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Responsible Tourism Manual for South Africa Responsible Tourism Manual for South Africa

Authors:
  • Independent Consultant

Abstract

This manual aims to provide established as well as community-based tourism enterprises (CBTEs) with information about “responsible tourism” and the opportunities that it presents for improving business performance. Specific to South Africa, and in line with current international best practice, the authors have collected a range of practical and cost-effective responsible actions available to tourism businesses and tourism associations. The manual refers to many useful sources of information and examples of best practice that can help to guide users’ implementation of responsible business activities.
Responsible Tourism Manual
for South Africa
July 2002
Department for Environmental Affairs and Tourism,
Republic of South Africa
Responsible Tourism Manual for South Africa
1
Developed for the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism.
Researched, produced and written by Anna Spenceley, Piers Relly, Heidi Keyser, Paul
Warmeant, Margaret McKenzie, Aphista Mataboge, Peter Norton, Sipho Mahlangu and Jennifer
Seif.
Acknowledgements
This manual was developed by a working group of technical consultants, drawing on a wide range
of sources and personal experiences as well as on feedback by sector stakeholders. In addition,
a number of people contributed time and input to the development of this manual. Special
thanks to: Lee-Anne Bac (Grant Thornton Kessel Feinstein), Brent Corcoran (Ezemvelo KZN
Wildlife), Neville Flint (On-Tap), Harold Goodwin (The International Centre for Responsible
Tourism), Johann Kotzé (Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism), Greg McManus
(Qualitour), James Parker (Tourism, Hospitality and Sport Education Training Authority:
THETA), Chris Rogerson (University of Witwatersrand) and Andrew Venter (The Wildlands
Trust). Many thanks to Jennifer Seif (Fair Trade in Tourism South Africa) for her editing
efforts. Thanks also to the following institutions and individuals who generously allowed us to
reproduce extracts of their publications in this manual and who retain copyright of their
material:
CSIR
Centre for Responsible Tourism
Community Public Private Partnership Programme
Conservation International
Continuum, London
Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable
Tourism, Griffith University
Department for International Development
Development Southern Africa
Ecotourism Society of Australia
Energy & Development Research Centre,
University of Cape Town
Fair Trade in Tourism South Africa
Greenpeace Environmental Trust
International Institute for Environment &
Development
Living Waters Foundation
National Geographic Traveller & Travel Industry
Association of America
Natural Resources Institute
Overseas Development Institute
Peter Norton & Associates
Programme for Land and Agrarian Studies,
University of the Western Cape
Qualitour
Rocky Mountain Institute
Sustainable Energy Africa
Sustainable Energy, Environment and
Development
Sustainable Livelihoods Southern Africa project,
Institute of Development Studies
Tearfund
Texas Water Resources Institute
The Journal of Southern African Tourism
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
UNEP-Biodiversity Planning Support Programme
Zolile Ntshona
And finally, thanks to the Institute of Natural Resources, which generously hosted the
compilation of this manual.
COPYRIGHT
© Copyright 2002. All rights vested in the Department for Environmental Affairs and Tourism,
Republic of South Africa.
Citation: Spenceley, A., Relly, P., Keyser, H., Warmeant, P., McKenzie, M., Mataboge, A., Norton,
P., Mahlangu, S., and Seif, J. (2002) Responsible Tourism Manual for South Africa, Department
for Environmental Affairs and Tourism, July 2002.
Responsible Tourism Manual for South Africa
2
The views expressed within this manual remain those of the authors and do not necessarily
reflect the views of the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT) or the
individuals and organisations that contributed to the compilation of the manual. Neither the
authors nor DEAT accept any responsibility in relation to any information or advice provided
herein or as a consequence of anything contained herein.
OVERVIEW
This manual aims to provide established as well as community-based tourism enterprises (CBTEs)
with information about “responsible tourism” and the opportunities that it presents for
improving business performance. Specific to South Africa, and in line with current international
best practice, the authors have collected a range of practical and cost-effective responsible
actions available to tourism businesses and tourism associations. The manual refers to many
useful sources of information and examples of best practice that can help to guide users’
implementation of responsible business activities.
Users of this manual should not attempt to implement all of the options outlined in this manual.
They should rather read the manual as a menu of options that can be used to achieve more
responsible business. The contents of this manual are thus intended to initiate a process – of
working responsibly, setting targets, self-monitoring and showcasing achievements to customers,
staff, the tourism sector, suppliers, neighbours and other relevant parties.
By developing and operating tourism more responsibly, South Africa will progress towards the
sustainable growth of its tourism sector. This year, South Africa is hosting the World Summit
on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg, which creates an opportunity for South
Africa to showcase its achievements in sustainable use of natural resources, poverty alleviation
and sustainable economic development (www.joburgsummit2002.com). Immediately prior to the
WSSD, Cape Town will host a conference on “Responsible Tourism in Destinations”. South Africa
will promote its “Responsible Tourism” ethic to the world (www.capetourism.org) at this
conference. It is envisaged that a responsible tourism charter will be developed at this
conference and subsequently showcased at the WSSD.
This is the first edition of the “Responsible Tourism Manual for South Africa”. The Department
of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT) intend that the contents of the manual will be
updated and improved continuously, to render it user friendly and relevant to sector trends and
developments. Please help DEAT to improve this manual by sending feedback, suggestions,
examples of best practice and/or other comments to:
The Project Leader: Responsible Tourism in South Africa
Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism
Private Bag X447
Pretoria, 0001
South Africa
fax comments to +27 (0)12 320 4740
or email jkotze@deat.gov.za
The consultation process that led to the development of this manual generated a great deal of
enthusiasm for responsible tourism amongst stakeholders in the tourism sector. It is hoped
that users of this manual will share this enthusiasm and help to make South Africa the world’s
Number One Responsible Tourism Destination!
