Article

Emotional Closeness to Parents and Grandparents: A Moderated Mediation Model Predicting Adolescent Adjustment

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

Warm and emotionally close relationships with parents and grandparents have been found in previous studies to be linked with better adolescent adjustment. The present study, informed by Family Systems Theory and Intergenerational Solidarity Theory, uses a moderated mediation model analyzing the contribution of the dynamics of these intergenerational relationships to adolescent adjustment. Specifically, it examines the mediating role of emotional closeness to the closest grandparent in the relationship between emotional closeness to a parent (the offspring of the closest grandparent) and adolescent adjustment difficulties. The model also examines the moderating role of emotional closeness to parents in the relationship between emotional closeness to grandparents and adjustment difficulties. The study was based on a sample of 1,405 Jewish Israeli secondary school students (ages 12-18) who completed a structured questionnaire. It was found that emotional closeness to the closest grandparent was more strongly associated with reduced adjustment difficulties among adolescents with higher levels of emotional closeness to their parents. In addition, adolescent adjustment and emotional closeness to parents was partially mediated by emotional closeness to grandparents. Examining the family conditions under which adolescents' relationships with grandparents is stronger and more beneficial for them can help elucidate variations in grandparent-grandchild ties and expand our understanding of the mechanisms that shape child outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Among these trends are increased life expectancy, changing family structure and higher rates of divorce and remarriage among parents (see Attar-Schwartz & Buchanan, 2017). Most research on adolescent family relationships, however, still focuses on adolescents' relationships with parents and the informal role of grandparents in adolescents' lives remains poorly studied (see Attar-Schwartz, 2015). This article reviews the findings of two largescale studies of adolescents' relationships with their grandparents in the UK and in Israel. ...
... With some variations between the UK and Israeli studies, in cases where adolescents indicated more than one close grandparent, the grandparent who received the highest score on the emotional closeness scale was chosen. In cases where adolescents indicated more than one significant grandparent, and identical emotional closeness scores were present for those grandparents, one grandparent was selected randomly from those with the highest identical emotional closeness scores (see Attar-Schwartz, 2015;). ...
... There is evidence in both the Israeli and the UK study that grandparents are highly involved in adolescents' lives and that adolescents see them as important figures in their lives to whom they feel emotionally close (Attar-Schwartz, 2015, 2016Attar-Schwartz & Khoury-Kassabri,2016;Tan & Buchanan, 2016;. ...
... In that study 80%-90% of the adolescents reported that they were regularly in touch with at least one or all of their living grandparents, and 46%-64% reported that they shared their problems with their grandparents. These findings are consistent with other studies that found that adolescents generally feel affection toward their grandparents and value the emotional assistance provided by them (e.g., Attar-Schwartz, 2015;Attar-Schwartz & Khoury-Kassabri, 2016;Van Ranst, Verschueren, & Macroen, 1995). ...
... According to the theory of intergenerational solidarity, the quality of a relationship between two family members can depend on patterns of interactions between other family members (Monserud, 2008). Among young people living with their families, studies have consistently shown a positive association between parents' relationships with grandparents and the quality of the grandchild-grandparent bond (e.g., Attar-Schwartz, 2015;Brown, 2003;Matthews & Sprey, 1985;Monserud, 2008;Mueller & Elder, 2003). For example, Attar-Schwartz, found that youth whose parents had good relationships with the closest grandparent and encouraged the grandparent-grandchild relationship consistently reported higher levels of importance of their grandparents outside the immediate family, more respect for their grandparents' views, and more emotional closeness to their grandparents (see also Attar-Schwartz, 2015). ...
... Among young people living with their families, studies have consistently shown a positive association between parents' relationships with grandparents and the quality of the grandchild-grandparent bond (e.g., Attar-Schwartz, 2015;Brown, 2003;Matthews & Sprey, 1985;Monserud, 2008;Mueller & Elder, 2003). For example, Attar-Schwartz, found that youth whose parents had good relationships with the closest grandparent and encouraged the grandparent-grandchild relationship consistently reported higher levels of importance of their grandparents outside the immediate family, more respect for their grandparents' views, and more emotional closeness to their grandparents (see also Attar-Schwartz, 2015). ...
Article
Grandparental support among youth in out-of-home settings in general, and among youth in residential care settings (RCSs) in particular, has been largely under-researched. The current study, based on the reports of a random cluster sample of 1,236 adolescents in grades 8 to 12 residing in Israeli educational RCSs for youth from underprivileged backgrounds, examined the contribution of informal grandparental support to the life satisfaction of adolescents in RCSs. The findings showed that the grandparent identified by the adolescent as the closest grandparent (usually the maternal grandmother) was highly involved in the adolescent’s life. In line with social capital and family systems theories, we found grandparental support to be positively associated with adolescents’ life satisfaction. Adolescents reporting better relationships between their closest grandparent and the parent that is the offspring of that grandparent also reported higher levels of life satisfaction. Finally, we found a significant interaction between grandparental support, parent-grandparent relationship, and adolescent life satisfaction. Specifically, it was found that for youth with better parent-grandparent relationships, the link between grandparental support and adolescent life satisfaction is stronger. The findings enhance our understanding of the importance of familial figures other than parents to the well-being of children and youth in residential care and the circumstances in which these relationships are most beneficial to them. The findings have implications for intervention programs aimed at strengthening the social support systems of children and youth in out-of-home settings in order to enhance their well-being.
... Among these trends are increased life expectancy, changing family structure and higher rates of divorce and remarriage among parents (see Attar-Schwartz & Buchanan, 2017). Most research on adolescent family relationships, however, still focuses on adolescents' relationships with parents and the informal role of grandparents in adolescents' lives remains poorly studied (see Attar-Schwartz, 2015). This article reviews the findings of two largescale studies of adolescents' relationships with their grandparents in the UK and in Israel. ...
... With some variations between the UK and Israeli studies, in cases where adolescents indicated more than one close grandparent, the grandparent who received the highest score on the emotional closeness scale was chosen. In cases where adolescents indicated more than one significant grandparent, and identical emotional closeness scores were present for those grandparents, one grandparent was selected randomly from those with the highest identical emotional closeness scores (see Attar-Schwartz, 2015;). ...
... There is evidence in both the Israeli and the UK study that grandparents are highly involved in adolescents' lives and that adolescents see them as important figures in their lives to whom they feel emotionally close (Attar-Schwartz, 2015, 2016Attar-Schwartz & Khoury-Kassabri,2016;Tan & Buchanan, 2016;. ...
Article
This article reviews the major findings of two large-scale studies on adolescent–grandparent relationship conducted in the UK and in Israel. The Israeli study followed the UK study, deepening the investigation of some of the major themes uncovered in the British study. Both studies reveal that grandmothers and grandfathers are highly involved in adolescents’ lives and that this involvement is associated with increased adolescent well-being. The studies focus on the role of grandparents in times of parental divorce and other stressful events, as well as the weaker status of the paternal grandparents in post-divorce families and the correlates of the adolescent’s relationship with the paternal grandmother. Both studies highlight the role of intergenerational relationships, including parent–grandparent and parent–adolescent bonds, in the adolescent–grandparent relationship, in line with the intergenerational solidarity model. The Israeli study deepens our understanding of the possible contributions of cultural affiliation to the child–grandparent relationship by comparing Arab and Jewish adolescents’ self-reports of their relationships with their grandparents. These studies bring to light the possible positive role of grandparent involvement. Family psychology should pay greater attention to this role and its contribution, especially in times of transition and distress in adolescents’ lives.
... | 985 2 | FA M I LY SOL I DA R IT Y P A TTE R NS Solidarity is a key feature of the union between family members that characterizes family relations and creates the context of individual development (Albert, Ferring, & Michels, 2013;Bengtson, 2001;Olson, 2000;Schwarz, Trommsdorff, Albert, & Mayer, 2005). The solidarity model was developed in the context of adult child-parent relations and up to date, this framework was used to investigate intergenerational relations in a family in later stages of the human lifespan with few exceptions (e.g., Attar-Schwartz, 2015;Michels, Albert, & Ferring, 2011). Bengtson and Schrader (1982) outlined six distinct dimensions defining intergenerational solidarity: associational (physical integration/isolation), structural (geographic proximity/distance), affectual (e.g., intimacy), consensual (e.g., agreement/dissent in values and norms between family members), functional (dependency/autonomy), and normative (familism) dimensions. ...
... Bengtson and Schrader (1982) outlined six distinct dimensions defining intergenerational solidarity: associational (physical integration/isolation), structural (geographic proximity/distance), affectual (e.g., intimacy), consensual (e.g., agreement/dissent in values and norms between family members), functional (dependency/autonomy), and normative (familism) dimensions. Reports from children or from children and parents are used across studies to assess solidarity dimensions using different assessment tools (e.g., Attar-Schwartz, 2015;Belsky, Jaffee, Caspi, Moffitt, & Silva, 2003). ...
... Up to date, the family solidarity framework was found to be useful in understanding individual (Attar-Schwartz, 2015;Belsky et al., 2001Belsky et al., , 2003 and family-level (Fasang & Raab, 2014) dynamics. For example, parents-child affectual solidarity (a combination of intimacy and emotional support in relation with parents) was evidenced to moderate the extent of a relation between adolescents' closeness to grandparents and their adjustment (Attar-Schwartz, 2015), or the extent of intergenerational transmission in a family (Fasang & Raab, 2014). ...
