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Beer is an important source of crucial nutritional compounds such as carbohydrates and proteins. Therefore, beer has become an indispensable part of the diet in many cultures. Apart from carbohydrates and proteins, alcohol also contributes to the total energy value of beer. There exist several approaches to the calculation of the energy value of beer, which are defined in brewery analytical methods (EBC, MEBAK, and ASBC) and in legislative rules. Two approaches were compared. The first is the direct calculation method defined in EBC 9.45. The second can be found in Regulation (EU) Number 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Whereas the direct method is fast, simple, and feasible, the calculation method is laborious and time consuming. However, the direct method does not provide accurate results for some types of beer (e.g., nonalcoholic beer or low-alcoholic beer mix manufactured by mixing beer and sweetened soft drinks). Therefore, the modification of the direct method was suggested and verified. In this form, the direct method of determining the energy value of beer complies with the conditions of high-throughput and a green method.
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165
Determination of the Energy Value of Beer
Jana Olšovská
1
and Karel Štěrba, Research Institute of Brewing and Malting, Prague PLC, Lípová 15, CZ–120 44
Prague 2, Czech Republic; Martin Pavlovič, Slovenian Institute of Hop Research and Brewing, Žalskega tabora 2, SI–
3310 Žalec, Slovenia; and Pavel Čejka, Research Institute of Brewing and Malting, Prague PLC
ABSTRACT
J. Am. Soc. Brew. Chem. 73(2):165-169, 2015
Beer is an important source of crucial nutritional compounds such as
carbohydrates and proteins. Therefore, beer has become an indispensable
part of the diet in many cultures. Apart from carbohydrates and proteins,
alcohol also contributes to the total energy value of beer. There exist
several approaches to the calculation of the energy value of beer, which
are defined in brewery analytical methods (EBC, MEBAK, and ASBC)
and in legislative rules. Two approaches were compared. The first is the
direct calculation method defined in EBC 9.45. The second can be found
in Regulation (EU) Number 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of
the Council. Whereas the direct method is fast, simple, and feasible, the
calculation method is laborious and time consuming. However, the direct
method does not provide accurate results for some types of beer (e.g.,
nonalcoholic beer or low-alcoholic beer mix manufactured by mixing
beer and sweetened soft drinks). Therefore, the modification of the direct
method was suggested and verified. In this form, the direct method of
determining the energy value of beer complies with the conditions of
high-throughput and a green method.
Keywords: Alcohol, Beer, Caloric content, Carbohydrates, Determina-
tion of energy value, Energy value
Nutrition labeling is a topic that attracts attention from both re-
searchers and the general public. The great interest follows pri-
marily from the increasing rates of obesity and obesity-related
diseases in this era. Therefore, the development of high-perfor-
mance and high-throughput methods for the determination of
macronutrients (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) and energy
value (EV) (in other words, caloric content) of food and bever-
ages is a subject of interest for many scientists; for example, ana-
lytical chemists, experts in human medicine and biology, and, last
but most importantly, business-oriented experts, including mar-
keting and communication professionals, general strategists, and
food producers. It has been recorded at a higher frequency lately
that food companies are on trial for contributing to the growing
problem of obesity in the United States and abroad. They have
been threatened with taxes, fines, restrictions, and legislation (21).
This fact, together with consumer empowerment and the right to
be informed approximately the nutritional value of what people
are eating, has led to new regulations on the provision of food
information on labels (13). “The goal has changed from the origi-
nal position of ‘not mislead’ to the current position of ‘inform and
guide’, in the context of an environment where there are increas-
ing rates of obesity and obesity-related diseases.As such, the
debate on nutrition labeling, format, and wording of such labels
as well as the design, placement, and extent to which this needs to
be unified, regulated, and communicated has been put in the spot-
light. With the newly introduced Regulation (EU) 1169/2011 (20)
on the provision of food information to consumers, any previous
supranational European legislation on food and nutrition labeling
has been revised and updated. The new rules are intended to con-
solidate and update Food Labeling Directive 2000/1 3/EC and
Directive 90/495/EEC on nutrition labeling. In the United States,
the rules of food labeling are determined in a Code of Federal
Regulations, § 101.9 from 1 April 2012 (5).
