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Transitive and intransitive gesture execution and observation compared to resting state: the hemodynamic measures (fNIRS)

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Abstract

The present study explored cortical correlates of gesture execution and observation in peripersonal space, using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Moreover, a direct comparison was realized between resting state condition and execution/observation. Meaningful gestures produced in the presence (transitive action) or in the absence (intransitive action) of the object were considered in a real context (situated representation of gestures). Subjects were required to execute or observe transitive versus intransitive gestures during fNIRS registration. Gesture execution was related to higher brain activity (increased oxygenated hemoglobin levels) with respect to observation in motor areas (premotor cortex, PMC; supplementary motor cortex, SM1). In contrast, the posterior parietal cortex was similarly activated in case of both execution and observation task. Moreover, both tasks showed increased brain activity within these areas compared to resting state. Finally, it was shown that action execution and observation of transitive gestures was supported by similar parietal posterior areas. These findings support the hypothesis of a partial common network for observation and execution of gestures within peripersonal space, mainly in transitive condition.

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... Those different categories of actions were compared in order to explore the effect of object-related and objectunrelated gestures. Indeed it was shown that the feature of transitivity may affect brain correlates, as reported in various studies (Balconi et al. 2015(Balconi et al. , 2017Balconi and Caldiroli 2011;Carmo and Rumiati 2009;Fridman et al. 2006;Króliczak and Frey 2009;Lotze et al. 1999;Villarreal et al. 2008). Culham et al. (2003) have demonstrated a neural dissociation between execution of object-directed and non object-directed movements. ...
... Again, a few studies contrasting activations during observation and execution of hand actions (Balconi and Cortesi 2016;Koehler et al. 2012) or execution and motor imagery (Ishizu et al. 2009;Wriessnegger et al. 2008) were realized. However, such studies did not focus on a direct and concurrent comparison between movement-related tasks, or primarily focused on comparisons of execution, observation, and imagery tasks with control or resting-state condition (Balconi et al. 2015;Balconi and Cortesi 2016;Holper et al. 2010). ...
Article
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The aim of the present study was to examine cortical correlates of motor execution, motor observation and motor imagery of hand complex gestures, in particular by comparing meaningful gestures implying the use of an object (transitive action) or not (intransitive action). Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to verify the presence of partial overlapping between some cortical areas involved in those different tasks. Participants were instructed to observe videos of transitive vs. intransitive gestures and then to execute or imagine them. Gesture execution was associated to greater brain activity (increased oxygenated hemoglobin levels) with respect to observation and imagination in motor areas (premotor cortex, PMC; primary sensorimotor cortex, SM1). In contrast, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) was more relevantly involved in both execution and observation tasks compared to gesture imagination. Moreover, execution and observation of transitive gestures seemed primarily supported by similar parietal posterior areas when compared with intransitive gestures, which do not imply the presence on a object.
... This process is related to both the potency and size of the feedback (Ferdinand and Kray, 2013). FRN is a negative wave that appears during 200 ∼ 350 ms after the feedback result is presented (Wang et al., 2016), which reflects the early feedback evaluation of a binary good and bad classification, the degree of violation of the subject's expectations (Alexander and Brown, 2011;Schuermann et al., 2011), and the process of implicit learning through feedback (Cui et al., 2013;Balconi et al., 2015). ...
... The authors believe that clbp patients seem to invert the correct placement of feedback according to the good vs. bad outcome basic classification. The absence of FRN effect in the healthy control group may be due to the inclusion of some relatively older participants in the control group (West et al., 2014), or the personality profiles and / or genetic variables (Mueller et al., 2014), and may be affected by unmeasured reward sensitivity (Balconi et al., 2015). It may also be because there is a slight difference in the IGT of the two studies. ...
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Twenty-three years ago, the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (SMH) proposed by Damasio was introduced to explain the role of emotion in decision-making, and provided a unique neuroanatomical framework for decision-making and its influence by emotion. The core idea of the SMH is that decision-making is a process that is affected by somatic state signals, including those that express themselves in emotion and feeling. In order to verify the SMH, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was originally designed by Bechara et al. and the skin conductance responses (SCRs) was recorded during the IGT. The initial confirmatory results showed that normal subjects would generate anticipatory SCRs when they received reward or punishment, but patients of the VMPFC lesion entirely failed to generate anticipatory SCRs prior to their selection of a card. With the further development of the SMH–related researches, other electrophysiological methods of measuring somatic state was gradually used to test the SMH, including event-related potentials (ERPs), and heart rate (HR). In this mini review article, we summarize the extant electrophysiological research on the SMH and decision-making under ambiguity, propose an integrative perspective for employing different electrophysiological measurement methods, and indicate the application of electrophysiological measurement based on the SMH in daily social decision-making.
... The ssmCCA analysis indicates canonical components in the inferior parietal, postcentral, supra-marginal, and precentral regions of the left hemisphere when participants performed action execution. As is well-established, motor execution engages mostly the contralateral sensorymotor cortex [64][65][66][67] , indexed by the precentral and postcentral regions in our study. Since participants in this study were all right-handed, the major components were detected on the left side of the brain. ...
Article
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The action observation network (AON) is a network of brain regions involved in the execution and observation of a given action. The AON has been investigated in humans using mostly electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), but shared neural correlates of action observation and action execution are still unclear due to lack of ecologically valid neuroimaging measures. In this study, we used concurrent EEG and functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) to examine the AON during a live-action observation and execution paradigm. We developed structured sparse multiset canonical correlation analysis (ssmCCA) to perform EEG-fNIRS data fusion. MCCA is a generalization of CCA to more than two sets of variables and is commonly used in medical multimodal data fusion. However, mCCA suffers from multi-collinearity, high dimensionality, unimodal feature selection, and loss of spatial information in interpreting the results. A limited number of participants (small sample size) is another problem in mCCA, which leads to overfitted models. Here, we adopted graph-guided (structured) fused least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) penalty to mCCA to conduct feature selection, incorporating structural information amongst the variables (i.e., brain regions). Benefitting from concurrent recordings of brain hemodynamic and electrophysiological responses, the proposed ssmCCA finds linear transforms of each modality such that the correlation between their projections is maximized. Our analysis of 21 right-handed participants indicated that the left inferior parietal region was active during both action execution and action observation. Our findings provide new insights into the neural correlates of AON which are more fine-tuned than the results from each individual EEG or fNIRS analysis and validate the use of ssmCCA to fuse EEG and fNIRS datasets.
