ArticlePDF Available

Avocado and Cardiovascular Health

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Avocado is a fruit which had a caloric density of 1.7 kcal per gram and a half unit (~70 g) is composed by 114 kcal, 4.6 g of fibers, 345 mg of potassium, 19.5 mg of magnesium, 1.3 mg of vitamin E and 57 mg of phytosterols. Approximately 75% of fiber's avocado contents are considered insoluble and 25% are soluble. The avocado contains lipids that consist of 71% from monounsatu-rated fatty acids (MUFA), 13% from polyunsaturated (PUFA) and 16% from saturated fatty acids (SFA). Recent researches have shown that avocado may improve hypercholesterolemia and may be useful in the treatment of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This way, avocado plays an important role in the cardiovascular health. This review summarizes the potential benefits of avocado consumption in the prevention of cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic diseases .
Content may be subject to copyright.
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, 2015, 5, 77-83
Published Online July 2015 in SciRes. http://www.scirp.org/journal/ojemd
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojemd.2015.57010
How to cite this paper: Weschenfelder, C., dos Santos, J.L., de Souza, P.A.L., de Campos, V.P. and Marcadenti, A. (2015)
Avocado and Cardiovascular Health. Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, 5, 77-83.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojemd.2015.57010
Avocado and Cardiovascular Health
Camila Weschenfelder
1
, Júlia Lorenzon dos Santos
1
, Priscilla Azambuja Lopes de Souza
1
,
Viviane Paiva de Campos
1
, Aline Marcadenti
1,2*
1
Postgraduate Studies Program in Cardiology, Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia
do Rio Grande do Sul (IC/FUC), Porto Alegre, Brazil
2
Department of Nutrition, Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, Brazil
Email:
*
marcadenti@yahoo.com.br
Received 30 June 2015; accepted 25 July 2015; published 29 July 2015
Copyright © 2015 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Abstract
Avocado is a fruit which had a caloric density of 1.7 kcal per gram and a half unit (~70 g) is com-
posed by 114 kcal, 4.6 g of fibers, 345 mg of potassium, 19.5 mg of magnesium, 1.3 mg of vitamin E
and 57 mg of phytosterols. Approximately 75% of fiber’s avocado contents are considered inso-
luble and 25% are soluble. The avocado contains lipids that consist of 71% from monounsatu-
rated fatty acids (MUFA), 13% from polyunsaturated (PUFA) and 16% from saturated fatty acids
(SFA). Recent researches have shown that avocado may improve hypercholesterolemia and may
be useful in the treatment of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This way, avocado
plays an important role in the cardiovascular health. This review summarizes the potential bene-
fits of avocado consumption in the prevention of cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic dis-
eases.
Keywords
Persea, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Dyslipidemias, Nutritional Status, Blood Pressure
1. Introduction
The tree of the avocado is originally from Mexico and Central America, and belongs to the Lauraceae family,
genus Perseal [1]-[3]. This genus is divided into two subgenus: Persea and Eriodaphne [3]. However, there are
two important species in horticulture: Persea americana Mill and Persea drymifolia cham.; this last comprising
Mexican race avocados, which currently is considered as the botanical variety of Persea Americana [3] [4].
The avocado is a fruit which had a caloric density of 1.7 kcal per gram and a half unit (~70g) is composed by
114 kcal, 4.6 g of fibers, 345 mg of potassium, 19.5 mg of magnesium, 1.3 mg of vitamin E and 57 mg of phy-
*
Corresponding author.
C. Weschenfelder et al.
78
tosterols (Table 1) [5]. Approximately 75% of fiber’s avocado contents are considered insoluble and 25% are
soluble [6]. The avocado contains lipids that consist of 71% from monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), 13%
from polyunsaturated (PUFA) and 16% from saturated fatty acids (SFA) [7]. Its high MUFA content in a water-
based matrix appears to enhance the bioavailability of nutrients and phytochemical compounds of the avocado [8].
The avocado consumption has been related to benefits on some cardiovascular risk factors [5] [9], as well as
to the improvement of the dietary quality and nutrient intake by increasing the consumption of MUFA, dietary
fiber, magnesium, potassium, vitamins E and K [10]. Recent researches have shown that avocado can improve
hypercholesterolemia and be useful in the treatment of hypertension (HTN) and type 2 diabetes mellitus
(T2DM). This way, avocado can play an important role in the cardiovascular health.
This review aims to summarize the potential benefits of avocado consumption in the prevention of cardiovas-
cular risk factors and metabolic diseases.
1.1. Avocado and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
The World Health Organization (WHO) have update the prevalence of T2DM in the United States (estimated
about 30.3 million people by 2025) and worldwide, which is estimated around 380 million people diagnosed un-
til the same year [11]. T2DM is associated with obesity, unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle and aging population
Table 1. Nutritional composition of the Hass avocado (Persea americana)
5
.
Nutrient/Phytochemical Value per 100 g
Proximates
Water (g) 72.3
Energy (Kcal) 167
Protein (g) 1.96
Fat (g) 15.4
Carbohydrate (g) 8.64
Fiber, total dietary (g) 6.8
Sugars, total (g) 0.3
Minerals
Magnesium (mg) 29
Phosphorus (mg) 54
Potassium (mg) 507
Sodium (mg) 8
Zinc (mg) 0.68
Selenium (ug) 0.4
Vitamins/Phytochemicals
Vitamin C (mg) 8.8
Folate, food (µg) 89
Lutein + zeaxanthin (μg) 271
Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) (mg) 1.97
Lipids
Fatty acids, total saturated (g) 2.13
Fatty acids, total monounsaturated (g) 9.8
Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated (g) 1.82
Cholesterol (mg) 0
Adapted from Dreher ML et al.
5
.
C. Weschenfelder et al.
79
[12]. Patients with fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL, oral glucose tolerance test (75 g glucose load) ≥200
mg/dL or glycated hemoglobin 6.5% [13] are diagnosed with T2DM. Patients with diabetes are at high risk for
microvascular (e.g., nephropathy, retinopathy and neuropathy) and macrovascular complications (e.g., peripher-
al vascular disease, stroke and cardiovascular disease) [12].
Avocado has low sugar content (0.2 g in a half unity). D-mannoheptulose is the main kind of sugar found in
the fruit but is seems do not have nutritional properties, appearing to be one more phytochemical component of
the avocado [9]. The aqueous extract from the avocad’s seeds has hypoglycemic agents, which act protecting
against toxicity and oxidative stress [14]-[16]. In rats, phenolic extracts of avocado (from leaves and fruits) inhi-
bited the activity of enzymes related to the development of T2DM (α-amilase and α-glucosidase), as well as the
malondialdehyde production (MDA), a marker of oxidative stress and responsible for increasing the lipid pe-
roxidation [17]. The hypoglycemic effect of the avocado was also related to its ability to stimulate the remaining
pancreatic β-cells in animal models, making them able to secrete more insulin [18]
.