The issue of nutrition labeling, of course, relates not only to
food but also to beverage commodities, including beer and bever-
ages based on beer (for example, beer mix). Due to beers long-
term worldwide tradition and the fact that it is an important
source of main nutritional compounds such as carbohydrates and
proteins, beer has become a basic part of the diet in many cultures
(3). Beer is often a great source of energy and contributes signifi-
cantly to daily energy intake. The major source of beer energy is
carbohydrates and alcohol. There exist several basic ways to de-
termine the EV of food and beverages. The first one is using a
bomb calorimeter, which directly measures the total or gross EV
of various food macronutrients; the former information has been
known since the beginning of the last century (4). The bomb calo-
rimeter operates on the principle of direct calorimetry, measuring
the heat liberated as food burns completely (15). The heat of com-
bustion refers to the heat liberated by oxidizing a specific food; it
represents the food’s total EV. This method is applicable for food,
but only for solid matrices (16).
A different approach to this problem was described by authors
who measured the carbohydrate concentration and EV of fruit-
and milk-based beverages through partial-least-squares attenuated
total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (19).
Using these statistical methods, the authors managed to find a
relationship between the absorbance of these drinks in various
areas of the infrared spectra and the resulting value of the carbo-
hydrate content and EV.
The standard method of EV (i.e., caloric content) by calculation
(calculation method) uses a mathematical equation, where the
total EV of a food or beverage is calculated as a sum of the EV of
the significant components determined by relevant methods. The
concentration (c, g/100 g) of individual nutrients is multiplied by
conversion factors. The relationship can be generally expressed
as:
EV (kJ/100 g) = 17 × c
carbohydrate
+ 10 × c
polyols
+ 17 × c
proteins
+ 37 × c
fats
+ 29 × c
alcohol
(1)
+ 13 × c
organic acids
+ 8 × c
fiber
EV is expressed in kilocalories (kcal) or kilojoules (kJ); 1 kcal =
4.1868 kJ.
This formula is used in accordance with the requirements of the
EC Directive 90/496/EEC, Nutritional Labeling Rules, together
with Decree Number 330/2009 Coll. “Nutrition labeling of food”
from the Collection of Laws of the Czech Republic (7) and, finally,
newly introduced Regulation (EU) 1169/2011. Because the cal-
culation method requires the development of specific analytical
methods for the determination of each given macronutrient in a
specific matrix and the subsequent determination of all nutrients in
every sample, this method is expensive and also time-consuming.
Brewing analysis conventions such as EBC, MEBAK, and
ASBC use simplified methods for EV determination. EBC
method 9.45, which is designed for the EV determination in beer
(11), uses a simplified alternative, where an estimated EV can be
1
Corresponding author. E-mail: olsovska@beerresearch.cz; phone: +420 224 900 150.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/ASBCJ-2015-0322-01
©
2015 American Society of Brewing Chemists, Inc.
166 / Olšovská, J., Štěrba, K., Pavlovič, M., and Čejka, P.
calculated from the alcohol and real extract of the beer. Mostly,
beer analyzers are equipped by software, which directly calculates
EV from real extract, alcohol, and density measured (direct
method):
EV
dir
(kJ/100 mL) = ϱ × (15 × E
r
+ 29 × c
alcohol
) (2)
where ϱ is density of beer (g/mL), E
r
is real extract in %w/w, and
15 is the approximated conversion factor, which takes into ac-
count the major components of the extract, carbohydrates and
proteins, as well as glycerol; β-glucans; organic acids; amino
acids; phenolic, sulfuric, heterocyclic, and inorganic substances;
and so on. The MEBAK method 2.10.3.7 (18) provides two alter-
natives; the first one is the calculation of EV based on residual
carbohydrates, proteins, and alcohol:
EV
calc
(kJ/100 mL) = 17 × c
carbohydrate
+ 17 × c
proteins
+ 29 × c
alcohol
(3)
The second one uses an approximated equation as equation 2. The
ASBC method (1) presents another equation:
EV
ASBC
(kcal/100 g) = 6.9 (A) + 4 (B – C) (4)
where A (%w/w) is alcohol content, B (%w/w) is real extract, and
C (%w/w) is ash content.