... In the current study, the brain regions that shared activation between conditions included the bilateral IPL, bilateral SPL, right SMG and RA as indicated by significantly higher HbO than baseline in both the observe and execute conditions. Previous fNIRS studies have found parietal regions active during observation and execution conditions [29,32,33,41,66]. Nevertheless, most studies covered only ROIs in the left hemisphere which limits the conclusions that can be drawn. ...
Article
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Although many studies have examined the location of the action observation network (AON) in human adults, the shared neural correlates of action-observation and action-execution are still unclear partially due to lack of ecologically valid neuroimaging measures. In this study, we aim to demonstrate the feasibility of using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure the neural correlates of action-observation and action execution regions during a live task. Thirty adults reached for objects or observed an experimenter reaching for objects while their cerebral hemodynamic responses including oxy-hemoglobin (HbO) and deoxy-hemoglobin (HbR) were recorded in the sensorimotor and parietal regions. Our results indicated that the parietal regions, including bilateral superior parietal lobule (SPL), bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL), right supra-marginal region (SMG) and right angular gyrus (AG) share neural activity during action-observation and action-execution. Our findings confirm the applicability of fNIRS for the study of the AON and lay the foundation for future work with developmental and clinical populations.
... The fNIRS systems used across these studies employed between 8 and 54 (median = 24) channels across various regions of the cortex. In terms of hemispheric coverage placement, there were fewer studies that utilized a bilateral probe (5/14; 35.75%): (Holper et al., 2010;Kajiume et al., 2013;Bhat et al., 2017;Crivelli et al., 2018; compared to unilateral probes (9/14; 64.3%): (Shimada and Abe, 2010;Egetemeir et al., 2011;Koehler et al., 2012;Balconi et al., 2015Balconi et al., , 2017Balconi and Cortesi, 2016;Sun et al., 2018;Xu et al., 2019). The wide use of unilateral probes is likely due to the wide variety of regions implicated in the AON that these studies aimed to cover. ...
Article
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Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a neuroimaging technique that has undergone tremendous growth over the last decade due to methodological advantages over other measures of brain activation. The action-observation network (AON), a system of brain structures proposed to have “mirroring” abilities (e.g., active when an individual completes an action or when they observe another complete that action), has been studied in humans through neural measures such as fMRI and electroencephalogram (EEG); however, limitations of these methods are problematic for AON paradigms. For this reason, fNIRS is proposed as a solution to investigating the AON in humans. The present review article briefly summarizes previous neural findings in the AON and examines the state of AON research using fNIRS in adults. A total of 14 fNIRS articles are discussed, paying particular attention to methodological choices and considerations while summarizing the general findings to aid in developing better protocols to study the AON through fNIRS. Additionally, future directions of this work are discussed, specifically in relation to researching AON development and potential multimodal imaging applications.
... Specifically, regarding hemodynamic activity, firstly, we assumed to observe a different O2Hb and HHb haemoglobin activation related to different choice conditions. In particular, we expected to observe a different leftward versus rightward asymmetry of frontal neural activity related to different conditions of choice, according to the dual systems model of neural signatures of affective experience, which reports an increased lefthemispheric activity in response to more positive conditions and more right hemispheric activity in response to more negative and aversive conditions (Balconi et al. 2015b). Moreover, we assumed to observe a different cortical O2Hb and HHb activity of specific frontal areas in relation to different choice conditions (professional fit, company fit, social fit) and offer types (fair, unfair, neutral). ...
Article
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The neuroscience interest for moral decision-making has recently increased. To investigate the processes underlying moral behavior, this research aimed to investigate neurophysiological and behavioral correlates of decision-making in moral contexts. Specifically, functional Near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) allowed to record oxygenated (O2Hb) and deoxygenated (HHb) cerebral hemoglobin concentrations during different moral conditions (professional fit, company fit, social fit) and offers types (fair, unfair, neutral). Moreover, individuals' responses to offers types and reaction time (RTs) were considered. Specifically, from hemodynamic results emerged a difference in O2Hb and HHb activity according to moral conditions and offers types in different brain regions. In particular, O2Hb increase and a HHb decrease were observed in ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (VMPFC, DLPFC) for fair offers in professional fit condition and in superior temporal sulcus (STS) for unfair offers in social fit condition. Moreover, an increase of left O2Hb activity in professional fit condition and in right VMPFC for unfair offers in company fit condition was observed. In addition, from behavioral results, an RTs increase in company and social fit condition for fair and unfair offers emerged. This study, therefore, shows the behavioral and neurophysiological correlates of moral decision-making that guide moral behavior in different context, such as company one.
... Growing evidence describes an activity of the MNS during observation of both transitive (meaningful gestures in presence of an object) and intransitive (meaningful gestures in absence of an object) actions (57,58). However, neurophysiological studies demonstrated higher brain activity during observation of transitive compared to intransitive tasks (59)(60)(61). In addition, congruence of transitive observed actions (i.e., grasping) in context has been reported to influence the MNS activity (62,63). ...