Responsible Tourism Manual for South Africa
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CONTENTS
Acknowledgements......................................................................................................................................................................1
Contents........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3
List of Appendices, Tables and Plates.................................................................................................................................. 5
List of Figures and Boxes ........................................................................................................................................................6
1. What is Responsible Tourism? ..................................................................................................................................... 8
2. Responsible Tourism and the (Triple) Bottom Line ................................................................................................9
2.1 International trends towards responsible business practice..................................................................9
2.2 Answering growing market demand for Responsible Tourism products............................................... 10
2.3 The ‘feel good’ factor......................................................................................................................................... 11
3. Using the Responsible Tourism Guidelines and Manual........................................................................................ 12
3.1 Who should use the Responsible Tourism guidelines? ..............................................................................13
3.2 The importance of being transparent ........................................................................................................... 13
3.3 Trade / Tourism Associations......................................................................................................................... 14
3.4 Tourism enterprises........................................................................................................................................... 15
3.5 Tourism Planners and Practitioners ............................................................................................................... 17
4. Economic Responsibility ............................................................................................................................................... 17
4.1 The Benefits of Economic Responsibility..................................................................................................... 17
4.2 An Action Plan for Economic Responsibility ................................................................................................20
4.3 Product development .........................................................................................................................................22
4.4 Marketing..............................................................................................................................................................26
4.5 Linkages and partnerships................................................................................................................................28
4.6 Enterprise purchasing ....................................................................................................................................... 31
5. Social Responsibility .....................................................................................................................................................35
5.1 The Benefits of Social Responsibility...........................................................................................................35
5.2 An Action Plan for Social Responsibility ......................................................................................................36
5.3 Creating Responsible Partnerships.................................................................................................................37
5.4 Establishing a Social Contract ........................................................................................................................39
5.5 Local people as tourists.....................................................................................................................................42
5.6 Supporting Community Development .............................................................................................................42
5.7 Tourist activities and information .................................................................................................................45
5.8 Recruitment and employment ..........................................................................................................................48
5.9 Capacity Building, training and skills development..................................................................................... 5 1
6. Environmental Responsibility......................................................................................................................................55
6.1 The Benefits of environmental management and biodiversity conservation ......................................55
6.1.1 How does a tourism operation affect conservation and biodiversity? ...........................................55
6.1.2 How can an enterprise manage its impact on the environment?.......................................................56
6.1.3 New Enterprises............................................................................................................................................57
6.1.4 Existing Enterprises.....................................................................................................................................60
6.1.5 Setting targets..............................................................................................................................................60
6.1.6 Creating an environmental responsibility strategy .............................................................................. 61
6.1.7 Environmental education of staff and guests........................................................................................65
6.1.8 Decommissioning............................................................................................................................................68
6.2 Water Use & Disposal........................................................................................................................................68
6.3 Energy....................................................................................................................................................................74
6.4 Materials Use and Waste Management ........................................................................................................ 81
7. Conclusion .............................................................................................................................................................................89
8. Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................................................90
Responsible Tourism Manual for South Africa
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List of Abbreviations Used
APCOSA Association for Professional Conference Organisers of South Africa
ASATA Association of South African Travel Agents
BABASA Bed and Breakfast Association of South Africa
BTSA Backpacker Tourism South Africa Trust
CBTE Community Based Tourism Enterprise
CGSA Caterers Guild of South Africa
COASA Coach Operators Association of Southern Africa
CPA Community Property Association
CPPP Community Public Private Partnership
CSI Corporate Social Investment
CSR Corporate Social Responsibility
CTASA Community Tourism Association of South Africa
DEAT Department for Environmental Affairs and Tourism
DFID Department for International Development (UK)
DTI Department of Trade and Industry
EIA Environmental Impact Assessment
EIR Environmental Impact Report
EXSA Exhibition Association of Southern Africa
FEDHASA Federated Hospitality Association of South Africa
FGASA Field Guides Association of South Africa
FTTSA Fair Trade in Tourism South Africa
GEAR Growth, Employment and Redistribution Macro-Economic Policy Framework
GHASA Guest House Association of South Africa
GM Genetically Modified
HDG Historically Disadvantaged Group
HDI Historically Disadvantaged Individual
ITE Individual Tourism Entrepreneurs
IUCN The World Conservation Union
MCSA Mountain Club of South Africa
MDA Mineworkers Development Agency
NGO Non-Governmental Organisation
PHASA Professional Hunters Association of South Africa
SABBWWA South African Boat-Based Whale Watching Association
SABS South African Bureau of Standards
SANParks South African National Parks
SATSA Southern Africa Tourism Services Association
SAVRALA South Africa Vehicle Renting and Leasing Association
SMME Small, Medium and Micro Enterprise
SMMTE Small, Medium and Micro Tourism Enterprises
TEP Tourism Enterprise Programme
TGGSA Tourism Guide Guild of South Africa
THETA Tourism, Hospitality and Sport Education Training Authority
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
USP Unique Selling Point / Unique Selling Proposition
WSSD World Summit on Sustainable Development
WTO World Tourism Organisation
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LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix 1 South African Responsible Tourism Guidelines (DEAT, 2002)
Appendix 2 Definitions of key concepts and terms
Appendix 3 Key aspects of tourism planning and development
Appendix 4 Spreadsheet frameworks for reporting and monitoring:
4A: Enterprise purchasing
4B: Employment and training
4C: Water consumption
4D: Water volume and financial savings
4E: Energy consumption
4F: Energy and financial savings
Appendix 5 Sources of further information
Appendix 6 Contact details of the authors
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Some International Initiatives related to Responsible Tourism ................................................................. 10