Article
To explain attachment development in adolescence in different contexts we applied the family solidarity model (e.g., Bengtson, 2001) generally used to analyze intergenerational adult children‐elderly parents relations. The model differentiates four family solidarity patterns which were assumed in our study to occur in adolescent–parent relations, though with a different distribution. We tested a susceptibility hypothesis assuming that effects of parenting will be stronger in family patterns with higher, compared to lower, affectual solidarity. A sample of Polish adolescents, their mothers (N = 570, both), and their fathers (N = 290) was surveyed as part of the Value‐of‐Children‐Study (Trommsdorff & Nauck, 2005). Four family patterns were identified: highly affectual amicable and harmonious; and less affectual and most frequently displayed detached and disharmonious patterns. The parenting susceptibility hypothesis was supported: For amicable and harmonious families, adolescents' perception of maternal rejection was more strongly related with their attachment compared to the other family types. Partly in line with our hypothesis, effects of paternal rejection on adolescents' attachment were strongest in amicable families, however not significant in harmonious families. The study demonstrates that the relation between parenting on adolescents' attachment representation is influenced by the pattern of family parents‐child relations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Studies have shown that grandchildren are often significantly emotionally closer to maternal grandparents compared with paternal grandparents. Maternal grandparents, especially grandmothers, are also often found to be more active and involved in their grandchildren's lives (Attar-Schwartz, 2015;Attar-Schwartz, Tan, & Buchanan, 2009;Clarke & Roberts, 2004;Danielsbacka & Tanskanen, 2012;Dubas, 2001;Eisenberg, 1988;Lussier et al., 2002;Matthews & Sprey, 1985;Monserud, 2008;Mueller & Elder, 2003;Pollet, Nettle, & Nelissen, 2006;Tan, Buchanan, Flouri, Attar-Schwartz, & Griggs, 2010;Taylor, Robila, & Lee, 2005;Van Ranst,Verschueren, & Macroen, 1995;Wood & Liossis, 2007). Explanations for the preference of the matrilineal lineage are varied (see Attar-Schwartz & Buchanan, 2012, for review); they tend to focus on ideas based on traditional kin-keeper theories of family relations (see Dubas, 2001). ...
... It also did not take the parents' marital status in account. There is also research addressing the middle generation's role in the relationships between grandparents and grandchildren, focusing primarily on the grandparent's relationships with the son or daughter and its contribution to grandchild-grandparent relationships (e.g., Attar-Schwartz, 2015;Brown, 2003;Mueller & Elder, 2003). Clearly, grandparents' ties with grandchildren also involve the relationship of the grandparents with the in-law parents, as well as with the ex-daughter-in-law or ex-son-in-law, in case of parental divorce. ...
... The positive correlation between motherpaternal grandmother relationship and grandchild-grandmother relationships is in line with the Intergenerational Solidarity Theory (Bengtson & Roberts, 1991;Monserud, 2008) positing that relationships quality between two family members, in this case between paternal grandmothers and adolescent grandchildren, can depend on patterns of interactions between other family members, in this case the custodial mothers and the ex-mother-in-law. Such dependency, supported also by the Parent-as-Mediator Theory (Robertson, 1975), is crucial for understanding grandparent-grandchild relationships and family relationships in general (see Attar-Schwartz, 2015;Mueller & Elder, 2003). The findings also show that there is no statistically significant interaction between mother-grandmother relationship and family type in predicting emotional closeness to the paternal grandmother. ...
Article
Parental divorce often includes a disruption in grandchildren's relationships with their paternal grandparents. This study examined the moderating role of family type (i.e., custodial-mother vs. married-parents families) in the relationship between paternal grandmother's involvement, fathers' and mothers' relationships with the paternal grandmother and adolescents' emotional closeness to the grandmother. It was based on the reports of 1050 Israeli-Jewish adolescents (ages 12–18). Adolescents from custodial-mother families reported lower levels of closeness to their paternal grandmothers. After controlling for the relationship quality between the mother and the paternal grandmother, the family type became insignificant. In custodial-mother families, paternal grandmother's involvement was more strongly associated with adolescents' increased emotional closeness to the grandmother. The link between father-paternal grandmother relationship and adolescent's closeness to the grandmother was stronger in intact families. In support of the kin-keeper theory, the mother-paternal grandmother relationship was positively linked with grandchild-grandparent relationship in both family types. Such findings help elucidate variations in grandparent-grandchild ties in an era of increased parental divorce.
... Among these trends are increased life expectancy, changing family structure and higher rates of divorce and remarriage among parents (see Attar-Schwartz & Buchanan, 2017). Most research on adolescent family relationships, however, still focuses on adolescents' relationships with parents and the informal role of grandparents in adolescents' lives remains poorly studied (see Attar-Schwartz, 2015). This article reviews the findings of two largescale studies of adolescents' relationships with their grandparents in the UK and in Israel. ...
... With some variations between the UK and Israeli studies, in cases where adolescents indicated more than one close grandparent, the grandparent who received the highest score on the emotional closeness scale was chosen. In cases where adolescents indicated more than one significant grandparent, and identical emotional closeness scores were present for those grandparents, one grandparent was selected randomly from those with the highest identical emotional closeness scores (see Attar-Schwartz, 2015;). ...
... There is evidence in both the Israeli and the UK study that grandparents are highly involved in adolescents' lives and that adolescents see them as important figures in their lives to whom they feel emotionally close (Attar-Schwartz, 2015, 2016Attar-Schwartz & Khoury-Kassabri,2016;Tan & Buchanan, 2016;. ...
Chapter
With increased life expectancy, diversifying families, growing number of dual-worker households, changing families, and higher rates of family breakdown, grandparents are now playing an increasing role in their grandchildren’s lives. This essay reviews existing literature regarding the characteristics of grandparent– adolescent relationship and the factors associated with the quality of this relationship. It also considers the link between grandparent involvement and emotional closeness and adolescent well-being especially in non-intact families. Finally, it discusses the role of grandparents as buffer against cumulative risk in the lives of adolescents and as promoters of resilience in the face of adversity.
... Besides, career calling is the mediator and/or moderator in the relationship between certain antecedent variables (e.g., job resources, work-life conflicts, etc.) and certain outcomes (e.g., job satisfaction, performance, work-burnout, etc.). Additionally, several studies have indicated that a single variable could act both as a mediator and a moderator (MacKinnon, 2008;Dicke et al., 2014;Attar-Schwartz, 2015;Liu and Li, 2017;Liu, 2019;Peng et al., 2021). The level of career calling is affected by factors, such as circumstances and self-efficacy, and at the same time it mediates/moderates the relationship between circumstances and job satisfaction. ...
... The research on its potential impact mechanism and process has been neglected to a certain extent (Ju and Shao, 2004;Xia and Lu, 2014). Third, our findings validate and enrich the notion that a factor can act as both a mediator and a moderator (MacKinnon, 2008;Dicke et al., 2014;Attar-Schwartz, 2015;Liu and Li, 2017;Peng et al., 2021). We constructed the "dual role model of occupational calling" for the first time and found that career calling played a dual role among job resources, job requirements and job satisfaction. ...
Article
Full-text available
Job satisfaction of health professionals is a key determinant of the quality of health services and even affects the development of the healthcare system. In this study, we sought to explore the mechanism by which job demands, job resources, and career calling affect the job satisfaction of health professionals. Our findings may provide insights for increasing their job satisfaction and improving the quality of health services. We conducted a questionnaire survey of 1,117 health workers in Hangzhou; t -test, Chi-squared analysis, hierarchical linear regression was used to analyze the state of job satisfaction of health personnel and the associated factors; path analysis with the Structural Equation Model was used to explore and verify the effects of job resources, demands, and career calling on job satisfaction, as well as their mechanism. Social support, performance feedback, working conditions, and career calling had significant positive effects on job satisfaction of health professionals, whereas work-family conflict and emotional requirements for work had significant negative effects. Path analysis indicated that job resources, demands, and career calling directly affected job satisfaction; job resources and demands showed indirect effects on job satisfaction with career calling as a mediator. Career calling had a positive moderating effect in the path of “job resources–job satisfaction,” and a negative moderating effect in the path of “job demands–job satisfaction.” In conclusion, hospital administrators should provide more job resources for health workers and formulate reasonable job demands while paying close attention to work-related pressure. Hospital administrators and health departments need to improve hospital policies and inculcate a sense of belonging and career calling among health professionals. Education and evaluation of career calling need to be accorded more attention so that healthcare workers can perceive a stronger sense of calling and achievement, and hence a higher degree of job satisfaction.
... In this sense, mental health issues are mostly observed in single-parent families, then nuclear and lastly extended families [119]. In extended families with good parent and grandparent relationships and support, it was observed that family members have less depression and higher life satisfaction when their problems are shared [120][121][122][123]. ...
... Individuals unconsciously adopt the attitudes they interact with the social environment, and they become more harmonious with the social environment over time. Opportunities offered by extended families to individuals such as bonding with the past, the tendency to understand and solve problems within the family, and allocating more time to individuals reduce their depression [119][120][121][122][123]. It was understood that emotional intelligence decreased satisfaction with life by reducing depression and the effect of depression was less in extended families. ...
Article
Full-text available
COVID-19 has spread rapidly and become a health crisis around the world, and negatively affected the mental state of individuals. Emotional intelligence (EI) can play an important role in coping with the mental problems experienced due to the pandemic. This study examined how individuals' emotional intelligence levels affect depression and satisfaction with life during the COVID-19 period. The study was designed as quantitative and cross-sectional and reached 578 adult participants online. Emotional intelligence trait scale-short form, depression subscale (DASS-21), satisfaction with life scale, and sociodemographic questions as control variables were used as data collection tools in the study. The data obtained were conducted using SPSS 24, PROCESS-Macro, and Amos 25 statistical programs. The hypotheses established were tested by correlation, multiple regression, mediating, and moderating analyzes. Results confirmed that emotional intelligence had a positive association with satisfaction with life and a negative association with depression. In addition, interaction analyses found that age and family type had a moderating effect on satisfaction with life, and depression had a mediating effect. After discussing the importance of emotional intelligence as a coping mechanism in dealing with problems, some suggestions were made to policymakers and practitioners.
... Research studies using the Intergenerational Solidarity Model have also confirmed different aspects of the structural model and identified specific moderator mechanisms by which solidarity exerts its positive influence on family adjustment. For example, Schwartz (2015) examined the family conditions under which adolescents' relationships with grandparents are more beneficial for them. These conditions can help elucidate variations in grandparent-grandchild ties and expand our understanding of the mechanisms that shape child outcomes. ...