Article
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Background: The discovery of the Mirror Neuron System has promoted the development of Action Observation Therapy (AOT) to improve motor and functional abilities in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This innovative approach involves observing video-clips showing motor contents, which may vary across the studies influencing AOT efficacy. To date, no studies have systematically summarized the effects of AOT in patients with PD on motor and functional outcomes, underlining the characteristics of visual stimuli in relation to their efficacy. Objectives: To describe the potential benefits of AOT in patients with PD and discuss the characteristics of visual stimuli used in clinical studies in relation to their efficacy. Methods: A systematic literature search was carried out using MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and PEDro, from inception until March 2020. Randomized controlled trials that investigated the effects of AOT on motor and functional recovery in patients with PD were included. Two independent reviewers appraised the records for inclusion, assessed the methodological quality, and extracted the following data: number and characteristics of participants, features and posology of the treatments, outcome measures at each follow-up, and main results. Findings were aggregated into a quantitative synthesis (mean difference and 95% confidence interval) for each time point. Results: Overall, 7 studies (189 participants) with a mean PEDro score of 6.1 (range: 4–8) points were selected. Included studies revealed AOT as effective in improving walking ability and typical motor signs (i.e., freezing of gait and bradykinesia) in patients with PD. Moreover, when this approach incorporated ecological auditory stimuli, changes to functional abilities and quality of life were also induced, which persisted up to 3 months after treatment. However, included studies adopted AOT stimuli with heterogeneous posology (from a single session to 8 weeks) and characteristics of motor contents might be responsible for different motor and functional recovery (person-related and viewing perspectives, transitive or intransitive actions, healthy subjects or patients, and association or not with imitation). Conclusions: AOT leads to improvements in motor and functional abilities in patients with PD and the characteristics of visual stimuli may play a role in determining AOT effects, deserving further investigations.
... Because of its specific features, fNIRS has been extensively used within the field of social neuroscience, ranging from the study of cognition, towards more complex emotional and interpersonal mechanisms. Considering social neuroscience as a potential field of application, in fact, the main strength features of fNIRS include its portability and low sensitivity to body movements, its safety of use and the chance to integrate it with other neuroscientific measures, making it suitable for monitoring cortical hemodynamics in a variety of experimental and ecological conditions, specifically in interactive tasks [1] or motor [2]. Moreover, these advantages have made this technique particularly adequate for investigating brain function in a variety of specific healthy and clinical populations such as children and adults' functional organization and their social brain functioning since it does not impose closed, tight or noisy environment, and can be also applied at the bedside or while moving. ...
Article
Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a relatively new neuroimagingtechnique adequate and useful for exploring neural activity in social contexts involving humaninteractions. Compared to functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), fNIRS is easy-to-usesafe, noninvasive, silent, relatively low cost and portable, and applicable to subjects of all ages, thusresulting in a good option for ecological studies involving humans in their real-life context.Moreover, by using hyperscanning technique, fNIRS allows recording the hemodynamic cerebralactivity of two interacting subjects in an ecological context or during a shared performance. Thus,moving from a simple analysis about each subject’s neural response during joint actions towardsmore complex computations makes possible to investigate brain synchrony, that is the if and howone’s brain activity is related to that of another interacting partner simultaneously recorded. Here,we discuss how connectivity analyses, with respect to both time and frequency domain procedures,permitted to deepen some aspects of inter-brain synchrony in relation to emotional closeness, and tohighlight how concurrent, cooperative actions can lead to interpersonal synchrony and bondconstruction.
... The signals of the circuit generate from the MC and project into the putamen (another way is lateral lenticular nucleus), then reach the thalamus, and subsequently return to the MC shown in Figure 1(d). It has been reported that, in normal people, gesture execution was related to higher activity in MC than resting state in functional near-infrared spectroscopy (f NIRS) with respect to observation motor areas [31]. The locomotor network activation of MC was positively associated with the amount of exercise [32]. ...
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The prefrontal cortex is the superlative structure of brain that needs the longest developmental and maturational duration that highlights the region of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in neuroimaging studies. Prefrontal cortex functions generate enormously complex and its abundant feedback neurocircuitries with subcortical structures such as striatum and thalamus established through dual neural fibers. These microneurocircuitries are called corticostriatothalamocortical (CSTC) circuits. The CSTC circuits paly an essential role in flexible behaviors. The impaired circuits increase the risk of behavioral and psychological symptoms. ADHD is an especial developmental stage of paediatric disease. It has been reported that the CSTC circuits dysfunctions in ADHD are related to homologous symptoms. This study aimed to review the symptoms of ADHD and discuss the recent advances on the effects of the disease as well as the new progress of treatments with each circuit.
... In the first and simplest case, there is no haemodynamic change at all, while in the second and third there is an increase in HbO 2 but HHb either does not change (scenario 2) or also increases (scenario 3). Historically, some investigators have chosen to use only the HbO 2 signal (for recent examples see Balconi et al., 2015;Brucker et al., 2015), and might thus interpret the latter cases as evidence of activation. However, the HHb response is generally acknowledged to have greater specificity and the use of both signals in conjunction is preferred . ...
Article
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Haemodynamics-based neuroimaging is widely used to study brain function. Regional blood flow changes characteristic of neurovascular coupling provide an important marker of neuronal activation. However, changes in systemic physiological parameters such as blood pressure and concentration of CO2 can also affect regional blood flow and may confound haemodynamics-based neuroimaging. Measurements with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) may additionally be confounded by blood flow and oxygenation changes in extracerebral tissue layers. Here we investigate these confounds using an extended version of an existing computational model of cerebral physiology, 'BrainSignals'. Our results show that confounding from systemic physiological factors is able to produce misleading haemodynamic responses in both positive and negative directions. By applying the model to data from previous fNIRS studies, we demonstrate that such potentially deceptive responses can indeed occur in at least some experimental scenarios. It is therefore important to record the major potential confounders in the course of fNIRS experiments. Our model may then allow the observed behaviour to be attributed among the potential causes and hence reduce identification errors.
... To date, studies on the neural correlates implicated in the production of pantomimes and intransitive gestures (mainly including instrumental gestures), although conflicting, share the idea that all gestures are left-lateralized [59][60][61][62]. Although the findings of neuroimaging seem not to explain the dissociation found in patients between intransitive gestures and pantomimes; from a neuropsychological point of view, a double dissociation is accounted for by assuming that pantomimes and intransitive gestures rely on different cognitive mechanisms [63]. ...
Article
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Since the first studies on limb apraxia carried out by Hugo Liepmann more than a century ago, research interests focused on the way humans process manual gestures by assessing gesture production after patients suffered neurologic deficits. Recent reviews centered their attention on deficits in gesture imitation or processing object-related gestures, namely pantomimes and transitive gestures, thereby neglecting communicative/intransitive gestures. This review will attempt to reconcile limb apraxia in its entirety. To this end, the existing cognitive models of praxis processing that have been designed to account for the complexity of this disorder will be taken into account, with an attempt to integrate in these models the latest findings in the studies of limb apraxia, in particular on meaningful gestures. Finally, this overview questions the very nature of limb apraxia when other cognitive deficits are observed.