Table 2: What are some of the adverse impacts of tourism and why do these exist?......................................... 12
Table 3: Leaders in establishing Responsible Tourism in South Africa .................................................................... 13
Table 4: Towards a Code of Conduct / Code of Best Practice..................................................................................... 15
Table 5: A Plan of Action for Responsible Tourism at enterprise level .................................................................... 16
Table 6: Positive and negative socio-economic impacts of tourism in local communities...................................... 19
Table 7: Ten Steps towards economic responsibility .....................................................................................................20
Table 8: Communicating Economic Responsibility ............................................................................................................22
Table 9: Trade Associations and Standards Generating Bodies..................................................................................26
Table 10: Marketing Channels and Sources of Support.................................................................................................27
Table 11: Sources of information on Joint Venture agreements................................................................................. 31
Table 12: Potential opportunities for business linkages with SMMEs .......................................................................33
Table 13: Potential socio-cultural effects of tourism on host communities ............................................................35
Table 14: Taking action towards social responsibility ....................................................................................................36
Table 15: Establishing Responsible Partnerships: an enterprise perspective..........................................................38
Table 16: Developing a Social Contract: an enterprise perspective ...........................................................................40
Table 17: Issues that could be covered by a social contract......................................................................................40
Table 18: Enabling local people to see themselves as part of the tourism industry: a menu of possible
options at enterprise level ..........................................................................................................................................42
Table 19: Existing and potential local community products and services near Coral Divers
(www.coraldivers.co.za)................................................................................................................................................47
Table 20: Tourist Guide regulations....................................................................................................................................50
Table 21: Recorded Examples of Environmental Impacts of Tourism........................................................................56
Table 22: An example of a tourism enterprise that has monitored energy use and created benchmarks:
Jackalberry Lodge (www.thornybush.co.za) ...........................................................................................................76
Table 23: Water requirements for 100 people. ...............................................................................................................77
Table 24: Average electricity use of various appliances...............................................................................................79
Table 25: Dim and Save ..........................................................................................................................................................79
A1 Government Roles in Tourism Development Appendix 3
A2 Sources of information regarding Provincial Tourism Policy and Legislation Appendix 3
A3 Policy Frameworks, Legislation, and regulations affecting Tourism operations Appendix 3
LIST OF PLATES
Plate 1: Examples of “Codes of Conduct” for visitors at the Sterkfontein Caves and Sodwana Bay..............67
Plate 2: Responsible use of natural lighting & ventilation in building design at Coral Divers, Sodwana Bay ..77
Responsible Tourism Manual for South Africa
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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Role of the Community in Tourism Enterprises ..............................................................................................29
Figure 2: The structure of Rocktail Bay Lodge................................................................................................................30
Figure 3: Life-Cycle of environmental impact issues of tourism operations............................................................56
Figure 4 : Comparison of Household and Hotel water use.............................................................................................68
Figure 5: Materials inputs and Waste outputs in your organisation...........................................................................82
A1 The Environmental Impact Assessment Process Appendix 3
LIST OF BOXES
Box 1: CSR in practice............................................................................................................................................................. 10
Box 2: CSR in tourism.............................................................................................................................................................. 10
Box 3: USA Geotourism Survey Results..............................................................................................................................11
Box 4: Coral Divers ...................................................................................................................................................................11
Box 5: The Tour Operators’ Initiative for Sustainable Tourism Development (TOI)............................................11
Box 6: Reporting ....................................................................................................................................................................... 13
Box 7: Fair Trade in Tourism South Africa (FTTSA) .................................................................................................... 14
Box 8: Some South African Trade Associations and their Codes of Conduct.........................................................14
Box 9: The Nature and Ecotourism Accreditation Program (NEAP) .......................................................................... 15
Box 10: Some Responsible Tourism Enterprises in South Africa................................................................................ 16
Box 11: Sources of information about Responsible Tourism planning and assessment .......................................... 17
Box 12: Leaders in Economic Responsibility in South African Tourism ..................................................................... 1 8
Box 13: Overview of the Tourism Industry in South Africa ........................................................................................20
Box 14: Pro-poor tourism........................................................................................................................................................ 21
Box 15: Local product development .....................................................................................................................................23
Box 16: Supporting new product development..................................................................................................................24
Box 17: Rocktail Bay Lodge (www.rocktailbay.com).........................................................................................................27
Box 18: The KhumbulaZulu Craft company ........................................................................................................................27
Box 19: Fair Trade in Tourism South Africa (www.fairtourismsa.org.za).................................................................28
Box 20: Damaraland Camp......................................................................................................................................................29
Box 21: Components required for successful linkages: opportunities, information, capacity, capital............... 31
Box 22: South African National Parks Commercialisation ............................................................................................32
Box 23: KZN Wildlife and SMME development in Sodwana Bay .................................................................................32
Box 24: Reporting on and monitoring responsible purchasing ......................................................................................34
Box 25: Two forms of business linkage that aim to cut costs: outsourcing and insourcing................................34
Box 26: Benefits of Social Responsibility .........................................................................................................................36
Box 27: Pula Lodge sets targets and benchmarks...........................................................................................................37
Box 28: National Responsible Gambling Programme........................................................................................................37
Box 29: Identifying and Working with Community Representatives..........................................................................38
Box 30: Examples of Best Practice in Co-operation .......................................................................................................39
Box 31: Keys to success in institutional structures........................................................................................................39
