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Newcastle disease as an emerging disease in peacocks of Tharparker, Pakistan

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Letter to the Editor
Newcastle disease as an emerging disease in peacocks of Tharparker,
Pakistan
Irfan Mustafa1, Haroon Ahmed2, Myda Abrar Lodhi2, Abdul Rauf Siddiqi Sher Khan2, Waseem Haider2,
Nazish Bostan2, Saira Asif 3, Mobushir Riaz Khan4, Mazhar Qayyum5, Shahzad Ali6 , Muhammad Ishtiaq
Ali7, Muhammad Sohail Afzal8
1 Department of Zoology,University of Sargodha,Sargodha, Pakistan
2 Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Park Road, Chakh Shazad,
Islamabad, Pakistan
3 Department of Botany,PMAS - Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
4Department of Remote Sensing and GIS, PMAS - Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
5 Department of Zoology, PMAS- Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
6 Department of Wildlife and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS), Lahore, Pakistan
7 Department of Microbiology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
8 Department of Chemistry, School of Science, University of Management and Technology (UMT), Lahore, Pakistan
Key words: Newcastle disease; prevalence; topography; peacock; Tharparker; Pakistan.
J Infect Dev Ctries 2015; 9(8):914-916. doi:10.3855/jidc.5258
(Received 05 May 2014 Accepted 07 April 2015)
Copyright © 2015 Mustafa et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use,
distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Dear Editor,
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) also known as
avian paramyxovirus serotype I (APMV-1) is an RNA
virus belonging to the genus Avulavirus (family
Paramyxoviridae) [1]. NDV strains can be categorized
into three major classes: as velogenic (highly virulent)
and can cause up to 100% mortality in an
unvaccinated flock, mesogenic (intermediate
virulence) or lentogenic (nonvirulent) which are used
as a vaccine. NDV has an incubation phase of 2-5 days
depending upon birds’ immune status and age [2].
NDV has the ability to infect a wide variety of avian
species. More than 200 species of birds have been
estimated to be vulnerable to natural or experimental
illness through this virus [3]. In most species of birds,
the younger ones are more susceptible than adults [4].
Newcastle disease (ND) in domestic poultry is the
matter of concern all over the world. The NDV is
widely spread in Pakistan and frequent outbreaks are
being repeatedly reported in wild captive, rural and
commercial poultry flocks. Between 2012 and 2013,
ND endemic was observed in peacocks in Tharparker
desert, Sindh province of Pakistan, where
approximately a population of 40,000 peacocks can be
found. There is no epidemiological study carried out
on NDV epidemic in peacock in Tharparker. The
present study was therefore designed to determine the
role of epidemiological factors involved in the NDV
outbreak.
The study was conducted in different villages of
following areas in Tharparker (Sindh), Pakistan
including Nagarparker, Islamkot, Kasboo, Naukot,
Mithi, Mao and Veera Wah Umarkot. A total number
of 2,000 peacocks from eight villages of Tharparker of
different age, sex and breed were randomly physically
examined between July 2012 and September 2013 to
find out the prevalence of disease and its possible
causative factors. The epidemiological information
was taken in a questionnaire comprising of sex, age,
prevalence, feeding, weight, medication, topography
and mating behaviour. To determine the statistical
association between NDV infection and different
parameters Chi-square statistical test was carried out
using R 3.1.1 for Windows.
The results of current study showed that
prevalence of ND in different areas of Tharparker,
Sindh, Pakistan during this period was 19.7%.
Mustafa et al. Newcastle disease as an emerging disease J Infect Dev Ctries 2015; 9(8):914-916.