... A number of recent researchers have used Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and functional NIRS (fNIRS) to produce new insights about the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive, emotive and perceptual functions (Hoshi, 2007;Balconi, Vanutelli, Bartolo & Cortesi, 2015). This technique was developed to be non-invasive, easy-to-use, portable, restraint-free and replicable (Kono et al., 2007). ...
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The present review elucidated the use of optical imaging technique (Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, NIRS) to better explain the brain plasticity for learning mechanisms, rehabilitation and post-traumatic brain recovery. Some recent applications were discussed, with specific focus on the usability of integrated measures (such as electroencephalography, EEG-NIRS; Transcranial Magnet Stimulation, TMS-NIRS) to study plasticity and its dynamic effects. NIRS-Neurofeedback and NIRS-BCI (Brain Computer Interface) were also explored as possible tools to produce a specific long-lasting learning in relationship with a specific cognitive domain. Finally a proficient domain where NIRS was found to be useful to test neuroplasticity is the interpersonal brain-tobrain coupling, termed "hyperscanning", a new emerging paradigm in neuroscience which measures brain activity from two or more people simultaneously.
... both types of gestures activate the human mirror-neuron system. In another study by M. Balconi [5] reported a study on transitive and intransitive gesture execution and observation compared to resting state using fNIRS. ...
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Gestural communication characterizes daily individuals’ interactions in order to share information and to modify others’ behavior. Social neuroscience has investigated the neural bases which support recognizing of different gestures. The present research, through the use of the hyperscanning approach, that allows the simultaneously recording of the activity of two or more individuals involved in a joint action, aims to investigate the neural bases of gestural communication. Moreover, by using hyperscanning paradigm we explore the inter-brain connectivity between two inter-agents, the one who performed the gesture (encoder) and the one who received it (decoder), with functional Near-infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) during the reproduction of affective, social and informative gestures with positive and negative valence. Result showed an increase in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (O2Hb) and inter-brain connectivity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for affective gestures, in the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) for social gestures and the frontal eye fields (FEF) for informative gestures, for both encoder and decoder. Furthermore, it emerged that positive gestures activate more the left DLPFC, with an increase in inter-brain connectivity in DLPFC and SFG. The present study revealed the relevant function of the type and valence of gestures in affecting intra- and inter-brain connectivity.
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Previous research on Schizophrenia (S) revealed anomalies in brain responsiveness during emotion processing, as shown by neuroimaging and electroencephalography (EEG) measures. Nonetheless preserved capacities to explicitly evaluate the emotional significance of affective stimuli in term of valence have been found. The present study applied functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) and EEG to explore the spatial and temporal expressions of emotion processing in the brain before (T0) and after (T2) an emotional Neurofeedback (NF) training of patients, assigned to the control or the experimental group. Explicit measures revealed correct identifications of stimuli emotional valence before (T0) and after (T2) the treatment, while implicit measures (EEG and fNIRS) showed a modulation and increased competencies only after the NF (T2), with more balanced prefrontal activity.
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Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research on action observation has emphasized the role of putative mirror neuron areas such as Broca's area, ventral premotor cortex, and the inferior parietal lobule. However, recent evidence suggests action observation involves many distributed cortical regions, including dorsal premotor and superior parietal cortex. How these different regions relate to traditional mirror neuron areas, and whether traditional mirror neuron areas play a special role in action representation, is unclear. Here we use multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to show that action representations, including observation, imagery, and execution of reaching movements: (1) are distributed across both dorsal (superior) and ventral (inferior) premotor and parietal areas; (2) can be decoded from areas that are jointly activated by observation, execution, and imagery of reaching movements, even in cases of equal-amplitude blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses; and (3) can be equally accurately classified from either posterior parietal or frontal (premotor and inferior frontal) regions. These results challenge the presumed dominance of traditional mirror neuron areas such as Broca's area in action observation and action representation more generally. Unlike traditional univariate fMRI analyses, MVPA was able to discriminate between imagined and observed movements from previously indistinguishable BOLD activations in commonly activated regions, suggesting finer-grained distributed patterns of activation.
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Objectives: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been used in the field of rehabilitation for a long time. Previous studies on NMES have focused on the peripheral effect, in contrast, relatively little is known about the effect on the cerebral cortex. In the current study, we attempted to investigate the change of cortical activation pattern induced by NMES during execution of hand movements in normal subjects, using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Twelve healthy normal subjects were randomly assigned to the NMES group(six subjects) and the sham group(six subjects). We measured oxy-hemoglobin(HbO) in six regions of interest(ROI) during pre-NMES and post-NMES motor phase; the left dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, premotor cortex, primary sensory-motor cortex(SM1), hand somatotopic area of SM1, and posterior parietal cortex. Between the pre-NMES and the post-NMES motor phases, real or sham NMES was applied on finger and wrist extensors of all subjects during a period of 5 minutes. In all groups, during the pre-NMES motor phase, the HbO value in the hand somatotopic area of the left SM1 was higher than those of other ROIs. In the NMES group, during the post-NMES motor phase, HbO value variation in the hand somatotopic area of the left SM1 showed a significant decrease, compared with that of sham group(p < 0.05). However, in the sham group, similar aspect of results in HbO values of all ROIs was observed between pre-NMES and post-NMES motor phases(p > 0.05). Results of this study showed that NMES induced a decrease of cortical activation during execution of hand movements. This finding appears to indicate that application of NMES can increase the efficiency of the cerebral cortex during execution of motor tasks.