This calculation corrects the real extract value as a measure of
the sum of carbohydrates and proteins.
The big advantage of the method using equation 2 is its simplic-
ity and high throughput. Laboratories dealing with beer analysis are
mostly equipped with analyzers, which can easily determine alco-
hol and real extract concentration. The measurement of alcohol is
based on near-infrared technology and the measurement of real
extract, which is calculated from density. The principle behind the
densitometer is based on the fact that the characteristic frequency of
an oscillating U-tube depends on the density of the filled-in sample
density. Equation 2 is included in the software of this instrument,
and the process of EV calculation is fully automatized, for example,
with Anton Paar (2).
As was mentioned above, Regulation (EU) 1169/2011 defines
a determination of EV as the sum of energetic contributions of
present nutrients and alcohol. Undoubtedly, this assay is abso-
lutely correct; however, this approach is very time-consuming
and more expensive compared with brewery reference methods
(EBC, MEBAK, and ASBC). Therefore, the aim of this study
was a comparison of methods using the sum of all nutrients and
alcohol in beer (equation 3) with the direct method, which uti-
lized only values of alcohol and extract processed with an ap-
proximated equation according to EBC 9.45 method (11). Beer
samples with various ratios of alcohol and extract (34 samples
of lagers, 22 samples of beer mix, and 32 samples of nonalco-
holic beers) were used for this purpose.
EXPERIMENTAL
Beer samples (lagers, nonalcoholic beer, and beer mix) were
obtained from the Czech market and analyzed according to the
routine methods described below.
Real extract measurement was performed on a DMA 4500 den-
sitometer (Anton Paar, Austria) according to EBC 9.4 method
(10). Alcohol content was measured on the Alcolyzer (Anton
Paar) according to EBC 9.2.6 method (9).
Carbohydrate concentration was determined on a high-pressure
pump with a degasser, column thermostat (SISw, Czech Repub-
lic), and autosampler Midas (Spark, Holland) connected with a
high-sensitivity refractive index (RI) detector (Shodex RI 101,
Japan). Chromatographic data were collected and processed by
the DataApex Clarity data system, version 3.0.5.505. The meas-
urement procedure and conditions are described by Jurková et al.
(14).
Total nitrogen content was determined on a mineralization unit
SK-06-RXT (MK Servis s.r.o., Czech Republic) and Büchi 323
(Büchi Labortechnik AG, Switzerland) according to EBC 9.9.1
method (12). Protein content was calculated by multiplying the
total nitrogen content by factor 6.25.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The development of the method for determining total carbohy-
drates, including polyols determination in beer, was the necessary
previous step of this study. Carbohydrates are the main part of
beverage extracts; therefore, the accuracy of this method affects
the ensuing final formulae for EV calculation. Regulation (EU)
117/2010 recommends the determination of oligomers in food
using an enzymatic reaction with amylase or amyloglucosidase,
with subsequent analysis of produced glucose by HPLC (6). The
method described in Analytica EBC 9.26 and MEBAK 2.7.3, the
determination of total carbohydrate content in beer using the hy-
drolysis of carbohydrates with sulfuric acid (85% v/v) into glu-
cose units with the following color reaction and UV/VIS spectros-
copy detection at 625 nm (9,17), does not meet the requirements
of Regulation (EU) 117/2010, which requires the enzymatic con-
version of polymers and oligomers of carbohydrates into glucose
using amylase or amyloglucosidase with a following HPLC deter-
mination. Therefore, in the first step, we developed and verified a
new method (14), where the carbohydrates in beer are cleaved
using an enzymatic reaction with amyloglucosidase into glucose
and short glucose oligomers of less than 10 units, and separated
on an HPLC ionex column in Ag+ mode Rezex RSO-Oligosac-
charide. An HPLC method with RI detection is consequently used
TABLE I
Comparison of Energetic Values Determined Using Direct Method (EV
dir
, Method 1) and Calculating Method (EV
calc
, Method 2)
a
Beer
Ex
r
(% w/w)
Total sacch.
