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In recent years, the value of social learning approaches as part of the design and delivery of formalised coach development initiatives has gained credence in the literature. However, insight is currently lacking into the fundamental social dimensions that underpin coach learning. Accordingly, this study aimed to explore coaches' perceptions of their actual and preferred methods of acquiring new coaching knowledge, the types of knowledge they currently acquire and/or desire, and their application of new knowledge. Responses to an online survey, completed by practicing coaches (N = 320) in a range of sports and contexts, were analysed descriptively and inductively. Results revealed that coaches preferred, and mostly acquired, coaching knowledge from informal learning activities, especially when these permitted social interaction. Notably, however, formal coach education courses were also reported relatively frequently as a source of recent knowledge acquisition. Nevertheless, critical justification for and application of acquired knowledge was largely absent. Based on the findings, we suggest that, before social learning activities such as mentoring schemes and communities of practice are placed at the centre of formalised coach development provision, coach educators must put in place the support structures to better enable coaches to recognise and deal with the potentially mixed influences of the social milieu on coach learning, aiming to ensure that their informal development is sufficiently open-minded, reflective and critical.
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... In light of this scarcity of research in the domain of coach development in police training, the closely aligned field of sport coaching offers insights. An increasing body of research has investigated how coaches learn how to coach (Cushion et al., 2010;Stoszkowski and Collins, 2015). The acquisition of coaching knowledge takes place in a variety of settings, extending beyond formal coach education environments encompassing non-formal and informal self-directed learning situations (Cassidy and Rossi, 2006;Lemyre et al., 2007;Wright et al., 2007;Stoszkowski and Collins, 2015). ...
... An increasing body of research has investigated how coaches learn how to coach (Cushion et al., 2010;Stoszkowski and Collins, 2015). The acquisition of coaching knowledge takes place in a variety of settings, extending beyond formal coach education environments encompassing non-formal and informal self-directed learning situations (Cassidy and Rossi, 2006;Lemyre et al., 2007;Wright et al., 2007;Stoszkowski and Collins, 2015). Whereas formal coach education is considered as a highly institutionalised setting that is formally recognized with diplomas and certificates, non-formal coach education encompasses organised learning opportunities outside the formal educational settings, whereas informal education reflects self-driven searches for knowledge and reflection (Mallett and Dickens, 2009). ...
... For example, Wright et al. (2007) identified seven different learning situations accessed by ice hockey coaches as sources for their coaching knowledge, encompassing formal (large-scale coach education programs, formal mentoring), non-formal (coaching clinics and seminars) and informal learning settings (books and videotapes, personal experiences, face-to-face interactions with other coaches, the internet). Stoszkowski and Collins (2015) recruited some 320 participants for an online survey. They found that coaches prefer to acquire coaching knowledge from informal learning activities, especially when activities allow for social interaction, such as talking to other coaches. ...
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The current study explored police trainers' perceptions of their actual and preferred methods of acquiring new coaching knowledge; the types of knowledge they currently require and/or desire; and how they apply new knowledge. A total of 163 police trainers from Germany and Austria participated in the study. The responses were analysed using an inductive approach. The results showed that police trainers thought they needed knowledge of pedagogy, policing, and self-development, with reasons being centred around a need to optimise learning, training content and the engagement of learners within the training sessions. Preferred methods of learning focused predominantly around informal and non-formal opportunities, the reasons for which were social interaction, the reality-based focus of the content and the perceived quality. Finally, police trainers identified technical or tactical policing knowledge, or knowledge specific to the delivery of police training as useful, recently acquired coaching knowledge, mainly because it was perceived to have direct application to their working practices. Based on these findings, it is suggested police trainers are in need of context-specific knowledge and support to develop the declarative knowledge structures that afford critical reflection of new information.
... The last few decades, there has been a special interest in investigating coaches education as mentioned by articles outlining the structure and content of specific coach education and training programs [10,11]. When coaches focus on training and do not develop their skills, this presents an obstacle to the sports development processes. ...
... Since everyone can perform the required exhibition movements (POMSY), pass the examination and obtain a Taekwondo instructor degree without raising the training method level related to this sport, with the exception of 6th Dan and above. As required by the World Taekwondo Federation (WT), level 6th Dan and above must submit a report on sports training methods in order to attend the test, when the quality of the report is not considered [10,11]. ...
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Objectives This study aimed to identify the knowledge level of Taekwondo coaches working in Taekwondo centers in Jordan, on the basics of physical training and to provide an easily-implementable questionnaire. Methods For this study, 179 Taekwondo coaches from both genders voluntarily participated. Descriptive method was used in the survey to suit the nature and objectives of the study. A questionnaire was designed, consisting of 49 multiple choice questions to measure the cognitive outcome of Taekwondo coaches on the fields of physical training, exercise physiology, sports career anatomy, sports nutrition, sports injuries and first aid. We used the statistical analysis effect of guessing, t-test and one-way (ANOVA) were used as statistical methods. Results The results showed that the level of knowledge among Taekwondo coaches was within the weak level. The level of the right answers was less than 50% on various areas of the study tool. The general level was 23.69% excluding the effect of guesswork on the areas of knowledge. The results showed that there are statistical indications in the Exercise Physiology method in terms of education level (P ≤ 0.001), and in the Sports Career Anatomy in term of belts degree (P ≤ 0.001). Conclusion This research shows that the knowledge level of Taekwondo coaches on physical training methods in Jordan was within the limits of the weak level.