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Coherent network oscillations (< 0.1 Hz) linking distributed brain regions are commonly observed in the brain during both rest and task conditions. What oscillatory network exists and how network oscillations change in connectivity strength, frequency and direction when going from rest to explicit task are topics of recent inquiry. Here, we study network oscillations within the sensorimotor regions of able-bodied individuals using hemodynamic activity as measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Using spectral interdependency methods, we examined how the supplementary motor area (SMA), the left premotor cortex (LPMC) and the left primary motor cortex (LM1) are bound as a network during extended resting state (RS) and between-tasks resting state (btRS), and how the activity of the network changes as participants execute left, right and bilateral hand (LH, RH and BH) finger movements. We found: (i) power, coherence and Granger causality spectra had significant peaks within the frequency band (0.01-0.04 Hz) during RS whereas the peaks shifted to a bit higher frequency range (0.04- 0.08 Hz) during btRS and finger movement tasks, (ii) there was significant bidirectional connectivity between all the nodes during RS and unidirectional connectivity from the LM1 to SMA and LM1 to LPMC during btRS, and (iii) the connections from SMA to LM1 and from LPMC to LM1 were significantly modulated in LH, RH and BH finger movements relative to btRS. The unidirectional connectivity from SMA to LM1 just before the actual task changed to the bidirectional connectivity during LH and BH finger movement. The unidirectionality could be associated with movement suppression and the bidirectionality with for preparation, sensorimotor update and controlled execution. These results underscore that fNIRS is an effective tool for monitoring spectral signatures of brain activity, which may serve as an important precursor before monitoring the recovery progress following brain injury.
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In recent decades, a lot of achievements have been obtained in imaging and cognitive neuroscience of human brain. Brain's activities can be shown by a number of different kinds of non-invasive technologies, such as: Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and ElectroEncephaloGraphy (EEG; Wolpaw et al., 2002; Weiskopf et al., 2004; Blankertz et al., 2006). NIRS has become the convenient technology for experimental brain purposes. The change of oxygenation changes (oxy-Hb) along task period depending on location of channel on the cortex has been studied: sustained activation in the motor cortex, transient activation during the initial segments in the somatosensory cortex, and accumulating activation in the frontal lobe (Gentili et al., 2010). Oxy-Hb concentration at the aforementioned sites in the brain can also be used as a predictive factor allows prediction of subject's investigation behavior with a considerable degree of precision (Shimokawa et al., 2009). In this paper, a study of recognition algorithm will be described for recognition whether one taps the left hand (LH) or the right hand (RH). Data with noises and artifacts collected from a multi-channel system will be pre-processed using a Savitzky-Golay filter for getting more smoothly data. Characteristics of the filtered signals during LH and RH tapping process will be extracted using a polynomial regression (PR) algorithm. Coefficients of the polynomial, which correspond to Oxygen-Hemoglobin (Oxy-Hb) concentration, will be applied for the recognition models of hand tapping. Support Vector Machines (SVM) will be applied to validate the obtained coefficient data for hand tapping recognition. In addition, for the objective of comparison, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) was also applied to recognize hand tapping side with the same principle. Experimental results have been done many trials on three subjects to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
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Evidence from neuropsychology and neuroimaging implicates parietal and frontal areas of the left cerebral hemisphere in the representation of skills involving the use of tools and other artifacts. On the basis of neuropsychological data, it has been claimed that 1) independent mechanisms within the left hemisphere may support the representation of these skills (transitive actions) versus meaningful gestures that do not involve manipulating objects (intransitive actions), and 2) both cerebral hemispheres may participate in the representation of intransitive gestures. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to test these hypotheses in 12 healthy adults while they planned and executed tool use pantomimes or intransitive gestures with their dominant right (Exp. 1) or nondominant left (Exp. 2) hands. Even when linguistic processing demands were controlled, planning either type of action was associated with asymmetrical increases in the same regions of left parietal (the intraparietal sulcus, supramarginal gyrus, and caudal superior parietal lobule) and dorsal premotor cortices. Effects were greater for tool use pantomimes, but only when the right hand was involved. Neither group nor individual analyses revealed evidence for greater bilateral activity during intransitive gesture planning. In summary, at the hand-independent level, transitive and intransitive actions are represented in a common, left-lateralized praxis network.
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There is a large body of psychological and neuroimaging experiments that have interpreted their findings in favor of a functional equivalence between action generation, action simulation, action verbalization, and perception of action. On the basis of these data, the concept of shared motor representations has been proposed. Indeed several authors have argued that our capacity to understand other people's behavior and to attribute intention or beliefs to others is rooted in a neural, most likely distributed, execution/observation mechanism. Recent neuroimaging studies have explored the neural network engaged during motor execution, simulation, verbalization, and observation. The focus of this metaanalysis is to evaluate in specific detail to what extent the activated foci elicited by these studies overlap.
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Audiovisual perception and imitation are essential for musical learning and skill acquisition. We compared professional pianists to musically naive controls with fMRI while observing piano playing finger-hand movements and serial finger-thumb opposition movements both with and without synchronous piano sound. Pianists showed stronger activations within a fronto-parieto-temporal network while observing piano playing compared to controls and contrasted to perception of serial finger-thumb opposition movements. Observation of silent piano playing additionally recruited auditory areas in pianists. Perception of piano sounds coupled with serial finger-thumb opposition movements evoked increased activation within the sensorimotor network. This indicates specialization of multimodal auditory-sensorimotor systems within a fronto-parieto-temporal network by professional musical training. Musical ''language,'' which is acquired by observation and imitation, seems to be tightly coupled to this network in accord with an observation-execution system linking visual and auditory perception to motor performance.
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The purpose of the present study was to assess the retest reliability of cortical activation detected by event-related functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) based on craniocerebral correlations. Isolated functional activation was evoked in the motor cortex by a periodically performed finger-tapping task. During 44-channel fNIRS recording, 12 subjects performed 30 trials of right and left index finger tapping in two sessions. The retest interval was set to 3 weeks. Simple correlations of the contrast t-values supplemented by scatterplots, channel-wise intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), as well as reproducibility indices for the size and the location of the detected activation were calculated. The results at the group level showed sufficient single measure ICCs (up to 0.80) and excellent reproducibility of the size and the location (up to 89% were reproducible). Comparisons of the intersession group amplitudes demonstrate that the fNIRS signals were stable across time in a retest study design: the number of significant differences was less than randomly occurring false-positive activated channels if an alpha level of 5% is chosen. Effect size analyses indicated that the intersession amplitude differences are small (mean < 0.25). For deoxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin distinct statistical power profiles were revealed regarding the activation vs. baseline contrast as well as the intersession amplitude differences, indicating a higher sensitivity of deoxyhemoglobin for local hemodynamic changes. The results suggest that sensorimotor activation assessed by event-related fNIRS based on craniocerebral correlations is sufficiently reproducible at the group level.
