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LEARNING AND TEACHING BETWEEN ENJOYMENT AND BOREDOM AS REALIZED BY THE STUDENTS: A SURVEY FROM THE EDUCATIONAL FIELD

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Abstract

This study aimed at investigating the factors that affect students' enjoyment in learning and teaching as recognized them self's. To achieve the purpose of this study the researcher developed a study instrument consisted of 45 items and distributed to five sub-domains. The study followed a descriptive analytical method. Validity and reliability were tested, then distributed on (637) students from upper elementary grades. Results of the study showed that "the implementation of learning resources" (83.74%) is the most important factor that affects students' enjoyment. The lowest factor that influences students' enjoyment of learning is "the teachers' teaching style" (56.93%). Further, the results showed that some factors such as: the implementation of learning resources, student's role in the classroom, and the administrative role are more influential in favor of female students. In addition, students' of high achievement increases their enjoyment level during utilizing learning resources. However, the impact of teacher's role on students' enjoyment was the least affected factor for students who have lower achievement level. Furthermore, there are no statistically significant differences related to the level of the school. In light of the findings, the researcher recommends that there is a need for providing opportunities that increase the active role of students. Further, administrators should engage more with students' activities. Crucial factors that increase enjoyment levels of students include focusing on implementing learning resources in teaching and encouraging students who have low achievement levels in the activities.
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LEARNING AND TEACHING BETWEEN
ENJOYMENT AND BOREDOM AS REALIZED BY
THE STUDENTS: A SURVEY FROM THE
EDUCATIONAL FIELD
Dr. Ibrahim Al-Shara, Associate Prof.
Department of Curriculum and Instruction, The University of Jordan, Jordan
Abstract
This study aimed at investigating the factors that affect students'
enjoyment in learning and teaching as recognized them self's. To achieve the
purpose of this study the researcher developed a study instrument consisted
of 45 items and distributed to five sub-domains. The study followed a
descriptive analytical method. Validity and reliability were tested, then
distributed on (637) students from upper elementary grades. Results of the
study showed that "the implementation of learning resources" (83.74%) is
the most important factor that affects students' enjoyment. The lowest factor
that influences students' enjoyment of learning is "the teachers' teaching
style" (56.93%). Further, the results showed that some factors such as: the
implementation of learning resources, student's role in the classroom, and the
administrative role are more influential in favor of female students. In
addition, students' of high achievement increases their enjoyment level
during utilizing learning resources. However, the impact of teacher's role on
students' enjoyment was the least affected factor for students who have lower
achievement level. Furthermore, there are no statistically significant
differences related to the level of the school. In light of the findings, the
researcher recommends that there is a need for providing opportunities that
increase the active role of students. Further, administrators should engage
more with students' activities. Crucial factors that increase enjoyment levels
of students include focusing on implementing learning resources in teaching
and encouraging students who have low achievement levels in the activities.
Keywords
: Enjoyment of learning, enjoyment of education, students' role,
teacher's role, administrative role
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Introduction
In the educational field educators do not expect that all of their
students love their classes or have positive attitudes toward them. They find
that students who care about the class are the ones who turn in their
assignments on time. When students love their teachers and feel that they
have a passion toward teaching, they enjoy each moment in the class and
they seem eager to learn the teacher's objectives. This fact emerged from the
schools philosophy that guides teachers to provide an interactive teaching
and learning environment. In this regard, effective teachers look for ways to
facilitate students’ engagement in the teaching and learning process.
Any of us may wonder: What makes a student eager to learn? And
what makes him caring about it? What makes a student engaged and enjoyed
by the learning process? All these and other questions lead us to reflect and
think about teachers’ efforts of providing a welcoming environment for their
students. According to Quina (1989) when the students and their teacher
laugh together, they often prefer to work together.
Studies and qualitative interviews indicate a relationship between
teacher’s enjoyment of teaching and student’s enjoyment in learning process
(Scherer, 1986). In addition, teacher’s passion in teaching affects student’s
interaction with the lesson, and increases the enjoyment during class time
(Witt, Wheeless, & Allen, 2004). However there is paucity in research that
demonstrate the relationship between the teacher’s enthusiasm and
enjoyment of teaching and students’ passion toward learning.
The passion of the teacher and his/her temperament has a clear effect
on students in the classroom. If the teacher wants to create a happy
environment for the students, he or she should be happy when he or she
enters the classroom. When students notice this level of teacher enjoyment
and pleasure they soon become happy for just seeing the happiness of their
teacher (Pekrun, 2000).
Many interviews with teachers indicate a positive relationship
between teacher’s enjoyment in teaching and students’ enjoyment in the
class. , Teachers’ enjoyment in teaching usually increases his or her
enthusiasm in teaching practices. When students observe this enthusiasm, the
level of their enjoyment increases (Witt, Wheeless, & Allen, 2004).
Research Problem and Questions
The first research question is: What are the factors that increase the
enjoyment of learning and teaching among students at the basic stage from
the students’ viewpoints?
The second question: Is there a statistically significant differences (α
= 0.05) in enjoyment of teaching practices among students at the basic stage
from the students’ viewpoints due to the following variables: Gender (male,
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female), and academic grade level (eighth, ninth, tenth), and the level of
academic achievement (low, average, good).
