Limited sampling strategies for therapeutic drug monitoring of amikacin and kanamycin in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

ArticleinInternational journal of antimicrobial agents 46(3) · July 2015with 81 Reads
Abstract
Amikacin and kanamycin are considered important and effective drugs in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Unfortunately, the incidence of toxicity is high and is related to elevated drug exposure. In order to achieve a balance between efficacy and toxicity, a population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model may help to optimise drug exposure. Patients with MDR-TB who had received amikacin or kanamycin as part of their treatment and who had routinely received therapeutic drug monitoring were evaluated. A PPK model was developed and subsequently validated. Using this model, a limited sampling model was developed. Eleven patients receiving amikacin and nine patients receiving kanamycin were included in this study. The median observed 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-24h) was 77.2mgh/L [interquartile range (IQR) 64.7-96.2mgh/L] for amikacin and 64.1mgh/L (IQR 55.6-92.1mgh/L) for kanamycin. The PPK model was developed and validated using n-1 cross-validation. A robust population model was developed that is suitable for predicting the AUC0-24h of amikacin and kanamycin. This model, in combination with the limited sampling strategy developed, can be used in daily routine to guide dosing but also to assess AUC0-24h in phase 3 studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
Ad

Do you want to read the rest of this article?

Request full-text
Request Full-text Paper PDF
  • Article
    Background: Amikacin has been used for over 40 years in multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), but there is still debate on the right dose. The aim of this review was to search relevant pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) literature for the optimal dose and dosing frequency of amikacin in MDR-TB regimens trying to optimize efficacy while minimizing toxicity. Methods: A systematic review on the value of amikacin as second-line drug in the treatment of MDR-TB was performed. Results: Five articles were identified with data on PK, hollow-fiber system model for TB and or early bactericidal activity of amikacin. Despite the long period in which amikacin has been available for the treatment of MDR-TB, very little PK data is available. This highlights the need for more research. Conclusions: Maximum concentration (Cmax) of amikacin related to MIC proved to be the most important PK/PD index for efficacy. The target Cmax/MIC ratio should be 10 at site of infection. Cumulative area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) corresponding with cumulative days of treatment was associated with an increased risk of toxicity.
  • Article
    Amikacin, kanamycin and capreomycin are listed among the most important 2 nd line drugs for multidrug resistant tuberculosis. Although amikacin and kanamycin are administered in the same dose and show the same pharmacokinetics, they have different WHO breakpoints suggesting that the two drugs have a different minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC). The aim of this paper was to investigate possible differences in MIC between the aminoglycosides and capreomycin. Using the direct concentration method, a concentration range of amikacin, kanamycin and capreomycin (0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 16.0, 32.0 and 64.0 mg/L) was tested against 57 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. The 7H10 agar plates were examined for mycobacterial growth after 14 days. At 2 mg/L, 48 strains (84%) were inhibited by amikacin and only five strains (9%) were inhibited by kanamycin (p < 0.05, Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test). The median MICs of amikacin, kanamycin and capreomycin were 2, 4 and 8 mg/L, respectively. No difference was observed between multidrug resistant and fully susceptible strains in the MIC-distribution of amikacin, kanamycin and capreomycin. The results indicate that amikacin is more active against M. tuberculosis than kanamycin and capreomycin in the absolute concentration method. The impact of this difference on clinical outcome in daily practice requires a prospective study including pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics evaluations.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Control of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) requires extensive, supervised chemotherapy because second-line anti-TB drugs have a narrower therapeutic range than first-line drugs. This study aimed to develop population pharmacokinetic (PK) models for second-line drugs in patients with MDR-TB, evaluate the recommended dosage regimens and, if necessary, suggest new dosage regimens. A prospective, single-centre PK study was performed on second-line anti-TB drugs in patients with MDR-TB. Moxifloxacin, cycloserine, p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), kanamycin and other second-line drugs were administered to the patients. Plasma concentrations were analysed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Population PK models were developed using non-linear mixed effect modelling (NONMEM, Version 7.30; ICON Development Solutions, Ellicott City, MD, USA). Simulations were performed using the calculated PK parameters. The respective absorption rate constant, apparent clearance and apparent volume of distribution values were as follows: 0.305/h, 9.37 L/h and 56.7 L for moxifloxacin; 0.135/h, 1.38 L/h and 10.5 L for cycloserine; 0.510/h, 30.8 L/h and 79.4 L for PAS; and 1.67/h, 3.75 L/h and 15.2 L for kanamycin. The simulations showed that the following dosage regimens were more likely to be within the recommended concentration ranges than the raw data in this study: 200 mg of moxifloxacin once daily (QD) (patient weight <50 kg) and 400 mg of moxifloxacin QD (patient weight ≥50 kg), 500-750 mg of cycloserine QD, 4.95-6.6 g of PAS twice daily and 750-1000 mg of intramuscular kanamycin QD. These findings indicate that the recommended doses should be revised to improve the clinical outcomes of MDR-TB treatment.
  • Article
    Practitioners commonly use amikacin in patients with cystic fibrosis. Establishment of the pharmacokinetics of amikacin in adults with cystic fibrosis may increase the efficacy and safety of therapy. This study was aimed to establish the population pharmacokinetics of amikacin in adults with cystic fibrosis. We used serum concentration data obtained during routine therapeutic drug monitoring and explored the influence of patient covariates on drug disposition. We performed a retrospective chart review to collect amikacin dosing regimens, serum amikacin concentrations, blood sampling times, and patient's characteristics from adults with cystic fibrosis admitted for treatment of acute pulmonary exacerbations. Amikacin concentrations were retrospectively collected for 49 adults with cystic fibrosis, and 192 serum concentrations were available for analysis. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed using non-linear mixed effects modeling with first-order conditional estimation method. A two-compartment model with first-order elimination best-described amikacin pharmacokinetics. Creatinine clearance and weight were identified as significant covariates for CL and Vd, respectively, in the final model. Residual variability was modeled using a proportional error model. Typical estimates for clearance, central and peripheral volume, and inter-compartmental clearance were 3.06 L/h, 14.4 L, 17.1 L and 0.925 L/h, respectively. The pharmacokinetics of amikacin in individuals with cystic fibrosis seems to differ compared with individuals without cystic fibrosis. However, further investigations are needed to confirm these results, and thus the need for variations in amikacin dosing. Future pharmacodynamic studies will potentially establish optimal amikacin dosing regimens for the treatment of acute pulmonary exacerbations in adult patients with CF.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Kanamycin sulphate (KS) is a Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein synthesis inhibitor. Due to its intense hydrophilicity, KS is cleared from the body within 8 h. KS has a very short plasma half-life (2.5 h). KS is used in high concentrations to reach the therapeutic levels in plasma, which results in serious nephrotoxicity/ototoxicity. To overcome aforementioned limitations, the current study aimed to develop KS loaded PLGA-Vitamin-E-TPGS nanoparticles (KS-PLGA-TPGS NPs), to act as an efficient carrier for controlled delivery of KS. To achieve a substantial extension in blood circulation, a combined design, affixation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to KS-PLGA-TPGS NPs and adsorption of water-soluble chitosan (WSC) (cationic deacetylated chitin) to particle surface, was raised for surface modification of NPs. Surface modified NPs (KS-PEG-WSC NPs) were prepared to provide controlled delivery and circulate in the bloodstream for an extended period of time, thus minimizing dosing frequency. In vivo pharmacokinetics and in vivo biodistribution following intramuscular administration were investigated. NPs surface charge was close to neutral +3.61 mV and significantly affected by the WSC coating. KS-PEG-WSC NPs presented striking prolongation in blood circulation, reduced protein binding, and long drew-out the blood circulation half-life with resultant reduced kidney sequestration vis-à-vis KS-PLGA-TPGS NPs. The studies, therefore, indicate the successful formulation development of KS-PEG-WSC NPs with reduced frequency of dosing of KS indicating low incidence of nephrotoxicity/ototoxicity.