... These conditions can help elucidate variations in grandparent-grandchild ties and expand our understanding of the mechanisms that shape child outcomes. Results from the moderated mediation model indicated that adolescent adjustment and emotional closeness to parents were partially mediated by emotional closeness to grandparents (Schwartz, 2015). Recent studies provide additional support for the intergenerational solidarity model. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The unprecedented demographic changes in the United States during the last century, due primarily to increased longevity and low fertility rates, had profound implications for family relations, in particular for grandparent involvement with grandchildren. Grandparenting emerged as a salient family support structure and the grandparent role not only survived, but also became vital for many grandchildren in need of care. Researchers have examined the profile and characteristics of grandparents with particular emphasis on intergenerational relations and the quality of grandparent-parent-grandchild relationships (Hayslip & Kaminski, 2005; Szinovacz, 1998). Furthermore, several proposed conceptual models address intergenerational family relations, grandparents' stress and parenting practices, and the grandparents' influence on developmental outcomes and problem behaviors of their grandchildren (Goodman & Silverstein, 2002). From the beginning, most of the literature on intergenerational relations and grandparenting identified several determinants of the quality of such relations as well as outcomes for both grandparents and grandchildren (Hayslip, Fruhauf, & Dolbin-MacNab, 2017). Not surprisingly among the most studied social determinants, researchers focused on structural conditions (race, socioeconomic status, education, living arrangements, etc.) and cultural contexts (ethnicity, religious beliefs, personal and normative expectations, stereotypes about family, etc.). This chapter reviews the main theoretical perspectives and specific causal models proposed to address important determinants of quality of life, psychosocial outcomes, and well-being among minority and ethnic grandparents. It also examines the empirical evidence in support of such models, and it provides recommendations for training and research-based supportive programs. Since previous research indicates that demographic factors such as gender, race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status are significant determinants of becoming custodial grandparents, it is important to clarify variations in grandparent-grandchild relations to expand our understanding
... Studies examining the intergenerational context of the grandchild-grandparent relationship also showed that parent-grandchild relationships were positively connected to grandparentgrandchild relationships (Attar-Schwartz 2015;Brown 2003;Hodgson 1992;Monserud 2008;Mueller and elder 2003). For example, Attar-Schwartz (2015) found among Israeli Jewish adolescents that emotional closeness to parents was associated positively to emotional closeness levels to the grandparent identified by the adolescents as the closest grandparent. ...
... Such findings may show that the quality of adolescent-parent relationship is not only linked with adolescents' adjustment and well-being, but may also possibly contribute to adolescents' ability to have close relationships with others outside the nuclear family, such as their grandparents (Engels et al. 2001). The interrelatedness between key intergenerational relationships in adolescents' lives and their contribution to adolescents' adjustment can possibly be explained by spillover models that include emotions arising from one domestic realm, such as the adolescent-parent relationship, and influencing other realms, such as the adolescent-grandparent relationship (Attar-Schwartz 2015;Grych 2002;Khoury-Kassabri et al. 2014). In addition, there are only few studies that examined the role of gender regarding the effect of intergenerational relationships (e.g., Brown 2003;Matthews and Sprey 1985). ...
... The quality of grandchild-grandparent relationships is also related to grandchild mental health and coping. Higher levels of emotional closeness with grandparents are associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms (Ruiz & Silverstein, 2007) and reduced difficulty coping with life events (Attar-Schwartz, 2015) in older adolescents and young adults. Among college students, grandparent sharing of memories and gift giving is negatively related to depression, and loneliness (Mansson, 2013). ...
Article
This study examines changes in college students‘ relationships with their grandparents during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown, and whether these relationship changes were associated with college students‘ coping with the pandemic and mental health. 441 college students (76% female) completed an online survey. The majority of participants reported changes to the grandparent-grandchild relationship. Reduced contact and closeness was the most commonly reported change and was related to greater participant COVID-19 concerns and anticipatory grief for grandparents. A small number of participants reported increased closeness, which was related to their lower anxiety and depression. For younger students, grandparent contracting COVID-19 was associated with lower COVID-19 concerns and greater negative reactions to lockdown restrictions.
... A review by Sear and Mace (2008) based on 45 articles of literature revealed that the presence of a grandmother or maternal grandmother increased the chances of successful survival of grandchildren by 53%-69%. Adolescents perceive that emotional intimacy with parents and grandparents may reduce their adaptation difficulties, whereas adolescents' emotional intimacy with parents moderates their emotional intimacy with grandparents and adolescents' adjustment difficulties (Attar-Schwartz, 2015). For those families that are divorced or remarried, the role of grandparents becomes more pronounced. ...
Article
Full-text available
As grandparents’ involvement in parenting becomes more common, it is valuable to understand the differences between grandparenting and parenting and how these differences affect children. To elucidate the differences between grandparenting and parenting and their effects on children’s creativity performance, children’s performance on creativity tasks after grandparent–child interactions and parent–child interactions were compared, and the behavioral differences between grandparents and parents when interacting with children were discussed. In this study, grandparents and parents were asked to interact with children separately, and creativity performance was measured before and after adult-child interactions. The results showed that children’s creative performance improved significantly after parent–child interactions, while there was little change after grandparent–child interactions. In addition, according to parental investment theory, parents provided children with more cognitive and interpersonal resources during the interaction compared to grandparents.
... Based on previous research examining the relationship with the closest grandparent, emerging adult grandchildren were asked to choose their closest grandparent and to refer to that grandparent while completing the questionnaire (e.g.Attar- Schwartz, 2015;Profe & Wild, 2017). They were not required to identify a living grandparent as the closest grandparent; the participants could complete the measures based on memories of their closest grandparent during his or her life (Boon & Brussoni, 1996). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the current study was to examine the mentoring relationship with the closest grandparent, considering perceived grandparent’s perspective taking, and identity processes among Polish emerging adult grandchildren. A total of 424 emerging adults (41.3% male) aged 18–25 completed self-assessment measures. The structural equation modeling analysis revealed positive associations between perception of mentoring relationships with the closest grandparent (mostly grandmother), their perspective taking, and emerging adults’ identity synthesis. The results indicated no significant gender differences in the hypothesized model. To sum up, relationships with grandparents may be perceived as important in promoting coherent identity development among emerging adults.
... Furthermore, numerous studies have shown that a variable can play a mediating and moderating role at the same time. 36, 37 Gao and Liu 38 also pointed out that PS is an important factor to evaluate the effect of leaders on employee work attitudes. Hence, based on conservation of resources(COR) theory, this paper regards PS as a kind of interpersonal resource, 38 and believes that different resources will not exist independently, but will interact and influence each other. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Based on social information processing (SIP) model and conservation of resources (COR) theory, this paper is to examine the mediating and moderating roles of psychological safety (PS) in the relationship between work-related leader-member exchange (LMX)/non-work-related supervisor-subordinate guanxi (SSG) and employee affective commitment (AC). Participants and methods: Cross-sectional data came from 213 enterprise employees in China. The participants completed the LMX scale, SSG scale, PS scale, and AC scale. SPSS PROCESS macro and RWA-Web were used to test the research hypothesis. Results: Both LMX and SSG were positively related to employee AC. LMX was more strongly associated with AC than SSG. PS partially mediated the influence of LMX/SSG on AC. PS negatively moderated the influence of LMX on AC, whereas it did not moderate the influence of SSG on AC. Conclusion: Different types of supervisor-subordinate relationships (SSR) were both beneficial to employee AC, and work-related LMX was more closely related to employee AC. Different types of SSR could both affect employee AC through PS. In addition, high PS also reduced the relationship between LMX and employee AC. Therefore, in the context of Chinese culture, enhancing employees' AC within an enterprise can not only pay attention to the work-related LMX and non-work-related SSG but also the appropriate cultivation of employees' PS.
... Grandparents play an important role in family functioning. Research in Western and Eastern countries has found that grandparents' positive involvement and emotional closeness are related to better executive function, fewer emotional problems, fewer adjustment difficulties, and more prosocial behaviors among grandchildren (Attar-Schwartz, 2015;Attar-Schwartz et al., 2009;Hoang & Kirby, 2020;Wang et al., 2021). According to family system theory, GS (e.g., emotional, material) for grandchildren is an important subsystem function that protects the family system (Minuchin, 1985). ...
Article
Full-text available
Negative family factors play an important role in depression among adolescents. Non-Western research on the relationship between lack of coparental cooperation (LCC) and adolescent depression is scarce, and it is not clear whether support from grandparents—who are important to the functioning of Asian families—and parent–grandparent relationships (PGRs) moderate this link in the Asian context. This study explored the moderating effects of those factors on the relationship between lack of coparental cooperation and depression in Chinese adolescents. Data were collected from 443 Grade 10 students (mean age = 15.40; 209 males) at a high school in Luxian, China. High school or below was the highest educational level for 58.90% and 67.30% of the participants’ fathers and mothers, respectively. The participants responded to items on an adapted version of the parental cooperation subscale of the Coparenting Inventory for Parents and Adolescents scale, the Social Support Network questionnaire, Quality of Parent-grandparent Relationships Questionnaire, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The data were analyzed using a moderated moderation model. A significant three-way interaction was observed. The results show that high grandparent support (GS) and PGR levels can reduce the negative effects of LCC on depression for adolescents (p < .05). The link between lack of coparental cooperation and depression was stronger for adolescents with low or high GS and low PGR (ps < .05). Based on the family system theory, GS and PGR were found to moderate the link between LCC and depression in Chinese adolescents.
... The results of this study support the view of the relationship model between psychological quality and mental health, that is, risk factors play a role through internal psychological quality, and the internal psychological quality can not only moderate the impact of external risk factors on individual mental health, but also influence individual mental health level directly or serves as a mediating variable (Wang and Zhang, 2012). The simultaneous moderating and mediating effects of one variable have been similarly verified in other studies (Dicke et al., 2014;Attar-Schwartz, 2015). Based on the findings of this study, combined with the view of the relationship model between psychological quality and mental health (Liu and Li, 2017), we propose an dual-effects theory about grit. ...