Research Concepts and procedural Definitions
Enjoyment of Learning: Enjoyment is a state of emotional or
psychological happiness (Kuppens, 2008), In this research it will be
measured by the degree that the student will get after responding to the
research instrument.
Achievement level: Is the student achievement rate in mathematics in
the semester that preceded the application of the study.
Study level: is the grade level of the student. It included the three
basic grades: eighth, ninth and tenth grades.
Research Limitations
This research was restricted to the basic school students in the capital,
Amman. It was implemented in the second quarter of the academic year
2014/2015. The dissemination of the research results depends on the sample
size, the characteristics of selected sample, and psychometric properties of
reliability and validity of research instrument.
Purpose of the Research
This research aimed at finding out the preferred aspects that make
students at basic stage enjoyed learning and teaching. In addition, it
investigated of the students’ preferences of teaching methods favored by
students. Furthermore, it highlighted the respective roles of the student, the
teacher, and the administration which would make the school and the
classroom attractive environments for students, and thus induce them to
engage in the learning process which leads to the achievement of learning
outcomes.
Research Importance
Knowing the preferred teaching methods among students is
considered a fundamental issue in the promotion of education. When
students tell us about their preferences learning styles helps teachers and
researchers to improve the quality of education in schools. This research
attempt is to reveal information for teachers and school administration that
help to provide a safe and engaged environment that is full of joy to facilitate
scientific learning.
Theoretical Framework
Formal education does not mean only giving knowledge, information
and skills to students, but also it comprises providing the meaning of
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happiness associated with education and achievement among students
(Schutiz & Pekrun, 2007). Some educators believe that feeling happy is
significantly associated with motivation to learn, self-regulation, and
performance (Pekrun, 2006). A happy feeling throughout gaining knowledge
and learning is a vital basis to engage in the educational context (Schiefele,
1991; Hidi & Renninger, 2006). School should work hard to make education
a joyful process that consisted of enjoyable learning methods. Some
educators believe that the absence of pleasure in the education context a
leading cause of low achievement that does not reflect the actual and true
potential of students. . The relationship between pleasure and attainment of
education among students is very important. Enjoyment in learning is no less
important than the importance of health and security of the students.
Enjoyment in learning is considered as one of the students’ rights in the
educational context or a vital tool that raises student’s academic achievement
in subject areas (Griffin, 2005; Goetz, et al., 2006).
When students feel happy and satisfied his or her motivation to learn
will increase. This will guide to the highest achievement since teacher's
practices are consistent with students’ learning pattern (Dun & Dun, 2002).
This fact prompted educators to pursue the search for teaching methods that
excite students and engage them in teaching and learning. This will guide
them to become constantly active in learning. Enjoyment in teaching
experiences guide student to more commitment in the implementation of
learning activities (Biddle & Smith, 1991).
Pleasure or lacks of it are important and critical factors that drive
students for more engagement in the activity. On the other hand, when
students do not find pleasure in learning or during the implementation of
activities they often withdraw from the educational situation and focus their
attention on other things that give them enjoyment (Briggs, 1992). Further,
students who read to enjoy are the best in their ability to provide
opportunities for themselves and to practice what they learn in school
(Gibbons, 2010.(
Students’ enjoyment in learning is essential in stimulating students'
motives which push for energies and guide students to engage actively in
learning and teaching process (Martin, 2006). The main reason of students’
anger and their resistance to what is requested from their teachers is the
boring educational activities that do not attract them.
Many educators use the concept of “enjoyment of learning” a
synonymous to many concepts such as: "amusement, satisfaction, playing".
However enjoyment of learning is the pleasant emotional state of the learner
during the learning and education process due to experiencing a positive
situation that motivates the learner to complete the task to persevere this
feeling (Hartley, 2006).
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The student's sense of enjoyment while learning is important to the
success of the educational process. Student’s enjoyment makes him more
motivated to learn. Some studies indicate that the students’ engagement is
linked to a high degree to their pleasant feeling. As a result, cheerful
atmosphere should be permeated in the educational process (Gentry et al.,
2000; Renzulli, 1994). This implies that the lack of enjoyment in education
leads to failure in learning (David et al., 2003). As a result, teacher’s
enjoyment in teaching and student’s enjoyment in learning should be
investigated due to their vital effect on the quality of teaching and learning
(Kunter et al., 2008)
To investigate the favorite teaching methods a study by Mana’ (2005)
was conducted. The study sample consisted of (579) students from ninth
grade in 26 public and private schools in Riyadh city in KSA. The findings
revealed that the most preferred teaching methods are verbal interaction with
the teacher, collaborative work, and the methods that infuse observation and
comparison. Least preferred methods include: learning through recitations,
and self-reliance in the acquisition of knowledge. In addition, students
pointed out that they prefer the educational situations that stimulate interest,
challenge, and provide choices and fun opportunities. Furthermore, the
students highlighted that there is a limited compatibility between the
common teaching methods and preferred learning styles.
Another study was conducted by Frenzel, et al., (2009) and aimed to
examine the relationship between teacher’s level of enjoyment and students’
enjoyment. The study sample included (1542) students. The results showed a
positive relationship between teacher’s enjoyment in teaching and students’
enjoyment. The students’ enjoyment positively affected by enthusiastic
teacher.