Diets rich in MUFA are considered alternatives for the dietary treatment of T2DM [19] and since avocado
have a substantial amount of MUFA it could be used as an option for glycemic control in diabetic patients.
However, few studies had evaluated the use of avocado in individuals with T2DM. Among overweight and
moderately obese individuals, adding half avocado (70 g) in the lunch increased the satiety in a period of 3 to 5
subsequent hours, followed by a reduction of the insulin secretion in a 3-hour postprandial period [20]. Patients
with hypercholesterolemia and T2DM supplemented with 300g/day of avocado for 7 days had their total cho-
lesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol decreased by 17% and 22% respectively, and their triglycerides (TG) levels
reduced by 22%; there was also a slightly increase in HDL-cholesterol when compared to the control group
(isocaloric diet, 50% of total calories from fats and without avocado) [21].
The avocado paste can be obtained by the fruit oil and its effects were evaluated in rats, who consumed a
hypercholesterolemic diet added of glucose solution and also the paste of avocado. Authors concluded that the
animals had lower levels of blood sugar, lower
values of the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance
Index (HOMA-IR Index) and less accumulation of fat in their liver. In this study, the improvement of the
HOMA-IR Index and of the hepatic steatosis was attributed to the phytochemicals components and dietary fibers
of the avocado [22].
1.2. Avocado and Dyslipidemia
Dyslipidemia is defined as lipid metabolic changes resulting from disturbances in any phase of the lipid meta-
bolism, which impact on serum lipoproteins levels. It is an important cardiovascular risk factor: about a third of
ischemic heart diseases are attributable to increased levels of TC. Globally, higher levels of cholesterol are re-
sponsible for 2.6 million deaths annually, and the treatment of dyslipidemia may reduce the cardiovascular risk
by 30% over a period of 5 years [23] [24].
Nutritional therapy and changes in lifestyle are part of the non-pharmacological treatment for dyslipidemia.
The American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) recommends a healthy eating
pattern, with 5% to 6% of total daily calories from SFA to reduce the levels of LDL-cholesterol [25]; SFA
should be replaced by MUFA and PUFA intake [26] [27]. MUFA have benefic effect on hypercholesterolemia
without increasing
the lipid oxidation, in contrast with excessive intake of PUFA; MUFA ingestion also does not
reduce serum HDL-cholesterol levels [28]. Recently, the PREDIMED study (Prevención con Dieta Medi-
terránea) showed that the Mediterranean diet supplemented with foods rich in MUFA (olive oil and nuts) re-
duced the incidence of major cardiovascular events by 30% after a follow-up of 4.8 years, in subjects at high
risk for cardiovascular disease [29].
The lipid-lowering effect of avocado (also rich in MUFA) occurs mainly due its phytosterol β-sitosterol [30].
Among 17,567 participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES: 2001-2008)
who had their avocado intake evaluated, the average daily intake was about a half of unit (70.1 ± 5.4g/day), and
the avocado consumers had higher levels of HDL-cholesterol when compared to those who did not consume
[10].
The first clinical trial evaluating the influence of the avocado on serum TC was carried out by C. Grant Wil-
son in 1960 [31]. At that time, 16 men aged between 27 and 71 years (with and without hypercholesterolemia)
were advised to consume 0.5 to 1.5 units of avocado a day. After 4
weeks, 8 participants had their TC reduced
by 8.7% to 42.8%, without changing other lipid parameters. Subsequently, Carranza et al. [32] evaluated the ef-
fect of two diets in 16 individuals with dyslipidemia: 1) a diet rich in avocado (75% of total fat); or 2) a low sa-
C. Weschenfelder et al.
80
turated fat/low dietary cholesterol diet. After 4 weeks, results showed that individuals allocated to the avocado
diet had lower levels of TC and LDL-cholesterol and increased serum HDL-cholesterol.
Avocado may modify the structure of the HDL lipoprotein by increasing paraoxonase1 (PON1) enzyme activ-
ity. The cardioprotector effect of HDL-cholesterol is in part due of PON1 activity, which is responsible for the
hydrolysis of lipid hydroperoxides (products of the lipid oxidation) [33] [34]. About LDL-cholesterol particles, a
randomized controlled trial was conducted among 45 overweight/obese participants submitted to a 2-week
run-in diet (Average American Diet, AAD) and later allocated to three distinct diets: 1) LFlow fat diet (24%
of daily total calories from fats); 2) MFmoderate fat diet (34% of daily total calories from fats); or 3) AV
avocado diet (~140 g of Hass avocado a day 13 g of MUFA). The AV diet group showed higher reduction of
LDL and non-HDL cholesterol when compared to the other diets, and had reduced values of total LDL-choles-
terol particles (LDL-P 80.1 nmol/l, p = 0.0001), subclasses of LDL-cholesterol (LDL
3+4
-4.1 mg/dl, p = 0.04)
and LDL/HDL ratio
(6.6%, p < 0.0001). AV and MF diets reduced apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB) levels and
the relationship between ApoB/ApoA-I decreased in AV diet group, without weight changes [35].
1.3. Avocado and Nutritional Status
The pathophysiological processes linking obesity to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease clearly involve a
chronic inflammatory state [36], which interact with other factors such as ectopic fat, insulin resistance and
HTN. For weight management and prevention of cardiovascular disease, international dietary recommendations
regarding MUFA ingestion vary from 12% to 25% of total daily calories [37].
Popularly, avocado is known by its high caloric value being “a fruit whose consumption should be contrain-
dicated in diets for weight loss.” In fact, few studies have evaluated the avocado in the weight loss setting.
Pieterse et al. conducted a clinical trial among 61 overweight/obese subjects, who were randomly assigned in
two groups (an isocaloric diet with or without 200 g/day of avocado). After 6 weeks individuals in both groups
reduced their weight, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage, without significant differences accord-
ing to group. In other study for weight maintenance, 131 subjects were allocated for three diets: 1) a moderate
fat diet (34% to 45%
of total daily calories from fats, including 100 g/day of avocado); 2) a low fat diet (20% to
30% of total daily calories from fats); or 3) a control diet (35% of total calories from fats). After 6 months all
groups showed significant increase body weight, without differences between them [38]. In general, avocado
consumers had a higher daily consumption of fruits and vegetables, essential foods included in a healthy diet for
reduction or maintenance of the body weight [39] [40].
1.4. Avocado and Blood Pressure
Hypertension is the leading cause of worldwide mortality and is responsible for approximately 40% of deaths
from cardiovascular disease, chronicle kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [41]. Beyond
weight reduction, the adoption of a DASH diet is a part of the non-pharmacological treatment for higher levels
of blood pressure (BP) (systolic and diastolic BP > 140/90 mmHg) [42].