Article
Full-text available
Grit, as an important positive psychological quality, has rarely been studied for its role involved in the mechanism between stress and psychological security. This article explores the moderating and mediating role of grit in the relationship between interpersonal stress and psychological security of freshmen through two studies. In study 1, freshmen from several Chinese universities ( N = 1,224) were recruited to complete a battery of questionnaire, including assessments about interpersonal stress, grit, and psychological security. The moderating effect analysis showed that grit moderated the relationship between interpersonal stress and psychological security. Specifically, grit buffered the negative effects of interpersonal stress on freshmen’s psychological security, but this effect was obvious only when the level of interpersonal stress was relatively low, and decreased when the level of interpersonal stress was high. In study 2, college freshmen from another university apart from above ones ( N = 604) were recruited, and we verified the results of study 1 and further explored the mediating role of grit in the relationship between interpersonal stress and security. The moderating effect analysis of study 2 also verified that of study 1. The mediating effect analysis showed that interpersonal stress not only negatively predicted psychological security, but also affected psychological security through the mediation of grit. In general, grit played a mediating and moderating role in the relationship between interpersonal stress and psychological security. This study provides first-hand evidence to explain the multiple roles of grit in the relationship between interpersonal stress and psychological security.
... For example, emotional closeness affects GC's psychological well-being (Attar-Schwartz & Khoury-Kassabri, 2016). Attar-Schwartz (2015) found a significant association between GP-GC emotional closeness and adolescent adjustment difficulties, but also that closeness to parents played a mediating role in that relationship. This makes it difficult to draw any firm conclusion about the direct influence of GP on their GC. ...
Article
Studies on grandchildren and their grandparents have shown the importance of the bond between them for their well-being, the good development of the grandchildren and the grandparents’ successful aging. This mutually satisfying intergenerational bond is based on emotional closeness, reciprocal influence and willingness to maintain the relationship throughout life. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review of the current literature to explore the bond between grandparents and their adolescent grandchildren and its role in their respective lives. Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched four databases for studies published between 2009 and 2019, and selected additional articles from retrieved publications. We identified 18 articles that met the inclusion criteria. We explored the concept of emotional closeness and its measures, identified the variables moderating this bond, and examined outcomes for grandparents and grandchildren. We identified the measures of emotional closeness in the studies and the factors influencing this intergenerational bond; these included personal, environmental and relationship factors (distance, grandparents’ health, personality, relationships with parents, communication), as well as psychological outcomes. This review reveals new approaches to the concept of emotional closeness in the grandparent-grandchild relationship through various psychological constructs and variables that should be included in future scales measuring emotional closeness.
... Perceived availability of father and mother support were correlated positively with perceived availability of staff support and with adolescent adjustment. These findings might indicate that parents' supportive relationships with children in care is important and twofold: a supportive relationship with parents is linked positively to adolescent wellbeing in itself, and it also possibly allows the adolescent to have close relationships with other adult figures (see Attar-Schwartz, 2015). One such relationship is that between the adolescent and his or her RCS staff, which in this study were found to be linked with adolescents' wellbeing. ...
Article
Residential child care workers, acting in loco parentis, are in continuous, daily contact with the children in their care, and as such they are one of the key support providers in their lives. However, there is little research on the extent of the support and contribution they make to the children’s well-being. This study examines the link between perceived staff social support and emotional and behavioral adjustment difficulties of adolescents in educational residential care settings (RCSs) designed for youth from underprivileged backgrounds in Israel. It also examines the moderating role of adolescents’ length of stay in the RCS in the link between staff support and adolescent adjustment. The study includes the reports of a random cluster sample of 1,409 adolescents in grades 8 to 12, residing in 16 Israeli educational RCSs. The adolescents reported an average of medium to high level of staff support. Being female, Israeli-born, and perceiving greater parental support were found to be positively correlated with perceived staff support. Staff support was associated negatively with adolescent adjustment difficulties, above and beyond the contribution of parents’ support. A significant interaction was found between length of stay and staff support in predicting adjustment difficulties. Specifically, among adolescents residing for longer periods in the RCS, there was a stronger link between staff support and fewer adjustment difficulties. The findings have implications for residential care policy and practice, especially regarding the need to strengthen the role of child care staff as a social support system for children and adolescents in residential care.
... Where grandparents can provide longitudinal perspective to the immediacy of social adversity, they can help to mitigate the impact of acute environmental crises. This suggests that understanding the benefits of intergenerational nurturing associated with grandparental rearing may be a key intervention point for young adults in socially adverse environments [32]. ...
... Grandparents have been found to be important figures in the lives of Social Support of Youth in Residential Care Page 3 of 20 youth in the community, and their support has been found to be associated with better outcomes among youth, especially in times of adversity (e.g. Attar-Schwartz, 2015;Attar-Schwartz and Buchanan, 2012;Griggs et al., 2010;Henderson et al., 2009). However, informal social support by grandparents has rarely been examined among youth in care. ...
Article
This study maps the perceived social support of youth in Israeli educational residential care settings (RCSs) from their nuclear and extended family, peers and RCS staff and their overall level of perceived social network sufficiency. Self-report questionnaires were completed by 864 adolescents in grades 8–12, residing in sixteen educational RCSs for youth from underprivileged backgrounds. The findings indicate that adolescents from divorced families and those born in certain countries other than Israel are at risk for poorer social network sufficiency. All youth rated their mother as the greatest source of support. However, the order of support levels from other sources varied according to the youths’ characteristics. For example, paternal support was perceived as second in importance by youth from married-parent families and by boys, but not by youth from divorced families and by girls, who rated peers as second in importance. The perceived support of both grandparents and RCS staff was lower than that of other sources, although they are still significant figures in youths’ lives. The findings may help identify groups of adolescents in RCSs who are vulnerable to poorer social support, which in turn can help design programmes strengthening their ties with potential support sources in their lives.
... For example, a study in South Africa found that more involvement from grandparents in the adolescents' lives was linked with positive prosocial behaviour among adolescents (Profe & Wild, 2017). A study of Israeli adolescents showed that when there is an emotionally closer relationship between parents and adolescents, an emotionally closer relationship with grandparents was associated with better psychologi- cal well-being in children (Attar-Schwartz, 2015). However, there is still very little attention given to the cultural context of grandparent-grandchildren relationships (with the excep- tion of Attar-Schwartz & Khoury-Kassabri, 2016;Wild & Gaibie, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
A close connection with a grandparent can interact with an adolescent’s experience of life stressors to increase or decrease their risk for negative outcomes. Traditional filial values may be linked to closer grandparent–grandchildren interactions in Asian cultures, such as Malaysia. This study examined how grandparental involvement and emotional closeness moderated the associations between life stressors and adjustment difficulties among adolescents in Malaysia (n = 643 adolescents). Hierarchical regression analysis showed that greater proximal and distal life stressors were associated with more adjustment difficulties of adolescents. Moreover, emotional closeness with the closest grandparents moderated the association between adolescent distal adversities and adjustment difficulties. Specifically, the contribution of accumulative stress from adverse life events on the risk of adjustment difficulties among adolescents may be alleviated when adolescents perceived high levels of emotional ties with the closest grandparents. These findings suggest that grandparents can directly relate to grandchildren’s adjustment through engaging emotional relationships. Our study shed lights on the interpretation of the contribution of grandparents to adolescent outcomes and the development of adolescents’ resilience in the face of adversity within the Malaysian cultural context.
... Optimal health outcomes are achieved when extended family members play an essential and active role in providing emotional, social, and developmental support, 16 as all family involvement is key to realizing the potential for long-lasting positive effect of the premature infant's physical, cognitive, and psychosocial development 5 , 30 and health, 29 as well as long-term meaningful and supportive relationships between grandparents and grandchildren in general. 39 This emphasizes the importance of the FCC group intervention's significance early in the premature infants' admission to NICU. ...
Article
Background: Research concludes that there is a need for educational programs for grandmothers, as well as networking opportunities; educational programs for other extended family members have long been sought by parents, relatives, and nurses in neonatal intensive care unit. Purpose: To describe the effect of having premature infants' extended families participating in family-centered care (FCC) groups in the neonatal intensive care unit. An intervention based on dialogue, including topics as own reactions, general knowledge about the premature infants, parenthood, and how the extended families can support the new families during hospitalization and after discharge. Methods: A qualitative content analysis of 2 focus group interviews involving 16 purposefully sampled extended family members, who had participated in 1½ hours of FCC group interventions. Findings: The overall theme was: Accepting the individuality of the infant and providing the family with realistic expectations for the future. This theme emerged during the analysis of 4 categories: knowledge sharing, same basis for understanding, access to the immediate family, and competent supporting role. The interrelationship between the categories also emerged, surprisingly, during the analysis. Implications for practice: Extended family members should be recognized as an essential part of the new family's life from the time of the premature infant's admission to neonatal intensive care unit. Family-centered care group interventions should be integrated into ward practice and policy. Implications for research: The study reinforces the need for further research, utilizing both qualitative and quantitative methods, into age and ethnicity aspects of FCC group interventions. There is also a need to compare the new parents' perceived level of stress and support from the FCC group intervention in relation to participating and nonparticipating extended families.
... For example, a study in South Africa found that more involvement from grandparents in the adolescents' lives was linked with positive prosocial behaviour among adolescents (Profe & Wild, 2017). A study of Israeli adolescents showed that when there is an emotionally closer relationship between parents and adolescents, an emotionally closer relationship with grandparents was associated with better psychological well-being in children (Attar-Schwartz, 2015). However, there is still very little attention given to the cultural context of grandparent-grandchildren relationships (with the exception of Attar-Schwartz & Khoury-Kassabri, 2016;Wild & Gaibie, 2014). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter draws on an Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) study which used a representative sample of over 1500 young people (aged 11 to 16) who completed a questionnaire on their relationship with their grandparents. In addition, thirty young people were also interviewed in depth. The original study did not explore the association between grandfather involvement per se and adolescent well-being. For this chapter, the statistical data were reanalysed in 2014 to assess whether there were links, independent of grandmothers, of significant associations between grandfather involvement and child well-being. The findings here show that, although grandmothers were more involved with grandchildren, many grandfathers played an important, yet different, role in their grandchildren’s lives, and this involvement, independent of grandmothers, was associated with child well-being.