The aim of Santa (1998) study was to learn more about students’
learning preferences in Kansas State. Thirty four college students and (31)
students from secondary schools were interviewed and asked describe the
experiences that they enjoy. In addition, the participants were asked to
describe a typical teacher who helped to make education a fun experience for
them. The study results showed that students appreciate participation in the
classroom and they see that their positive relationships with their teachers
were inspiring for them. As a result, the interaction with their peers and their
teachers was the main source of happiness for them.
The other study conducted by Chan (2001) explored the favorite
learning methods among talented students. The study consisted of (398)
students in secondary schools in the (Hong Kong). The results of the study
showed that gifted students and ordinary students pointed out some similar
preferred methods. However ordinary students did not prefer challenging
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activities that may expose them to failure whereas gifted students preferred
independent activities.
A Comment on Previous Studies
Reviewing previous studies indicate that previous literature the
preferred learning styles (inhibitor, 2005; (Chan, 2001, some of them were
applied on talented students, and discussed the relationship between the
teacher’s enjoyment student’s enjoyment of learning, and incentives that
improve quality of teaching. This study is distinguished due to its sample
that covers adolescence stage. That is, there are no previous studies have
examined the topic with the current study population.
Research Methodology
This study followed the descriptive method, which relies on the
collection of information about the phenomenon under study and put them in
qualitative and quantitative aspect, in order to benefit from it in the study of
the problem under consideration.
Research Population and Sample
The research population consisted of all students in the upper basic
stage in public and private schools in the city of Amman. The sample
consisted of (656) students who were chosen randomly from among (8)
schools: (3) private schools and (5) public school.
Research Instrument
For the purpose of this research the researcher developed an
instrument to find out aspects that increase student’s enjoyment of learning.
The instrument included (45) items based on Likert Scale (Strongly agree =
4, Agree = 3, Disagree = 2, Strongly Disagree = 1), and in the case of
negative items the scale is reversed. This instrument has been distributed to
the following four aspects:
Asking questions and classroom management dialogue; represented
in (9) items.
Implementation aids, represented in (7) items..
The role of the student, represented in (6) items.
Teacher’s teaching style, represented in (10) items.
The role of the school administration and the school system,
represented in (13) items.
The instrument has been included 21 negative items out of 45 items.
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Instrument Validity and Reliability
To check the validity of the instrument, it has been verified by a
group of arbitrators: faculty members in Curriculum and Instruction,
Psychology, Measurement and Evaluation disciplines in Jordanian
universities. They arbitrators were asked to give their comments and views
on the readability of items, suitability for the domain that they measure, and
adding appropriate suggestions regarding deleting, modifying, and adding
further items. The arbitrators’ comments that approved by (80% or more) of
the arbitrators were modified according to their comments. To investigate the
reliability of the instrument, it has been applied to the exploratory sample
(30) students out of research sample. Then results have been calculated by
Cronbach's Alpha coefficient of total and sub-aspects. The values of
Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient are presented in the Table (1).
Table (1): Cronbach Alpha Coefficients for the total and sub-aspects
Cronbach Alpha Coefficient
Aspect
86%
Asking questions and classroom management dialogue
83%
Implementation of aids
78%
The role of student
83%
Teacher's teaching style
88%
The role of the school administration and the
school system
94%
Total
From Table (1) results it is clear that reliability coefficients are
suitable for conducting the research procedures
Research Procedures
This study went through a series of procedures that could be clarified
as follows:
Reviewing the previous literature and studies related to the research
focus.
A set of open-ended questions were distributed to participated
students and analyzed to determine the point of view of students.
Research instrument was developed, the validity and reliability were
checked, and it was edited in final form.
The study instrument was distributed to a group of students in private
and public schools.
Hard copies of the surveys were collected and the data was entered in
the computer, where the scale of negative items was reversed.
Data were unloaded on a computer, and "Statistical Packages of
Social Sciences" software (SPSS) was used to analyze the collected data. .
Draw conclusions, and discuss them.
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Statistical Treatment
To answer the research questions, the Means and Standard Deviations
were calculated. In addition, to find out significance of differences between
the Means the t-test was used for independent samples. Further, One-Way
ANOVA was implemented.
Research Results and Discussion
Results related to the first question
The first question is: “What are the factors that increase the
enjoyment of learning and teaching among the upper basic stage students
from the students’ viewpoints?” To answer the questions Means, Standard
Deviations, and proportional significance for the total and sub-aspects were
calculated. In order to facilitate judging of results, a criterion of results
judgment was selected based on dividing the measurement level into four
categories as follows:
(1 to Less than 1.75 = low), (1.75 to less than 2.5 = Average), (2.5 to
less than 3.25 = high), and (4 - 3.25 = very high). Table (2) shows related
results.
Table (2): Means, Standard Deviations, and proportional significance for the total
and sub-aspects
Degree
Proportional
Significance
Standard
Deviation
Mean
Very high
83.74%
.43
9
3.3
5
High
74.34%
.34
8
2.97
and managing dialogue
High
72.81%
.46
7
2.91
High
72.5%
.390
2.9
1
administration and the
school system
Average
56.93%
.46
6
2.2
8
High
71.2%
.233
2.84
Table (2) shows that the "the implementation of aids" in teaching is
the most important factor that increases students' enjoyment in learning
process. This factor’s Mean was (3.35) with a percentage of (83.7%). Second
factor was "asking classroom questions and managing dialogue". Its Mean
was (2.97) and the percentage was (74.34%). Third factor was, "the student’s
role in the class" and it’s Mean (2.91) and the percentage (72.81%). The
fourth factor that influences students' enjoyment of learning is "The role of
the school administration and the school system" with a Mean (2.91) and a
percentage (72.5%). Finally, the lowest factor that influences students'
enjoyment of learning was "the teacher’s teaching style" with a Mean (2.28)
and a percentage (59.93%). The previous results indicated that students’ role
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affect students’ enjoyment of learning more than the role of school
administration and the teacher's teaching style.