  • Article
    Considering the global epidemic of drug resistance in . Mycobacterium tuberculosis, early and accurate diagnosis as well as prompt initiation of antitubercular therapy (ATT) forms the mainstay of tuberculosis control programs. Patients on ATT may develop treatment failure due to diverse reasons including emergence of drug resistance in the host during the course of therapy. Monitoring the timely response to treatment in such cases has a significant role in rapid identification of drug resistant strains and institution of change of regimen to further decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. Furthermore, availability of faster surrogate end points to assess treatment efficacy, disease activity, cure, and relapse is one of the crucial requirements for undertaking innovative clinical trials related to TB. The article presents here the compilation of currently available methods for monitoring the treatment response in pulmonary as well as extrapulmonary TB.
  • Article
    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), tuberculosis is the leading cause of death attributed to a single microbial pathogen worldwide. In addition to the large number of patients affected by tuberculosis, the emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug‐resistance is complicating tuberculosis control in many high‐burden countries. During the past five years, the global number of patients identified with multidrug‐resistant tuberculosis (MDR‐TB), defined as bacillary resistance at least against rifampicin and isoniazid, the two most active drugs in a treatment regimen, has increased by more than 20 percent annually. Today we experience a historical peak in the number of patients affected by MDR‐TB. The management of MDR‐TB is characterized by delayed diagnosis, uncertainty of the extent of bacillary drug‐resistance, imprecise standardized drug regimens and dosages, very long duration of therapy and high frequency of adverse events which all translate into a poor prognosis for many of the affected patients. Major scientific and technological advances in recent years provide new perspectives through treatment regimens tailor‐made to individual needs. Where availale, such personalized treatment has major implications on the treatment outcomes of patients with MDR‐TB. The challenge now is to bring these adances to those patients that need them most. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Article
    Introduction WHO global strategy is to end tuberculosis epidemic by 2035. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic studies are increasingly performed and might confirm their potential role in optimizing treatment outcome in specific settings and populations. Insufficient drug exposure seems to be a relevant factor in tuberculosis outcome and for the risk of phenotypic resistance. Areas Covered This review discusses available pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic data of first and second-line antitubercular agents in relation to efficacy and toxicity. Pharmacodynamic implications of optimized drugs and new options regimens are reviewed. Moreover a specific session describes innovative investigations on drug penetration. Expert Opinion The optimal use of available antitubercular drugs is paramount for tuberculosis control and eradication. Whilst trials are still on-going, higher rifampicin doses should be reserved to treatment for tubercular meningitis. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring with limiting sampling strategies is advised in patients at risk of failure or with slow treatment response. Further studies are needed in order to provide definitive recommendations of pharmacogenetic-based individualization: however lower isoniazid doses in NAT2 slow acetylators and higher rifampicin doses in individuals with SLCO1B1 loss of function genes are promising strategies. Finally in order to inform tailored strategies we need more data on tissue drug penetration and pharmacological modelling.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Tuberculosis remains a major infectious cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current antibiotic regimens, constructed prior to the development of modern pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK–PD) tools, are based on incomplete understanding of exposure–response relationships in drug susceptible and multidrug resistant tuberculosis. Preclinical and population PK data suggest that clinical PK–PD studies may enable therapeutic drug monitoring for some agents and revised dosing for others. Future clinical PK–PD challenges include: incorporation of PK methods to assay free concentrations for all active metabolites; selection of appropriate early outcome measures which reflect therapeutic response; elucidation of genetic contributors to interindividual PK variability; conduct of targeted studies on special populations (including children); and measurement of PK–PD parameters at the site of disease.
  • Conference Paper
    Full-text available
    The root of Dadangkak (Hydrolea spinosa L) is a herbal plant that commonly used by South Kalimantan people for antidiabetic. The main purpose of this research are : to examine the activity of ethyl acetate fraction from EtOH fraction of the roots of dadangkak and to identify the chemical contents of the roots by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). The extract of ethanol from 10 grams of the roots is yielded from materation then fractionation by ethyl acetate. Wistar male rats is divided into three groups (five rats each groups ). The first group is given glibenclamide 0.45 mg/kgBW; the second group is given aquades 2 ml/200 gBW; and the last group is given 100 mg/kgBW ethyl acetate fraction perorally. Each group deliberately made suffered from diabetes by giving induction of 150 mg/kgBW Aloxan intraperitoneally. The measurement of blood glucose was held at the 1st, 4th , and 12th by using Gluco-DR. the assay treatment had been done for 7 days (from the 5th until 11th day). The result then being analysed with SPSS by confidence level 95%. The ethyl acetate fraction of the plants was being identified by using reagent solutions and TLC. The result showed the decline of blood glucose level after the suspention was given significantly (sig<0.05) compared to the control group with blood glucose level 162 ± 8,631 mg/dL (at the 12th day). The chemical content of the ethyl acetate fraction showed positive result to the saponin triterpenoid with Lieberman Burchard (LB) reagent by showing the brown ring. Then, TLC assay was done by using n-hex : ethyl acetate (2 : 6) and showed 2 violet spots after being sprayed by LB reagent (with Rf point : 0.5 and 0.69 ). From the TLC assay can be guessed that the sample contained saponin triterpenoid
  • Article
    In this paper, a resonance light scattering (RLS) method was developed for detecting kanamycin with high sensitivity and selectivity. Here, aptamer specific to kanamycin was utilized for recognizing and competitively binding with kanamycin, and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were used as probes. After adding kanamycin into solutions containing aptamer and GNPs, the GNPs would aggregate in the presence of NaCl, which resulted in the RLS signal intensities enhanced dramatically. Based on this phenomenon, kanamycin can be detected in the range of 10 to 600 nM with a limit of detection as 1 nM, which is more sensitive than many other instrumental methods, especially the commonly used UV-visible spectroscopic method. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this method can be used for detecting kanamycin in milk samples with satisfactory results, which is meaningful for solving food safety problems.