Box 32: The Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC)............................................................................................................. 41
Box 33: Ngala Private Game Reserve..................................................................................................................................42
Box 34: The Africa Foundation (AF)...................................................................................................................................43
Box 35: Umnganzi River Bungalows......................................................................................................................................43
Box 36: Leading Socially Responsible Tourism Enterprises..........................................................................................44
Box 37: Examples of cultural and heritage tourism........................................................................................................45
Box 38: Local Tours at Rocktail Bay (www.rocktailbay.com).........................................................................................46
Box 39: Code of Conduct for Mountaineering ..................................................................................................................48
Box 40: Basic types of cultural educational interventions for staff and tourists. ................................................48
Box 41: Jackalberry Lodge dividends .................................................................................................................................49
Box 42: Recruitment and Employment at Rocktail Bay and beyond ............................................................................49
Box 43: Amadiba Adventures Horse and Hiking Trail ....................................................................................................50
Box 44: The National Qualifications Framework (NQF) (www.saqa.org.za).............................................................52
Responsible Tourism Manual for South Africa
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Box 45: Leaders in socially responsible education for tourism growth and development ....................................53
Box 46: HIV / AIDS in the Tourism Industry .................................................................................................................54
Box 47: Responsible Building Design ...................................................................................................................................58
Box 48: Sources of information about environmentally sensitive design and construction.................................59
Box 49: Suggestions on minimising noise pollution ..........................................................................................................59
Box 50: Transparently monitorable and reportable evaluations of impacts in Kruger National Park
Concessions .....................................................................................................................................................................60
Box 51: Contributions to conservation................................................................................................................................ 61
Box 52: Some sources of information and advice regarding environmental management systems for tourism
............................................................................................................................................................................................ 61
Box 53: Think carefully about roses ...................................................................................................................................62
Box 54: The sewage pond system at Hwange Safari Lodge, Zimbabwe.....................................................................63
Box 55: Dead wood...................................................................................................................................................................63
Box 56: Examples of clean-up campaigns ...........................................................................................................................64
Box 57: Waterholes in Kruger National Park....................................................................................................................64
Box 58: Dealing with Pests without Pesticides.................................................................................................................65
Box 59: Off-Road Code of Conduct for rangers, Imbali Safari Lodge Kruger National Park.............................66
Box 60: Code of Conduct for Swimming with Whale Sharks........................................................................................66
Box 61: Sources of best practice for operators, guides and guest working in sensitive habitats.....................67
Box 62: Gravity fed reticulation ..........................................................................................................................................68
Box 63: How to calculate water flow rates.......................................................................................................................69
Box 64: Monitoring water consumption in the Kruger National Park .........................................................................70
Box 65: Toilet cisterns at Coral Divers (www.coraldivers.co.za) in Sodwana Bay................................................... 71
Box 66: Measuring water savings......................................................................................................................................... 71
Box 67: Ngala Private Game Reserve’s (www.ccafrica.com) housekeeping department ........................................72
Box 68: Gardening at Jackalberry Lodge ..........................................................................................................................72
Box 69: Septic tank effluent ................................................................................................................................................73
Box 70: Some useful web-links with information on responsible wastewater disposal .........................................73
Box 71: Reed-bed systems at Sabi Sabi Private Game Reserve. .................................................................................74
Box 72: Savings at Coral Divers in Sodwana Bay (www.coraldivers.co.za) ................................................................80
Box 73: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions are one of the main causes of global warming......................................80
Box 74: Publications and relevant websites (responsible energy use) ....................................................................... 81
Box 75: Urban SEED Programme (www.seedlinks.org.za) .............................................................................................. 81
Box 76: The Zero Waste Plan ...............................................................................................................................................82
Box 77: Reduce, reuse, recycle ............................................................................................................................................83
Box 78: Worm farm provides food and solves waste problems ...................................................................................84
Box 79: Mondi (www.mondi.co.za).........................................................................................................................................85
Box 80: Low volumes of oil and diesel spill ........................................................................................................................86
Box 81: Process to establish a recycling scheme.............................................................................................................86
Box 82: Facts about recycling ..............................................................................................................................................87
Box 83: The problem with landfills......................................................................................................................................88
Box 84: The problem with incineration...............................................................................................................................88
Box 85: Publications and relevant websites (waste management)...............................................................................88
A1 Sources of information about integrated development planning Appendix 3
A2 Tools for public participation Appendix 3
A3 Selecting and Environmental Impact Assessment Practitioner Appendix 3
A4 Sources of information about Environmental Impact Assessments Appendix 3
A5 Sources of information about tourism business development Appendix 3
Responsible Tourism Manual for South Africa
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1. WHAT IS “RESPONSIBLE TOURISM”?
“Responsible Tourism”, put simply, is about providing better holiday experiences for guests and
good business opportunities for tourism enterprises.Responsible Tourism” is also about
enabling local communities to enjoy a better quality of life through increased socio-economic
benefits and improved natural resource management. South Africa’s Tourism White Paper
(1996) refers specifically to the concept of “Responsible Tourism”, the key elements of which
can be defined in terms of1:
Developing, managing and marketing tourism in ways that create competitive advantage;
Assessing and monitoring the environmental, social and economic impacts of tourism
developments, and openly disclosing information;
Ensuring the active involvement of communities that benefit from tourism, including their
participation in planning and decision-making and the establishment of meaningful economic
linkages;
Maintaining and encouraging natural, economic, social and cultural diversity;
Avoiding waste and over-consumption, and promoting the sustainable use of local resources.