After reviewing these results, it is obvious to infer that teachers
should implement the instructional aids in his or her teaching practices in
order to achieve high level of students' enjoyment in learning. This
implementation would attract the attention of students and enable them to
connect new learned knowledge with their previous experiences. In addition,
it seems so logical when students believe that the factor of “asking classroom
questions and managing dialogue” during teaching process is as important as
the factor of “implementation of aids” because interesting dialogue is an
attractive method to students that empowers them to learn, especially if the
dialogue included a sense of humor, respect for students, and estimate their
perspectives. That is, students who have the chance to exchange ideas with
their teachers often feel enjoyed because they feel close to them. This
dialogue enables students to get to know about the interests of their teachers.
So, the teacher could share his or her interesting experience when he or she
was a student that would allow students compare what in their memory
between their experiences and the experiences of their teacher. That is,
students are inclined by nature to remember the fun experiences and hide the
unpleasant aspects of their expertise. So, they look for aspects that increase
their enjoyment of discussion during their learning process.
The research participants did not consider a great importance of the
teacher’s teaching style as a factor that affects studentsenjoyment of
learning. Maybe they consider this aspect as a "style used by the teacher to
transfer information and data only", forgetting other aspects of the teacher’s
teaching style such as the style of dealings with them and how much
guidance and directions they may received from him or her. Below is a
breakdown of results by sub-aspects.
First aspect: Implementation of aids”
Table (3) shows Means, Standard Deviation, the proportional
significance of the items of the “Implementation of aids” aspect, and the
degree of each item.
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Table (3): Means, standard Deviations, the proportional significance, and the degree of the
responses of students to the aspect of “implementation of aids”
Degree
Proportional
significance %
Standard
Deviation
Mean
Item
Very high
94.75
.524
3.79
I feel happy when the teacher
uses instructional aids to
illustrate ideas.
Very high
91.75
.636
3.67
I enjoy learning when the
teacher gives examples to
illustrate ideas
Very high
88
.728
3.52
I feel happy when the teacher
uses illustrated drawing to
demonstrate ideas.
Very high
85
.878
3.40
I feel happy when the teacher
gives us a lecture outside the
classroom
Very high
84.5
.764
3.38
I feel happy when the teacher
uses examples of popular
culture to illustrate ideas.
Very high
83
.882
3.32
I enjoy learning when the
teacher uses computer
applications to illustrate ideas
High
64.25
1.114
2.57
I am weary of the use of the
instructional aid to illustrate
ideas
Very high
83.74
.43875
3.3
5
Total
It is evident from the above table that the implementation of aids
brings enjoyment for the students. This aspect received a high estimate with
a Mean (3.35), percentage (83.74%), and its degree was very high. The item:
“I feel happy when the teacher uses instructional aids to illustrate ideas" got
the highest Mean (3.79) and percentage (94.75%), and its degree was very
high. This aspect followed by the item of “I enjoy learning when the teacher
gives examples to illustrate ideas " that had a Mean (3.67) and percentage
(91.75%) and its degree was very high. The item of “I feel happy when the
teacher uses illustrated drawing to demonstrate ideas" came in the third rank
with a Mean (3.52) and percentage (88%). In the fourth rank the item of “I
enjoy learning when the teacher uses computer applications to illustrate
ideas" came with a Mean (3.32) and percentage (83%), and its degree was
very high. In the last rank, the item of “I am weary of the use of the
instructional aids to illustrate ideas" came with a Mean (2.57) and percentage
(64.25%) and its degree was high.
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Second aspect: “asking classroom questions and managing dialogue”
Table (4) shows Means, standard deviation, proportional significance
of the items of the “asking classroom questions and managing dialogue”
aspect, and the degree of each item.
Table (4): Means, standard Deviations, proportional significance, and the degree of the
responses of students to the aspect of “asking classroom questions and managing dialogue
Degree
Proportional
significance %
Standard
deviation
Mean
Item
Very high
94.45
.508
3.78
I feel happy when the teacher
uses dialogue method to
discuss ideas.
Very high
88.75
.742
3.55
I enjoy the class when it has
fun during discussing ideas
Very high
88.75
.658
3.55
I prefer that the teacher
provides opportunities for
students to discuss ideas
among themselves
Very high
84.25
.847
3.37
I enjoy class that has issues
promote thinking
high
71.5
.991
2.86
I feel happy when the teacher
laughs with us in the class.
high
68.75
1.017
2.75
I do not prefer the teacher who
continue speaking on the
subject
high
64.75
1.153
2.59
I am bored of the teacher’s
questions that embarrasses me
Average
56
1.124
2.24
I do not enjoy classes when
teacher allows students jokes
Average
55
1.069
2.20
I do not like the teacher who is
tough in dealing with students
High
74.43
.3476
2.97
Total
It is evident from the above table that the aspect of “asking classroom
questions and managing dialogue” affects students’ enjoyment of learning. It
received a high degree with a Mean (2.97) and percentage (74.43%). Item of
“I feel happy when the teacher uses dialogue method to discuss ideas." has
got the highest Mean (3.78) and percentage (94.45%), and its degree was
very high. This item followed by two items “I enjoy class when it has fun
during discussing ideas" and "I prefer that the teacher provides opportunities
for students to discuss ideas among themselves" with a Mean (3.55) and
percentage (88.75%). Before the last rank, the item of “I do not enjoy classes
that teacher allows students jokes” came with a Mean (2.24) and percentage
(56%). The item of “I do not like the teacher who is tough in dealing with
students” got the last rank with a Mean (2.20) and percentage (55%).