(% w/w)
Proteins
(% w/w)
Alcohol
(% w/w)
EV
dir
(kJ/100 g)
EV
calc
(kJ/100 g)
Rel. diff.
(%)
Lager
Average 4.5 3.7 0.5 3.8 179 181 1.0
Standard deviation 1.8 1.7 0.2 0.7 41 41 2.1
Nonalcoholic beer
Average 4.7 4.5 0.2 0.2 78 82 4.8
Standard deviation 1.4 1.3 0.1 0.1 21 21 3.1
Beer mix
Average 6.1 5.8 0.2 1.7 144 151 4.7
Standard deviation 1.7 1.7 0.1 0.5 37 40 3.7
a
Ex
r
= real extract, Total sacch. = total saccharides, EV
dir
= direct method according to method EBC 9.45 (after conversion of w/v to w/w), EV
calc
= calculation
method according to Regulation (EU) 1169/2011, and Rel. diff. = relative difference between EV
dir
and EV
calc
.
Determination of the Energy Value of Beer / 167
for the determination of resulting glucose and traces of oligomers
with chains shorter than 10 glucose units. The enzymatic reaction
was optimized with respect to the inhibition effect of ethanol in
beer. The resulting recovery of the method in nonalcoholic and
alcoholic beer was 98.5 and 92.3%, respectively.
The EV value of analyzed beer was determined using two
methods. Method 1 was the direct method on the automatic ana-
lyzer of extract and alcohol using approximated equation 2 ac-
cording to EBC method 9.45. Method 2 was the calculation method
(equation 3) according to legislative recommendation. Conse-
quently, EVs obtained from both methods were compared, and the
difference was expressed (Table I).
As follows from our results, the EBC method (namely, equa-
tion 2 used for EV determination) is useful only for lager beers.
When we analyzed nonalcoholic beer or beer mix using this
method, we found various differences (ranging from 5 to 20%)
between the results from equations 3 and 2 (calculation and di-
rect methods, respectively). This discrepancy is probably caused
by different ratios between the concentration of alcohol and car-
bohydrates, and the conversion factor 15 for extract is not accu-
rate in these cases. Different energy contributions of alcohol and
carbohydrates in the studied beer samples are shown in Figure
1. These results were obtained during EV measurement using
the direct method (method 1). It is evident that alcohol is a ma-
jor contribution to total energy in lager samples (approximately
two-thirds). Carbohydrates contribute to total energy with ap-
proximately one-quarter. A completely different situation occurs
for the samples of beer mix and nonalcoholic beer, where the
major proportion of energy belongs to carbohydrates: approxi-
mately two-fourths and four-fifths for beer mix and nonalco-
holic beer, respectively. Finally, in beer mix samples, one-third
of energy is composed of alcohol whereas a negligible contribu-
tion of alcohol was found in nonalcoholic beer. The amount of
proteins and glycerol is insignificant in this context in all sam-
ples studied. The overall comparison of EV regarding the three
types of studied samples is shown in Figure 1; the average EV
of lagers is the highest, 182 kJ/100 mL, whereas the average EV
of nonalcoholic beers (produced by interrupted fermentation) is
half compared with lagers, 83 kJ/100 mL. The energy of beer
mix (with a low content of alcohol, less than 2%) depends on
the level of sugar added; the average EV of our samples was 150
kJ/100 mL.
A statistical summary of results obtained is shown in Table I
and demonstrates trends for the three types of beer studied. The
comparison was performed on 34 samples of lagers (original grav-
ity 9 to 18°P), 32 nonalcoholic beers, and 22 beer mixes. It should
Fig. 1. Contribution of components to the total energy value of beer.
Fig. 2. Correlation between direct and calculating methods: lager beer.
Fig. 3. Correlation between direct and calculating methods: nonalcoholic beer.
Fig. 4. Correlation between direct and calculating methods: beer mix.
168 / Olšovská, J., Štěrba, K., Pavlovič, M., and Čejka, P.
be noted that this study was concerned with the discrepancies
with the nonalcoholic beer, which is produced by the interruption
of fermentation, and beer mix manufactured by mixing beer and
sweetened soft drinks with a ratio of approximately of 1:1.
For further calculations, all results were converted to percent-
ages by weight (Table I).