... In recent decades, interest in grandparenting and adolescents' well-being has increased substantially, partly because of increased life expectancy, and because of work and family changes that can increase parents' difficulties coping with everyday life. That interest has also grown as a natural progression of various socioecological approaches to family functioning (see Attar-Schwartz, 2015). The current study contributes to this emerging line of research by investigating the contribution of nonresidential grandparenting to adolescent adjustment difficulties and prosocial behaviors, taking into account the cultural context to which the adolescents and their families belong. ...
Article
A growing body of research has shown the positive contribution of grandparents to adolescents' well-being. However, studies often overlook the cultural context in which this relationship is embedded. The current study examined whether emotional closeness to the grandparent identified by the adolescents as their closest grandparent varied among Arab and Jewish adolescents and whether cultural affiliation serves as a moderator in the association between emotional closeness to grandparents and adolescent adjustment difficulties and prosocial behaviors. The study was based on a sample of 2,751 Jewish and Arab secondary school students (aged 12-18) from Israel who completed a structured questionnaire. Among the whole sample, greater emotional closeness to the closest grandparent was associated with reduced emotional symptoms, reduced hyperactivity, and increased prosocial behaviors. While there were lower levels of emotional closeness to the closest grandparents among Arab adolescents, emotional closeness to grandparents was found to be more strongly associated with reduced emotional symptoms and increased prosocial behavior among Arab adolescents than among Jewish adolescents. These findings emphasize the importance of considering culture when examining intergenerational relationships in the family and their contribution to grandchildren's well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record
Article
Full-text available
Статья посвящена обзору зарубежных исследований межпоколенных отношений. В ней анализируются детско-прародительские отношения, а также фигура прародителя и понимание им своей роли в системе отношений с членами семьи, принадлежащими к разным поколениям. Постановка фигуры, относящейся к старшему поколению семьи, в центр внимания позволяет искать и находить новые факторы, определяю-щие характер и качество отношений между бабушками/дедушками и внуками. В статье также рассматри-вается специфика отношений с внуками прародителей из расширенных семей и прародителей, проживаю-щих отдельно. Ключевые слова: детско-прародительские отношения, прародители, внуки, отдельно проживающие прародители, расширенные семьи. Для цитаты: Булыгина М.В., Комарова С.В. Прародители и внуки (обзор зарубежных исследований) [Электронный ресурс] // Современная зарубежная психология.
Thesis
Full-text available
This study was designed to analyze matrilateral biases in order to explore possible evolutionary mechanisms, as guided by general psychological theories. In evolutionary psychology theory, paternity uncertainty is the most widely accepted concept for explaining matrilateral and matrilineal biases.
Article
Full-text available
Intergenerational interactions and exchange are major components of grandparenting, and the present study sought to examine how the intergenerational solidarity framework has been used to investigate grandparenting practices across the lifespan and in different cultures. This framework is widely used across cultures and provides a basis to discuss the future of grandparenting research, considering cultural intermingling and changes in society. Following PRISMA-ScR guidelines, we searched three databases (PsycInfo, PubMed, and Web of Science). Finally, 42 empirical studies that met the inclusion criteria were included in this scoping review. They were published between 1991 and 2020 and assessed intergenerational solidarity between grandparents and their grandchildren. Our findings show that research on grandparenting based on the intergenerational solidarity framework has increased in the last 30 years, and that this model provides a comprehensive approach to studying grandparenting across the lifespan in different cultures. The present study identified cross-cultural differences in the prevalence of the types of intergenerational solidarity. Affectual solidarity was shown to be the most studied dimension of intergenerational solidarity in North America, Europe and Israel, while normative solidarity was the most represented in Asian studies. The only Australian study investigated affectual and functional solidarity. This model is thus suitable for studying grandparenting, but further studies are needed to investigate changes in intergenerational solidarity between grandparents and their grandchildren at different stages of development and account for cultural specificities.
Article
Despite the increasing importance of grandparents in raising their grandchildren, few studies analyze the impact that these intergenerational relationships have on the grandchildren, especially during adolescence. With a sample of 3432 adolescents between 11 years and 16 years old, we analyze to what degree grandparent affection explains adolescent emotional well-being. The results reveal interesting findings according to family type: traditional two-parent families, families with joint custody, or families with only one biological parent (specifying between father or mother). Lastly, we analyze and discuss the implications of the relevant results related to the grandparents’ sex, lineage, and state of health, the adolescent’s age, as well as finding a higher impact of grandparent affection has on adolescents from families with only the father as a reference figure. This study advocates for reinforcing the role of the grandparents during adolescence, becoming especially relevant for boys and girls living in father-only families.
Article
Full-text available
Background Grandparent-grandchild relationships play an important role in the lives of young adults. The aim of the current study was to examine young adult grandchildren’s perceptions of the predictors of grandparental influence, includ-ing the quality of the intergenerational relationship and perceived grandparent’s empathy. Participants and procedure The sample consisted of 363 young adults (55.9% female). The participants were surveyed about the quality of relationship with their closest grandparent (i.e., the frequency of contact, geographical proximity and relational closeness), grandparental empathy, and perception of grandparental influence. Results The maternal grandmother was most often indicated as the closest grandparent. The perception of grandparental influence was predicted by the quality of intergenerational relationships and grandparental empathy after control-ling for sociodemographic variables, moderated by grandchild’s gender. Particularly, both for granddaughters and grandsons the relational closeness with the closest grandparent and perceived empathy were significant predictors of grandparental influence, but perceived grandparental empathy was a stronger predictor for granddaughters, whereas the relational closeness was a stronger predictor for grandsons. Conclusions The role of the quality of grandparent-grandchild relationships and grandparental empathy in young adults’ per-ceptions of grandparents’ influence was confirmed and gender differences in determinants of grandparental influ-ence were found. These findings may be helpful in developing intergenerational programs targeted at improving the quality of the relationship with grandparents and their role in young adult grandchildren’s lives.
Article
Objectives: Adolescent suicide is a global problem. This study aimed to identify associations between parental marital status and suicidal behavior. Methods: This study analyzed 118 715 middle and high school students from the 13th and 14th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. The odds ratios (ORs) of suicidal ideation, planning, and attempts were calculated based on parental marital status, living situation, and socioeconomic factors. The data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Results: When compared to those living with 2 married biological parents, the ORs of suicidal ideation among adolescents living with either remarried or no parents were 1.34 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17 to 1.53) and 1.36 (95% CI, 1.11 to 1.66), respectively. For suicidal planning, the OR of those living with 1 remarried biological parent was 1.24 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.52), and that of those living without parents was 1.28 (95% CI, 0.95 to 1.73), when compared to adolescents living with 2 married biological parents. For suicide attempts, when compared to adolescents with 2 married biological parents, the OR of those living with 1 remarried biological parent was 1.48 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.87) and that of those living without parents was 2.02 (95% CI, 1.44 to 2.83). For adolescents living with 1 remarried biological parent, suicidal behavior was strongly associated with having no siblings and were weakly associated with not living with grandparents. Conclusions: Suicidal behavior among adolescents was associated with the remarriage and loss of parents. Therefore, special attention and interventions are needed for adolescents in those situations.
Article
Full-text available
The article reviews foreign studies of intergenerational relationships. It analyzes grandchild-grandparent relations, as well as the figure of the grandparent and his/her understanding of his/her role in the system of relations with family members belonging to different generations. Putting a figure belonging to the older generation of the family in the spotlight made it possible to look for and find new factors that determine the nature and quality of the relationship between grandparents and grandchildren. The article also examines the specificity of interrelations between grandchildren and grandparents living in extended families or separately from their children and grandchildren.
Article
This study investigated connectedness-oriented behaviours during mother–child interaction and their associations with children’s later school adjustment in China. One hundred and ten children, 50 boys and 60 girls, about 2 years old and their mothers took part in the original observation. Ninety-two children, 44 boys and 48 girls, of the original sample participated in the follow-up study 5 years later, when the children were 7 years old. The data of connectedness-oriented behaviours was collected from the laboratory observation when the children were aged 2. The school adjustment data were collected when the children were aged 7. The results indicated that children’s behavioural connectedness and maternal encouragement of connectedness have different meaning to children’s adjustment in later years in China. The possible influences of cultural values, only child policy and social changes were discussed.
Chapter
This chapter examines adolescents’ reports on their relationships with their grandfathers and the contribution of these relationships to their adjustment, based on a survey conducted among approximately 2750 Israeli Jewish and Arab adolescents, aged 12–17. Most of the analyses focused on the 736 adolescents identifying their grandfathers as their closest grandparents. The findings show that grandfathers are heavily involved in the lives of adolescents in Israel and that adolescents see them as close and significant figures in their lives. Adolescent gender, lineage of grandfather, and culture are associated with the adolescent–grandfather relationship. In addition, significant links were found between adolescents’ closeness to their closest grandfathers and reduced adjustment difficulties and increased pro-social behaviour, as well as between grandfather involvement and pro-social behaviour.
Article
Full-text available
With people living longer and more mothers working, there is some evidence that grandparents are more involved in rearing the next generation. Although there is research in the United Kingdom on kinship care, there is no national research on the extent of grandparent involvement from the perspective of young people. This, the first national survey of 1,478 adolescents in England and Wales, demonstrates the very considerable amount of informal care given by grandparents to adolescents.The findings showed that factors in the wider ecology of children, their parents, grandparents, and the community influenced grandparent—grandchild involvement. In particular, more regular contact and stronger grandparent/grandchild closeness, greater parental encouragement to visit grandparents, better health in grandparents, and less deprivation in the community were significantly associated with more active grandparent involvement. The article concludes that because grandparents may be filling the parenting gap for hard-working parents, there is a case for greater recognition of their role as family supporters.