915
Table 1. Different geographical factors in relation to prevalence of Newcastle disease in peacocks, Pakistan
Sr. No
Factor
Group
Total
Peacocks
0bserved
Infected
Non-infected
Statistical Analysis
(Chi-square)
1
Year
2012
1000
300
700
χ² = 147.017
df = 1
p =.000
2013
1000
86
914
2
Age
Group I
(0.5-2 year)
173
54
119
χ² = 25.053
df = 2
p =.000
Group II
(2- 3.5 year )
1089
221
868
Group III
(>3.5 year)
738
111
627
3
Sex
Male
1054
223
831
χ² = 4.936
df = 1
p =.026
Female
946
163
783
4
Feeding
Feed during disease
1476
152
1322
χ² = 290.69
df =1
p =.000
Don’t feed during
disease
526
234
292
5
Treatment
Non medicated
750
273
477
χ² = 225.29
df = 1
p =.000
Medicated
(Vaccination)
1250
113
1137
6
Topography
Stony
892
166
726
χ² =.492
df = 1
p =.483
Sandy
1108
220
888
7
Weight
Group1
0.5 - 1.5 kg
494
163
331
χ² = 116.474
df = 3
p =.000
Group 2
1.5 3kg
548
119
429
Group 3
3 4.5 kg
801
102
699
Group 4
> 4.5 kg
157
2
155
8
Mating
Mating
702
107
595
χ² =11.435
df = 1
p = 0.001
Non-mating
1298
279
1019
9
Village
Group1
Nagarparker
283
115
168
χ² = 360.551
df = 7
p =.000
Group2
Islam kot
230
95
135
Group3
Mao
351
90
261
Group4 Kasboo
251
13
238
Group5
Naukot
172
3
169
Group6
Mithi
268
22
246
Group7
Veera wah
111
46
65
Group8
Umarkot
334
2
332
Chi Square test for independence was performed in order to test the effect of different factors on rate of infection. Results indicate infection rate depends on:
year, age, sex, feeding, vaccination, weight, mating and village (p value < 0.05) whereas infection does not depend on topography (p > 0.05)
Mustafa et al. Newcastle disease as an emerging disease J Infect Dev Ctries 2015; 9(8):914-916.
916
Statistical analysis of different parameters between
NDV-infected and non-infected groups of peacocks
was carried out. Results showed that year (2012 vs
2013), age (group I [0.5-2 years], group II [2-3.5
years], group III [> 3.5 years]) (Supplementary Data),
weight of animals, feeding behaviour (feeding during
disease vs non-feeding during disease), mating
behaviour (mating vs non-mating), different
geographical distribution (different villages) and
vaccination status (vaccinated vs non-vaccinated),
were significantly associated with NDV infection
while gender (male vs female) and habitat topography
(stony vs sandy), apparently did not have any impact
of NDV infection in Tharparker area (Table 1). The
birds of younger age, male, non medicated, sandy area
and located in the area of Nagaraparker/Islam
Kot/Mithi were more infected in comparison to other
factors.
The wide variation in year-wise prevalence of ND
might be due to the delay of the monsoon rains in
2012 which caused unavailability of fresh water and
increased the risk of disease spreading due to
contaminated and infected water. The geographical
distribution (village-wise) showed the highest
infection in Islam kot, Mithi and Nagarparker. The
possible reason might be the lack of good quality
conservation practices as well as unavailability of
fresh water in the lake due to the delay of monsoon
season in these villages. There is a stream of water in
Nagarparker which fills only during rainy season: it
might be the major reservoir of NDV in the region.
The disease sex-wise incidence showed a non-
significant association which is in accordance with
investigations carried out by Zeleke A et al [5]. The
change in mating behaviour is also positively
associated with infection status and a sudden drop in
egg production was also observed in animals under the
influence of NDV. The vaccination status clearly has
an impact on viral infection, in fact animals subjected
to vaccination showed lower disease ratio as compared
to untreated ones. The possible reason behind the
infection of vaccinated peacocks might be represented
by climate, because Tharparker has an extremely hot
climate thus resulting in heat stress; moreover, the low
monsoon rain, such as it was registered during the
study period, resulted in a water shortage. Heat stress
and water deprivation can lead to steroid production
and results in immune suppression reducing the
efficacy of the vaccine [6]. It is recommended that a
thorough implementation of a suitable vaccination
plan is carried out which may be reduce the prevalence
of ND in the future.
This is the first report showing the prevalence of
NDV in peacocks in Tharparker region. Research on
genetic nature of strains circulating in Pakistan is
currently limited and further studies on NDV strains
characterization circulation in Pakistan are warranted.
References
1. Alexander DJ (1984) Infection of fowls with Newcastle
disease virus caused by food contaminated with pigeon feces.
Vet Rec 115: 601-602.
2. Okwor EC, Eze DC (2011) Epizootic Newcastle disease in
local chickens reared in South East Savannah zone of Nigeria.
Int J of Poult Sci 10: 212-215.
3. Alexander DJ (1999) Paramyxoviridae (Newcastle disease
and others). In: 4th ed. Jordan, F.T.W, M. Pattison, editors.
Poultry Diseases. London: D. Saunders and Company
Limited.139-155.
4. Arnall L, Keymer IP (1975) Bird diseases. London: Baillere
and Tindall. 451-459.
5. Zeleke A (2005) Newcastle disease in village chickens in the
Southern and Rift Vally districts in Ethiopia. Int J O Poult Sci
4: 507-510.
6. Sil GC, Das PM, Islam MR, Rahman MM (2002)
Management and disease problems of cockrels in some farms
of Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Int J O Poult Sci 1:102-105.