  • Article
    Hearing loss and nephrotoxicity are associated with prolonged treatment duration and higher dosage of amikacin and kanamycin. In our Tuberculosis Center, we have employed therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) targeting pre-set pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) surrogate endpoints in an attempt to maintain efficacy while preventing (oto-)toxicity. To evaluate this strategy, we retrospectively evaluated medical charts of TB patients treated with amikacin or kanamycin in the period 2000 - 2012. Patients with culture-confirmed multi- or extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) receiving amikacin or kanamycin as part of their TB treatment for at least 3 days were eligible for inclusion in this retrospective study. Clinical data, including C max , C min and audiometry data were extracted from the patients' medical charts. 80 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean weighted C max /MIC ratio obtained from 57 patients was 31.2 for amikacin and 12.3 for kanamycin. The extent of hearing loss was limited and correlated with the cumulative drug dose per kg body weight during daily administration. At follow-up, 35 (67.3%) of all patients had successful outcome; there were no relapses. At a median dose of 6.5 mg/kg a correlation was found between the dose per kg bodyweight during daily dosing and the extent of hearing loss in dB at 8000 Hz. This study suggests that the efficacy at this lower dosage is maintained with limited toxicity. A randomized controlled trial should provide final proof of the safety and efficacy of TDM-guided use of aminoglycosides in MDR-TB treatment.
  • Article
    Kanamycin sulphate (KS) is a Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein synthesis inhibitor. KS is polycationic, a property responsible for KS poor oral absorption half-life (2.5 h), and rapid renal clearance, which results in serious nephrotoxicity/ototoxicity. The current study aimed to develop KS-loaded PLGA-Vitamin-E-TPGS microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) to reduce the dosing frequency and dose related adverse effect. In vitro release was sustained up to 10 days for KS PLGA-TPGS MPs and 13 days for KS PLGA-TPGS NPs in PBS pH 7.4. The in vivo pharmacokinetic test in Wistar rats showed that the AUC0-∞ of KS PLGA-TPGS NPs (280.58 μg/mL*min) was about 1.62-fold higher than that of KS PLGA-TPGS MPs (172.30 μg/mL*min). Further, In vivo protein binding assay ascribed 1.20-fold increase in the uptake of KS PLGA-TPGS NPs through the alveolar macrophage (AM). The studies, therefore, could provide another useful tool for successful development of KS MPs and NPs.
  • Article
    Introduction: A growing number of children globally are being treated for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The second-line injectable antituberculosis medications amikacin, kanamycin and capreomycin, traditionally a mainstay of MDR-TB treatment, cause important adverse effects including permanent sensorineural hearing loss, nephrotoxicity, electrolyte abnormalities, injection pain and local injection site complications. Areas covered: To characterize the safety and tolerability of the second-line injectables in children treated for MDR-TB, we reviewed data on the mechanism of injectable associated adverse effects, risk factors for their development, and the incidence of injectable-associated adverse effects in adults and children treated for MDR-TB. Expert opinion: Despite a substantial evidence base in adults demonstrating the frequent and potentially serious adverse effects of second-line injectables, important knowledge gaps remain. Improved characterization of the incidence of injectable-associated adverse effects will inform rational guidance on monitoring children with TB on injectables. Eliminating the need for injectables in MDR-TB treatment regimens is a high priority, and will rely on the use of novel antituberculosis TB drugs. Strategies to reduce the risk of adverse effects of injectables, if used, deserve evaluation. This includes evaluation of potentially otoprotective medications N-acetylcysteine or aspirin, high frequency hearing screening for earlier detection of ototoxicity and therapeutic drug monitoring.
  • Article
    Kanamycin is one of the aminoglycosides used in the treatment of multidrug resistant tuberculosis. Blood concentrations of kanamycin are predictive for the treatment efficacy and the occurrence of side effects and dose adjustments can be needed to optimize therapy. However, an immunoassay method for the quantification of kanamycin is not commercially available. We modified the existing tobramycin immunoassay to analyse kanamycin. This modified method was tested in a concentration range of 0.3 – 80.0 mg/L for inaccuracy and imprecision. In addition, the analytical results of the immunoassay method were compared to an LC-MS/MS analytical method using Passing and Bablok regression. Within-day imprecision varied between from 2.3 - 13.3% and between day imprecision ranged from 0.0 – 11.3%. The inaccuracy ranged from -5.2 – 7.6%. No significant cross-reactivity with other antimicrobials and antiviral agents was observed. The results of the modified immunoassay method were comparable with the LC-MS/MS analytical outcome. This new immunoassay method enables laboratories to perform therapeutic drug monitoring of kanamycin without the need of complex and expensive LC-MS/MS equipment.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    For treatment of multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) there is a scarcity of antituberculosis drugs. Co-trimoxazole is one of the available drug candidates, and already frequently co-prescribed in TB-HIV co-infected patients. However, only limited data are available on pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters of co-trimoxazole in TB patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate PK parameters and in vitro PD data of the effective part of co-trimoxazole; sulfamethoxazole. In a prospective PK study in patients with drug-susceptible TB (age >18), SXT was administered orally in a dose of 960 mg once daily. One-compartment population pharmacokinetic modelling was performed using Mw£harm 3.81 (Mediware, Groningen, The Netherlands). The ƒAUC/MIC ratio and the time period in which the free concentration exceeded the MIC (T>MIC) were calculated. Twelve patients received 960 mg co-trimoxazole on top of first line drugs. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the population model were as follows (geometric mean ± SD): metabolic clearance(CLm) 1.57 ± 3.71 L/h, volume of distribution (Vd)0.30 ± 0.05 L*kg -1 lean body mass, drug clearance – creatinine clearance ratio (fr) 0.02 ± 0.13, gamma distribution rate constant (Ktr_po) 2.18 ± 1.14, gamma distribution shape factor (n_po) 2.15 ± 0.39. Free fraction of sulfamethoxazole was 0.3, but ranged between 0.2-0.4. The median value of the MICs was 9.5 mg/L (IQR, 4.75-9.5) and of ƒ AUC/MIC ratio was 14.3 (IQR, 13.0-17.5). The percentage of ƒ T>MIC ranged between 43 and 100 % of the dosing interval. The PK and PD data from this study are useful to explore a future dosing regimen of co-trimoxazole for MDR-TB treatment.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Extract Linezolid is used off-label to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) [1, 2]. Recently, two systematic reviews and meta-analyses pointed out its promising efficacy [3, 4]. However, linezolid toxicity may outweigh its potential benefits. Indeed, adverse events were notified in almost 60% of the treated cases, with a high incidence of severe events such as anaemia, peripheral neuropathy, optic neuritis, and thrombocytopenia. Decreased linezolid doses were associated with significantly lowered toxicity [5]. Furthermore, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has increasingly been recognised as an asset in the field of TB treatment [6, 7]. TDM may assess individual linezolid exposure, especially since the drug shows a large inter-individual variability [8] and important pharmacological interactions were observed [6]. However, there is no clear association between linezolid exposure and adverse events. Drug exposure is not routinely evaluated, either in prospective studies or in routine care. Unfortunately, TDM is not routinely incorporated into the study designs of research upon MDR-TB and linezolid [9, 10]. Therefore, we aimed to retrospectively investigate linezolid safety and tolerability in relation to linezolid exposure in MDR-TB patients.