The high content of potassium and lutein in the avocado may improve the BP values by controlling oxidative
stress and inflammation
5
. In addition, diets rich in MUFA may improve systolic and diastolic BP levels when
compared to diets with low content of MUFA [43].
Experimental studies have evaluated
the potential hypotensive effect attributed to the aqueous extract of the
avocado leaves [44]-[46]. Ojewola et al. [44] showed that the vascular dilation in consequence to the aqueous
extract intake was the responsible for an anti-hypertensive effect of the avocado in rats. Authors suggest that
different phytochemical components in the avocado’s extract caused this effect. In other study, the aqueous ex-
tract from avocado seeds used as treatment for HTN in rats reduced BP levels and also improved the lipid profile
[47]. In humans, subjects with overweight and moderate obesity who received a restricted caloric diet supple-
mented with 200 g of avocado a day do not had their BP levels reduced after the intervention [38].
2. Conclusions
The consumption of avocado seems to be related to cardiometabolic health by preventing traditional risk factors
such as dyslipidemia, glycemic control and hypertension (Table 2). Despite all beneficial effects of avocado,
C. Weschenfelder et al.
81
Table 2. Summary of clinical trials regarding avocado consumption and cardiovascular risk factors.
Author Year
No.
Participants
Trial
Design
Consumption
/follow-up
Intervention Outcome (s)
Grant
et al. [31]
1960 16 Crossover
Daily,
4 weeks/phase
Avocado addition of 0.5 - 1.5 units ↓ total cholesterol
Colquhoun
et al. [21]
1992 15 Crossover
Daily,
1 week/phase
300 g avocado vs. diet rich in
complex carbohydrates
↓ total cholesterol, LDL
and triglycerides, ↑ HDL
concentration
Carranza
et al. [32]
1995 16 Crossover
Daily,
4 week/phase
vs. diet low in saturated fat
↓ total cholesterol and
LDL, ↑increased HDL
concentration
Pieterse
et al. [38]
2005 61 Parallel
Daily,
6 weeks
of avocado or hypocaloric diet
No difference regarding
weight reduction
and blood
pressure
Sloth
et al. [39]
2009 131 Parallel
Daily,
6 months
No difference regarding
weight reduction
Wien
et al. [20]
2013 26 Crossover
1 meal,
postmeal
measurement
Adding avocado 68g at lunch
↑ satiety and ↓ of fasting
insulin in postprandial
period of 3 h
Wang
et al. [35]
2015 45 Crossover
Daily,
5 weeks/phase
moderate fat diet with addition
of 136 g of avocado per day
↓ LDL and weight
maintenance
many studies were made in animal models and there results should be interpreted with caution. It is suggested
that further studies must be designed among humans, in order to evaluate and to confirm the benefits of avoca-
do.
References
[1] Montenegro, H.W.S. (1951) The Culture of Avocado. Melhoramentos, São Paulo, 11:102.
[2] Maranca, G. (1980) Commercial Fruit Growing: Mango and Avocado. Nobel, São Paulo, 81-133.
[3] Koller, O.C. (1992) Abacaticultura. UFRGS, Porto Alegre, 138.
[4] Canto, W.L., Santos L.C. and Travaglini, M.M.E. (1978) Avocado: The Crop to Processing and Marketing. Série frutas
tropicais-1. ITAL, Campinas, 212.
[5] Dreher, M.L. and Davenport, A.J. (2013) Hass Avocado Composition and Potential Health Effects. Critical Reviews in
Food Science and Nutrition, 53, 738-750. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2011.556759
[6] Naveh, E., Werman, M.J., Sabo, E. and Neeman, I. (2002) Defatted Avocado Pulp Reduces Body Weight and Total
Hepatic Fat But Increases Plasma Cholesterol in Male Rats Fed Diets with Cholesterol. The Journal of Nutrition, 132,
2015-2018.
[7] USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) (2011) Avocado, Almond, Pistachio and Walnut Composition. Nutrient Data
Laboratory. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 24. U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Washington, DC.
[8] Unlu, N., Bohn, T., Clinton, S.K. and Schwartz, S.J. (2005) Carotenoid Absorption from Salad and Salsa by Humans Is
Enhanced by the Addition of Avocado or Avocado Oil. The Journal of Nutrition, 135, 431-436.
[9] Wang, L., Bordi, P.L., Fleming, J.A., Hill, A.M. and Kris-Etherton, P.M. (2015) Effect of a Moderate Fat Diet with and
without Avocados on Lipoprotein Particle Number, Size and Subclasses in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Rando-
mized, Controlled Trial. Journal of the American Heart Association, 4, e001355.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/jaha.114.001355
[10] Fulgoni 3rd, V.L., Dreher, M. and Davenport, A.J. (2013) Avocado Consumption Is Associated with Better Diet Qual-
ity and Nutrient Intake, and Lower Metabolic Syndrome Risk in US Adults: Results from the National Health and Nu-
trition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2008. The Journal of Nutrition, 12, 1.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-12-1
[11] Nicholson, G. and Hall, G.M. (2011) Diabetes Mellitus: New Drugs for a New Epidemic. British Journal of Anaesthe-
sia, 107, 65-73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bja/aer120
[12] Tangvarasittichai, S. (2015) Oxidative Stress, Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. World
Journal of Diabetes, 6, 456-480. http://dx.doi.org/10.4239/wjd.v6.i3.456
C. Weschenfelder et al.
82
[13] American Diabetes Association (2014) Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 37, 14-80.
[14] Alhassan, A.J., Sule, M.S., Atiku, M.K., Wudil, A.M., Abubakar, H. and Mohammed, S.A. (2012) Effects of Aqueous
Avocado Pear (Persea americana) Seed Extract on Alloxan Induced Diabetes Rats. Greener Journal of Medical
Sciences, 2, 5-11.
[15] N’guessan, K., Amoikon, K.E. and Soro, D. (2009) Effect of Aqueous Extract of Persea americana Seeds on the Gly-
cemia of Diabetic Rabbits. European Journal of Scientific Research, 26, 376-385.
[16] Ezejiofor, A.N., Okorie, A. and Orisakwe, O.E. (2013) Hypoglycaemic and Tissue-Protective Effects of the Aqueous
Extract of Persea americana Seeds on Alloxan-Induced Albino Rats. The Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences, 20,
31-39.
[17] Oboh, G., Isaac, A.T., Akinyemi, A.J. and Ajani, R.A. (2014) Inhibition of Key Enzymes Linked to Type 2 Diabetes
and Sodium Nitroprusside Induced Lipid Peroxidation in RatsPancreas by Phenolic Extracts of Avocado Pear Leaves
and Fruit. International Journal of Biomedical Sciences, 10, 208-216.