Article
Full-text available
This chapter identifies the most robust conclusions and ideas about adolescent development and psychological functioning that have emerged since Petersen's 1988 review. We begin with a discussion of topics that have dominated recent research, including adolescent problem behavior, parent-adolescent relations, puberty, the development of the self, and peer relations. We then identify and examine what seem to us to be the most important new directions that have come to the fore in the last decade, including research on diverse populations, contextual influences on development, behavioral genetics, and siblings. We conclude with a series of recommendations for future research on adolescence.
Article
Full-text available
This chapter examines the theoretical and empirical underpinnings of research on the relation between marriage and parenting. Although parenting experiences undoubtedly affect marital functioning as well, the chapter focuses on understanding how marital relationships may support or undermine parenting. After a brief overview of the development of research in this area, the conceptual perspectives that have informed this work are described and the body of empirical findings linking marital quality with different aspects of parenting, including behavior, affect, cognition, and coparenting processes, are reviewed. The chapter closes by considering critical issues that need to be investigated if we are to more fully understand the links between marriage and parenting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
We investigated whether and under what family conditions young adult grandchildren psychologically benefit from having close and supportive grandparent relations. Relying on parental absence and family systems perspectives, we hypothesized that grandparents will be most effective in reducing depressive symptoms and increasing self-esteem of grandchildren who were raised in single-parent and step-parent families, as well as those with poorer quality relations with their parents. We analyzed data from a sample of grandchildren aged 18–23 years who were surveyed in the 1992–1994 wave of the National Survey of Families and Households (n = 925). Hierarchical multiple regressions with interaction terms found that greater cohesion with grandparents decreased depressive symptoms, particularly among grandchildren raised in single-parent families. However, cohesive grandparent relations reduced depressive symptoms more in the presence of stronger ties to parents. The model partially supports the long reach of grandparents as compensatory resources for mature grandchildren whose families of origin were absent a parent. Implications for future research on the role of grandparents in family systems are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines grandparents' written accounts of conversations with their college-aged grandchildren. Using a thematic analysis, we describe 4 themes that indicate the place of the relationship in the grandparents' lives and their general orientation to their grandchildren. It is argued that expressions of affiliation, pride, exchange (primarily of advice and information), and feeling distance from their grandchildren are fundamental elements of the relationship from the grandparents' perspectives. These are discussed in terms of the grandchild's place in the grandparent's life and the complexities of negotiating this relationship during a period of grandchild transition away from the parental home.
Article
Full-text available
This study presents the psychometric properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire - Hebrew version (SDQ-H), used in the Israel Survey on Mental Health among Adolescents (ISMEHA). The SDQ-H was administered to a representative sample of 611 adolescents and their mothers. Structural validity was evaluated by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) inventory was used as "gold standard" to test convergent and discriminant validity. Internal consistency and normative scores were established. Agreement was found with the original factor structure, except for the Peer problem scale. Concurrent and discriminant validity varied from fair to very good for most scales. Total Difficulties scores showed better discriminant validity for the adolescents' than the mothers' report for internalizing disorders, and the opposite for externalizing disorders. Internal consistency for the Total Difficulties was 0.77 and for the Hyperactivity scale it was 0.73. It was lower for the other scales, particularly for the Peer problems scale. The findings suggest reasonable psychometric properties of the SDQ-H. Comparisons with other translated SDQ versions are presented.
Article
Full-text available
There is limited research on adolescent-grandparent relationships, especially from the adolescent perspective and on large-scale samples. The study examined the associations between the adolescent-grandparent relationship (i.e., importance of, emotional closeness to, and respect for grandparents' views) and the characteristics of the adolescent, grandparent, and parent-grandparent relationship, as well as the interactions between several of these factors. It was based on a representative sample of 1478 students aged 11-16 from England and Wales who completed a structured questionnaire. Results supported the position that grandparents are a significant factor in the lives of adolescents. Findings of hierarchical regression analyses showed that more frequent contact, greater grandparent involvement, and better parent-grandparent relationships predicted adolescents' reports on higher levels of emotional closeness to, importance of, and respect for their closest grandparent's views. The interactions consistently emphasized the role of parents as gatekeepers of intergenerational exchange.
Article
Full-text available
The study, using data from 801 11-16-year-olds clustered in 68 schools across England and Wales, tested whether closeness to grandparents moderates the association between contextual stress and adolescent psychopathology and prosocial behavior, measured with the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). Contextual stress was measured at both school area level (assessed with the index of multiple deprivation) and child level (assessed, as life stress, with the number of proximal and distal adverse life events experienced). At baseline, area stress (multiple deprivation) was unrelated to psychopathology (SDQ), and although both proximal (during the last 12 months) and distal (before the last 12 months) life stress was associated with broad and specific child psychopathology, the association with proximal life stress was stronger. Closeness to the most significant grandparent moderated both the effect of proximal life stress on hyperactivity and broad psychopathology, and the effect of the interaction between distal and proximal life stress on broad and externalizing psychopathology. These findings suggest that the role of grandparents deserves further attention in future investigations of the development of resilience in youth.
Article
Full-text available
This study examined whether diabetes-specific self-efficacy mediates the association between overprotection and distress and whether this mediation depends on glycemic control and gender. The research sample of 215 individuals with diabetes and their partners completed a measure of partners' overprotective behaviours towards the patient. Patients also completed measures of diabetes-specific self-efficacy and diabetes-related distress. Further, HbA1c values were obtained as an indication of glycemic control. Diabetes-specific self-efficacy mediated the association between overprotection by the partner and diabetes-related distress especially when glycemic control was relatively poor. Furthermore, diabetes-specific self-efficacy mediated the association between overprotection and diabetes-related distress more strongly in female than in male patients. The findings underscore the importance of studying both moderators and mediators in the association between partner behaviour and distress in patients.
Article
Full-text available
There is limited research on the links between grandparenting and adolescents' well-being, especially from the perspective of the adolescents. The study examined whether grandparent involvement varied in two-parent biological, lone-parent, and step-families and whether this had a different contribution to the emotional and behavioral adjustment of adolescents across different family structures. The study is based on a sample of 1,515 secondary school students (ages 11-16 years) from England and Wales who completed a structured questionnaire. Findings of hierarchical regression analyses showed that among the whole sample, greater grandparent involvement was associated with fewer emotional problems (p < .01) and with more prosocial behavior (p < .001). In addition, while there were no differences in the level of grandparent involvement across the different family structures, grandparent involvement was more strongly associated with reduced adjustment difficulties among adolescents from lone-parent and step-families than those from two-parent biological families. A possible implication is that the positive role of grandparent involvement in lone-parent and step- families should be more emphasized in family psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Full-text available
This chapter identifies the most robust conclusions and ideas about adolescent development and psychological functioning that have emerged since Petersen's 1988 review. We begin with a discussion of topics that have dominated recent research, including adolescent problem behavior, parent-adolescent relations, puberty, the development of the self, and peer relations. We then identify and examine what seem to us to be the most important new directions that have come to the fore in the last decade, including research on diverse populations, contextual influences on development, behavioral genetics, and siblings. We conclude with a series of recommendations for future research on adolescence.
Article
Full-text available
In this chapter we review theoretical and empirical advances in research on adolescent development in interpersonal and societal contexts. First, we identify several trends in current research, including the current emphasis on ecological models and the focus on diversity in and relational models of adolescent development. Next, we discuss recent research on interpersonal relationships, with an eye toward identifying major research themes and findings. Research on adolescents' relationships with parents, siblings, other relatives, peers, and romantic partners, and adolescents' involvement in community and society is reviewed. Future directions in research on adolescent development are discussed.
Article
Young people learn from their interactions with their parents how to initiate and maintain satisfying and warm friendships. Attachment with parents thereby plays an important role in adolescents' social and emotional adjustment. The model tested in this study proposes that the relation between parental attachment and emotional adjustment is mediated by social skills and relational competence. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the models and paths between concepts using data from a sample of 412 12-18-year-olds. In the 12-14-year-old age group, no effects of parental attachment on social skills and relational competence were displayed. However, in the 15-18-year-old age group, parental attachment was moderately related to social skills, which, in turn, affected middle adolescents' competence in friendships and romantic relationships. Parental attachment and relational competence were significant predictors of adolescents' emotional adjustment in both age groups.
Article
This article describes development of a theory of solidarity among parents and children during the adult family life course. Four stages in the theory's development are reported here. Presented first is a taxonomy of six dimensions of intergenerational family cohesion—association, affection, consensus, resource sharing, the strength of familism norms, and the opportunity structure for interaction—reflecting conceptual contributions from classical social theory, social psychology, and family sociology. An initial formal theoretical specification of interrelationships among a subset of the six elements is reviewed, as well as two independent tests of that model. Second, a revision of the theory informed by results of the two empirical tests is presented. Third, elements of the revised theory are translated into a structural equation model, which is tested with data collected from 363 pairs of elderly parents and middle-aged adult children. These data provided support for seven of nine propositions derived from the reformulated theory. The major finding concerns interrelationships among normative integration, affection, and association. Greater endorsements of familial primacy norms by parents and children were associated with higher ratings of intergenerational affection. Greater affection was, in turn, related to more frequent association when opportunity for interaction was controlled. The fourth stage in theory development reported here includes discussion of the new results and suggestions for future conceptual and empirical work.
Chapter
With increased life expectancy, diversifying families, growing number of dual-worker households, changing families, and higher rates of family breakdown, grandparents are now playing an increasing role in their grandchildren’s lives. This essay reviews existing literature regarding the characteristics of grandparent– adolescent relationship and the factors associated with the quality of this relationship. It also considers the link between grandparent involvement and emotional closeness and adolescent well-being especially in non-intact families. Finally, it discusses the role of grandparents as buffer against cumulative risk in the lives of adolescents and as promoters of resilience in the face of adversity.