  • Article
    Objectives: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs is beneficial for patients responding slowly to treatment and those with multidrug-resistant TB. We used ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) to develop a rapid method for simultaneously measuring the blood concentrations of nine second-line anti-TB drugs: streptomycin, kanamycin, clarithromycin, cycloserine, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, para-aminosalicylic acid, prothionamide and linezolid. Methods: Serum samples were extracted with acidified methanol and neutralized with NaOH. A Waters Acquity HSS T3 column and gradients of ammonium formate and acetonitrile in 0.1% formic acid were used for UPLC separation. Drug concentrations were determined by multiple reaction monitoring in positive ion mode, and assay performance was evaluated. We applied this method to TDM, analysing random serum samples from 85 patients treated with second-line drugs. Results: Sample preparation using acidified methanol extraction followed by neutralization yielded good recovery and ionization efficiency, with chromatographic separation achieved within 3 min per sample. Within-run and between-run precisions were 1.7%-7.5% and 1.7%-12.4%, respectively, at concentrations representing low and high levels for the nine drugs. Lower limits of detection and quantification were 0.025-0.5 and 0.25-5.0 μg/mL, respectively. Linearity was acceptable at five concentrations for each drug. No ion suppression was observed at the retention time for most compounds, except for streptomycin, kanamycin and cycloserine, which were eluted close to the void volume of the column. In a limited pilot study, all quantifiable human samples had values within the validated assay ranges. Conclusions: The performance of our MS/MS detection technique was generally acceptable. The method provided rapid, sensitive and reproducible quantification of nine second-line anti-TB drugs and should facilitate drug monitoring during treatment.
  • Article
    Moxifloxacin (MFX) is a potent drug for multidrug resistant tuberculosis(TB) treatment and is also useful if first-line agents are not tolerated. Therapeutic drug monitoring may help to prevent treatment failure. Obtaining a full concentration-time curve of MFX for therapeutic drug monitoring is not feasible in most settings. Developing a limited-sampling strategy based on population pharmacokinetics (PK) may help to overcome this problem. Steady-state plasma concentrations after the administration of 400 mg of MFX once daily were determined in 21 patients with TB, using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. A one-compartment population model was generated and crossvalidated. Monte Carlo data simulation (n=1000) was used to calculate limited-sampling strategies. The correlation between predicted MFX AUC0-24h (area under the concentration-time curve 0 to 24 hours) and observed AUC0-24h was investigated by Bland-Altman analysis. Finally, the predictive performance of the final model was tested prospectively using MFX profiles from patients with TB receiving 400, 600, or 800 mg once daily. Median minimum inhibitory concentration of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates was 0.25 mg/L (interquartile range: 0.25-0.5 mg/L). The geometric mean AUC0-24h was 24.5 mg·h/L (range: 8.5-72.2 mg·h/L), which resulted in a geometric mean AUC0-24h/minimum inhibitory concentration ratio of 72 (range: 21-321). PK analysis, based on PK profiles of 400 mg of MFX once daily, resulted in a crossvalidated population PK model with the following parameters: apparent clearance (Cl) 18.5±8.6 L/h per 1.85 m, Vd 3.0±0.7 L/kg corrected lean body mass, Ka 1.15±1.16 h, and F was fixed at 1. After the Monte Carlo simulation, the best predicting strategy for MFX AUC0-24h for practical use was based on MFX concentrations 4 and 14 hours postdosing (r=0.90, prediction bias=-1.5%, and root mean square error=15%). MFX AUC0-24h in patients with TB can be predicted with acceptable accuracy for clinical management, using limited sampling. AUC0-24h prediction based on 2 samples, 4 and 14 hours postdose, can be used to individualize treatment.
  • World Health Organization Global tuberculosis report 2014
    World Health Organization. Global tuberculosis report 2014. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2014.
  • Prevention and modulation of aminoglycoside ototoxicity
    • G Perletti
    • A Vral
    • Mc Patrosso
    • E Marras
    • I Ceriani
    • P Willems
    Perletti G, Vral A, Patrosso MC, Marras E, Ceriani I, Willems P, et al. Prevention and modulation of aminoglycoside ototoxicity. Mol Med Rep 2008;1:3–13 [Review].
  • Article
    In this article we describe the key role of tuberculosis (TB) treatment, the challenges (mainly the emergence of drug resistance), and the opportunities represented by the correct approach to drug dosage, based on the existing control and elimination strategies. In this context, the role and contribution of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is discussed in detail. Treatment success in multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB cases is low (62%, with 7% failing or relapsing and 9% dying) and in extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB cases is even lower (40%, with 22% failing or relapsing and 15% dying). The treatment of drug-resistant TB is also more expensive (exceeding €50 000 for MDR-TB and €160 000 for XDR-TB) and more toxic if compared to that prescribed for drug-susceptible TB. Appropriate dosing of first- and second-line anti-TB drugs can improve the patient's prognosis and lower treatment costs. TDM is based on the measurement of drug concentrations in blood samples collected at appropriate times and subsequent dose adjustment according to the target concentration. The 'dried blood spot' technique offers additional advantages, providing the rationale for discussions regarding a possible future network of selected, quality-controlled reference laboratories for the processing of dried blood spots of difficult-to-treat patients from reference TB clinics around the world. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Resistance to the two key anti-tuberculosis drugs isoniazid and rifampicin is a characteristic of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). MDR-TB is a scourge requiring toxic, prolonged treatment and is associated with poor outcomes. The Netherlands is a country with a long-standing, integrated, well-resourced TB service where all patients are offered culture-confirmed diagnosis by a central reference laboratory. To assess the treatment outcomes of MDR-TB patients over a period of 10 years in The Netherlands. Demographic, clinical and microbiological features of all patients with MDR-TB who started treatment in 2000-2009 in the Netherlands were analysed from national registry and patient records. Characteristics of the 113 MDR-TB patients were as follows: male/female ratio 1.57, 96% foreign born, median age 29 years, 96 (85%) pulmonary TB, 56 (50%) smear-positive, 14 (12%) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected. Of the 104 (92%) patients who started MDR-TB treatment, 86% had a successful outcome using a median of six active drugs; eight underwent pulmonary surgery. HIV negativity was associated with successful outcome (adjusted OR 2.1, 95%CI 1.1-3.8). High success rates for MDR-TB treatment were achieved with close collaboration of all stakeholders, reaching the targets set for drug-susceptible TB. HIV remained an independent risk factor for unsuccessful treatment outcome.
  • Article
    Background: Amikacin and kanamycin are frequently used in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB. The current commercially available immunoassay is unable to analyze kanamycin and trough levels of amikacin. The objective was therefore to develop a LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of amikacin and kanamycin in human serum. Materials & methods: Using apramycin as internal standard, selectivity, accuracy, precision, recovery, matrix effects and stability were evaluated. Results: The presented LC-MS/MS method meets the recommendations of the US FDA with a low LLOQ of 250 ng/ml for amikacin and 100 ng/ml for kanamycin. No statistical significant difference was found between the LC-MS/MS method and the immunoassay of amikacin (Architect(®) assay, p = 0.501). Conclusion: The low LLOQ of amikacin and the ability to analyze kanamycin makes the LC-MS/MS method the preferred method for analyzing these aminoglycosides.