[18] Rao, U.S. and Adinew, B. (2011) Remnant B-Cell-Stimulative and Anti-Oxidative Effects of Persea americana Fruit
Extract Studied in Rats Introduced into Streptozotocin-Induced Hyperglycaemic State. African Journal of Traditional,
Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 8, 210-217. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v8i3.65277
[19] Ros, E. (2003) Dietary Cis-Monounsaturated Fatty Acids and Metabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetes. The American
Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78, 617-625.
[20] Wien, M., Haddad, E., Oda, K. and Sabaté, J. (2013) A Randomized 3 × 3 Crossover Study to Evaluate the Effect of
Hass Avocado Intake on Post-Ingestive Satiety, Glucose and Insulin Levels, and Subsequent Energy Intake in Over-
weight Adults. Nutrition Journal, 12,155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-12-155
[21] Colquhoun, D.M., Moores, D., Somerset, S.M. and Humphries, J.A. (1992) Comparison of the Effects on Lipoproteins
and Apolipoproteins of a Diet High in Monounsaturated Fatty Acids, Enriched with Avocado, and a High-Carbohy-
drate Diet. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 56, 671-677.
[22] Pahua-Ramos, M.E., Garduño-Siciliano, L., Dorantes-Alvarez, L., Chamorro-Cevallos, G., Herrera-Martínez, J., Oso-
rio-Esquivel, O., et al. (2014) Reduced-Calorie Avocado Paste Attenuates Metabolic Factors associated with a Hyper-
cholesterolemic-High Fructose Diet in Rats. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 69, 18-24.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11130-013-0395-4
[23] Mendis, S., Puska, P. and Norrving, B. (2011) Global Atlas on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Control. World
Health Organization.
[24] World Health Organization (2009) Global Health Risks: Mortality and Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Ma-
jor Risks. World Health Organization.
[25] Eckel, R.H., Jakicic, J.M., Ard, J.D., de Jesus, J.M., Houston, M.N., Hubbard, V.S., et al. (2013) AHA/ACC Guideline
on Life Style Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American
Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation, 129, S76-S99.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.0000437740.48606.d1
[26] Xavier, H.T., Izar, M.C., Faria Neto, J.R., Assad, M.H., Rocha, V.Z., Sposito, A.C., et al. (2013) V Brazilian Guideline
of Dyslipidemia and Prevention of Atherosclerosis. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, 101, 1-20.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/abc.2013S010
[27] Santos, R.D., Gagliardi, A.C.M., Xavier, H.T., Magnoni, C.D., Cassani, R. and Lottenberg, A.M. (2013) Guidelines on
the Consumption of Fats and Cardiovascular Health. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, 100, 1-40.
[28] Sposito, A.C., Caramelli, B., Fonseca, F.A.H., Bertolami, M.C., Afiune Neto, A., Souza, A.D., et al. (2007) IV Brazil-
ian Guideline of Dyslipidemia and Prevention of Atherosclerosis: Department of Atherosclerosis of the Brazilian So-
ciety of Cardiology. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, 88, 2-19.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0066-782X2007000700002
[29] Estruch, R., Ros, E., Salas-Salvadó, J., Covas, M.I., Corella, D., Arós, F., et al. (2013) Primary Prevention of Cardi-
ovascular Disease with Mediterranean Diet. The New England Journal of Medicine, 368, 1279-1290.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1200303
[30] Salgado, J.M., Bin, C., Mansi, D.N. and Souza, A. (2008) Effects of Avocado (Persea americana Mill) Variety Hass in
Blood Lipids of Hypercholesterolemic Rats. Ciência e Tecnologia dos Alimentos, 28, 922-928.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612008000400025
[31] Grant, W.C. (1960) Influence of Avocados on Serum Cholesterol. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology
and Medicine, 104, 45-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.3181/00379727-104-25722
[32] Carranza, J., Alvizouri, M., Alvarado, M.R., Chávez, F., mez, M. and Herrera, J.E. (1995) Effects of Avocado on
the Level of Blood Lipids in Patients with Phenotype II and IV Dyslipidemias. Archivos del Instituto de Cardiología de
México, 65, 342-348.
C. Weschenfelder et al.
83
[33] Pérez Méndez, O. and García Hernández, L. (2007) High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL) Size and Composition Are
Modified in the Rat by a Diet Supplemented with HassAvocado (Persea americana Miller). Archivos del Instituto
de Cardiología de México, 77, 17-24.
[34] Boshtam, M., Razavi, A.E., Pourfarzam, M., Ani, M., Naderi, G.A., Basati, G., et al. (2013) Serum Paraoxonase Activ-
ity Is Associated with Fatty Acid Composition of High Density Lipoprotein. Diseases Markers, 35, 273-280.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/612035
[35] Wang, L., Bordi, P.L., Fleming, J.A., Hill, A.M. and Kris-Etherton, P.M. (2015) Effect of a Moderate Fat Diet with and
without Avocados on Lipoprotein Particle Number, Size and Subclasses in Overweight and Obese Adults: Randomized,
Controlled Trial. Journal of the American Heart Association, 4, e001355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/jaha.114.001355
[36] Bastien, M., Poirier, P., Leimeux, I. and Després, J.P. (2014) Overview of Epidemiology and Contribution of Obesity
to Cardiovascular Disease. Progress in Cardiovascular Disease, 56, 369-381.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2013.10.016
[37] Schwingshackl, L. and Hoffmann, G. (2012) Monounsaturated Fatty Acids and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Syn-
opsis of the Evidence Available from Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Nutrients, 4, 1989-2007.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu4121989
[38] Pieterse, E., Jerling, J.C., Oosthuizen, W., Kruger, H.S., Hanekom, S.M., Smuts, C.M., et al. (2005) Substitution of
High Monounsaturated Fatty Acid Avocado for Mixed Dietary Fats during an Energy-Restricted Diet: Effects on
Weight Loss, Serum Lipids, Fibrinogen, and Vascular Function. Nutrition, 21, 67-75.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2004.09.010
[39] Sloth, B., Due, A., Larsen, T.M., Holst, J.J., Heding, A. and Astrup, A. (2009) The Effect of a High-MUFA, Low-
Glycaemic Index Diet and a Low-Fat Diet on Appetite and Glucose Metabolism during a 6-Month Weight Mainten-
ance Period. British Journal of Nutrition, 101, 1846-1858. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114508137710
[40] Champagne, C.M., Broyles, S.T., Moran, L.D., Cash, K.C., Levy, E.J., Lin, P.-H., et al. (2011) Dietary Intakes Asso-
ciated with Successful Weight Loss and Maintenance during the Weight Loss Maintenance Trial. Journal of the Amer-
ican Dietetic Association, 111, 1826-1835. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2011.09.014
[41] Schmidt, M.S., Duncan, B.B., Azevedo e Silva, G., Menezes, A.M., Monteiro, C.A., Barreto, S.M., et al. (2011)
Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in Brazil: Burden and Current Challenges. Lancet, 377, 1949-1961.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60135-9
[42] Mancia, G., Fagard, R., Narkiewicz, K., Redon, J., Zanchetti, A., Bohm, M., et al. (2013) ESH/ESC Guidelines for the
Management of Arterial Hypertension: The Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European
Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). European Heart Journal, 34,
2159-2219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/eht151
[43] Schwingshackl, L., Strasser, B. and Hoffmann, G. (2011) Effects of Monounsaturated Fatty Acids on Cardiovascular
Risk Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 59, 176-186.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000334071
[44] Ojewole, J.A., Kamadyaapa, D.R., Gondwe, M.M., Moodley, K. and Musabayane, C.T. (2007) Cardiovascular Effects
of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (Avocado) Aqueous Leaf Extract in Experimental Animals. Cardiovascular
Journal of Africa, 18, 69-76.