Article
This study, guided by the Family Systems Theory, examines the direct effect of maternal use of corporal punishment on children's adjustment difficulties. Also, it explores whether corporal punishment serves as a mediating factor in the relationship between several maternal characteristics, marital relationships, and children's adjustment difficulties. A total of 2,447 Arab mothers completed anonymous, structured, self-report questionnaires. The use of corporal punishment was generally strongly supported by the Arab mothers in our sample. A greater likelihood of using corporal punishment was found among mothers of boys rather than girls, among mothers with lower perceived self-efficacy to discipline children, and among mothers with a lower perception of their husbands’ participation in child-related labor. In addition, the higher a mother's reports on disagreement with her husband about discipline methods and the stronger her level of maternal stress, the more likely she was to use corporal punishment. Corporal punishment also mediated the association between the above mentioned factors and child adjustment difficulties. Furthermore, a husband's emotional support and family socioeconomic status were directly associated to children's adjustment difficulties. The results of the current study emphasize the need to observe children's development within the context of their family systems and to consider the mutual influences of different subsystems such as marital relationships and mother–child interactions. Prevention and intervention programs should raise parents’ awareness concerning the harmful effects of corporal punishment and take into account the impact of dynamic transactions of parental conflicts and disagreements regarding discipline methods on child outcomes.
Article
In this article, we discuss recent research that has arisen from theoretical and conceptual models that use a systems metaphor for understanding families. We suggest that research stimulated by such models leads social scientists in new and important directions in understanding the social and emotional development of children in their families. These models view development as resulting from the dynamic transactions across multiple levels of family systems, which regulate a child's behavior. Thus, these models are important in considering multiple influences on development and adaptation.
Article
The purpose of this research is to investigate inter-generational kinship variables as predictors of perceptions of current grandparent-grandchild relationship quality. A lifecourse perspective is used to demonstrate the need for consideration of the GP-GCH relationship within a three-generational, dynamic framework linking the past and present. Matrifocal kinkeeping, lineage and caregiving history hypotheses are tested in the current study. Responses from a combined sample of 321 young adult grandchildren about their relationships with their parents and all living grandparents provide the basis for the present research. GP-GCH relationship quality is the dependent variable under consideration, which combines perceived emotional closeness and frequency of contact with each of the four possible grandparent types. Independent variables tested include caregiving by grandparents during childhood, young adults' current relationship quality with mothers and fathers, and mothers' and fathers' relationships with parents and in-laws, as appropriate. Using stepwise multiple regression, GP-GCH relationship quality is predicted by a history of caregiving for the grandchild by the grandparent in question, as well as direct lineage connections, with mothers' relationships with their children and parents influencing grandchildren's relationships with maternal grandparents, and fathers' relationships with their parents and children showing similar patterns for grandchildren's relationships with paternal grandparents. The present data provide support for lineage and caregiving history hypotheses rather than matrifocal kinkeeping as predictors of intergenerational kinship patterns.
Article
Young people learn from their interactions with their parents how to initiate and maintain satisfying and warm friendships. Attachment with parents thereby plays an important role in adolescents' social and emotional adjustment. The model tested in this study proposes that the relation between parental attachment and emotional adjustment is mediated by social skills and relational competence. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the models and paths between concepts using data from a sample of 412 12–18-year-olds. In the 12–14-year-old age group, no effects of parental attachment on social skills and relational competence were displayed. However, in the 15–18-year-old age group, parental attachment was moderately related to social skills, which, in turn, affected middle adolescents' competence in friendships and romantic relationships. Parental attachment and relational competence were significant predictors of adolescents' emotional adjustment in both age groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The UK's national population structure, in line with most Western societies, is ageing rapidly. The combination of falling fertility and increasing longevity is having an impact on family structures and resultant relationships, with the emergence of long vertical multi-generational families replacing the former laterally extended family forms. This is occurring at a time when UK government policy is placing increasing reliance on families to provide health and social care and support for the growing number of frail older people. While there has been extensive research on family care within the majority white population, there is less understanding of the elder family care provision for the UK's growing older ethnic population. This paper discusses the changing demographics, new government policy on promoting independent living and its implications for family care provision, and reviews our current understanding of family care and support for older people within the UK’s varied ethnic minority families.
Article
This study examined links between grandparents' involvement and grandchildrens' positive outcomes. Data were from 408 families taken from Time 1 and Time 2 (1 year later) of the Flourishing Families Project, which is a study involving families with a child between the ages of 10 and 14 at Time 1 (M age of child=11.30, 49% female, 82% Caucasian). Results suggested that grandparents' emotional involvement at Time 1 was positively related to adolescents' prosocial behaviors concurrently and longitudinally, for single- and 2-parent families, and that grandparents' financial involvement at Time 1 was positively related to adolescents' school engagement at Time 2 (for single-parent families). Discussion focuses on the unique importance of grandparents' involvement, even after controlling for parent–child attachment.
Article
The dramatic increase in life expectancy and lowered fertility, especially in more advantaged countries, has resulted in people living longer and in more complex family structures. Other important changes affecting the family include greater geographical mobility, increased racial and ethnic diversity, new patterns of immigration and identity reformulation, as well as changing work and family roles. With reduced governmental resources available, it is especially important to understand the changing nature of multigenerational family structures, functioning, and roles in individual well-being in order to maximize the effectiveness of informal and formal supports available to those in need. This special issue addresses basic factors related to multigeneration support systems that will be needed to anticipate, understand, and design support programs to cope with the challenges facing individuals in all generation positions, families, and communities in the United States and around the world.
Article
This study examines whether both parents’ relationships with their offspring, parents, and parents-in-law matter for young adults’ perceptions of closeness to grandparents. This study focuses on two groups of grandchildren (ages 18 – 23) in Wave 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households: young adults with married biological parents (N = 442) and those whose biological mother is not married to their biological father (N = 399). Findings suggest that it is important to examine grandparent-grandchild ties within a complete kinship network. Parents’ relationships with the grandchild and grandparent generations were associated with the grandparent-grandchild bond. In support of the kinkeeping perspective, mothers’ intergenerational ties across lineage lines appeared to be more influential for grandparent-grandchild relationships than fathers’.
Article
Following parental separation, children's closeness to grandparents has been reported to be linked to their family situation and differences in adjustment. This relationship has not been investigated longitudinally. This study investigated children's relationships with grandparents over time in different family settings, and associations with intergenerational relationships. Data from 385 children, with longitudinal analyses on 140, were collected at two time points over a five-year period. Associations between closeness of the child–grandparent relationship and adjustment were not found at the later time point. There was a mean drop in frequency of contact over time, but not in closeness. However, there was stability of individual differences in both frequency of contact and closeness; closeness to the maternal grandmother was particularly stable for children living with a single mother. Intergenerational links were found with the mother's own childhood experiences, particularly in single-mother families. Following parental separation, the matrifocal bias in kinship patterns was accentuated.
Article
This study investigates maternal grandmother—grandchild relationship quality as a predictor of psychological adjustment among youth from divorced families. Three hundred twenty-four adolescents aged between 17 and 20 report on the quality of their relationships with their maternal grandmothers and their relational competence, self-efficacy, and psychological symptoms. Structural equation modeling analyses support a model in which participants' relationships with grandmothers predict their psychological adjustment. Family background (divorced vs. intact families) moderates the relationship between relationship quality and adjustment; youth from divorced families indicate that their relationships with their maternal grandmothers are more salient to their adjustment than do youth from intact families. These findings suggest that the bonds young people develop with their maternal grandmothers following their parents' divorce may positively affect their psychological functioning.
Article
Family relationships across several generations are becoming increasingly important in American society. They are also increasingly diverse in structure and in functions. In reply to the widely debated “family decline” hypothesis, which assumes a nuclear family model of 2 biological parents and children, I suggest that family multigenerational relations will be more important in the 21st century for 3 reasons: (a) the demographic changes of population aging, resulting in “longer years of shared lives” between generations; (b) the increasing importance of grandparents and other kin in fulfilling family functions; (c) the strength and resilience of intergenerational solidarity over time. I also indicate that family multigenerational relations are increasingly diverse because of (a) changes in family structure, involving divorce and stepfamily relationships; (b) the increased longevity of kin; (c) the diversity of intergenerational relationship “types.” Drawing on the family research legacy of Ernest W. Burgess, I frame my arguments in terms of historical family transitions and hypotheses. Research from the Longitudinal Study of Generations is presented to demonstrate the strengths of multigenerational ties over time and why it is necessary to look beyond the nuclear family when asking whether families are still functional.
Article
Based on an instance of "clinical lore" we assess the efficacy of children's and adolescents' knowledge of family history as an index of psychological well-being and potential for positive change in clinical and educational settings. We report that knowledge of family history is significantly correlated with internal locus of control, higher self-esteem, better family functioning, greater family cohesiveness, lower levels of anxiety, and lower incidence of behavior problems. We suggest that through the use of a brief measure of family knowledge, practicing clinicians can rapidly generate a data-based correlate of children's well-being and likelihood of overcoming psychological and educational challenges. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
This study explored the significance of grandparents in the lives of young adult grandchildren. A convenience sample of 142 college students completed a questionnaire that examined four areas: frequency of activities, value development, relationship solidarity, and role conception. While current interactions with grandparents were infrequent, grandchildren did perceive their grandparents, and grandmothers in particular, as influential in their value development. Grandchildren reported stronger relationships with grandmothers than with grandfathers. Differences in participation, value development, and relationships were also found according to the role in which grandchildren conceptualized grandparents. Discussion centers on the factors that may have influenced grandchildren's perceptions and interactions with grandparents.
Article
This article presents findings from a national survey of 208 adult grandchildren concerning relationships with their "closest" grandparent. Levels of contact and perceptions of closeness are two indices used to evaluate the strength of the bonds between the cross-generations. The evidence suggests that along these two dimensions, grandchild/grandparent relationships are significant and meaningful. Although there is diversity among the respondents, interaction levels are high for the majority of the sample. Additionally, most respondents report that their relationships with their grandparents are close and enduring. A comparison of ranked means suggests that several factors are related to the strength of the grandchild/grandparent bonds: age, lineage, geographical proximity, the child/parent relationship, and the parent/grandparent relationship. This research provides a new understanding of a significant family role, that of adult grandchild.