  • Article
    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of tuberculosis (TB) drugs currently focuses on peak plasma concentrations, yet total exposure [area under the 24-h concentration–time curve (AUC0–24)] is probably most relevant to the efficacy of these drugs. We therefore assessed population AUC0–24 data for all four first-line TB drugs (rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol) as well as moxifloxacin and developed limited sampling strategies to estimate AUC0–24 values conveniently. AUC0–24 and other pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were determined following intensive PK sampling in two Dutch TB referral centres. Best subset selection multiple linear regression was performed to derive limited sampling equations. Median percentage prediction error and median absolute percentage prediction error were calculated via jackknife analysis to evaluate bias and imprecision of the predictions. Geometric mean AUC0–24 values for rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol and moxifloxacin were 41.1, 15.2, 380, 25.5 and 33.6 h mg/L, respectively. Limited sampling at various fixed sampling points enabled an accurate and precise prediction of AUC0–24 values of all drugs separately and simultaneously. In the absence of clinically validated target values for AUC0–24, average AUC0–24 values can be used as reference values in TDM. Limited sampling of AUC0–24 is feasible in many settings and allows for TDM to be performed at a larger scale.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) substantially challenges TB control, especially in the European Region of the World Health Organization, where the highest prevalence of MDR/XDR cases is reported. The current management of patients with MDR/XDR-TB is extremely complex for medical, social and public health systems. The treatment with currently available anti-TB therapies to achieve relapse-free cure is long and undermined by a high frequency of adverse drug events, suboptimal treatment adherence, high costs and low treatment success rates. Availability of optimal management for patients with MDR/XDR-TB is limited even in the European Region. In the absence of a preventive vaccine, more effective diagnostic tools and novel therapeutic interventions the control of MDR/XDR-TB will be extremely difficult. Despite recent scientific advances in MDR/XDR-TB care, decisions for the management of patients with MDR/XDR-TB and their contacts often rely on expert opinions, rather than on clinical evidence. This document summarises the current knowledge on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of adults and children with MDR/XDR-TB and their contacts, and provides expert consensus recommendations on questions where scientific evidence is still lacking.
  • Article
    Animal experiments have shown the incidence of amikacin ototoxicity to be a sigmoid function of cumulative plasma AUC regardless of plasma levels. They further suggest that the key determinant of ototoxicity is cumulative perilymph AUC, which is directly proportional to both cumulative plasma AUC and total dose. Hence, both cumulative plasma AUC and total dose estimate the likelihood of ototoxicity, but the former is superior since it takes into account individual differences in plasma levels.There are not enough human data for any aminoglycoside antibiotic yet to accurately estimate the sigmoid curve relating the incidence of ototoxicity to cumulative serum AUC or total dose. It is possible, however, to calculate a sigmoid relationship of incidence of ototoxicity to kanamycin total dose based on rough estimates from previous publications of human data.Although these results have yet to be fully verified in humans and for all aminoglycoside antibiotics, it would seem wise to take steps to ensure that dosing adjustments adequately compensate for the increased serum AUC that would occur in patients with reduced renal function.
  • Article
    In 2011, there were 8.7 million new cases of active tuberculosis worldwide. Recent advances in diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines and enhanced implementation of interventions are helping to improve the prospects for global tuberculosis control.
  • Article
    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) aims to optimize treatments by individualizing dosage regimens based on the measurement of blood concentrations. Dosage individualization to maintain concentrations within a target range requires pharmacokinetic and clinical capabilities. Bayesian calculations currently represent the gold standard TDM approach but require computation assistance. In recent decades computer programs have been developed to assist clinicians in this assignment. The aim of this survey was to assess and compare computer tools designed to support TDM clinical activities. The literature and the Internet were searched to identify software. All programs were tested on personal computers. Each program was scored against a standardized grid covering pharmacokinetic relevance, user friendliness, computing aspects, interfacing and storage. A weighting factor was applied to each criterion of the grid to account for its relative importance. To assess the robustness of the software, six representative clinical vignettes were processed through each of them. Altogether, 12 software tools were identified, tested and ranked, representing a comprehensive review of the available software. Numbers of drugs handled by the software vary widely (from two to 180), and eight programs offer users the possibility of adding new drug models based on population pharmacokinetic analyses. Bayesian computation to predict dosage adaptation from blood concentration (a posteriori adjustment) is performed by ten tools, while nine are also able to propose a priori dosage regimens, based only on individual patient covariates such as age, sex and bodyweight. Among those applying Bayesian calculation, MM-USC*PACK© uses the non-parametric approach. The top two programs emerging from this benchmark were MwPharm© and TCIWorks. Most other programs evaluated had good potential while being less sophisticated or less user friendly. Programs vary in complexity and might not fit all healthcare settings. Each software tool must therefore be regarded with respect to the individual needs of hospitals or clinicians. Programs should be easy and fast for routine activities, including for non-experienced users. Computer-assisted TDM is gaining growing interest and should further improve, especially in terms of information system interfacing, user friendliness, data storage capability and report generation.
  • Article
    Linezolid is a potential drug for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis but its use is limited because of severe adverse effects such as anemia, thrombocytopenia, and peripheral neuropathy. This study aimed to develop a model for the prediction of linezolid area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 hours (AUC0-12h) by limited sampling strategy to enable individualized dosing. Fourteen patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis received linezolid twice daily as part of their antituberculosis treatment. Linezolid concentrations were determined at steady state by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry before and at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 hours after dosing. Linezolid AUC0-12h population model and limited sampling models were calculated with MWPharm software. The correlation between predicted linezolid AUC0-12h and observed linezolid AUC0-12h was investigated by Bland-Altman analysis. A total of 26 pharmacokinetic profiles were obtained. The median AUC0-12h was 51.8 (interquartile range, 41.8-65.9) mg*h/L at 300 mg and 123.8 (interquartile range, 100.9-152.5) mg*h/L at 600 mg, both twice daily. The most relevant model clinically for prediction of linezolid AUC0-12h used a linezolid trough concentration (r = 0.91, prediction bias = -2.9% and root mean square error = 15%). The difference between choosing a trough concentration and two to three samples increased the correlation from 0.90 to 0.95 but appeared not clinically relevant because it did not result in different dosing advice. This study showed that linezolid AUC0-12h in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis could be predicted accurately by a minimal sampling strategy and could be used to individualize the dose.