National policy further specifies that tourism development in South Africa should be
government led, private sector driven, community based, and labour conscious2. These various
sectors are committed to partnership with the people of South Africa to develop and market
good quality, sustainable tourism experiences that demonstrate the country’s commitment to
social, economic, environmental, technical, institutional and financial responsibility. Towards
this end, sector stakeholders must ensure that international as well as domestic tourism
contributes equitably to the socio-economic upliftment of all South Africans.
In this spirit of equitable and sustainable tourism development, the DEAT developed over the
course of 2001 the South African National Responsible Tourism Guidelines, which were
launched by Minister Valli Moosa at the Tourism Indaba on 13 May 2002
(www.environment.gov.za). The guidelines (see Appendix 1) reflect DEAT’s vision
to manage
tourism in a way that contributes to the improvement of the quality of life of all South Africans,
including future generations.3 They were developed to provide national guidance and indicators to
enable the tourism sector to demonstrate progress towards the principles of “Responsible
Tourism” embodied in the 1996 White Paper. The guidelines were drafted with technical
assistance financed by the British Department for International Development (DfID), while
capitalising on South African expertise in tourism development through consultation with a wide
range of tourism stakeholders.4
South Africa’s pioneering “Responsible Tourism Guidelines” provide the necessary starting point
for defining and benchmarking responsible practice in such sub-sectors as accommodation,
transport, cultural and natural heritage tours as well as in marketing and other types of
1 DEAT (1996)
The development and promotion of tourism in South Africa
, White Paper, Government of South Africa,
Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism ((www.environment.gov.za)
2 DEAT (1997) Tourism in GEAR: Tourism development strategy 1998-2000 (www.environment.gov.za)
3 Matlou, P. (2001) The potential of ecotourism development and its partnership with spatial development initiatives
(SDI), Seminar on Planning, Development and Management of Ecotourism in Africa, Regional Preparatory Meeting for the
International Year of Ecotourism, 2002, Maputo, Mozambique, 5-6 March 2001
4 Spenceley, A., Goodwin, H., and Maynard, W. (Draft) The development of Responsible Tourism guidelines for South
Africa, Chapter in Diamantis, D. and Geldenhuys, S. (Eds) Ecotourism: Management and Assessment, Continuum
International
Appendix 2: Responsible Tourism Manual for South Africa
APPENDIX 2: DEFINITIONS OF KEY CONCEPTS AND TERMS1
Atmospheric Pollution: Atmospheric pollution is caused when pollutants released into the atmosphere
disturb the natural balance of atmospheric systems in various ways. These disturbances include ozone
depletion, acid rain and climate change. Atmospheric pollution causes imbalances in the atmosphere. Whilst
the atmosphere seems to have the capacity for managing these imbalances, it is not known how long this
capacity will last.
Biodegradable: Biodegradable substances are those that are easily broken down by living organisms like
microbes and bacteria, and are then absorbed into the environment. Waste products that are
biodegradable cause less harm in the environment since, after having been bio-degraded, their constituent
parts are used by other organisms and processes in nature. Substances that are not biodegradable should
be recycled or re-used to promote sustainability.
Biodiversity: Biodiversity, or biological diversity, describes the extraordinary diversity of plant, animal
and insect species that exist on earth, the genes they contain, their evolutionary history and the potential
they encompass and the ecosystems, ecological processes and landscapes of which they are integral parts.
Each grouping of species has a different genetic make-up to cope with a specific range of circumstances
such as climate, food supply, habitat, defence and movement.
Bioremediation: Bioremediation is the method of using living organisms as a means of cleaning up or
removing pollution from soil or water. Usually this is done using special types of microorganisms, for
instance natural or bio-engineered bacteria, which convert the pollution or hazardous waste into harmless
substances.
Communities: The term ‘communities’ is used to describe two types of situations, one relating to humanity
and the other to the natural environment. Communities in the context of humanity are defined as groups of
people living, working and interacting together in a manner that may result in organised activities, views and
opinions. In the context of nature, the term is used mainly to describe groups of plant and animal species
that live together and interact with each other in the same geographical area.
Ecological Footprint: This term is used to describe the ecological impact a company or group of people
have on the earth. The bigger the footprint, the worse the impact. The ecological footprint is a complicated
measurement, which includes information such as population numbers, technology used, energy consumed,
water used, use of natural resources, etc. The principles of sustainable development require us to make our
individual and collective ecological footprints as small as possible.
Ecotourism: Environmentally and culturally responsible tourism that promotes environmental understanding
and appreciation; facilitates conservation; and sustains the ecology, culture and well being of local
communities and adjacent lands.
Endemics: Endemics are plant or animal species that occur only in one very specific geographical area and
nowhere else on earth.
Environment: Surroundings in which an organisation operates, including air, water, land, natural resources,
flora, fauna, humans, and their interrelationships.
Environmental Impact: Any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially
resulting from an organisation’s activities, products or services.
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA): EIA is a process that produces a research report that
examines the environmental impact (positive and negative) of a project or development on a particular area.