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A new class of visuomotor neuron has been recently discovered in the monkey's premotor cortex: mirror neurons. These neurons respond both when a particular action is performed by the recorded monkey and when the same action, performed by another individual, is observed. Mirror neurons appear to form a cortical system matching observation and execution of goal-related motor actions. Experimental evidence suggests that a similar matching system also exists in humans. What might be the functional role of this matching system? One possible function is to enable an organism to detect certain mental states of observed conspecifics. This function might be part of, or a precursor to, a more general mind-reading ability. Two different accounts of mind-reading have been suggested. According to `theory theory', mental states are represented as inferred posits of a naive theory. According to `simulation theory', other people's mental states are represented by adopting their perspective: by tracking or matching their states with resonant states of one's own. The activity of mirror neurons, and the fact that observers undergo motor facilitation in the same muscular groups as those utilized by target agents, are findings that accord well with simulation theory but would not be predicted by theory theory.
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Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging tool for non-invasively monitoring the haemodynamic response to brain activation. The technique has been widely adopted to investigate cortical responses during motor tasks in health and disease. This systematic review provides a critical analysis of the research findings in the hope of summating relevant information, identifying consistent outcomes acquired using different spectrometers, clarifying data inconsistencies, and learning from the common challenges across disciplines. The spatiotemporal characteristics, reliability, repeatability and modulation of typical cortical response evoked by motor stimulation are all evaluated in detail. The review assesses the contribution of the technique to advancing our understanding of motor skill learning and control in the context of tasks of everyday living, athletic performance, and recovery from neurological illness. Finally, the limitations of current fNIRS technologies are examined and a series of recommendations for future studies are provided based upon the reviewed literature.
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Over the last decade, many neuroimaging studies have assessed the human brain networks underlying action observation and imitation using a variety of tasks and paradigms. Nevertheless, questions concerning which areas consistently contribute to these networks irrespective of the particular experimental design and how such processing may be lateralized remain unresolved. The current study aimed at identifying cortical areas consistently involved in action observation and imitation by combining activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis with probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps. Meta-analysis of 139 functional magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography experiments revealed a bilateral network for both action observation and imitation. Additional subanalyses for different effectors within each network revealed highly comparable activation patterns to the overall analyses on observation and imitation, respectively, indicating an independence of these findings from potential confounds. Conjunction analysis of action observation and imitation meta-analyses revealed a bilateral network within frontal premotor, parietal, and temporo-occipital cortex. The most consistently rostral inferior parietal area was PFt, providing evidence for a possible homology of this region to macaque area PF. The observation and imitation networks differed particularly with respect to the involvement of Broca's area: whereas both networks involved a caudo-dorsal part of BA 44, activation during observation was most consistent in a more rostro-dorsal location, i.e., dorsal BA 45, while activation during imitation was most consistent in a more ventro-caudal aspect, i.e., caudal BA 44. The present meta-analysis thus summarizes and amends previous descriptions of the human brain networks related to action observation and imitation.
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The extrastriate body area (EBA) lies in the occipital-temporal cortex and has been described as a "body-selective" region that responds when viewing other people's bodies. Recently, several studies have reported that EBA is also modulated when the subject moves or imagines moving their own body, even without visual feedback. The present study involved 3 experiments, wherein the first experiment was conducted to examine whether near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) could capture any activity in the EBA when viewing images of bodies. The second experiment was designed to elucidate whether this region also responds when the subjects move their own body, and the third to observe whether imagining carrying out a movement would activate EBA. Images of human bodies and chairs were used as the stimuli for the first experiment, simple hand movements carried out by the subject were used for the second and the act of imagining hand movements for the third. Our results confirmed that the region we defined as EBA was clearly activated when the subject viewed images of human bodies, carried out movements of their own body and imagined moving parts of their own body, thus demonstrating the usefulness of NIRS as a new brain imaging method. Moreover, we found a gender-based difference when imagining movement; male subjects showed a greater response than female subjects. This may reflect a gender difference in imagery skills; however, further research is needed to verify this hypothesis.
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The hypothesis of several subsystems for processing visual information is expanded to the context of visuomotor functions. It is proposed that object-oriented actions involve three main types of processing whether the object is to be localized, identified, or grasped and manipulated. Neurological evidence from patients is provided, showing that each type of processing pertains to a distinct pathway. Whereas identification is impaired by lesions affecting the occipitotemporal pathway, localization and grasping are processed in posterior parietal cortex. A new clinical case with a parietal lesion is presented, where the grasping deficit contrasted with preservation of both identification and localization. This result suggests separate representations for localizing and grasping within parietal cortex.
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Lesions in the two divisions of parietal cortex, 5/7b/MIP and 7a/LIP, produce dissociable reaching deficits. Monkeys with 5/7b/MIP removals were tested on reaching in the dark under two different conditions. All the reaches made on any day were from the same starting position to the same target position in the control condition. In the "transfer" condition, all the reaches were made to the same target position but consecutive reaches were made from different starting positions. The target could be represented as a constant pattern of joint and muscle positions in the control condition. The transfer condition required a representation of the starting position of the hand and/or a representation of the target in terms of its position in space. Removal of areas 5, 7b and MIP produced only a very mild impairment in the control condition and a severe impairment in the transfer condition. This suggests that 5/7b/MIP does not represent the limb in simple sensory or motor coordinates but in terms of its spatial position.
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Paradigms drawn from cognitive psychology have provided new insight into covert stages of action. These states include not only intending actions that will eventually be executed, but also imagining actions, recognizing tools, learning by observation, or even understanding the behavior of other people. Studies using techniques for mapping brain activity, probing cortical excitability, or measuring the activity of peripheral effectors in normal human subjects and in patients all provide evidence of a subliminal activation of the motor system during these cognitive states. The hypothesis that the motor system is part of a simulation network that is activated under a variety of conditions in relation to action, either self-intended or observed from other individuals, will be developed. The function of this process of simulation would be not only to shape the motor system in anticipation to execution, but also to provide the self with information on the feasibility and the meaning of potential actions.