  • Article
    Antibiotic therapy improves the outcome of severe sepsis and septic shock, however pharmacokinetic properties are altered in this scenario. Amikacin (AMK) is an option to treat community or nosocomial infections, although standard doses might be insufficient in critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate two AMK dosage regimens in comparison with standard therapy with regard to efficacy in achieving adequate plasma levels as well as safety. In total, 99 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock were randomised to different AMK dose protocols: Group 1, 25 mg/kg/day; Group 2, 30 mg/kg/day; and Group 3, historical standard dose (15 mg/kg/day). Peak plasma concentrations at 1 h (C(max)) were determined. Pharmacokinetics was determined and renal function was monitored to evaluate toxicity. Groups were compared using bilateral T-test. Demographic characteristics of the three groups were comparable. AMK C(max) values were 57.4±9.8, 72.1±18.4 and 35.2±9.4 μg/mL, respectively (P<0.001 between Groups 1 and 2 versus Group 3, and P<0.01 between Group 1 versus Group 2). A C(max)>60 μg/mL was reached by 39%, 76% and 0% of patients in Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively (P<0.001) and creatinine clearance at Day 28 was 95.6±47.4, 89.7±26.6 and 56.4±18.4 mL/min, respectively. In conclusion, a 30 mg/kg daily dose of AMK presents significantly higher C(max) compared with the other groups, with 76% of patients reaching recommended peak plasma levels with no association with higher nephrotoxicity. Standard doses are insufficient in critically ill patients to reach the recommended C(max).
    • A Zumla
    • M Raviglione
    • R Hafner
    • Cf Von Reyn
    Zumla A, Raviglione M, Hafner R, von Reyn CF. Tuberculosis. N Engl J Med 2013;368:745–55.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    More than 60 years after their isolation and characterization, aminoglycoside (AG) antibiotics remain powerful agents in the treatment of severe gram-negative, enterococcal or mycobacterial infections. However, the clinical use of AGs is hampered by nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity, which often develop as a consequence of prolonged courses of therapy, or of administration of increased doses of these drugs. The discovery of non-ototoxic antibacterial agents, showing a wider spectrum of activity, has gradually decreased the use of AGs as first line antibiotics for many systemic infections. However, AGs are now undergoing an unexpected revival, being increasingly indicated for the treatment of severe emerging infections caused by organisms showing resistance to most first-line agents (e.g., multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, complicated nosocomially-acquired acute urinary tract infections). Increasing adoption of aminoglycosides poses again to scientists and physicians the problem of toxicity directed to the kidneys and to the inner ear. In particular, aminoglycoside-induced deafness can be profound and irreversible, especially in genetically predisposed patients. For this reason, an impressive amount of molecular strategies have been developed in the last decade to counteract the ototoxic effect of aminoglycosides. The present article overviews: i) the molecular mechanisms by which aminoglycosides exert their bactericidal activity, ii) the mechanisms whereby AGs exert their ototoxic activity in genetically-predisposed patients, iii) the drugs and compounds that have so far proven to prevent or modulate AG ototoxicity at the preclinical and/or clinical level, and iv) the dosage regimens that have so far been suggested to decrease the incidence of episodes of AG-induced ototoxicity.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The aminoglycosides and cyclic polypeptides are essential drugs in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, underscoring the need for accurate and reproducible drug susceptibility testing (DST). The epidemiological cutoff value (ECOFF) separating wild-type susceptible strains from non-wild-type strains is an important but rarely used tool for indicating susceptibility breakpoints against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this study, we established wild-type MIC distributions on Middlebrook 7H10 medium for amikacin, kanamycin, streptomycin, capreomycin, and viomycin using 90 consecutive clinical isolates and 21 resistant strains. Overall, the MIC variation between and within runs did not exceed +/-1 MIC dilution step, and validation of MIC values in Bactec 960 MGIT demonstrated good agreement. Tentative ECOFFs defining the wild type were established for all investigated drugs, including amikacin and viomycin, which currently lack susceptibility breakpoints for 7H10. Five out of seven amikacin- and kanamycin-resistant isolates were classified as susceptible to capreomycin according to the current critical concentration (10 mg/liter) but were non-wild type according to the ECOFF (4 mg/liter), suggesting that the critical concentration may be too high. All amikacin- and kanamycin-resistant isolates were clearly below the ECOFF for viomycin, and two of them were below the ECOFF for streptomycin, indicating that these two drugs may be considered for treatment of amikacin-resistant strains. Pharmacodynamic indices (peak serum concentration [Cmax]/MIC) were more favorable for amikacin and viomycin compared to kanamycin and capreomycin. In conclusion, our data emphasize the importance of establishing wild-type MIC distributions for improving the quality of drug susceptibility testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • Article
    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis is a growing clinical and public-health concern. To evaluate existing evidence regarding treatment regimens for MDR tuberculosis, we used a Bayesian random-effects meta-analysis of the available therapeutic studies to assess how the reported proportion of patients treated successfully is influenced by differences in treatment regimen design, study methodology, and patient population. Successful treatment outcome was defined as cure or treatment completion. 34 clinical reports with a mean of 250 patients per report met the inclusion criteria. Our analysis shows that the proportion of patients treated successfully improved when treatment duration was at least 18 months, and if patients received directly observed therapy throughout treatment. Studies that combined both factors had significantly higher pooled success proportions (69%, 95% credible interval [CI] 64-73%) than other studies of treatment outcomes (58%, 95% CI 52-64%). Individualised treatment regimens had higher treatment success (64%, 95% CI 59-68%) than standardised regimens (54%, 95% CI 43-68%), although the difference was not significant. Treatment approaches and study methodologies were heterogeneous across studies. Many important variables, including patients' HIV status, were inconsistently reported between studies. These results underscore the importance of strong patient support and treatment follow-up systems to develop successful MDR tuberculosis treatment programmes.
  • Article
    Previous studies have failed to fully establish whether ototoxicity is related in any way to the levels of an aminoglycoside antibiotic in the perilymph. To study this we exposed guinea pigs to continuously infused amikacin at four different dosing rates under conditions parallel to those used in our previous study which related ototoxicity to total plasma area under the concentration-time curve regardless of the level in plasma. It was found that at all dosing rates, levels in the perilymph and ratios of levels in perilymph/plasma remained constant as the dosing duration increased from nonototoxic to strongly ototoxic. Plasma and perilymph amikacin levels were found to be linear functions of the dosing rate even at ototoxic dosing exposures, and ratios of levels in perilymph/plasma did not differ between dosing rates. The total perilymph area under the concentration-time curve was not different between dosing rates either for a total dose associated with threshold ototoxicity or for one associated with severe ototoxicity. The results suggest that amikacin ototoxicity is related to the integral of the concentration in the perilymph over the total time of amikacin exposure regardless of the level in the perilymph.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The pharmacokinetics and serum killing curves of amikacin, which was administered by a 30-minute intravenous infusion of single doses of 7.5 mg/kg and then 15 mg/kg, were investigated in six healthy volunteers who received the two doses in a crossover study with a washout period of 20 days. The serum killing curves were determined for four bacterial species: Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All strains were serum resistant, and the bactericidal activity was analyzed by separating the early phase (first 5 h) and the late phase (24 h) of the killing curve. For the early phase, the bactericidal activity was evaluated by correlating an index of surviving bacteria with amikacin concentrations. This methodology allowed determination of two parameters: the maximal effective concentration and the lowest effective concentration. For the late phase, the threshold values separating bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities were lower than 10 mg/liter for each strain. The concentration dependence of amikacin bactericidal activity was confirmed for Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae and, to a lesser extent, for Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Correlation of these data with amikacin pharmacokinetic data in volunteers indicated that a daily dose of 15 mg/kg may be effective in the treatment of Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae infections. For Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens, the partially time-dependent activity probably necessitates two daily administrations and combination with another antibiotic.