Previous results revealed that students were happy when their teachers have
dialogue and discussion with them. They are looking for moments of fun and
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banter in the classroom. That is, students are remembering their teachers who
used to laugh and have fun with them. Glasgow and Hick (2009) addressed
that students would improve their achievement when a teacher laughs and
has fun with them. However, students do not like the teacher who is tough in
dealing with them, but they feel happy if the teacher laughs with them.
Third aspect: “the student's role in the class”
Table (5) shows Means, Standard deviation, Proportional significance
of the items of “the student's role in the class” aspect, and the degree of each
item.
Table (5): Means, Standard Deviation, proportional significance, and the degree of the
responses of students to the aspect of “the student's role in the class
Degree
Proportional
significance
%
Standard
deviation
Mean
Item
Very
high
88.5
.831
3.54
I feel happy and enjoy learning when I
successfully solve the problems of my
colleagues in the class
Very
high
86.5
.857
3.46
I prefer classes that allow me to discover
new ideas and information.
Very
high
83.25
.884
3.33
I enjoy classes that allow me to do
assignments by myself.
high
66.25
1.132
2.65
I feel bored when the students present
and discuss ideas in the classroom.
high
66
1.138
2.64
I love missing a class that would be
provided and taught by one of the
students.
Average
52.75
1.171
2.11
I feel bored when the teacher wants to
finish the curriculum without
considering students’ learning and
understanding.
high
72.81
.467
2.91
Total
It is noted from the table that the aspect of “the student's role in the
class” got a Mean (2.91) and percentage (72.81%), and high degree in
influencing students’ enjoyment of learning. The item of “I feel happy and
enjoy learning when I successfully solve the problems of my colleagues in
the class" got the highest Mean (3.54) and percentage (88.5%), and degree
was very high. This item followed by the item of “I prefer classes that allow
me to discover new ideas and information" with a Mean (3.46) and
percentage (86.5%), and degree was, also, very high. In the third rank, item
of “I enjoy classes that allow me to do assignments by myself" came with a
Mean (3.33) and percentage (83.25%). The item of “I love missing a class
that would be provided and taught by one of the students" came before the
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last rank and got a Mean (2.64) and percentage (66%), and the degree was
high. In the last rank, the item of “I feel bored when the teacher wants to
finish the curriculum without considering students’ learning and
understanding" came with a Mean (2.11) and percentage (52.75%), and its
degree was moderate.
Fourth aspect: “teacher’s teaching style”
Table (6) shows Means, standard deviation, proportional significance
of the items of “the teacher’s style of teaching” aspect, and the degree of
each item.
Table (6): Means, Standard Deviations Proportional significance, and the degree of the
responses of students to the aspect of “the teacher's teaching style of teaching”
Degree
Proportional
significance %
Standard
deviation
Mean
Item
Very high
92.2
.650
3.69
I feel happy when the teacher
connects the subject of the
lesson to our daily lives
Very high
90.75
.715
3.63
I feel happy in the classes that
teacher uses new teaching
methods
High
75.75
.963
3.03
I feel happy when the teacher
discusses ideas out of the
context of the lesson
Average
52.75
1.064
2.11
I'm bored of subject that is
detailed and need long time to
be understood.
Average
52
1.126
2.08
I'm bored of frequent
homeworks that I cannot
perform
Average
48
1.107
1.92
I'm bored of classes that have
too much of scolding students
Average
44.75
1.085
1.79
I'm bored of inability of
teachers on classroom
management
Low
42
1.059
1.68
I'm bored of the classes where
teacher discriminate students
Low
41.75
1.039
1.67
I'm bored of the teacher who is
unfair in his dealings with
students
Low
41
1.024
1.64
I'm bored of the classes where
there is no respect for the
teacher
Average
56.93
.466
2.28
Total
It is evident from the above table that the students believe that the
teacher’s teaching style of teaching has a weak impact on their enjoyment of
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learning, and this aspect got Average degree with a Mean (2.28) and
percentage (59.93%). The item of “I feel happy when the teacher connects
the subject of the lesson to our daily lives" got the highest Mean (3.69),
percentage (92.2%), and with very high degree. This item followed by the
item of " I feel happy in the classes that teacher uses new teaching methods "
with a Mean (3.63), percentage (90.75%), and very high degree. The item of
“I’m bored of the teacher who is unfair in his dealings with students” came
before the last rank with a Mean (1.67), percentage (41.75%), and low
degree. In the last rank, the item of “I’m bored of the classes where there is
no respect for the teacher" came with a Mean (1.64), percentage (41%), and
low degree.