Article
The purpose of this study was to specify older adolescents' perceptions of relationships with maternal and paternal grandmothers and grandfathers. Late adolescent college students (n = 142) indicated their relationship perceptions of each available biological grandparent on Furman and Buhrmester's Network of Relationships Inventory. Grandparents were not viewed as major targets of intimacy nor were they reported to be the bearers of instrumental aid. However, grandparents, regardless of kinship status, were still rated as important attachment figures to these older adolescents. In general, granddaughters reported better relationships than grandsons, and grandchildren reported more optimal relations with grandmothers. Implications for future research efforts are discussed.
Article
Survey responses of 704 college students revealed that the majority of college students have at least one grandparent, and some have eight or more. Students identified degree of closeness with most close grandmother and grandfather. Students' perceptions of grandparent and grandchild roles were generally positive, indicating affection and respect for grandparents. This study is compared with Robertson's study of student attitudes from 12 years ago. Analyses of variance with gender, race, and family form as independent variables reveal differences on role attitudes among students from various backgrounds.
Article
This longitudinal research examined continuity and change in social support in a sample of 74 old-old (74 to 84) or very-old (85 and over) members of the Berkeley Older Generation Study. Considerable continuity in extent of contact was found between 1969 and 1983 for the group as a whole, particularly with respect to family relationships. In beyond-family contacts, declines were observed for men but not women, and for the very-old but not the old-old. Important changes also were observed in involvement or subjective level of commitment: satisfaction with children increased, while involvement beyond the family declined.
Article
Findings from research in which a sample of 132 late adolescents completed questionnaires about their relationships with each of their living grandparents are reported. The grandchildren were most likely to describe their relationships with their maternal grandmothers as close and least likely to describe their bonds with the paternal grandparents in this way. Grandchildren's current evaluations of relationships with their grandparents were affected by access to the particular grandparent in childhood and their perceptions of each of their parents' relationships with the specific grandparent. The findings demonstrate empirically the importance for future research of conceptualizing the grandparent-grandchild tie as both particularistic and mediated through a biological and an in-law-child.
Article
Why do adolescents value their grandparents? This was the leading question of an investigation among 563 adolescents and young adults in Flanders (Belgium). The Grandparent Meaning Scale which probes eleven a priori dimensions of meaning, was completed by 147 early adolescents (M = 12.5 years), 175 middle adolescents (M = 15.7 years), and 241 late adolescents (M = 18.9 years). Results show that adolescents generally find their grandparents important and feel close to them. Grandparents are valued primarily because they provide affection, reassurance of worth, and reliable alliance. Relational-affective and caregiving meanings were assigned more often to grandmothers whereas advising, teaching, and narrative roles were ascribed more frequently to grandfathers. Maternal grandparents were generally perceived as more important and closer than paternal grandparents. Early adolescents assigned more importance and meaning to their grandparents than middle and late adolescents. There were no differences between grandsons and granddaughters.
Article
A novel behavioural screening questionnaire, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), was administered along with Rutter questionnaires to parents and teachers of 403 children drawn from dental and psychiatric clinics. Scores derived from the SDQ and Rutter questionnaires were highly correlated; parent-teacher correlations for the two sets of measures were comparable or favoured the SDQ. The two sets of measures did not differ in their ability to discriminate between psychiatric and dental clinic attenders. These preliminary findings suggest that the SDQ functions as well as the Rutter questionnaires while offering the following additional advantages: a focus on strengths as well as difficulties; better coverage of inattention, peer relationships, and prosocial behaviour; a shorter format; and a single form suitable for both parents and teachers, perhaps thereby increasing parent-teacher correlations.
Article
The Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) is a novel package of questionnaires, interviews, and rating techniques designed to generate ICD-10 and DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses on 5-16-year-olds. Nonclinical interviewers administer a structured interview to parents about psychiatric symptoms and resultant impact. When definite symptoms are identified by the structured questions, interviewers use open-ended questions and supplementary prompts to get parents to describe the problems in their own words. These descriptions are transcribed verbatim by the interviewers but are not rated by them. A similar interview is administered to 11-16-year-olds. Teachers complete a brief questionnaire covering the main conduct, emotional, and hyperactivity symptoms and any resultant impairment. The different sorts of information are brought together by a computer program that also predicts likely diagnoses. These computer-generated summary sheets and diagnoses form a convenient starting point for experienced clinical raters, who decide whether to accept or overturn the computer diagnosis (or lack of diagnosis) in the light of their review of all the data, including transcripts. In the present study, the DAWBA was administered to community (N = 491) and clinic (N = 39) samples. There was excellent discrimination between community and clinic samples in rates of diagnosed disorder. Within the community sample, subjects with and without diagnosed disorders differed markedly in external characteristics and prognosis. In the clinic sample, there was substantial agreement between DAWBA and case note diagnoses, though the DAWBA diagnosed more comorbid disorders. The use of screening questions and skip rules greatly reduced interview length by allowing many sections to be omitted with very little loss of positive information. Overall, the DAWBA successfully combined the cheapness and simplicity of respondent-based measures with the clinical persuasiveness of investigator-based diagnoses. The DAWBA has considerable potential as an epidemiological measure, and may prove to be of clinical value too.
Article
The current study addressed the sharing of traditions, beliefs, and customs (i.e., culture) between grandparents and grandchildren. Two hundred and forty-six adult grandchildren were surveyed on both existing and newly created measures of grandparenting. Results indicated that extent of shared activities, attitudes toward grandparents, and perceptions of cultural sharing were significantly related. Additionally, it was found that minority and female participants were more likely to engage in intergenerational culture sharing and reported more positive statements about this sharing in response to open-ended questions. Findings highlights the importance of cultural sharing to perceptions of grandchild-grandparent relationships.
Article
There has been relatively little research on the role of grandparents as a source of support for children during and following their parents' marital transitions. In this study, we examined children's contact with and closeness to grandparents in different family types (i.e., two biological parents, single mother, stepparent). Participants included 155 children from the Avon Brothers and Sisters Study. Parent and child interviews and questionnaires regarding the children's relationships with maternal and paternal biological and stepgrandparents were examined. There were family type differences in rates of contact with grandparents as well as children's closeness to grandparents. Furthermore, children's and parents' view about these relationships with grandparents were modestly correlated, suggesting that children often held different views about their closeness to their grandparents than did their parents. Greater closeness to grandparents was associated with fewer adjustment problems.
Grandparenting and adolescent adjustment in two-parent biological , lone-parent, and step-families Beyond the nuclear family: The increasing importance of multigenerational bonds Intergenerational solidarity in aging families: An example of formal theory construction
  • S Attar-Schwartz
  • J P Tan
  • A Buchanan
  • E Flouri
  • J Griggs
  • V L Bengtson
  • V L Bengtson
  • R E L Roberts
Attar-Schwartz, S., Tan, J. P., Buchanan, A., Flouri, E., & Griggs, J. (2009). Grandparenting and adolescent adjustment in two-parent biological, lone-parent, and step-families. Journal of Family Psychology, 23, 67–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0014383 Bengtson, V. L. (2001). Beyond the nuclear family: The increasing importance of multigenerational bonds. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 1–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2001.00001.x Bengtson, V. L., & Roberts, R. E. L. (1991). Intergenerational solidarity in aging families: An example of formal theory construction. Journal of Marriage and Family, 53, 856 – 870. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/352993
Continuity and change in social support between young-old, old-old, and very old adults The intergenerational self: Subjective perspectives and family history
  • D Field
  • M R Minkler
  • J Bohanek
  • M Duke
Field, D., & Minkler, M. (1988). Continuity and change in social support between young-old, old-old, and very old adults. Journal of Gerontology, 43, P100 –P106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronj/43.4.P100 Fivush, R., Bohanek, J., & Duke, M. (2008). The intergenerational self: Subjective perspectives and family history. In F. Sani (Ed.), Self continuity: Individual and collective self continuity (pp. 131–144). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Grandmother– grandchild relationship quality predicts psychological adjustment among youth from divorced families Adult grandchildren and their grandparents: The enduring bond
  • L G Hodgson
Grandmother– grandchild relationship quality predicts psychological adjustment among youth from divorced families. Journal of Family Issues, 30, 1245–1264. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192513X09334913 Hodgson, L. G. (1992). Adult grandchildren and their grandparents: The enduring bond. The International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 34, 209 –225.
American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly Grandparent/grandchild: The vital connection
  • Attar-Schwartz Kornhaber
  • A Woodward
This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly. 8 ATTAR-SCHWARTZ Kornhaber, A., & Woodward, K. L. (1981). Grandparent/grandchild: The vital connection. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press.
Looking toward the horizon: Present and future in the study of family systems
  • P Minuchin
Minuchin, P. (2002). Looking toward the horizon: Present and future in the study of family systems. In S. McHale & W. Grolnick (Eds.), Retrospect and prospect in the psychological study of families (pp. 259 -278)
Relationships with grandparents and the emotional well-being of late adolescence and young adult grandchildren The role of overprotection by the partner in coping with diabetes: A moderated mediation model
  • S A Ruiz
  • M M C Silverstein
  • T P Links
  • J Bouma
  • J C Keers
  • R Sanderman
  • B H Wolffenbuttel
  • M Hagedoorn
Ruiz, S. A., & Silverstein, M. (2007). Relationships with grandparents and the emotional well-being of late adolescence and young adult grandchildren. Journal of Social Issues, 63, 793– 808. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ j.1540-4560.2007.00537.x Schokker, M. C., Links, T. P., Bouma, J., Keers, J. C., Sanderman, R., Wolffenbuttel, B. H., & Hagedoorn, M. (2011). The role of overprotection by the partner in coping with diabetes: A moderated mediation model. Psychology & Health, 26, 95–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/ 08870440903342325
The psychology of grandparenthood: An international perspective
  • P K Smith
Smith, P. K. (Ed.), (1991). The psychology of grandparenthood: An international perspective. London, United Kingdom: Routledge. http://dx.doi .org/10.4324/9780203359174
The social forces in later life
  • R C Atchley
Atchley, R. C. (1980). The social forces in later life (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.