[45] Adeboye, J.O., Fajonyomi, M.O., Makinde, J.M. and Taiwo, O.B. (1999) A Preliminary Study on the Hypotensive Ac-
tivity of Persea americana Leaf Extracts in Anaesthetized, Normotensive Rats. Fitoterapia, 70, 15-20.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(98)00015-X
[46] Owolabi, M.A., Jaja, S.I. and Coker, H.A.B. (2005) Vasorelaxant Action of Aqueous Extract of the Leaves of Persea
americana on Isolated Thoracic Rat Aorta. Fitoterapia, 76, 567-573. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2005.04.020
[47] Imafidon, K.E. and Amaechina, F.C. (2010) Effects of Aqueous Seed Extract of Persea americana Mill. (Avocado) on
Blood Pressure and Lipid Profile in Hypertensive Rats. Advances in Biological Research, 4, 116-121.
... Carbohydrates can be used in the energy and fuel industry (e.g., bioethanol). Although seeds and peels are being prioritized, pulp residues are also sources of monounsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid, palmitic acid, tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols, carotenoids, and polyphenols, which may potentially exhibit pharmacological activity in human beings [86]. ...
... Although seeds and peels are being prioritized, pulp residues are also sources of relevant therapeutic compounds. In these wastes, different studies have reported the presence of monounsaturated fatty acids, metabolites (e.g., oleic, palmitic acid), and tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols, carotenoids, and polyphenols, which may potentially exhibit pharmacological activity in human beings [18,86]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Significant problems have arisen in recent years, such as global warming and hunger. These complications are related to the depletion and exploitation of natural resources, as well as environmental pollution. In this context, bioprocesses and biorefinery can be used to manage agro-industrial wastes for obtaining high-value-added products. A large number of by-products are composed of lignin and cellulose, having the potential to be exploited sustainably for chemical and biological conversion. The biorefinery of agro-industrial wastes has applications in many fields, such as pharmaceuticals, medicine, material engineering, and environmental remediation. A comprehensive approach has been developed toward the agro-industrial management of avocado (Persea Americana) biomass waste, which can be transformed into high-value-added products to mitigate global warming, save non-renewable energy, and contribute to health and science. Therefore, this work presents a comprehensive review on avocado fruit waste biorefinery and its possible applications as biofuel, as drugs, as bioplastics, in the environmental field, and in emerging nanotechnological opportunities for economic and scientific growth.
... Avocados are rich in fiber and MUFAs (13,14). Regular avocado consumption is associated with lower body weight (15,16). Avocado interventions from 1 to 12 wk revealed increased satiety and reductions in blood lipid concentrations (17)(18)(19)(20)(21). ...
... Avocado intake has been connected to a variety of beneficial health outcomes, including improved lipid profiles and reduced adiposity (15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21); however, to our knowledge, only 1 preclinical trial and 1 human trial to date have reported fecal microbiota findings with avocado consumption. Similar to the present study, a 6-wk rodent trial reported that diets containing 5% and 15% avocado increased fecal acetate concentrations compared with control; however, no differences in bacteria abundances were observed between groups (22). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Avocados are rich in dietary fiber and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), nutrients that have been independently connected to metabolic health benefits and the gastrointestinal microbiota. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the impact of avocado consumption on the gastrointestinal microbiota and microbial metabolites, secondary outcomes of the Persea americana for Total Health (PATH) study, and conduct exploratory analyses to assess relations between the fecal microbiota, fecal metabolites, and health markers. Methods: Adults [n = 163, 25-45 y, BMI (kg/m2) ≥ 25.0] were enrolled in the PATH study, a 12-wk investigator-blinded trial where participants were batch randomized to match the 2 groups by age, sex, visceral adiposity, and fasting glucose concentrations. Participants consumed isocaloric meals with or without avocado (175 g, men; 140 g, women) once daily for 12 wk. The fecal microbiota was assessed with 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V4 region) sequencing and analysis using DADA2 and QIIME2. Fecal fatty acid and bile acid concentrations were quantified using GC and LC-MS. Per-protocol (≥80% meal consumption) and intent-to-treat analyses were conducted using univariate ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests. Bivariate correlations were conducted between fecal microbiota, fecal metabolites, and health measures. Results: The avocado treatment increased ɑ diversity and enriched Faecalibacterium, Lachnospira, and Alistipes between 26% and 65% compared with the control group. The avocado group had 18% greater fecal acetate, 70% greater stearic acid, and 98% greater palmitic acid concentrations than the control group, while the concentrations of the bile acids cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid were 91% and 57% lower, respectively. Conclusions: Daily avocado consumption resulted in lower fecal bile acid concentrations, greater fecal fatty acid and SCFAs, and greater relative abundances of bacteria capable of fiber fermentation, providing evidence that this nutrient-dense food affects digestive physiology, as well as the composition and metabolic functions of the intestinal microbiota. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02740439.