Unfortunately, the direct method underestimates results for
nonalcoholic beer and beer mix; however, it is a higher-through-
put method, which is a desirable feature for laboratories. Whereas
the analysis time of EV
dir
(using the direct method) is several
minutes, the analysis time of EV
calc
(using the calculation method)
is several hours. Therefore, we propose a new equation for each
type of beer using the obtained data, which were subsequently
processed in the form of correlation EVs regarding the compared
methods.
As is evident from Figures 2, 3, and 4, we have a good correla-
tion for each tested beer type; coefficients of determination were
0.988, 0.987, and 0.993 for lagers, nonalcoholic beers, and beer
mix, respectively. These were determined using least squares re-
gression with and without intercepts (Figs. 2–4, shown by italics),
which allows a comparison of EV
dir
and EV
calc
values.
However, only the equation for lagers is closest to the ideal
form EV
dir
= 1 × EV
calc
. Different results were found for nonalco-
holic beers and beer mix (Fig. 3 and 4, respectively). The results
for these two beverages (Table I) show that the value of EV
dir
obtained by method 1 is underestimated.
Therefore, we recalculated the conversion factors of real extract
X in formula EV
dir
= EV
calc
= X × E
r
+ 29 × c
alcohol
. We found
variables such as EV
calc
, density, real extract, and alcohol content
using the beer analyzer (densitometer connected with an alcolyser).
The results were calculated by linear regression from the indi-
vidual beers, and selected statistical parameters were calculated
for the coefficient X (Table II
).
For lagers, the conversion factor of extract corresponds well to
equation 2, which is 15; the experimentally determined factor is
15.2. Because the confidence interval for the mean was approxi-
mately 0.3 (double the value of the standard average deviation, a
95% probability), it could be considered a good agreement.
Finally, we obtained new conversion factors of extract for non-
alcoholic beer and beer mix of 15.9 and 16.5, respectively. The
confidence interval for the calculated value for nonalcoholic beer
and beer mix is 0.2 and 0.3, respectively.
The new suggested formulae, which correlate with results of in-
direct method, are:
EV
dir
(kJ/100 mL) = ϱ × (15.9 × E
r
+ 29 × c
alcohol
) (5)
for nonalcoholic beer and
EV
dir
(kJ/100 mL) = ϱ × (16.5 × E
r
+ 29 × c
alcohol
) (6)
for beer mix.
The new formulae were confirmed using a regression line be-
tween EV
calc
and EV obtained by a modified direct method with
new conversion factors (EV
dir modif
). The conversion line was con-
structed from the results of real used samples. The slopes of lines
for all types of tested beers are close to unity (Table III). Conse-
quently, the suggested model was verified using paired t tests
between EV
calc
and original EV
dir
, and between EV
calc
and
EV
dir modif
(Table III). It is obvious that an average difference ap-
proached zero and standard error of the mean decreased when the
modified direct method was used.
In a similar way, formulae for various types of fermented bev-
erages could be derived for this purpose. It is worthwhile to invest
time into optimizing the direct method in terms of the derivation
of a specific equation, because this gave a fast, simple, feasible
method, providing accurate results (comparable with the results
from the calculating method). This method could also be consid-
ered a green method, because the method will avoid the chemical
analysis of all macronutrients. The direct method is based on a
simple measurement of the key parameters (density, extract, and
alcohol content); the EV is subsequently automatically calculated.
This measurement requires neither organic solvent nor derivatiza-
tion reagent and, finally, the demands on energy and resulting
time of the method will be low.
CONCLUSION
The direct method for the determination of the EV of beer
based on the measurement of density, extract, and alcohol content
was compared with the method based on the calculation from the
content of each macronutrient and alcohol. Both methods are in
good agreement for lager samples but, for nonalcoholic beers and
beer mix, we found significant differences. Therefore, new formu-
lae were developed for each type of drink, and we demonstrated
better agreement with the calculation method. With this approach,
a new, simplified method for the determination of the EV of non-
alcoholic beers and beer mix was obtained, and we recommend
this procedure for other beverages for which precise formulae are
not yet estimated.