Corresponding author
Dr. Haroon Ahmed
Infectious Diseases & Parasitology Division
Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information
Technology (CIIT),
Park Road, Chak shahzad, 46300, Islamabad, Pakistan
Phone: +923455162128
Email: haroonahmad12@yahoo.com
Conflict of interests: No conflict of interests is declared.
Mustafa et al. Newcastle disease as an emerging disease J Infect Dev Ctries 2015; 9(8):914-916.
Supplementary Tables
Supplementary table 1. Pairwise comparisons in different age groups
Group
Group I
(0.5-2 year)
Group II
(2- 3.5 year )
Group III
(>3.5 year)
Group I
(0.5-2 year)
-
χ² = 9.816
df = 1
P = 0.0017
χ² = 23.63
df = 1
P = 0.0000016
Group II
(2- 3.5 year )
-
-
χ² = 7.814
df = 1
P = 0.0051
P value of less than 0.05 indicates a significant effect of the groups compared. All pair wise comparisons were performed while comparing each group with
every other group with factors involving more than two levels. Almost all age, weight and village groups differ from each other. Infections are dependent upon
groups.
Supplementary table 2. Pairwise comparisons of animals groups possessing different body weights
Group
Group I
(0.5-1.5 Kg)
Group II
(1.5-3 Kg)
Group III
(3-4.5 Kg)
Group IV
(> 4.5 Kg)
Group I (0.5-1.5 Kg)
χ² = 16.182
df = 1
P = 5.7e-05
χ² = 75.8336
df = 1
P = 2.2e-16
χ² = 61.6939
df = 1
P = 4.012e-15
Group II (1.5-3 Kg)
χ² = 18.51
df = 1
P = 1.69e-05
χ² = 34.4436
df = 1
P = 4.388e-09
Group III (3-4.5 Kg)
χ² = 16.6507
df = 1
P = 4.5e-05
Supplementary table 3. Village wise pairwise comparison
Group1
Nagarparker
Group2
Islam kot
Group3
Mao
Group4
Kasboo
Group5
Naukot
Group6
Mithi
Group7
Veera wah
Group8
Umarkot
Group1
Nagarparker
χ² = 0.0039
df=1
p=0.9499
χ² = 15.4234
df=1
p=8.592e-05
χ² = 89.8269
df=1
p=2.2e-16
χ² = 82.23
df=1
p=2.2e-16
χ² = 75.7501
df=1
p=2.2e-16
χ² = 0.001
df=1
p=0.9742
χ² = 157.2102
df=1
p=2.2e-16
Group2
Islam kot
χ² = 14.9942
df=1
p=0.0001078
χ² = 87.8935
df=1
p=2.2e-16
χ² = 81.4087
df=1
P=2.2e-16
χ² = 73.5951
df=1
p=2.2e-16
χ² = 0.0087
df=1
p=0.9257
χ² = 155.6336
df=1
p=2.2e-16
Group3
Mao
χ² = 41.7734
df=1
p=1.025e-10
χ² = 43.4689
df=1
p=4.308e-11
χ² = 29.9953
df=1
p=4.331e-08
χ² = 9.3893
df=1
p=0.002183
χ² = 90.1684
df=1
p=2.2e-16
Group4
Kasboo
χ² = 2.4325
df=1 p=0.1188
χ² = 1.4406
df=1
p=0.23
χ² = 71.551
df=1
p=2.2e-16
χ² = 10.271
df=1
p=0.001351
Group5
Naukot
χ² = 7.0084
df=1
p=0.008113
χ² = 71.5117
df=1
p=2.2e-16
χ² = 0.5767
df=1
p=0.4476
Group6
Mithi
χ² = 56.6425
df=1
p=5.2e-14
χ² = 20.5528
df=1
p=5.801e-06
Group7
Veera wah
χ² = 140.2062
df=1
p=2.2e-16
... the reported death of 190 peacocks in Jallo wildlife park, Lahore, Pakistan within one week in an outbreak of ND in 2012. (Mustafa et al., 2015) reported ND endemic in peacocks at Tharparkar desert, Sindh province of Pakistan during 2012 and 2013 where there was about 40,000 estimated peacock population was present. ...
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Bird diseases. London: Baillere and Tindall
  • L Arnall
  • I P Keymer
Arnall L, Keymer IP (1975) Bird diseases. London: Baillere and Tindall. 451-459.
Haroon Ahmed Infectious Diseases & Parasitology Division Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Park Road, Chak shahzad
  • Dr Corresponding
Corresponding author Dr. Haroon Ahmed Infectious Diseases & Parasitology Division Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Park Road, Chak shahzad, 46300, Islamabad, Pakistan Phone: +923455162128 Email: haroonahmad12@yahoo.com