidelines in any context the animal is kept in. Several different welfare concepts have been developed during the last half decade. The Five Freedoms concept has provided the basis for developing animal welfare assessment to date, and the Five Domains concept has guided those responsible for safeguarding animal welfare, while the Quality of Life concept focuses on how the individual perceives its own welfare state. This study proposes a modified and extended version of an earlier animal welfare concept - the Dynamic Animal Welfare Concept (DAWCon). Based on the adaptability of the animal, and taking the importance of positive emotional states and the dynamic nature of animal welfare into account, an individual animal is likely in a positive welfare state when it is mentally and physically capable and possesses the ability and opportunity to react adequately to sporadic or lasting appetitive and adverse internal and external stimuli, events, and conditions. Adequate reactions are elements of an animal’s normal behavior. They allow the animal to cope with and adapt to the demands of the (prevailing) environmental circumstances, enabling it to reach a state that it perceives as positive, i.e., that evokes positive emotions. This paper describes the role of internal as well as external factors in influencing welfare, each of which exerts their effects in a sporadic or lasting manner. Behavior is highlighted as a crucial read-out parameter. As most animals under human care are selected for certain traits that may affect their behavioral repertoire it is crucial to have thorough ethograms, i.e., a catalogue of specific behaviors of the species/strain/breed under study. DAWCon highlights aspects that need to be addressed when assessing welfare and may stimulate future research questions.
... As animal welfare science advances, there have been new animal welfare constructs that have been developed, one of those being the Five Domains. The Five Domains model was developed almost 30 years ago [49], although it has been frequently updated [50][51][52][53][54] and more recently, integrated into animal welfare programming documents for companies and associations [55,56]. Although the Five Domains framework is growing in popularity and familiarity, this framework is still relatively new, particularly in the livestock welfare space. ...
... Although the Five Domains framework is growing in popularity and familiarity, this framework is still relatively new, particularly in the livestock welfare space. One prominent component of the Five Domains is the focus on promoting positive welfare states [53]. Traditionally, reducing negative experiences has been a focus of welfare improvement; this approach can be seen in the majority of the Five Freedoms. ...
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... Several approaches for recognising positive welfare have been proposed by the scientific community; for example: grading resources which provide opportunities for positive welfare [9,[15][16][17]; measuring pleasurable behaviours directly such as play [18][19][20][21][22] and observing body language and indicators of emotion [23][24][25][26]. Although animal-based measures of positive welfare-those that specify an animal's state [27]-provide a direct assessment of positive welfare, they are yet to be well validated and standardised, whereas resource-based measures are more practical and considered easier for farmers to accept and use [7]. ...
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... Essa denúncia fez com que fosse criado pelo parlamento da Grã-Bretanha, no ano de 1965, o Comitê Brambell, para verificar as condições utilizadas para a criação dos animais de produção. Após as avaliações do comitê foi estabelecida a Declaração Universal de Bem-Estar Animal, conhecida também como "As cinco liberdades", onde estão apresentados tópicos que devem ser seguidos pelos criadores para que os animais sejam respeitados e permaneçam em condições de bem-estar e que é utilizada até os dias atuais (Autran et al., 2017;Mellor et al., 2020;Mellor & Beausoleil, 2015). Brambell (1965) descreveu o Conceito das Cinco Liberdades (livre de fome e sede, livre de desconforto, livre de dor, ferimentos e doenças, livre de medo e angústia e livre para expressar seu comportamento natural) que são princípios cujos ideais podem ser utilizados como diretrizes para avaliação das práticas de manejo (FAWC, 2009). ...
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A caprinocultura leiteira apresenta-se como uma ótima oportunidade de negócio para o crescimento econômico e desenvolvimento social; pois, o retorno do investimento obtido com a atividade é mais rápido e vantajoso quando comparado com de outras culturas voltadas para a produção animal. O tipo de manejo aplicado aos animais tende a refletir em sua produção; pois, um manejo calmo e seguro traz tranquilidade e bom grau de bem-estar aos animais. No caso de animais como as cabras leiteiras, que possuem um comportamento bastante sociável, essa relação pode ser bastante importante. São animais que possuem a necessidade de uma rotina e a alteração em seu comportamento pode ser bem clara quando algo de seu costume é modificado. Assim, objetivou-se com essa revisão descrever os eventos relacionados ao sistema de criação, comportamento e o bem-estar dos caprinos leiteiros. Foi observado na literatura que os avanços nas avaliações do bem-estar animal e os estudos sobre a bioclimatologia, têm mostrado resultados positivos para uma maior produção de leite de cabra. Com isso, tais estudos comprovam que é necessário buscar novos padrões para a produção de leite de cabra, sempre levando em consideração o bem-estar dos animais.
... There is currently no universally accepted method to assess animal welfare in any species; however multiple indicators that are evidenced to impact wellbeing both positively and negatively should be used to evaluate an animal's welfare state (1). Routine welfare assessment often needs to produce rapid results, be noninvasive, and should not require any special training for ease of use (2). ...