TABLE III
Comparison of Energy Value (EV) Results from Calculation, Direct, and Modified Direct Methods
Comparison Lager Nonalcoholic beer Beer mix
Regression slope with zero intercept (EV
calc
vs. EV
dir modi
f
)
Slope 0.997 1.007 0.997
Standard error of slope 0.004 0.006 0.005
P value <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Paired t test (EV
calc
vs. EV
dir
)
Mean difference (kJ/100 mL) –1.3 –3.9 –9.2
Standard error of mean difference(kJ/100 mL) 4.6 4.9 4.8
Paired t test (EV
calc
vs. EV
dir modi
f
)
Mean difference (kJ/100 mL) –0.4 0.3 0.0
Standard error of mean difference (kJ/100 mL) 4.4 2.7 3.7
TABLE II
Conversion Factors for Energy Value Determination
Using Direct Method
Conversion factor (X)
Lager
Nonalcoholic
beer
Beer mix
Average 15.2 15.9 16.5
Standard deviation 0.97 0.51 0.66
Standard average deviation 0.17 0.09 0.14
Determination of the Energy Value of Beer / 169
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This study was supported by project MZE-RO1914 “Research of the
quality and processing of malting and brewing raw materials” of the Min-
istry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic and by project LLP-LDV-TOI-
2013-1-SI1-LEO05-05341 “Micro-brewing learning and training program
(LdV Beer School)” within the EU financial scheme of Leonardo da Vinci.
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... As has been published recently, this formula is not valid for all types of beer. If the ratio of saccharides and alcohol is more different from the ratio in common lager or ale, different formula (conversion factors for the real extract) or the original calculation method must be applied (Olšovská et al., 2015). The aim of this study is a brief overview of beer nutrients values in different types of beer and cider. ...
... Sodium was analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy on Varian SpectrAA 240FS using the EBC 9.16 method (2012). The total energy value was determined using the calculation method (Equation 1, Olšovská et al., 2015). ...
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Consumers are increasingly interested in the nutritional composition of food and beverages, including beer. Therefore, nutritional values of beer became an integral part of the beer label information. It specifies, in particular, the energy value stipulated by law for beer with alcohol content lower than 1.2% vol.; in some cases also the concentration of carbohydrates, particularly sugars, proteins and salt. This work is a brief practical review of nutritional composition and energy value of different beer types and discusses the contribution of individual nutrients and alcohol to the total energy value. These values were measured in 172 samples of beer (24 pale lagers with the original gravity (OG) ranging from 9.00-10.99%, 45 pale lagers with the OG ranging from 11.00-12.99%, 18 dark lagers with the OG ranging from 11.00-12.99%, 9 special beers with the OG higher than 13%, 31 non-alcoholic beers, 19 beer-mixes, and 26 ciders). The highest average energy value was measured with light special beer (215 kJ/100 mL), cider (208 kJ/100 mL), and dark lager (181 kJ/100 mL). The average value of a standard Pils lager is 175 kJ/100 mL and 144 kJ/100 mL for beers with OG 9.00-10.99% and 11.00-12.99%, respectively. The lowest energy value is measured in non-alcoholic beer (75 kJ/100 mL). In common lagers, alcohol mostly contributes up to 60% to the total energy value, while the energy value of non-alcoholic beer is formed especially by carbohydrates (about 90%). The concentration of salt (sodium) is very low in beer (about 4 mg/100 mL) in comparison with the other food in general.
... Energy value of alcoholic beers could be determined by DMA 4500 densitometer (EV dir ) and it was calculated directly using imple mented software from real extract and alcohol content values according to the EBC method (Analytica EBC 9.45, 2009). Energy value of nonalcoholic beer and beer coolers (EV calc ) was determined using the formula EV calc (kJ/100 ml) = (A × 29) + (C × 17) + (P × 17) where A, C, and P are the contents of alcohol, carbohydrates and proteins, respectively, according to the study of Olšovská et al. (2015). The 29, 17, and 17 constants are factors prescribed in EC Directive (90/496/EEC) for alcohol, carbohydrates and proteins, re spectively (Analytica EBC 9.45, 2009, European Communities, 2006. ...