It looks at different alternatives to a project to assist the decision-makers to decide which type of
project will best suit an area or particular environment while having the least negative environmental
impact. The EIA is a planning tool and can only provide guidance to decision-makers. The EIA will present a
set of alternatives indicating the benefits and drawbacks of each alternative. This will then assist the
decision-makers to decide whether the project may go ahead and in what form and under which conditions
it should go ahead.
Environmental Management System (EMS): The part of the overall management system that includes
organisational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and
resources for developing, implementing, achieving, reviewing and maintaining an environmental policy.
Environmental Polic
y
: Statement b
y
the or
g
anisation of its intentions and
p
rinci
p
les in relation to its
1 The definitions contained in this Appendix rely on: Qualitour (2001) Heritage Environmental Rating programme,
(www.qualitour.co.za); and J. Seif (2002), A User’s Guide to the FTTSA Trademark (www.fairtourismsa.org.za).
Appendix 2: Responsible Tourism Manual for South Africa
overall environmental performance, which provides a framework for action and for setting of its
environmental objectives and targets.
Fair Trade: Fair Trade is a global movement for social change that started in the 1960s in Northern
Europe, in an attempt to address unequal terms of trade between “North” and “South”. Fair Trade is an
alternative to ‘free trade’ that seeks to address these inequalities through fair trade labelling, ethical
trading initiatives and partnerships. Fair Trade is demand driven: consumers are often willing to pay a
higher price for Fair Trade labelled commodities to guarantee fair wages and working conditions for small-
scale producers in developing countries.
Fair Trade in Tourism: Fair Trade in Tourism is a market intervention that draws upon the global “Fair
Trade” movement, to create a useful model for maximising the benefits of tourism for people living in the
host area. Since 1999, Tourism Concern in London has hosted an international network on Fair Trade in
Tourism (www.tourismconcern.org.uk).
Indigenous: Naturally occurring in a defined area. The opposite of indigenous is alien, invasive and/or
exotic.
Landfill: Landfill is a method of waste disposal where waste is dumped into a hole, a depression or a valley.
The waste is then compacted and covered with soil or material, for instance building rubble, to keep flies
away and prevent diseases from developing. Landfill sites must be carefully researched, planned and
developed to prevent liquid wastes from leaching through the site down to the base of the landfill and
polluting groundwater resources. Landfill is not a satisfactory method of disposal, but has been
traditionally used for many years. Once full, landfill sites cannot be built on and can only be used as parks
or sports fields.
Local Community: Includes both the host group who are responsible for the tourist’s experience and the
people living within and around the tourism destination.
NOTE: Defining ‘local’ falls upon individual business managers. Although the definition above provides more
clarification, the term is very business-specific. It is therefore the enterprise’s responsibility to ensure
that the decided upon definition is well known within the business, and that it encompasses all relevant
parties.
Historically Disadvantaged Individuals and Groups (HDI/HDG) are described as individuals who are
citizens of the Republic of South Africa and who, according to apartheid era racial classification, did not
have the right to vote or had restricted voting rights immediately prior to the 1994 democratic elections.
Stakeholders: Parties who have an interest in the functioning of the organisation or enterprise, including:
local population/s; the private sector; NGOs; national, regional and local government departments;
employees; suppliers; and customers.
Sustainable Development: Development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Waste: Any undesirable or superfluous by-product, emission, residue or remainder of any process or
activity, any matter – gaseous, liquid or solid – or any other combination thereof, originating from any
residential, commercial or industrial area & is:
Discarded by any person
Is accumulating and stored with the purpose of eventually discarding it with or without prior
treatment
Is stored with the purpose of recycling, reusing or extracting a usable product.
Responsible Tourism Manual for South Africa
9
associations. This process will ensure that the tourism sector in South Africa keeps pace with
international and national trends towards responsible business practice – trends that are
increasingly manifest in South Africa’s international originating markets as well as within the
country’s domestic tourism market.
In summary, the guidelines and this manual provide tools with which people and organisations in
the travel and tourism sector can enhance their business activities while simultaneously
expanding the socio-economic benefits of tourism for local stakeholders, including but not
limited to employees, suppliers and neighbouring communities. These tools also help tourism
businesses to respect natural and cultural resources, for the benefit of South African tourism
as a whole.
By implementing some of the practical steps outlined in this manual, users will be in a
position to begin reaping the rewards of operating responsibly.
2. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM AND THE (TRIPLE) BOTTOM LINE
Aside from decreasing operating costs, managing tourism enterprises responsibly makes good
business sense for at least three reasons:
“Responsible Tourism” is aligned to the international trend towards responsible business
practice;
“Responsible Tourism” meets the growing market demand for responsible tourism products;
and
“Responsible Tourism” makes customers, staff and investors feel good!
2.1 International trends towards responsible business practice
Since the 1992 Rio Earth Summit, economic growth has been promoted globally in terms of
economically, socially and environmentally sustainable development – the ‘triple bottom line’. In
tourism, however, the environmental aspects of sustainable development have tended to
dominate the international playing field, for instance in the attention devoted to the
development and promotion of ‘ecotourism’. There has now been a shift in thinking, to place
more emphasis on poverty alleviation and socio-economic aspects of sustainable development.
“Responsible Tourism” addresses this shift in private sector focus by giving equal weight to
these three tiers of sustainability: (i) economy; (ii) society; and (iii) environment. “Responsible
Tourism” incorporates the ethic of respect for culture and environment and culture but –
importantly -does not confine itself to these aspects of sustainable development.
There has been a concurrent international trend in favour of increased corporate social
responsibility (CSR), as the private sector recognises its (mixed) role in sustainable development.