Fifth aspect: “the school administration and school system”
Table (7) shows Mean, standard deviation, proportional significance
of the items of the “the school administration and school system” aspect, and
the degree of each item.
Table (7): Means, Standard Deviations, Proportional significance, and the degree of the
responses of students to the aspect of “the school administration and school system”
Degree
Proportional
significance
%
Standard
deviation
Mean
Item
Very
high
89.75
.814
3.59
I feel happy when there is a schooling
activity per week
Very
high
86.75
.797
3.47
I feel happy when school administration
conduct a dialogue with students in
education issues
Very
high
85
.853
3.40
I feel happy when school administration
engage students in the school
administrative activities
Very
high
84
.909
3.36
I feel happy when school administration
apply assertive procedures with careless
students.
Very
high
82
.988
3.28
I am bored of the lack of entertainment
and fun aids at school
high
81
1.014
3.24
I feel happy when school administration
engage students in community service
High
80.75
.957
3.23
I'm bored of the inability of teachers
who could not control the class
High
80.75
.971
3.23
I feel happy when school administration
engage students in resolving their
colleagues behavioral problems
High
79.25
1.020
3.17
I'm bored of the poor school schedule
coordination
High
72
1.084
2.88
I'm bored of the lack of apply assertive
procedures with absent students.
Average
48.75
1.126
1.95
I'm bored of commitment to wear
uniforms
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Average
45.5
1.055
1.82
I'm bored of the length of the school day
period
Average
45
1.068
1.80
I'm bored of the large number of classes
in the school schedule
High
72.5
.390
2.9
1
Total
It is evident from the above table that the impact of the school
administration’s role and the school system on the students’ enjoyment of
learning is high. The aspect got a high degree with a Mean (2.91) and
percentage (72.5%). The item of “I feel happy when there is a schooling
activity per week" got the highest Mean (3.59), percentage (89.75%), and
very high degree. This followed by the item of "I feel happy when school
administration conduct a dialogue with students in education issues "which
got a Mean (3.47), percentage (86.75%), and high degree. The item of "I'm
bored of the length of the school day period" had the rank before the last
with a Mean (1.82), percentage (45.5%), and low degree. While the item of
“I'm bored of the large number of classes in the school schedule" came in the
last rank with a Mean (1.80), percentage (45%), and moderate degree.
It is noted that the students feel happy if they had a comfortable
atmosphere for discussion, dialogue, and exchange of views and opinions,
and it may have a positive psychological impact on them because it let them
feel secure and closer to their teachers. That is, students feel teacher’s
cordiality when he or she listens to their views. The teacher’s acceptance and
cordiality empower the students’ enjoyment of learning. The teacher’s
dialogue and classroom management enables students to realize that they
have an important role in the school, they are part of the school system, and
they have responsibility to participate positively and effectively in the
success of the school. So, the success stories are the experiences that achieve
students’ happiness and pleasure.
The results related to the second question
The second question: “Are there statistically significant differences
= 0.05) in enjoyment of teaching practices among students at the upper
basic stage from the students’ viewpoints due to the following variables:
Gender (male, female), and academic grade level (eighth, ninth, tenth), and
the level of academic achievement (low, average, good)?
To answer this question, the Means, standard Deviations, t-test were
calculated to find out the differences between independent samples, One-
Way ANOVA, Tukey test to find out the posteriori comparisons. The
following is a breakdown of the results by variables sequence.
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First: According to the Gender
Table (8): Means, Standard Deviations, the results of the (t) test of the responses of
students according to gender
Statistical
significanc
e
Degrees
of
freedo
m
(t)
Value
Standard
deviatio
n
Means
Numbe
r
Gende
r
Aspects
.277
637
-
1.089
-
.36803
2.961
2
375
Male
Asking
questions
.31624
2.991
6
264
Femal
e
.000
637
-
4.978
-
.47839
3.278
5
375
Male
Implementatio
n of aids
.35221
3.450
8
264
Femal
e
.000
633
-
3.640
-
.49045
2.856
2
371
Male
The role of
student
.42003
2.991
8
264
Femal
e
.589
634
.541
.47156
2.285
6
374
Male
Teacher’s style
.45769
2.265
3
262
Femal
e
.049
634
-
1.970
-
.40398
2.883
6
374
Male
The role of the
administration
.36740
2.945
4
262
Femal
e
.001
637
-
3.317
-
.23760
2.816
4
375
Male
Total
.22242
2.878
0
264
Femal
e
From reviewing the entire results in above table and especially the t
test results, the researcher found out that the differences between the Means
of total and sub-aspects that influence students’ enjoyment of learning and
teaching are statistically significant at (α = 0.05) and attributable to the
gender except for the aspects of “asking questions” and “management
dialogue”. However, the differences in the aspect of teacher’s teaching style
are insignificant. In sum, all the differences were in favor of females.
Possibly, the indicated differences are attributed to female students
because: 1) they prefer the implementation of aids during learning, 2) due to
their high GPA, they prefer participating in the class discussion, 3) their
European Scientific Journal July 2015 edition vol.11, No.19 ISSN: 1857 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431
162
interest in pre-preparation before the class is more than male students. In
addition, the differences could be attributed to female students because
female students are more eager to competition compare with male students.
This is due to traditions and customs that do not allow the girl to leave her
house whenever she wants. So, this situation empowers them to find out their
self-realization through a positive and an active participation in the class.