... Energetickou hodnotu alkoholic kých piv lze stanovit pomocí DMA 4500 denzitometru (EV dir ) a byla vyhodnocena přímo z hodnot skutečného extraktu a obsahu alkoho lu podle metody EBC (Analytica EBC 9.45, 2009) pomocí vlastního software přístroje. Energetická hodnota nealkoholických piv a nápojů na bázi piva (EV calc ) byla stanovena pomocí vzorce EV calc (kJ/100 ml) = (A × 29) + (C × 17) + (P × 17) kde A, C a P jsou obsahy alkoholu A (% hm.), sacharidů C (g/100 ml) a bílkovin P (mg/l) v souladu se studií Olšovská et al. (2015). Konstanty 29, 17 a 17 jsou korekční faktory pro alkohol, sacharidy a proteiny podle EC nařízení (90/496/EEC) (Analytica EBC 9.45, 2009;European Communities, 2006). ...
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V teto studii byly vyvinuty kalibracni modely pro simultanni stanoveni alkoholu, skutecneho extraktu, energeticke hodnoty, celkoveho obsahu sacharidů a dalsich sloucenin v pivu za použiti infracervene spektroskopie v blizke oblasti s Fourierovou transformaci (FT-NIR). Korelace mezi ziskanými FT-NIR spektry a analytickými daty byla provedena pomoci multivariacniho algoritmu metody parcialnich nejmensich ctverců (PLS). Testovana piva byla vyrobena z jecmene ze dvou po sobě jdoucich sklizni. Kalibracni model pro FT-NIR byl sestrojen z dat naměřených referencnimi metodami a byl ověřen pomoci průměrne kvadraticke odchylky kalibrace (RMSEC), odchylky křižove validace (RMSECV) a chyby predikce (RMSEP). Ziskane kalibracni modely pro energetickou hodnotu, alkohol, skutecný extrakt a obsah sacharidů jsou stabilni a spolehlive. Dlouhodoba platnost kalibrace byla ověřena srovnanim externich validacnich parametrů, vyjadřených jako RMSEPex.
... The EV of each beer sample was determined using MEBAK method as described by Olsovska et al. [30]. The EV value calculated in kJ/100 mL from the following formula was converted to kcal/100 mL using the standard (1 kcal = 4.1868 kJ). ...
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... The results obtained for the products were much lower than the range of 12.50-12.55% found by Adenugaet al (2010) for sorghum beer but similar to the findings of Olsovska and Sterba (2015) and Tan et al. (2015) who reported values of 3.8% v/v and 2.5-4.3% v/v respectively for lager type beers. ...
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The search for local alternatives to barley for brewing has been a major concern to stakeholders in the beer industry in Nigeria and Africa. One of such alternative and which can be sustained is the use of Sorghum and cassava as raw materials. This research work was aimed at investigating the possibility of producing lager beer using a blend of sorghum and hybrid yellow cassava (IBA 070593 and IBA 070539). The two yellow cassava varieties were blended with the sorghum malt at ratio 0:100 (control), 20:80, 30:70, 40:60 and 50:50. Fermentation was carried out for duration of 10 days and samples analyzed every 2 days interval. Parameters analyzed were yeast count, pH, total soluble sugars, alcohol content and sensory evaluation using standard procedures. The results showed that the formulation ratio of 20:80 had the highest yeast count and alcohol content of 286.7 ± 2.60 × 10 12 cfu/ml and 6.78 ± 0.41 % respectively, while the least values of 247.3 ± 1.76 × 10 12 cfu/ml and 3.63 ± 0.49 % were from 50:50 ration.Sensory evaluation showed that overall acceptability of 8.00 ± 0.05 was from 20:80 ration while the least of 7.30 ± 0.13 was from 40:60. The study revealed that the hybrid of yellow cassava blended with sorghum can be a favourable raw material for beer production.
... The main calory sources of beer are represented by carbohydrates and alcohol. Compared with lager or beer mixes, nonalcoholic beers have lower alcohol content (<0.2%) and, therefore, are also most of the times evidenced with a lower energy values [84]. Special beers such as NAB, LAB, and CB contain small amounts of ethanol. ...