... 22 Practitioners will often develop their own coaching strategies through coach-conversations, social media, or trial and error. 23,24 Gaining further insight into approaches being taken in practice, therefore, could help further understanding and bridge the gap between research and applied practice. ...
... Many were determined through social media posts, coach-conversations, or their own personal experience, conforming to previous research indicating only 1.8% of practitioners acquire knowledge from literature. 24 This highlights discrepancies between research and practice, with coaches suggesting access, time, and recommendations unsuited to applied environments as reasons. Further research such as the present study is vital to understand what happens in practice to ensure research can align better to practitioners' requirements. ...
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Velocity-based training (VBT) is a contemporary prescriptive, programming, and testing tool commonly utilised in strength and conditioning (S&C). Over recent years, there has been an influx of peer-reviewed literature investigating several different applications (e.g. load-velocity profiling, velocity loss, load manipulation, and reliability of technology) of VBT. The procedures implemented in research, however, do not always reflect the practices within applied environments. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate the perceptions and applications of VBT within elite S&C to enhance contextual understanding and develop appropriate avenues of practitioner-focused research. Fourteen high-performance S&C coaches participated in semi-structured interviews to discuss their experiences of implementing VBT into their practices. Reflexive thematic analysis was adopted, following an inductive and realist approach. Three central organising themes emerged: Technology, applications, and reflections. Within these central themes, higher order themes consisting of drivers for buying technology; programming, testing, monitoring, and feedback; and benefits, drawbacks, and future uses also emerged. Practitioners reported varied drivers and applications of VBT, often being dictated by simplicity, environmental context, and personal preferences. Coaches perceived VBT to be a beneficial tool yet were cognizant of the drawbacks and challenges in certain settings. VBT is a flexible tool that can support and aid several aspects of S&C planning and delivery, with coaches valuing the impact it can have on training environments, objective prescriptions, tracking player readiness, and programme success.
... Researchers have claimed that coaches and athletes are increasingly expected to use research evidence and innovation to gain competitive advantages (e.g., Arnold & Schilling, 2017), yet, scholars have also acknowledged that bridging gaps between research and practice in sport is challenging (Gould, 2016;Stoszkowski & Collins, 2016). Furthermore, sport coaches and sporting organizations use a range of different types of evidencenot limited to research-to guide their work (Stodter & Cushion, 2017;Stoszkowski & Collins, 2016). ...
... Researchers have claimed that coaches and athletes are increasingly expected to use research evidence and innovation to gain competitive advantages (e.g., Arnold & Schilling, 2017), yet, scholars have also acknowledged that bridging gaps between research and practice in sport is challenging (Gould, 2016;Stoszkowski & Collins, 2016). Furthermore, sport coaches and sporting organizations use a range of different types of evidencenot limited to research-to guide their work (Stodter & Cushion, 2017;Stoszkowski & Collins, 2016). ...
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The main objective of this study was to examine Portuguese and Brazilian coaches' and researchers' perceptions of the factors that influence the knowledge translation processes in sport. Data were collected via focus groups with 36 coaches and 25 researchers from both countries. Results of a reflexive thematic analysis were captured by the themes: knowledge creation, barriers, knowledge dissemination and knowledge implementation, and evaluation. In both contexts, there was a gap between researchers' and coaches' needs, which hindered the knowledge translation process. The lack of partnerships in place between these stakeholders also created difficulties in the process of knowledge translation. Moving forward, universities and polytechnic institutes should forge meaningful partnerships with coaches so they can implement evidence-based practices and use research as a tool for improving the quality of the coaching process.
... Deliberate reflection activities, individual or collective, have a high potential to expand professional development 36 , especially for sports coaches 10,30 . They are encouraged to reflect and critically analyze their performance based on their daily experiences 29 and, therefore, change habits, training routines, values, beliefs and possible mistakes in their performance 44 . ...
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Aim: to analyze the learning situations of beach handball coaches of São Paulo State (Brazil). Methods: Five beach handball coaches were interviewed (semi-structured), whose interviews were tabulated and analyzed based on Collective Subject Discourse method by three researchers. Results: coaches mentioned that the undergraduate course in Physical Education was not enough to master the specific knowledge of beach handball, but it encouraged the search for knowledge and the continuity of learning. The postgraduate degree was important by the contact with other coaches, and the courses and workshops are relevant to the improvement of beach handball knowledge. Discussion: coaches preferred unmediated learning situations, such as their own experiences, conversations with other coaches, observation of practices/matches and materials available on online video. In summary, the interviewed coaches’ mentioned the importance of the mediated and unmediated learning situations to their professional formation, and highlights the preference for short and direct contents to study.