Further, female students’ enjoyment of learning may come from participating
in the classes that makes them much known to their teachers and school
administration. Furthermore, female students’ enjoyment of learning could
come from their success in fulfillment of their duties in a perfect way which
makes them much known to her teachers and school Administration.
Second: According to study level
Table (9): Means and Standard Deviations of the responses of students according to
the variable of study level
Standard
deviation
Mean
Number
Grade
Aspect
.32814
2.9764
207
Eighth
Asking questions
.37096
2.9819
215
Ninth
.34124
2.9660
216
Tenth
.34698
2.9747
638
Total
.45237
3.3602
207
Eighth
Implementation of
aids
.45451
3.3389
215
Ninth
.41146
3.3505
216
Tenth
.43909
3.3498
638
Total
.48632
2.9660
206
Eighth
The role of student
.47257
2.8975
213
Ninth
.44006
2.8775
215
Tenth
.46721
2.9130
634
Total
.47187
2.2899
207
Eighth
Teacher’s teaching
style
.48586
2.2840
213
Ninth
.44113
2.2581
215
Tenth
.46600
2.2772
635
Total
.43593
2.9138
207
Eighth
The role of the
administration
.37478
2.9036
213
Ninth
.36001
2.9106
215
Tenth
.39049
2.9093
635
Total
.22401
2.8622
207
Eighth
Total
.25598
2.8324
215
Ninth
.21773
2.8327
216
Tenth
.23331
2.8421
638
Total
The above table reveals that there are apparent differences between
the Means of sub-aspect of the students’ enjoyment of learning factors. To
find out significance of differences Means, One-Way ANOVA were
calculated. The results are described in the table (10).
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Table (10): One- Way ANOVA to determine significant differences between the Means
according to the study level variable
Statistical
significance
(f)
Value
Mean
squares
Degrees
of
freedom
Sum of
squares
Sources
of
variation
Aspects
.891
.116
.014
2
.028
Between
groups
Asking questions
.121
635
76.664
Within
groups
637
76.692
Total
.882
.125
.024
2
.048
Between
groups
Implementation
of aids
.193
635
122.764
Within
groups
637
122.812
Total
.127
2.071
.450
2
.901
Between
groups
The role of
student
.218
631
137.271
Within
groups
633
138.172
Total
.757
.278
.061
2
.121
Between
groups
Teacher’s
teaching style
.218
632
137.558
Within
groups
634
137.679
Total
.963
.038
.006
2
.011
Between
groups
The role of the
administration
.153
632
96.660
Within
groups
634
96.672
Total
.324
1.128
.061
2
.123
Between
groups
Total
.054
635
34.552
Within
groups
637
34.675
Total
The results of One Way ANOVA are presented in table (10). They
show that all differences between the Means of total and sub-aspects that
influence students’ enjoyment of learning and teaching according to the
study level variable are statistically insignificant. This is due to the students’
interests in this age (adolescence) winch are similar among them. They are
interested in non schooling activities such as volunteer work that isn’t related
directly to the learning and teaching processes and using various social
media applications for non educational purposes.
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Third: According to academic achievement level
Table (11): Means and standard Deviations of the responses of students according to the
academic achievement level (GPA) variable
Standard
deviation
Mean
Number
GPA levels
Aspect
.41080
2.9501
49
Less than 60%
Asking questions
.35911
2.9556
245
From 60% to
80%
.33012
2.9896
343
80% and above
.34803
2.9735
637
Total
.51422
3.1370
49
Less than 60%
Implementation of aids
.39741
3.3481
245
From 60% to
80%
.44827
3.3819
343
80% and above
.43892
3.3501
637
Total
.39939
2.8980
49
Less than 60%
The role of student
.48374
2.9112
242
From 60% to
80%
.46580
2.9167
342
80% and above
.46738
2.9131
633
Total
.51111
2.3438
48
Less than 60%
Teacher’s teaching style
.49983
2.3480
244
From 60% to
80%
.42545
2.2199
342
80% and above
.46568
2.2785
634
Total
.46234
2.8109
48
Less than 60%
The role of the
administration
.37979
2.9199
244
From 60% to
80%
.38671
2.9161
342
80% and above
.39065
2.9096
634
Total
.32355
2.7701
49
Less than 60%
Total
.23859
2.8551
245
From 60% to
80%
.21250
2.8436
343
80% and above
.23343
2.8424
637
Total
The above table reveals that there are apparent differences between
the Means of sub-aspect of the students’ enjoyment of learning factors. To
find out significance of differences Means, One-Way ANOVA are
calculated. The results are described in the table (12).