  • Article
    1. Once-daily aminoglycoside dosing has many advantages and has been widely advocated. However, existing guidelines for methods of administration and monitoring are non-specific and may lead to excessive dosing. 2. The traditional approach of aiming for target peak and trough concentrations is not appropriate for once-daily dosing. 3. A method is proposed which uses a target area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) for the aminoglycoside based on the 24 h AUC that would result with conventional dosing. This method requires measurement of two drug concentrations, one approximately 0.5 h after the end of the infusion and another at a later time (6-22 h) depending on renal function. 4. A simpler, graphical method is also proposed for patients with normal renal function, which requires the measurement of a single concentration at a time between 6 and 14 h. 5. Both methods are likely to be safer than existing guidelines.
  • Article
    Once-daily (o.d.) administration of 20 mg of amikacin per kg of body weight to neutropenic patients has been validated by clinical studies, but amikacin pharmacokinetics have been documented only for the 7.5-mg/kg twice-daily (b.i.d.) regimen in this population. In order to determine in neutropenic patients (i) the influence of the dosing regimen on the kinetics of amikacin, (ii) the linearity of kinetics of amikacin in the range of 7.5 to 20 mg/kg, and (iii) the influence of patient characteristics on the disposition of amikacin and (iv) to provide a rationale for dosing recommendations, we evaluated the population pharmacokinetics of amikacin administered to 57 febrile neutropenic adults (neutrophil count, <500/mm3) being treated for a hematological disorder and receiving amikacin at 7.5 mg/kg b.i.d. (n = 29) or 20 mg/kg o.d. (n = 28) and administered intravenously over 0.5 h. A total of 278 blood samples were obtained (1 to 14 samples per patient) during one or several administration intervals (1 to 47). Serum amikacin levels were measured by the enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique. A mixed-effect modeling approach was used to fit a bicompartmental model to the data (NONMEM software). The influences of the dosing regimen and the demographic and biological indices on the pharmacokinetic parameters of amikacin were evaluated by the maximum-likelihood ratio test on the population model. The dosing regimen had no influence on amikacin pharmacokinetic parameters, i.e., the kinetics of amikacin were linear over the range of 7.5 to 20 mg/kg. Amikacin elimination clearance (CL) was only correlated with creatinine clearance or its covariates, namely, sex, age, body weight, and serum creatinine level. The interindividual variability of CL was 21%, while those of the central volume of distribution, the distribution clearance, and the tissue volume of distribution were 15, 30, and 25%, respectively. On the basis of the expected distribution of amikacin concentrations in this population, dosing recommendations as a function of creatinine clearance (CL[CR]) are proposed: for patients with normal renal function (CL[CR] of 80 to 130 ml/min), 20 mg/kg o.d. is recommended, whereas for patients with severe renal impairment (CL[CR], 10 to 20 ml/min), a dosage of 17 mg/kg every 48 h is recommended.
  • Article
    The nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity associated with once-daily versus twice-daily administration of aminoglycosides was assessed in patients with suspected or proven gram-negative bacterial infections in a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Patients who received therapy for >/=72 h were evaluated for toxicity. Patients also received concomitant antibiotics as deemed necessary for treatment of their infection. Plasma aminoglycoside concentrations, prospective aminoglycoside dosage adjustment, and serial audiologic and renal status evaluations were performed. The probability of occurrence of a nephrotoxic event and its relationship to doses and daily aminoglycoside exposure served as the main outcome measurement. One hundred twenty-three patients were enrolled in the study, with 83 patients receiving therapy for at least 72 h. For 74 patients plasma aminoglycoside concentrations were available for analysis, and the patients formed the group evaluable for toxicity. The primary infectious diagnosis for the patients who were enrolled in the study were bacteremia or sepsis, respiratory infections, skin and soft tissue infections, or urosepsis or pyelonephritis. Of the 74 patients evaluable for toxicity, 39 received doses twice daily and 35 received doses once daily and a placebo 12 h later. Nephrotoxicity occurred in 6 of 39 (15.4%) patients who received aminoglycosides twice daily and 0 of 35 patients who received aminoglycosides once daily. The schedule of aminoglycoside administration, concomitant use of vancomycin, and daily area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for the aminoglycosides were found to be significant predictors of nephrotoxicity by multivariate logistic regression analysis (P </= 0.001). The time to a nephrotoxic event was significantly influenced by vancomycin use and the schedule of administration, as assessed by Cox proportional hazards modeling (P </= 0.002). The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis and the Cox proportional hazards modeling demonstrate that both the probability of occurrence and the time to occurrence of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity are influenced by the schedule on which the aminoglycoside is administered as well as by the concomitant use of vancomycin. Furthermore, this risk of occurrence is modulated by the daily AUC for aminoglycoside exposure. These data suggest that once-daily administration of aminoglycosides has a predictably lower probability of causing nephrotoxicity than twice-daily administration.
  • Article
    The population pharmacokinetics of tobramycin was investigated in a group of 327 adult hospitalized patients receiving once-daily administration of tobramycin at a dose of 7 mg kg(-1). The patients had an average age of 57+/-18 y and an average weight of 65+/-14 kg; 153 of the patients were female. Data, comprised of 575 serum concentrations, were analyzed using a nonlinear mixed-effect model (NONMEM) with a first-order conditional estimation method and were best described with a one-compartment model. The patient covariates including body weight, gender, age and creatinine clearance (CL(CR)) were added in a stepwise fashion to identify their potential influences on tobramycin pharmacokinetics. Results showed that tobramycin clearance (CL) was linearly correlated with CL(CR) (proportionality constant: 0.066+/-0.002 x CL(CR) (ml min(-1))) and the volume of distribution (Vd) was linearly related to body weight (proportionality constant: 0.40+/-0.024 x body weight (1 kg(-1))). The mean population estimates for CL and Vd were 4.53 l h(-1) and 27.3 l, respectively. The half-life of tobramycin was estimated to be 4.2 h. The inter-individual variability in CL and Vd were 37.0 and 28.5%, respectively. The residual error was 1.2 mg l(-1). Based on the results, optimal dosing intervals for renal impaired patients were calculated and were comparable with the intervals derived from the previous established nomogram.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    To determine population pharmacokinetic parameters of streptomycin after administration of multiple intramuscular and intravenous doses. Prospective, unblinded clinical study. Two medical centers in Denver, Colorado. Thirty patients with tuberculosis. Patients received multiple doses of streptomycin as part of their tuberculosis treatment. They received concurrent drugs based on in vitro susceptibility data. Serum samples were collected over a 10-hour period and assayed by validated high-performance liquid chromatography Concentration-time data were analyzed using population methods. Streptomycin concentrations increased linearly with increasing intravenous doses. The intramuscular doses did not produce as linear a relationship, presumably because of variability in rates of and, potentially, completeness of absorption. Streptomycin elimination decreased with declining renal function. Higher, intermittent doses were well tolerated and appeared to maximize the peak concentration:minimal inhibitory concentration ratio. Overall, pharmacokinetic parameters of streptomycin were comparable with those previously published for streptomycin and other aminoglycosides. Higher, intermittent doses maximize pharmacodynamic parameter estimates and might have advantages for treatment of tuberculosis.