... In addition, avocado fruit mesocarp is an extremely rich source of bioactive phytochemicals, including C 7 sugars (e.g., mannoheptulose and perseitol), vitamin E, carotenoids, sterols, and others with antioxidant and radical scavenging activities [4,5]. Recent studies have shown that avocado may improve hypercholesterolemia and may be useful in the treatment of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus, playing an important role in cardiovascular health [6]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Avocado cv. Hass consumption has expanded worldwide given its nutritional, sensory, and functional attributes. In this work, avocado fruit from two harvests was subjected to hydrothermal treatment (38 °C for 1 h) or left untreated (control) and then stored for 30 and 50 days in a controlled atmosphere (4 kPa O2 and 6 kPa CO2 at 7 °C) (HTCA and CA, respectively) with subsequent ripening at ~20 °C. The fruit was evaluated for primary and secondary metabolites at harvest, after storage, and after reaching edible ripeness. A decrease from harvest to edible ripeness in mannoheptulose and perseitol was observed while β-sitosterol, hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activity (H-AOX, L-AOX), abscisic acid, and total phenolics (composed of p-coumaric and caffeic acids such as aglycones or their derivatives) increased. HTCA fruit at edible ripeness displayed higher contents of mannoheptulose, perseitol, β-sitosterol, L-AOX, caffeic acid, and p-coumaric acid derivatives, while CA fruit presented higher contents of α-tocopherol, H-AOX, and syringic acid glycoside for both harvests and storage times. The results indicate that a hydrothermal treatment prior to CA enables fruit of high nutritional value characterized by enhanced content of phenolic compounds at edible ripeness to reach distant markets.
... This is significantly higher than 31.64 g/100 g reported by Nwaokobia et al. (2018). High fats content obtained in the present study is desirable as Weschenfelder et al. (2015) reported that 67% of total avocado fat is monounsaturated fat which are majorly oleic acid which are known as "good fat" which helps lower cholesterol, plague formation and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The ash content reflects mineral deposit or content the food samples. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Avocado (Persea americana Mill) is a native American fruit. Its pulp is commonly consumed fresh and its industrial processing generates a large number of seeds waste. These wastes are a source of bioactive. This study therefore aimed at processing avocado pulp flour (APF) and avocado seed flour (ASF) and evaluating the phytonutrients, phytochemicals and free radical scavenging potentials of APF and ASF. Crude protein of ASF (7.86 g/100g) is significantly lower when compared to APF (11.21 g/100g). Energy value of APF (604.09 g/100g) was significantly higher than ASF (464.17 g/100g). Potassium is the most abundant mineral elements and its significantly higher in ASF (86 mg/100g) when compared to APF (84.3 mg/100g). The results showed that the glutamic acid which is non-essential amino acid was predominant and ranged between 15.78 g/ 100 g (APF) and 16.18 g/100 g (ASF). Findings from this study shows that alkaloid, saponin, oxalate, flavonoid, tannin and phenol in APF and ASF ranged as follows: (9.40-10.40, 14.60-13.60, 7.30-8.40, 9.30-12.70, 1.20-1.8, and 2.6-3.6) respectively. It was observed that APF shows higher activities as regards ferric reducing antioxidant power and ability to scavenging free radical against 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (5.10 mg/g and 11.6%) more than ASF (3.60 mg/g and 9.60%) respectively. However, ASF exhibited higher ability (12.7%) to reduce Fe 3+ to Fe 2+ more than APF (4.30%) respectively. Hence, the APF and ASF may be a suitable as a source of phytochemical and antioxidant supplement to promote good health status.
... Con mejores resultados, Olivares et al. (2007) después del sacrificio obtuvieron un pH del lomo de 6.3 con el aceite de palma al 2.5 % y 6.2 con el aceite de soya al 2.5 %. Los cambios en el pH después del sacrificio son básicamente debidos a la degradación del glucógeno muscular a ácido láctico por glucogenolisis y glicólisis en condiciones anaerobias, lo que puede estar protegiéndose, ya que en el uso de aguacate en la dieta del cerdo ha sido comprobado como estrategia efectiva para inhibir y retardar los procesos oxidativos, esto debido a las propiedades antioxidantes de diversos compuestos bioactivos, incluidos los tocoferoles, (Weschenfelder et al. 2015). Adesehinwa et al. (2016) reportó en un estudio con una dieta base maíz una creatinina menor con 2 mg/dL, HDL 104 mg/dL, LDL 11.7 mg/dL, con resultado similar al de este estudio el colesterol de 133 mg/dL. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of the canal and blood biochemical profiles of pigs fed with different levels of avocado paste (Persea Americana Mill.), 24 Yorkshire-Landrace pigs of initial weight 78 x 1.7 kg were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments with six pigs per treatment. The diet was free access for 30 days until end of fattening, to compare die containing 0 (control), 2.5, 5 and 10% paste of avocado (PA). Variances and regression analyses were conducted. The effect was not different in weight from the sacrifice, backfat and color L, a and b of the meat. If there was effect associated with increase inclusion of PA to decrease with quadratic effects: carcase weight, carcase performance and leg weight; the effect was less when PA was ingested at 10%. Blood metabolites glucose, creatinine, cholesterol, R a/g, HDL and LDL decreased with the highest PA (concentration 10%) but increased the values of total proteins, globulin and TGP. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar las características de la canal y perfiles bioquímicos sanguíneos de cerdos alimentados con diferentes niveles de pasta de aguacate (Persea americana Mill.), asignados aleatoriamente 24 cerdos Yorkshire-Landrace peso inicial 78 ± 1.7 kg, cuatro tratamientos con seis cerdos por tratamiento. Alimentación libre acceso 30 días hasta finalizar engorda, para comparar dietas con inclusión de 0, 2.5, 5 y 10 % pasta de aguacate (PA). Se realizaron análisis de varianzas y regresiones. Sin efecto diferente en peso al sacrificio, grasa dorsal y color L, a, y b de la carne. Con efecto asociado al aumento de la inclusión de PA para disminuir con efectos cuadráticos: peso canal, rendimiento canal y peso pierna; efecto menor con PA al 10%. Metabolitos sanguíneos glucosa, creatinina, colesterol, R A/G, HDL y LDL disminuyeron con PA concentración 10% pero incrementaron los valores de proteínas totales, globulina y TGP.
... Although seed and peel are being prioritized, pulp residues are also sources of monounsaturated fatty acids and metabolites such as oleic or palmitic acid. Also, they have tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols, carotenoids, and polyphenols with pharmacological potential antibiotic activity in human beings [22,35]. According to table 2, the seed and peel's biochemical composition allows the design of biobased polymers that have emerged with an advantage over the conventional materials due to their biodegradability and renewable feedstock. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Significant problems have arisen in the last years, such as climate change, global warming, and hunger. These complications are correlated with the depletion and exploitation of natural resources and environmental contamination. Due to overcrowding, the list of challenges for the next few years is growing. A comprehensive approach was made to the agro-industrial production of Avocado (Persea americana) and the management of all its biomass waste. So, bioprocesses and biorefinery can be used to produce high added-value products. A large number of residues are composed of lignin and cellulose. They have many potentials to be exploited sustainably for chemical and biological conversion; physical, chemical, and natural treatments improve the following operations. There are some applications to many fields such as pharmaceutical, medical, material engineering, and environmental remediation. Possible pathways are mentioned to take advantage of Avocado as biofuels, drugs, bioplastics, and even in the environmental part and emerging technologies such as nanotechnology using bioprocesses and biotech. In conclusion, Avocado and its waste could be transformed into high value-added products in industries above to mitigate global warming and save non-renewable energy.
... hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia may play an important role in cardiovascular health (Weschenfelder et al., 2015;Yasir et al., 2010). In addition, prostate cancer cell growth has been reported to be prevented by the lipophilic extract of avocados (Lu et al., 2005). ...
Article
Some chemical properties, oil contentsand bioactive properties of different parts of unripe (green) and ripened “Fuerte”avocado fruits (FAF) dried in air, microwave and oven unripe air‐dried FAF pulp showed higher (76.84%) oil contents whereas that of microwave‐dried ripe FAF pulp was 70.87%. Oil contents of FAF peel and seeds were also evaluated. Oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids were the main fatty acids of FAF pulp and peel. The oleic acid contents of unripe and ripe FAF pulps were 71.07(oven‐dried) and 72.85% (air‐dried),respectively. The(+)‐catechin unripe and ripe FAFpulp was detected to be high at 190.51 and 195.45mg/100g in fresh samples, respectively. The results about other phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities also varied with maturity, drying method and fruit parts. The highest 1,2‐dihydroxybenzene were detected in ripened FAF air‐dried peel (234.74 mg/100g) and fresh unripe FAF seed (227.18 mg/100g), respectively.The 3,4‐dihydroxybenzoic acid contents (102.78 mg/100g) were determined in microwave‐dried FAF seed.
... ally regarded as beneficial in maintaining cardiovascular health 8,9 . Lu et al. 10 observed inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth using a lipophilic extract of avocado fruit. ...
Article
The tocopherol contents of unripe and ripe avocado fruit oil extracted from Pinkerton, Hass and Fuerte varieties were determined after drying fruit using air, microwave or oven drying methods. The α-tocopherol content changed between 13.70 mg/100 g (microwave-dried) and 28.06 mg/100 g (air-dried) in oil from unripe Pinkerton fruit; between 14.86 mg/100 g (microwave-dried) and 88.12 mg/100 g (fresh) in oil from unripe Hass fruit and between 13.31 mg/100 g (microwave-dried) and 17.35 mg/100 g (oven-dried) in oil from unripe Fuerte fruit. The α-tocopherol contents in oil from ripe Fuerte fruit changed between 13.21 mg/100 g (fresh) and 17.61 mg/100 g (oven-dried). In addition, γ-tocopherol contents varied between 11.55 mg/100 g (air-dried) and 14.61 mg/100 g (microwave-dried) unripe “Pinkerton” fruit; between 11.52 mg/100 g (air-dried) and 15.01 mg/100 g (fresh) in unripe Hass fruit and between 12.17 mg/100 g (air-dried) and 15.27 mg/100 g (microwave-dried) unripe Fuerte fruit. The γ-tocopherol contents ranged from 12.71 mg/100 g (fresh) to 17.40 mg/100 g (oven-dried) in ripe Hass fruit; from 10.29 mg/100 g (fresh) and 17.20 mg/100 g (microwave-dried) ripe Fuerte fruit. α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherols could not be detected in ripe fresh Pinkerton fruit. In general, β- and δ-tocopherol could not be detected in most of the unripe and ripe avocado fruit oils. α-Tocopherol and γ-tocopherol contents of dried ripe Fuerte fruit oils were found to be higher compared to those of dried unripe Fuerte fruits.
Thesis
Full-text available
Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a major horticultural crop that relies on insect mediated pollination. In avocado production, a knowledge gap exists as to the importance of insect pollination, especially in East African smallholder farms. Although it is evident that pollination improves the yield of avocado fruits, it is still unclear if pollination has benefits on fruit quality and the nutritional profile, particularly oils. Prior studies have shown that honey bees increase avocado’s fruit set and yield. However, an avocado flower is being visited by various insect species. Therefore, determining pollination efficiency will allow a comparison of the relative importance of the different insect species to optimize crop pollination for increased fruit set and crop yield and pollinator conservation. This study was conducted in a leading smallholder avocado production region in Kenya, first I assessed the dependence of avocado fruit set on insect pollination and whether current smallholder production systems suffer from a deficit in pollination services. Furthermore, I assessed if supplementation with colonies of the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) to farms mitigated potential pollination deficits. The results revealed a very high reliance of avocado on insect pollinators, with a significantly lower fruit set observed for self- and wind-pollinated (17.4%) or self-pollinated flowers (6.4%) in comparison with insect-pollinated flowers (89.5%). I found a significant pollination deficit across farms, with hand-pollinated flowers on average producing 20.7% more fruits than non-treated open flowers prior to fruit abortion. This pollination deficit could be compensated by the supplementation of farms with A. mellifera colonies. These findings suggest that pollination is limiting fruit set in avocado and that A. mellifera supplementation on farms is a potential option to increase fruit yield. Secondly, I investigated the contribution of insect pollination to fruit and seed weight, oil, protein, carbohydrate, and phytochemicals contents (flavonoids and phenolics), and whether supplementation with pollinators (honey bee) could improve these fruit parameters was assessed. This was through pollinator-manipulative pollination treatments: hand, open, pollinator exclusion experiments. The results showed that avocado fruit weight was significantly higher in open and hand-pollinated than pollinator exclusion treatments, indicating that flower visitors/pollinators contribute to avocado yields and enhance marketability. Furthermore, insect pollination resulted in heavier seeds and higher oil contents, indicating that insect pollination is beneficial for the fruit’s high seed yield and quantity of oil. Honey bee supplementation also enhanced the avocado fruit weight by 18% more than in control farms and slightly increased the avocado oil content (3.6%). Contrarily, insect pollination did not influence other assayed fruit quality parameters (protein, carbohydrates, and phytochemicals). These results indicate that insect pollinators are essential for optimizing avocado yields, nutritional quality (oils), and thus marketability, underscoring the value of beehive supplementation to achieve high-quality avocado fruits and improved food security. Thirdly, pollinator efficiency based on pollen deposition after single visits by different pollinator species in avocado flowers was tested, and their frequency was recorded. The estimated pollination efficiency was highest in honey bees (Apis mellifera), followed by the hoverfly species (Phytomia incisa). These two species had the highest pollen deposition and more pollen grains on their bodies. In addition, honey bees were the most frequent avocado flower visitors, followed by flies. The findings from this study highlight the higher pollination efficiency of honey bees and Phytomia incisa. Hence, management practices supporting these species will promote increased avocado fruit yield. Additionally, these results imply that managed honey bees can be maintained to improve avocado pollination, particularly in areas lacking sufficient wild pollinators.