Table (12): One- Way ANOVA to determine significant differences between the Means
according to the level of academic achievement variable (GPA)
Statistical
significance
(f)
Value
Mean
squares
Degrees
of
freedom
Sum of
squares
Sources
of
variation
Aspects
.448
.804
.097
2
.195
Between
groups
Asking questions
.121
634
76.839
Within
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groups
636
77.034
Total
.001
6.800
1.286
2
2.573
Between
groups
Implementation
of aids
.189
634
119.951
Within
groups
636
122.524
Total
.963
.038
.008
2
.016
Between
groups
The role of
student
.219
630
138.038
Within
groups
632
138.055
Total
.003
5.987
1.278
2
2.556
Between
groups
Teacher’s
teaching style
.213
631
134.712
Within
groups
633
137.268
Total
.189
1.668
.254
2
.508
Between
groups
The role of the
administration
.152
631
96.093
Within
groups
633
96.601
Total
.066
2.732
.148
2
.296
Between
groups
Total
.054
634
34.358
Within
groups
636
34.654
Total
The results of One Way ANOVA are presented in table (12). They
show that the differences between the Means of two sub- aspects
(implementation of aids in teaching, and the role of the teacher's teaching
style) are statistically significant according the variable of level of
achievement. The value of (f) was (6.800), (5.987) for the aspects of
implementation of aids, and the role of the teacher's teaching style
respectively. This is due to the students’ interests in this age (adolescence)
which are similar among them. They are interested in non schooling
activities such as volunteer work that isn’t related to the learning and
teaching processes and using various social media applications for non
educational purposes.
However, the differences between the Means for the total and sub-
aspect: “asking questions and management dialogue”, “the students’ role of
learning”, and “the role of the school administration and the school system”
were not statistically significant. It was used Tukey Test for a posteriori
comparisons to find out in favor of the differences are attributable. The
results are described in the table (13).
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Table (13): Tukey test results of the posteriori comparisons to find out in favor of
the differences are attributable between the Means according to the level of achievement
variable (GPA)
Sig.
Mean
Difference (I-J)
(J) GPA
(I) GPA
Dependent Variable
*
.006
*
-.21108-
From 60% to
80%
)
3.35
(
Less than 60%
(3.14)
Implementation of aids
in teaching
*
.001
-.24490-
*
80
% and more
(
3.38
)
.998
.00420
Less than 60%
)
2.34
(
From 60% to
80%
(2.35)
The role of the teacher
in teaching style
003.
*
12807.
80
% and more
)
2.22
(
Statistically significant for (0.05)
The results of Tukey test indicated, as shown in the above table, that
the students who have GPA between (60-80) enjoy classes that have
implementation of aids more than students who have GPA that is less than
60.
One reason of this result could be due to tending toward competition.
That is, students with a high level of academic achievement tend to compete
with each other, and thus seek to find out knowledge that promoting their
understanding. Using instructional aids during the learning and teaching
processes promoting the students’ enjoyment of learning because those aids
help them to grasp the new information and involve them in new and happy
learning experiences compared to other students who have a low GPA .
In addition, the result of Tukey test revealed that the students who
have GPA from (80 and over) enjoy implementation of aids during the
teaching process more than students who have GPA within the category of
(60-80). Further, Tukey test results show that students whose GPA falls
within the category (60-80) and (2.35) Mean) believe that the role of the
teacher and his style of teaching increases the students’ enjoyment of
learning more than students who have GPA within the category (80 and
over) and (Mean (2.22)). This result could be due to the fact that these
students need simple teaching methods compared to students with high
academic achievement. So, when those students provided with appropriate
teaching strategies that meet their needs and abilities, they will feel happy
because they feel that they could grasp the new information. This finding
may also be attributed to students with high achievement who usually feel
confident in themselves that makes them serious during classtime. Those
students focus on accessing knowledge more than looking for certain fun
factors to achieve their pleasure in it.
European Scientific Journal July 2015 edition vol.11, No.19 ISSN: 1857 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431
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Recommendations
Provide opportunities that increase students’ engagement, and
encourage teachers and administrators to participate with students in those
activities both in the classroom and during the implementation of extra-
curricular activities.
The need to employ instructional aids during the teaching process,
and to involve students in the process of designing such aids.
The need to employ fun and enjoyment during the implementation of
the instructional events to increase students’ enjoyment of learning.
The need to encourage students with low GPA to be involved in the
implementation of learning activities.
Conclusion
The Respect and love of students toward their teachers would be
reflected on the performance of students’ involvement in learning and
teaching processes. In addition, offering learning opportunities, in which
students are engaged in the learning lovely tasks, would increase their
enjoyment of learning. To achieve this, teachers should provide learning
opportunities and design appropriate educational activities to attract students.
In addition, they should provide opportunities for students to empower them
to be active learners who learn and interact within an atmosphere that is full
of freedom, happiness, and pleasure.
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... Guru yang mengajar dengan cara menyenangkan akan mengarahkan peserta didik untuk siap mengimplementasikan aktivitas-aktivitas belajar yang telah diberikan oleh guru di dalam kelas (Al-shara, 2015). Dalam hal ini guru sebagai pendidik sangat perlu untuk terus mencari cara apa saja metode pengajaran yang terbaru untuk meningkatkan kenyamanan peserta didik dalam belajar. ...
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Visualizing the past and engaging learners in real-world learning contexts is important for history learning. Location-based Augmented reality (AR) technologies offer new possibilities for supporting place-based learning, by tracking users’ position and superimposing layers of visual information on the real world. This paper presents a location-based AR application TongSEE that enables users to learn history in authentic context. We describe the design approaches of the interface, physical interaction, and contextual guidance of the application. Twenty participants were evaluated using the application. The results show that, in general, TongSEE is a promising educational tool that helps learners better understand the history and increase their interest in history learning. Our study contributes insights into how location-based AR technologies could be designed to support place-based learning and users’ perspective on this learning method.KeywordsLocation-based augmented realityMobile applicationHistory learning
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