CSR deals not only with philanthropic activities, but also challenges the private sector to
empower economically marginalised groups and communities through activities centred on
employment, equity and entrepreneurship.
Responsible Tourism Manual for South Africa
10
Box 1: CSR in practice
The Co-operative Bank in the UK is well known for its ethical approach, which is based on customers’ views
on key issues like the arms trade and animal welfare. In 2001, the Bank put a price on its ethical stance for
the first time, estimating that its CSR policies made it £16 million (~R224 million) better off in 2000.
That was about 16% of pre-tax profits. These figures are based on detailed analysis of the bank’s brand
value, including market research findings that more than a quarter of current account customers cited
ethics or the environment as the reason for opening their accounts5.
“As a large institutional investor we believe that effective governance with regard to social, environmental
and ethical issues contributes to the creation of long-term shareholder value. We therefore consider it to
be in our interests to play a part in encouraging accountability for effective corporate governance in this
area”.
Friends Ivory & Sime, Institutional investor
6
Presently there are a number of international initiatives that are helping to focus consumer and
trade attention on “Responsible Tourism”. Some of these initiatives are listed in Table 1.
Table 1: Some International Initiatives related to Responsible Tourism
World Tourism Organisation (WTO) Global Code of Ethics for Tourism
(www.world-tourism.org)
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Principles for Implementation of
Sustainable Tourism (www.unep.org)
International Hotels Environment Initiative www.ihei.org
Overseas Development Institute, International Institute
for Environmental Development and the International Centre
for Responsible Tourism
Pro-poor Tourism
(www.propoortourism.org.uk)
Tourism Concern Corporate Social Responsibility Initiative
(www.tourismconcern.org.uk)
2.2 Answering growing market demand for Responsible Tourism products
Recent market research in the UK and elsewhere has pointed towards a positive trend in
consumer and sector demand for “Responsible Tourism” products. This research suggests that
ethical business practices can provide commercial advantage, and that “Responsible Tourism” can
be a positive marketing tool – provided that claims of responsibility are credible and based on
demonstrable delivery of responsible activities and objectives.
Box 2: CSR in tourism
"Thomson recognises the importance of conducting our business responsibly towards the environment and
in the communities where we operate. The nature of our business means that we must ensure our activities
have the least possible negative impact on the environment, now and in the long term. We also recognise
that the protection of the social and cultural diversity of destination communities is of equal importance.
Thomson works with those in destinations to develop and provide a sustainable quality holiday, which meets
customer expectations”.
Hilary Robinson, Sustainable Tourism Manager, Thomson Holidays
7
Although most tourists make purchasing decisions based on such factors as price, weather, type
and range of facilities and quality, more and more tourists are also concerned about the ethics
of travel. A recent survey by the UK-based NGO Tearfund, for instance, found that British
consumers are more likely to book a holiday based on availability of information about the
5 Cowe, R. (2001) Investing in Social Responsibility: Risks and Opportunities,
Association of British Insurers, cited in
Tearfund (2002) op. cit.
6 Tearfund (2002) Worlds Apart: A call to responsible global tourism, January 2002
7 Ibid
Responsible Tourism Manual for South Africa
11
country, reduced environmental impact and meeting local people on holiday than on whether or
not they had used the company before8.
Significantly, the data suggests that consumer (and thus trade) demand for “Responsible
Tourism” products is increasing - and that more and more people want to purchase responsible
holidays. In 1999 and again in 2001, Tearfund asked holidaymakers whether they would be more
likely to book a holiday with a company that had a written code guaranteeing good working
conditions, protection of the environment and support of local charities in the tourist
destination. The proportion of respondents saying, “Yes” rose from 45% to 52% between the
two years – that’s a 7% shift in demand towards Responsible Tourism products!9
Box 3: USA Geotourism Survey Results
Geotourism is tourism that sustains or enhances the geographical character of a place (e.g. its natural
setting, culture, aesthetics, heritage, and the well being of its residents). A recent survey of 4300 adults
in the USA revealed that 71% of respondents believe it is important that their holiday does not damage
destination environments, while 61% believe that their travel experience will be improved where
destinations preserve their natural, historic and cultural sites.10
Box 4: Coral Divers
“Responsible Tourism is an area that needs to be addressed, not only to make ourselves more marketable,
but also to create a healthier environment in which to operate by uplifting the local community and looking
after our natural resources”.
Stuart Roberts, General Manager, Coral Divers (www.coraldivers.co.za)
11
The Association for Independent Tour Operators (AITO) in the UK has developed a “Responsible
Tourism” policy, which may become a condition of membership in the future. AITOs
“Responsible Tourism” guidelines prioritise protection of the environment; respect for local
cultures; maximising the benefits to local communities; conserving natural resources; and
minimising pollution (www.aito.co.uk). AITO members that adhere to this policy will require
appropriate business partners in destinations like South Africa. Increasingly, then, South
African tourism products that can demonstrate their commitment to “Responsible Tourism” will
have a comparative advantage in UK (and other) source markets.