Article
The objective was to explore the relationship between the aging population, their nutritional needs and the contributions of the avocado, as well as to identify the demographic and socioeconomic profile of their consumers to delineate the productive scenario of this fruit in Mexico. The methodology was a statistical analysis with data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012, to determine internal consumption, and with information from the Agri-Food and Fisheries Information Service and the National Agricultural Plan for the period 2017-2030, the production and export of the fruit. The results indicate that the lowest consumption of avocado is done in rural areas, among adults aged 60 and over, and in low and very low socioeconomic levels. In conclusion, the limited consumption in rural areas and among older adults is related to deficiencies in the distribution channels and the increase in the price of the product originated by export volumes. It requires the design of public policies to improve the access of older adults to this fruit given their nutritional needs.
Article
Full-text available
insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, β-cell dysfunction, impaired glucose tolerance and ultimately leading to T2DM. Chronic oxidative stress, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia are particularly dangerous for β-cells from lowest levels of antioxidant, have high oxidative energy requirements, decrease the gene expression of key β-cell genes and induce cell death. If β-cell functioning is impaired, it results in an under production of insulin, impairs glucose stimulated insulin secretion, fasting hyperglycemia and eventually the development of T2DM. Core tip: Oxidative stress is underling in the development of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and diabetic complications. Increased oxidative stress appears to be a deleterious factor leading to insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, β-cell dysfunction, impaired glucose tolerance and ultimately leading to T2DM. Tangvarasittichai S. Oxidative stress, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. World J Diabetes 2015; 6(3): 456-480 Available from:
Article
Full-text available
Avocados are a nutrient-dense source of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) that can be used to replace saturated fatty acids (SFA) in a diet to lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Well-controlled studies are lacking on the effect of avocado consumption on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. A randomized, crossover, controlled feeding trial was conducted with 45 overweight or obese participants with baseline LDL-C in the 25th to 90th percentile. Three cholesterol-lowering diets (6% to 7% SFA) were fed (5 weeks each): a lower-fat diet (LF: 24% fat); 2 moderate-fat diets (34% fat) provided similar foods and were matched for macronutrients and fatty acids: the avocado diet (AV) included one fresh Hass avocado (136 g) per day, and the moderate-fat diet (MF) mainly used high oleic acid oils to match the fatty acid content of one avocado. Compared with baseline, the reduction in LDL-C and non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol on the AV diet (-13.5 mg/dL, -14.6 mg/dL) was greater (P<0.05) than the MF (-8.3 mg/dL, -8.7 mg/dL) and LF (-7.4 mg/dL, -4.8 mg/dL) diets. Furthermore, only the AV diet significantly decreased LDL particle number (LDL-P, -80.1 nmol/L, P=0.0001), small dense LDL cholesterol (LDL3+4, -4.1 mg/dL, P=0.04), and the ratio of LDL/HDL (-6.6%, P<0.0001) from baseline. Inclusion of one avocado per day as part of a moderate-fat, cholesterol-lowering diet has additional LDL-C, LDL-P, and non-HDL-C lowering effects, especially for small, dense LDL. Our results demonstrate that avocados have beneficial effects on cardio-metabolic risk factors that extend beyond their heart-healthy fatty acid profile. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01235832. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
Article
Full-text available
The effects of aqueous seed extract of Persea americana Mill. (avocado), var. Fuerte, on blood pressures, plasma and tissue lipids of albino rats were investigated. Twenty-five rats were divided into 5 groups of 5 rats each. Group 1 (normal), group 2 (hypertensive), group 3 (hypertensive + 200 mg/kg b .wt of extract), group 4 (hypertensive + 500 mg/kg b. wt of extract) and group 5 (hypertensive + 700 mg/kg b. wt of extract). Except for group 1, which received 100% growers mash, all other groups received 92% growers mash and 8% NaCl as their daily meal for 4 weeks. The different dose of P. americana aqueous extract, significantly (P<0.05) reduced blood pressures of the hypertensive rats. Reduction in total cholesterol, LDL and triacylglycerol levels were observed at the 500 mg/kg b. wt of seed extract in the plasma, kidney, liver and heart. These results suggest that the use of aqueous seed extract of this plant in the treatment of hypertension may produce a favourable lipid profile at the 500 mg/kg dose level.
Article
Full-text available
Persea americana fruit and leaves had been known in folk medicine for their anti-diabetic prowess. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of phenolic extract from avocado pear (Persea americana) leaves and fruits on some key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase); and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced lipid peroxidation in rats’ pancreas in vitro. The phenolic extracts of Persea americana fruit and leaves were extracted using methanol and 1M HCl (1:1 v/v). Thereafter, their inhibitory effects on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation and key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) were determined in vitro. The result revealed that the leaves had fruit of avocado pear inhibit both α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities in a dose dependent manner. However, the Peel had the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity while the leaf had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity as revealed by their IC50 value. Furthermore, incubation of the rat pancreas in the presence of 5 mM SNP caused an increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the tissue, however, introduction of the phenolic extracts inhibited MDA produced in a dose dependent manner. The additive and/or synergistic action of major phenolic compounds such as syringic acid, eugenol, vnillic acid, isoeugenol, guaiacol, kaemferol, catechin, ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, apigenin, naringenin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin, lupeol and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate in avocado pear using gas chromatography (GC) could have contributed to the observed medicinal properties of the plant. Therefore, inhibition of some key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and prevention of oxidative stress in the pancreas could be some of the possible mechanism by which they exert their anti-diabetic properties. Keywords: Type 2 diabetes; lipid peroxidation; Persea americana; α-glucosidase; α-amylase
Article
The tissue-protective potential of Persea americana necessitated a look into the histopathological effects of the plant extract on the pancreas, liver, and kidneys. This study was conceived and designed based on the gaps in the research that has been performed and what is known about the plant. The hypoglycaemic and tissue-protective effects of hot aqueous Persea americana (avocado pear) seed extracts on alloxan-induced albino rats were investigated. Persea americana seeds were extracted using hot water, and different concentrations of the extract were prepared. The effects of different concentrations (20, 30, 40 g/L) of the hot aqueous P. americana seed extract on alloxan-induced Wistar albino rats were compared with those of a reference drug, glibenclamide. The glucose level of the rats was measured daily, and the weight of the animal was monitored on a weekly basis for 21 days. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes, and the histopathologies of the liver, kidneys, and pancreas were investigated. Phytochemical analysis of P. americana seed extracts indicated the presence of glycosides, tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, and alkaloids. The results showed that the extract possessed a significant hypoglycaemic (P < 0.05) effect and reversed the histopathological damage that occurred in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, comparable to the effects glibenclamide. The seeds of P. americana also had anti-diabetic and protective effects on some rat tissues such as the pancreas, kidneys, and liver. In conclusion, the present study provides a pharmacological basis for the folkloric use of the hot-water extract of P. americana seeds in the management of diabetes mellitus.