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Animal welfare monitoring is a vital part of veterinary medicine and can be challenging due to a range of factors that contribute to the perception of welfare. Tools can be used, however; there are few validated and objective methods available for veterinary and animal welfare professionals to assess and monitor the welfare of dogs over their lifetime. This study aimed to adapt a framework previously validated for other species, The Animal Welfare Assessment Grid (AWAG), for dogs and to host the tool on an accessible, easy to use online platform. Development of the AWAG for dogs involved using the scientific literature to decide which factors were relevant to score welfare in dogs and to also write the factor descriptors. The primary tool was trialed with veterinary professionals to refine and improve the AWAG. Content validity was assessed by subject matter experts by rating the validity of the factors for assessing dog welfare using the item-level content validity index (I-CVI) and scale-level content validity index based on the average method (S-CVI/Ave). Construct validity was evaluated by users of the tool scoring healthy and sick dogs, as well as healthy dogs undergoing neutering procedures. Mann Whitney tests demonstrate that the tool can differentiate between healthy and sick dogs, and healthy and healthy dogs post elective surgery. Test re-test reliability was tested by users conducting multiple assessments on individual dogs under non-changing conditions. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by two users scoring an individual dog at the same time in veterinary referral practice. Repeated measures ANOVA for test re-test and inter-rater reliability both show no statistical difference between scores and that the scores are highly correlated. This study provides evidence that the AWAG for dogs has good content and construct validity, alongside good test re-test and inter-rater reliability.
... In today's society, there should be no room for performances involving animals that are often stressed. Such performances should remain documented in popular fiction in stories of 10 Novotný (2020 Harrison (2002); Mellor and Beausoleil (2015). how travelling circuses with their bears, elephants, and tigers used to tour Europe. ...
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The study examines the legislative issues associated with providing a legal solution to the problem of the circus training of wild animals in the post-communist context. These issues are demonstrated using the example of the Czech Republic. In 2020, the country passed a comprehensive amendment to Act No. 246/1992 Coll. on the Protection of Animals Against Cruelty, which prohibits, among other things, the training of wild animals in circuses with effect from January 2022. The study focuses on the following research questions: What are the main determinants of the prohibition of wild animal training? and, What were the main arguments with respect to the wild animal training prohibition mentioned by politicians during the parliamentary debate? The data analysed here consist of parliamentary debates and texts presented by institutions advocating for or against the ban.
... On the other hand, direct observations made by the BOF were valid and less expensive, suggesting that it could be a feasible tool with which to evaluate the welfare principle of Appropriate behavior. As recommended for welfare assessment protocols 22 , the BOF ethogram included indicators of both positive and negative states; however, it would be necessary to integrate it with behavioral tests and other ABMs evaluating the human-animal relationship. ...
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Agroforestry systems, which are based on the integration of trees and animals, represent a useful practice for implementing the “One Welfare” concept. Geese could adapt well to these systems due to their kinetic and grazing abilities. However, the lack of specific ethograms and animal-based measures have not yet allowed a deep assessment of their welfare and behavior. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a protocol to evaluate the behavior of geese reared in two agroforestry systems (i.e., apple orchard and vineyard). Thus, a behavior observation form (BOF) including a specific ethogram was proposed, and its interobserver reliability, content, criterion and construct validity were determined. Moreover, the influence of the time of day and type of agroforestry system on geese's behavior was also investigated. Agreement and principal component analyses, as well as the comparison between data collected through direct observation by the BOF and indirect observation by a computerized system, supported the reliability and validity of the proposed protocol. While the BOF also highlighted differences in the behavior expressed by the geese according to the time of day and the environmental context, both the vineyard and apple orchard systems seem to meet their biological and behavioral needs.
... The factor 'aversion to normal events' was changed to 'response to normal events' to allow the inclusion of scores that would reflect a positive impact on welfare, in line with contemporary welfare science [45]. The criteria for this factor were adapted to include anticipatory behaviours (as was included by Brouwers and Duchateau [7]), such as increased activity ahead of scheduled feed times, as these can indicate the level of importance an animal attributes to a positive event, with those positive events that occur less frequently potentially resulting in the greater duration or intensity of anticipatory behaviour. ...
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... All of these events are known to cause significant stress (Grandin, 2014). Moreover, piglets were placed in a cradle when PGS images were being taken and the novelty of the object may have elicited a fearful response (Mellor and Beausoleil, 2015). Future studies may, therefore, acclimate piglets to the novel cradle prior to baseline data collection and allow a longer period of time for piglets to rest after a transportation event to reduce these potentially distressing situations from impacting grimace behavior. ...
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... One of the criticisms of the Five Freedoms is that they concentrate on negative effects (McCulloch, 2013). Originally developed as an animal welfare assessment process (Mellor and Reid, 1994), the Five Domains now includes positive effects (Mellor and Beausoleil, 2015). To ensure livestock have "Lives Worth Living", Mellor (2016b) suggests that negative experiences should be minimized and positive experiences should be emphasized. ...
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