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... Among the commercial samples analyzed in this study, one featured alcoholic content below 4% v/v, six featured above 5% v/v, and the remainder featured between 4 and 5% v/v; as for the primitive extract, five beer samples were classified as light, twenty as beer and three as extra; as for the color, only one sample was classified as dark beer; as for malt proportion, fourteen samples were classified as pure malt and the rest were classified as beer. Dlšovská et al. (2015), when analyzing 34 Lager type beer samples in the Czech Republic, have reported average alcohol content of 3.8% v/v. On 27 samples of Chinese canned beer, average alcohol content remained between 2.5 and 4.3% v/v and primitive extract remained between 8 and 12 °Plato (Tan et al., 2015). ...
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... Among the commercial samples analyzed in this study, one featured alcoholic content below 4% v/v, six featured above 5% v/v, and the remainder featured between 4 and 5% v/v; as for the primitive extract, five beer samples were classified as light, twenty as beer and three as extra; as for the color, only one sample was classified as dark beer; as for malt proportion, fourteen samples were classified as pure malt and the rest were classified as beer. Dlšovská et al. (2015), when analyzing 34 Lager type beer samples in the Czech Republic, have reported average alcohol content of 3.8% v/v. On 27 samples of Chinese canned beer, average alcohol content remained between 2.5 and 4.3% v/v and primitive extract remained between 8 and 12 °Plato (Tan et al., 2015). ...
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Since publication of its First Edition in 1981, Exercise Physiology has helped more than 350,000 students build a solid foundation of the scientific principles underlying modern exercise physiology. This Seventh Edition has been thoroughly updated with all the most recent findings, guiding you to the latest understanding of nutrition, energy transfer, and exercise training and their relationship to human performance. This Seventh Edition maintains its popular seven-section structure. It begins with an exploration of the origins of exercise physiology and concludes with an examination of the most recent efforts to apply principles of molecular biology. The book provides excellent coverage of exercise physiology, uniting the topics of energy expenditure and capacity, molecular biology, physical conditioning, sports nutrition, body composition, weight control, and more. Every chapter has been fully revised and updated to reflect the latest information in the field. The updated full-color art program adds visual appeal and improves understanding of key topics. A companion website includes over 30 animations of key exercise physiology concepts; the full text online; a quiz bank; references; appendices; information about microscope technologies; a timeline of notable events in genetics; a list of Nobel Prizes in research related to cell and molecular biology; the scientific contributions of thirteen outstanding female scientists; an image bank; a Brownstone test generator; PowerPoint® lecture outlines; and image-only PowerPoint® slides.
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The estimation of important nutritional parameters, such as carbohydrates content and energetic value (calories) in commercially available fruit juice and flavour milk shakes has been made by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) using a partial-least-square (PLS) calibration approach. A highly heterogeneous population of 65 samples obtained from the Spanish market, covering fruit juices, flavour milk shakes and milk-added fruit juices was used. The spectral range and the size of the calibration set for building the PLS model have been evaluated.Considering a calibration set comprised of 27 samples, selected via hierarchical cluster analysis, and a validation data set of 38 samples, the absolute mean difference (dx–y) and standard deviation of mean differences (sx–y) of the total carbohydrate content were 0.06 and 0.66 g/100 mL, respectively. The reproducibility of this determination established as the mean standard deviation of each triplicate analysis was 0.05 g/100 mL. In the case of energetic value, the dx–y and sx–y were 2.8 and 18 kJ/100 mL, respectively. The reproducibility of this determination corresponded to a standard deviation of 2.4 kJ/100 mL, for three replicate analyses. The root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 18.4 kJ/100 mL and 0.72 g/100 mL for energetic value and total carbohydrates, respectively.The developed methodology favourably compares with that reported in previous works in much restricted sample composition and provided figures of merit which agree with the US-FDA statuary tolerance values.
Section 9, Beer Method 9.2.6. Alcohol in beer by near infrared spectroscopy. Analytica-EBC
  • European Brewery Convention
European Brewery Convention. Section 9, Beer Method 9.2.6. Alcohol in beer by near infrared spectroscopy. Analytica-EBC. Fachverlag Hans Carl, Nürnberg, Germany, 2009.