  • Article
    To investigate the ototoxic and nephrotoxic effects of long-term use of aminoglycosides. Patients treated for tuberculosis with aminoglycosides were evaluated for hearing loss and nephrotoxicity for a minimum of 14 days. Hearing loss of 15 decibels (dB) at two or more frequencies, or at least 20 dB hearing loss at at least one frequency, was found in 18% of our total population treated with aminoglycosides (amikacin, kanamycin and/or streptomycin). In the group treated with kanamycin this percentage was 15.6. None of the factors sex, age, treatment duration, total aminoglycoside doses or first serum creatinine concentration, was found to be associated with hearing loss. Nephrotoxicity percentages at the end of treatment with aminoglycoside or kanamycin are 7.5% (1.9%) and 4.5% (2.3%) respectively, using the definition increase of serum creatinine > or = 27 micromol/l (> or = 44 micromol/l). Patients developing nephrotoxicity had a longer duration of treatment and received larger total doses. Patients developing nephrotoxicity had a significantly longer duration of treatment with aminoglycosides, and received a larger total dose. We did not find any factor significantly associated with the development of hearing loss. In the long-term treatment of tuberculosis with aminoglycosides, ototoxicity seems to be a greater problem than nephrotoxicity.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The therapy of mycobacterial infections is challenging for a number of reasons. Because mycobacteria are not susceptible to many classes of antibacterial agents, treatment typically requires the use of antimicrobial drugs that are not commonly used and may have small therapeutic windows. For many species, procedures for drug susceptibility testing and optimal treatment regimens have yet to be defined. Finally, because mycobacteria are generally slow to succumb to antimicrobial agents, therapy must be given with multiple drugs for prolonged periods of time, making it necessary to monitor for drug toxicity, drug interactions, and patient nonadherence. Better understanding of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antimycobacterial agents should improve the therapy of mycobacterial infections. Using current treatment strategies for tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex infections as examples, this review highlights basic pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles and the rationale for combination chemotherapy that should also be applicable to other mycobacterial infections.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Aminoglycoside use is limited by ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. This study compared the incidences of toxicities associated with 2 recommended dosing regimens. Eighty-seven patients with tuberculosis or nontuberculous mycobacterial infections were prospectively randomized by drug to receive 15 mg/kg per day or 25 mg/kg 3 times per week of intravenous streptomycin, kanamycin, or amikacin. Doses were adjusted to achieve target serum concentrations. The size of the dosage and the frequency of administration were not associated with the incidences of ototoxicity (hearing loss determined by audiogram), vestibular toxicity (determined by the findings of a physical examination), or nephrotoxicity (determined by elevated serum creatinine levels). Risk of ototoxicity (found in 32 [37%] of the patients) was associated with older age and with a larger cumulative dose received. Vestibular toxicity (found in 8 [9%] of the patients) usually resolved, and nephrotoxicity (found in 13 [15%] of the patients) was mild and reversible in all cases. Subjective changes in hearing or balance did not correlate with objective findings. Streptomycin, kanamycin, and amikacin can be administered either daily or 3 times weekly without affecting the likelihood of toxicity.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Moxifloxacin is a quinolone antimicrobial that has potent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To optimize moxifloxacin dose and dose regimen, pharmacodynamic antibiotic-exposure targets associated with maximal microbial kill and complete suppression of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis must be identified. We used a novel in vitro pharmacodynamic infection model of tuberculosis in which we exposed M. tuberculosis to moxifloxacin with a pharmacokinetic half-life of decline similar to that encountered in humans. Data obtained from this model were mathematically modeled, and the drug-exposure breakpoint associated with the suppression of drug resistance was determined. Monte-Carlo simulations were performed to determine the probability that 10,000 clinical patients taking different doses of moxifloxacin would achieve or exceed the drug-exposure breakpoint needed to suppress resistance to moxifloxacin in M. tuberculosis. The ratio of the moxifloxacin-free (non-protein-bound) area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h to the minimum inhibitory concentration associated with complete suppression of the drug-resistant mutant population was 53. For patients taking moxifloxacin doses of 400, 600, or 800 mg/day, the calculated target-attainment rates to suppress drug resistance were 59%, 86%, and 93%, respectively. A moxifloxacin dose of 800 mg/day is likely to achieve excellent M. tuberculosis microbial kill and to suppress drug resistance. However, tolerability of this higher dose is still unknown.
  • Article
    A guinea-pig pneumonia model involving imipenem-susceptible and imipenem-resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii was developed to assess the in-vitro and in-vivo activities of imipenem, alone or in combination with amikacin, and the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters. Serum levels were measured by bioassay (imipenem) or immunoassay (amikacin), followed by calculation of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters (Cmax, AUC, t1/2, Cmax/MIC, AUC/MIC, and Deltat/MIC). In-vivo efficacy was evaluated by comparing bacterial counts in the lungs of treatment groups with end-of-therapy controls by anova and post-hoc tests. Decreases in the Cmax (13.4%), AUC (13%), t1/2 (25%) and Deltat/MIC (11.8-32.2%) of imipenem were observed when it was administered with amikacin, compared with administration of imipenem alone. Similarly, decreases in the Cmax (34.5%), AUC (11.6%), Cmax/MIC (34.5%) and AUC/MIC (11.7%) of amikacin were observed when it was administered with imipenem. Bacterial counts in lungs were reduced by imipenem (p 0.004) with the imipenem-susceptible strain, and by amikacin (p 0.001) with the imipenem-resistant strain. The combination of imipenem plus amikacin was inferior to imipenem alone with the imipenem-susceptible strain (p 0.01), despite their in-vitro synergy, and was inferior to amikacin alone with the imipenem-resistant strain (p < 0.0001). In summary, combined use of imipenem with amikacin was less efficacious than monotherapy, probably because of a drug-drug interaction that resulted in decreased pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters for both antimicrobial agents.
  • Article
    To test the suitability of an Iterative Two-Stage Bayesian (ITSB) technique for population pharmacokinetic analysis of rich data sets, and to compare ITSB with Standard Two-Stage (STS) analysis and nonlinear Mixed Effect Modeling (MEM). Data from a clinical study with rapacuronium and data generated by Monte Carlo simulation were analyzed by an ITSB technique described in literature, with some modifications, by STS, and by MEM (using NONMEM). The results were evaluated by comparing the mean error (accuracy) and root mean squared error (precision) of the estimated parameter values, their interindividual standard deviation, correlation coefficients, and residual standard deviation. In addition, the influence of initial estimates, number of subjects, number of measurements, and level of residual error on the performance of ITSB were investigated. ITSB yielded best results, and provided precise and virtually unbiased estimates of the population parameter means, interindividual variability, and residual standard deviation. The accuracy and precision of STS was poor, whereas ITSB performed better than MEM. ITSB is a suitable technique for population pharmacokinetic analysis of rich data sets, and in the presented data set it is superior to STS and MEM.