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Although both reaching and grasping require transporting the hand to the object location, only grasping also requires processing of object shape, size and orientation to preshape the hand. Behavioural and neuropsychological evidence suggests that the object processing required for grasping relies on different neural substrates from those mediating object recognition. Specifically, whereas object recognition is believed to rely on structures in the ventral (occipitotemporal) stream, object grasping appears to rely on structures in the dorsal (occipitoparietal) stream. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine whether grasping (compared to reaching) produced activation in dorsal areas, ventral areas, or both. We found greater activity for grasping than reaching in several regions, including anterior intraparietal (AIP) cortex. We also performed a standard object perception localizer (comparing intact vs. scrambled 2D object images) in the same subjects to identify the lateral occipital complex (LOC), a ventral stream area believed to play a critical role in object recognition. Although LOC was activated by the objects presented on both grasping and reaching trials, there was no greater activity for grasping compared to reaching. These results suggest that dorsal areas, including AIP, but not ventral areas such as LOC, play a fundamental role in computing object properties during grasping.
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We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of basic interhemispheric visuo-motor integration. In a simple reaction time task, subjects responded to lateralized left and right light flashes with unimanual left and right hand responses. Typically, reaction times are faster for uncrossed responses (that is, visual stimulus and response hand on the same side) than for crossed responses (that is, visual stimulus and response hand on opposite sides). The chronometric difference between crossed and uncrossed responses is called crossed-uncrossed difference (CUD) and it is typically taken to represent a behavioral estimate of interhemispheric transfer time. The fMRI results obtained in normal right-handers show that the crossed conditions yielded greater activity, compared to the uncrossed conditions, in bilateral prefrontal, bilateral dorsal premotor, and right superior parietal areas. These results suggest that multiple transfers between the hemispheres occur in parallel at the functional levels of sensory-motor integration (posterior parietal), decision-making (prefrontal) and preparation of motor response (premotor). To test the behavioral significance of these multiple transfers, we correlated the individual CUDs with the difference in signal intensity between crossed and uncrossed responses in the prefrontal, dorsal premotor, and right superior parietal activated areas. The analyses demonstrated a strong correlation between the CUD and signal intensity difference between crossed and uncrossed responses in the right superior parietal cortex. These data suggest a critical role of the superior parietal cortex in interhemispheric visuo-motor integration.
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The neural bases of imitation learning are virtually unknown. In the present study, we addressed this issue using an event-related fMRI paradigm. Musically naive participants were scanned during four events: (1) observation of guitar chords played by a guitarist, (2) a pause following model observation, (3) execution of the observed chords, and (4) rest. The results showed that the basic circuit underlying imitation learning consists of the inferior parietal lobule and the posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus plus the adjacent premotor cortex (mirror neuron circuit). This circuit, known to be involved in action understanding, starts to be active during the observation of the guitar chords. During pause, the middle frontal gyrus (area 46) plus structures involved in motor preparation (dorsal premotor cortex, superior parietal lobule, rostral mesial areas) also become active. Given the functional properties of area 46, a model of imitation learning is proposed based on interactions between this area and the mirror neuron system.
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Human listeners can effortlessly categorize a wide range of environmental sounds. Whereas categorizing visual object classes (e.g., faces, tools, houses, etc.) preferentially activates different regions of visually sensitive cortex, it is not known whether the auditory system exhibits a similar organization for different types or categories of complex sounds outside of human speech. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that hearing and correctly or incorrectly categorizing animal vocalizations (as opposed to hand-manipulated tool sounds) preferentially activated middle portions of the left and right superior temporal gyri (mSTG). On average, the vocalization sounds had much greater harmonic and phase-coupling content (acoustically similar to human speech sounds), which may represent some of the signal attributes that preferentially activate the mSTG regions. In contrast, correctly categorized tool sounds (and even animal sounds that were miscategorized as being tool-related sounds) preferentially activated a widespread, predominantly left hemisphere cortical "mirror network." This network directly overlapped substantial portions of motor-related cortices that were independently activated when participants pantomimed tool manipulations with their right (dominant) hand. These data suggest that the recognition processing for some sounds involves a causal reasoning mechanism (a high-level auditory "how" pathway), automatically evoked when attending to hand-manipulated tool sounds, that effectively associates the dynamic motor actions likely to have produced the sound(s).
Article
To investigate cerebral mechanisms underlying learning of motor skill, we assessed serial changes of cortical activation patterns during a pursuit rotor (PR) task in 18 right-handed, healthy subjects using a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system. Subjects performed the task with the right hand for 30 s alternated with 30-s rest for 8 repetitions (cycle1 to 8). Gains in motor skill were evaluated by time for keeping the stylus on the target (max 30 s), surface EMG patterns and trajectories of the arm. Performance improved with repetitions of the task cycles (12.9/17.1/19.3/20.0/21.1/22.2/23.6/23.9 s on average) and reached plateau at the 7th cycle. Reciprocal EMG patterns and steady trajectories were associated with acquisition of the motor skill. Task-related increases of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) were observed in the channels covering the sensorimotor cortex (SMC), premotor and prefrontal regions. There were also task-related decreases of deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxyHb) in these areas although the changes were smaller compared with those of oxyHb. The center of task-related increases of oxyHb was initially located in the presupplementary motor area (preSMA) and shifted caudally to the supplementary motor area (SMA) with cycle repetitions. The ratios of oxyHb changes in preSMA to SMA significantly decreased with task repetitions. DeoxyHb changes confirmed the activation patterns. These data suggest that preSMA plays an important role in the early phase of motor learning while the SMA might be more involved in the late learning phase of the motor skill.