... Prior to being sent to participants, the survey was reviewed for content validity; (Stoszkowski & Collins, 2016) by three applied sports science practitioners (with >5 years of elite sport experience each) and a University sports science academic (>10 years higher education experience). The survey was also informed by previous research in this area (Taylor et al., 2012). ...
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Athlete monitoring systems (AMS) aid performance optimisation and support illness/injury prevention. Nonetheless, limited information exists on how AMS are employed across elite sports in the United Kingdom. This study explored how athlete monitoring (AM) data, in particular athlete self-report measures, were collected, analysed and disseminated within elite sports. Thirty elite sports practitioners representing 599 athletes responded to a survey on their AM methodologies. The majority, 83%, (n = 25) utilised an AMS, and a further 84% (n = 21) stated the collection of their AMS data was underpinned by a scientific rationale. Athlete self-report measures (ASRM) were the most commonly employed tool, with muscle soreness, sleep and energy levels amongst the most frequently collected measures. The ubiquitous use of custom single-item ASRM resulted in considerable variability in the questionnaires employed, thus potentially impacting questionnaire validity. Feedback processes were largely felt to be ineffective, with 44% (n = 11) respondents indicating that athletes did not receive sufficient feedback. Some respondents indicated that AMS data was never discussed with athletes and/or coaches. Overall, significant disparities exist in the use of athlete monitoring systems between research and elite sports practice, and the athlete, coach and practitioner experience of monitoring risks being poor if these disparities are not addressed.
... Importantly, however, whilst some of the constructs in the former category have their place as part of a broader whole, this nuance is often missed by practitioners looking for an edge to develop performance or perhaps in the literature (Burgoyne et al., 2020). In addition, with social media becoming the information source of choice for many practitioners (MacNamara and , the risks of hyperbole beyond reality grow stronger (Stoszkowski and Collins, 2016) with the original meaning and mechanism of the construct getting lost, often in a plethora of promotional presentation. As a result, eager practitioners frequently pick-up and apply constructs without a sound underpinning of declarative knowledge sufficient to make decisions about why or why not, when or when not, they might be appropriate for that particular context (Collins et al., 2012. ...
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... Previous research has demonstrated that the choice of the recovery strategy is influenced by what the coaches and support staff prefer [37]. Furthermore, coaches prefer and mostly acquire their coaching knowledge from informal learning activities and self-directed learning with other coaches and colleagues which may impact their recommendations for recovery strategies [38]. ...
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In order to achieve optimal performance, endurance athletes need to implement a variety of recovery strategies that are specific to their training and competition. Recovery is a multidimensional process involving physiological, psychological, emotional, social, and behavioral aspects. The purpose of the study was to examine current implementation, beliefs, and sources of information associated with recovery strategies in endurance athletes. Participants included 264 self-identified endurance athletes (male = 122, female = 139) across 11 different sports including placing top three overall in competition (n = 55) and placing in the top three in their age group or division (n = 113) during the past year. Endurance athletes in the current study preferred hydration, nutrition, sleep, and rest in terms of use, belief, and effectiveness of the recovery strategy. Female endurance athletes use more recovery strategies for training than males (p = 0.043, d = 0.25), but not in competition (p = 0.137, d = 0.19). For training, top three finishers overall (p < 0.001, d = 0.61) and by division (p < 0.001, d = 0.57), used more recovery strategies than those placing outside the top three. Similar findings were reported for competition in top three finishers overall (p = 0.008, d = 0.41) and by division (p < 0.001, d = 0.45). These athletes are relying on the people around them such as coaches (48.3%) and fellow athletes (47.5%) along with websites (32.7%) for information and recommendations. Endurance athletes should be educated on other strategies to address the multidimensionality of recovery. These findings will be useful for healthcare professionals, practitioners, and coaches in understanding recovery strategies with endurance athletes.
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Resumo: Este artigo parte da abordagem onto-epistemológica relativis-ta e interacionista para discutir a formação profissional de treinadores/ as de esportes e práticas corporais. A partir da análise de programas com essa finalidade, ressalta contribuições da teoria de Lev Vygotsky, destacando: a interação entre a base biológica humana e o meio e as estratégias pedagógicas e avaliativas, o desenvolvimento potencial e as interações entre treinadores/as de experiências variáveis e a importân-cia das vivências (perijivânie) e as relações de afeto entre aprendizes/as e mediadores/as. Para tanto, destaca iniciativas que contemplam estra-tégias pedagógicas afins e sugere a adoção de práticas que incentivem o diálogo, a aproximação com os contextos de atuação e o compartilhamento de conhecimentos.
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