Article
Interactive paradigms inducing reactive aggression are absent in the brain mapping literature. We used a competitive reaction time task to investigate brain regions involved in social interaction and reactive aggression in sixteen healthy male subjects with fMRI. Subjects were provoked by increasingly aversive stimuli and were given the opportunity to respond aggressively against their opponent by administering a stimulus as retaliation. fMRI revealed an increase of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activity during retaliation. The dorsal mPFC was active when subjects had to select the intensity of the retaliation stimulus, and its activity correlated with the selected stimulus strength. In contrast, ventral mPFC was active during observing the opponent suffering but also during retaliation independent of the stimulus strength. Ventral mPFC activation, stronger in low callous subjects, correlated positively with skin conductance response during observation of the suffering opponent. In conclusion, dorsal mPFC activation seems to represent cognitive operations related to more intense social interaction processes whereas the ventral mPFC might be involved in affective processes associated with compassion to the suffering opponent.
Article
Although generally studied in isolation, language and action often co-occur in everyday life. Here we investigated one particular form of simultaneous language and action, namely speech and gestures that speakers use in everyday communication. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we identified the neural networks involved in the integration of semantic information from speech and gestures. Verbal and/or gestural content could be integrated easily or less easily with the content of the preceding part of speech. Premotor areas involved in action observation (Brodmann area [BA] 6) were found to be specifically modulated by action information "mismatching" to a language context. Importantly, an increase in integration load of both verbal and gestural information into prior speech context activated Broca's area and adjacent cortex (BA 45/47). A classical language area, Broca's area, is not only recruited for language-internal processing but also when action observation is integrated with speech. These findings provide direct evidence that action and language processing share a high-level neural integration system.
Article
In this event-related fMRI study, we demonstrate the effects of a single session of practising configural hand actions (guitar chords) on cortical activations during observation, motor preparation and imitative execution. During the observation of non-practised actions, the mirror neuron system (MNS), consisting of inferior parietal and ventral premotor areas, was more strongly activated than for the practised actions. This finding indicates a strong role of the MNS in the early stages of imitation learning. In addition, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was selectively involved during observation and motor preparation of the non-practised chords. This finding confirms Buccino et al.'s [Buccino, G., Vogt, S., Ritzl, A., Fink, G.R., Zilles, K., Freund, H.-J., Rizzolatti, G., 2004a. Neural circuits underlying imitation learning of hand actions: an event-related fMRI study. Neuron 42, 323-334] model of imitation learning: for actions that are not yet part of the observer's motor repertoire, DLPFC engages in operations of selection and combination of existing, elementary representations in the MNS. The pattern of prefrontal activations further supports Shallice's [Shallice, T., 2004. The fractionation of supervisory control. In: Gazzaniga, M.S. (Ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences, Third edition. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 943-956] proposal of a dominant role of the left DLPFC in modulating lower level systems and of a dominant role of the right DLPFC in monitoring operations.
Article
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to assess human motor-cortex oxygenation changes in response to self-paced movements as well as movement imagery. We used a 24 channel NIRS-system which allows non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation changes in the human brain induced by cortical activity. From previous studies it is known that motor imagery activates sensorimotor areas similar to those activated during execution of the same movement. Sixteen healthy subjects were recruited and the changes in concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) were examined during a simple right and left hand tapping task and during kinesthetic movement imagery. All subjects showed significant increases in oxy-Hb during both tasks compared to the resting period, but with different onset latencies of oxygenation. During left and right movement imagery, the oxy-Hb concentration increased about 2 s later compared to real movement execution. Furthermore, the oxygenation found was bilaterally represented for both tasks but with temporal differences. The present study reported new results concerning timing and topographical distribution of the hemodynamic response during motor imagery measured by near-infrared spectroscopy.
Article
Determining the brain adaptations that underlie complex tool-use skills is an important component in understanding the physiological bases of human material culture. It is argued here that the ways in which humans skilfully use tools and other manipulable artefacts is possible owing to adaptations that integrate sensory-motor and cognitive processes. Data from brain-injured patients and functional neuroimaging studies suggest that the left cerebral hemisphere, particularly the left parietal cortex, of modern humans is specialized for this purpose. This brain area integrates dynamically representations that are computed in a distributed network of regions, several of which are also left-lateralized. Depending on the nature of the task, these may include conceptual knowledge about objects and their functions, the actor's goals and intentions, and interpretations of task demands. The result is the formation of a praxis representation that is appropriate for the prevailing task context. Recent evidence is presented that this network is organized similarly in the right- and left-handed individuals, and participates in the representation of both familiar tool-use skills and communicative gestures. This shared brain mechanism may reflect common origins of the human specializations for complex tool use and language.
Article
To compare the effects of bilateral task training with unilateral task training on upper-limb outcomes in early poststroke rehabilitation. A single-blinded randomized controlled trial, with outcome assessments at baseline, postintervention (6 wk), and follow-up (18 wk). Inpatient acute and rehabilitation hospitals. Patients were randomized to receive bilateral training (n=56) or unilateral training (n=50) at 2 to 4 weeks poststroke onset. Supervised bilateral or unilateral training for 20 minutes on weekdays over 6 weeks using a standardized program. Upper-limb outcomes were assessed by Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Rivermead Motor Assessment upper-limb scale, and Nine-Hole Peg Test (9HPT). Secondary measures included the Modified Barthel Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Nottingham Health Profile. All assessment was conducted by a blinded assessor. No significant differences were found in short-term improvement (0-6 wk) on any measure (P>.05). For overall improvement (0-18 wk), the only significant between-group difference was a change in the 9HPT (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.0-0.1; P=.05) and ARAT pinch section (95% CI, 0.3-5.6; P=.03), which was lower for the bilateral training group. Baseline severity significantly influenced improvement in all upper-limb outcomes (P<.05), but this was irrespective of the treatment group. Bilateral training was no more effective than unilateral training, and in terms of overall improvement in dexterity, the bilateral training group improved significantly less. Intervention timing, task characteristics, dose, and intensity of training may have influenced the results and are therefore areas for future investigation.
Gesture's Neural Language
  • M Andric
  • S L Small
Andric M, Small SL (2012) Gesture's Neural Language. Front Psychol 3:99
Assessment of the cerebral cortex during motor task behaviours in adults: a systematic review of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) studies
  • D R Leff
  • F Orihuela-Espina
  • C E Elwell
  • DR Leff