Box 5: The Tour Operators’ Initiative for “Sustainable Tourism Development” (TOI)
TOI is hosted by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and is open to any international tour
operator. The TOI regularly publicise best practice by members. The TOI is currently developing
guidelines for measuring and reporting “Responsible Tourism” practices (www.toinitiative.org).12
2.3 The ‘feel good’ factor
Positive publicity and customer feedback associated with responsible business activities
engender good relationships with staff and shareholders, while simultaneously paving the way for
meaningful partnerships with local businesses and communities. The importance of the ‘feel
good’ factor cannot be underestimated, for example in accounting for the value of positive word-
8 Ibid
9 Tearfund (2002) Worlds Apart: A call to responsible global tourism, January 2002
10 Stueve, A. M., Cook, S. D. and Drew, D. (2002) The Geotourism Study: Excerpts from the Phase 1 Executive Summary,
National Geographic Traveller/Travel Industry Association of America, www.tia.org/survey.pdf
11 Spenceley, A., Roberts, S. and Myeni, C. M. (2002)
Case Study Assessment of Coral Divers, South Africa,
National
Responsible Tourism Guidelines for the South African Tourism Sector, Application of the Guidelines to the Nature-
based tourism sector, Report to DFID/DEAT, February 2002
12 Tearfund (2002) Worlds Apart: A call to responsible global tourism, January 2002
Responsible Tourism Manual for South Africa
12
of-mouth advertising and the role played by staff in shaping the (positive or negative) quality of
the tourism experience.
Responsible action by one business also helps to encourage similar and even improved initiatives
within other companies. This ‘domino effect’ will ultimately lead to positive action within
industry as a whole, which in turn can help to position South Africa as a leading Responsible
Tourism destination.
Table 2: What are some of the adverse impacts of tourism and why do they exist?
1. As an economic activity, tourism
consumes resources, creates waste
and has specific infrastructure
needs.
The resources used for tourism purposes tend to be of high
quality and are often non-renewable.
Construction in fragile areas may cause permanent damage to
environments.
2. Tourism is a resource dependent
sector, which must compete for
often scarce resources to survive.
The tendency to over-use
resources is high.
Once a threshold has been reached, adverse effects can rapidly
occur over large areas
Often the resource demands of tourism are in direct conflict
with the demands of communities (e.g. for agriculture).
3. Tourism is mainly a private
sector activityh which is pre-
occupied with profit maximisation
The competitiveness of the sector makes voluntary compliance
with environmental protection programmes highly unlikely.
Programmes to avoid / mitigate negative impacts are low priority
unless there are financial savings or legislative imperatives.
4. Tourism is a diverse and multi-
faceted sector.
Lack of supervision / control
Planning only as strong as the private sector will to implement
them
5. Tourists are consumers, not
anthropologists.
Tourists are escaping from everyday life, and do not want to be
burdened with everyday problems.
Tourists are often ignorant or indifferent to the needs of host
communities and ecosystems.
6. Tourism generates income by
attracting clients rather than
exporting its product.
Local residents / communities bear the consequences of tourism,
e.g. pollution, resource depletion, increased pressure on
infrastructure
Source: Adapted from McKercher, B. (1993) Some fundamental truths about tourism: understanding
tourism’s social and environmental impacts, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1 (1): 6-16
3. USING THE “RESPONSIBLE TOURISM” GUIDELINES AND MANUAL
By using this manual and the accompanying “Responsible Tourism Guidelines” (see Appendix 1),
tourism enterprises will learn how to:
Save money by reducing operating costs
Increase their attractiveness to customers
Improve business relationships
Monitor, assess and demonstrate progress
The manual provides a range of advice and practical information that can be used to plan,
operate and promote “Responsible Tourism” products. Product owners and managers are
encouraged to use this manual as a tool for achieving commercial and ethical advantage. Use of
this manual is voluntary: DEAT wants you to use it, as it could make good business sense!
Users of this manual are reminded that it is not a book that must necessarily be read from start
to finish! Users are encouraged to read first those portions of the manual that are most
Responsible Tourism Manual for South Africa
13
relevant to their particular situation. There are no penalties for skipping from one section to
the next. . . and back again.
3.1 Who should use the “Responsible Tourism” guidelines?
The “Responsible Tourism” guidelines (see Appendix 1) are designed for use by a range of
tourism stakeholders, including but not limited to:
Tourism enterprises
Marketing associations
Trade associations
Professional associations
Local and Provincial tourism authorities
Parastatals
Tourism support activity
Table 3: Leaders in establishing “Responsible Tourism” in South Africa13
Federated Hospitality Association of
South Africa (FEDHASA)
www.fedhasa.co.za
FEDHASA has drafted sectoral guidelines and has also re-
launched its ‘Imvelo’ Environmental Award as a “Responsible
Tourism Award. The 10 winners in 2002 will be showcased at a
ceremony hosted by the IUCN (World Conservation Union)
immediately prior to the WSSD.
Bed & Breakfast Association of South
Africa (BABASA)
www.babasa.co.za
BABASA has drafted sectoral guidelines appropriate for Bed &
Breakfast enterprises.
Off Road – Taxtix
www.offroadtactix.co.za
Nissan’s 4X4 group has also drafted sectoral guidelines.
Development Bank of Southern Africa
www.dbsa.org
The DBSA is developing guidelines to assist them in the
evaluation of responsible tourism-project proposals submitted
for financial support.
3.2 The importance of being transparent
Transparency is at the heart of the “Responsible Tourism” approach and is fundamental to the
credibility of individual enterprises – as well as the concept more generally. Transparency
entails the clear communication of particular “Responsible Tourism” objectives followed by the
collection and showcasing of empirical evidence of success in achieving targets. Responsible
marketing (e.g. ‘truth in advertising’) is thus fundamental to the approach articulated in this
manual and the accompanying guidelines. Indeed, one of the primary goals of these documents
and the process they describe is to avoid and prevent unsubstantiated claims of responsibility,
of the sort that undermined the concept of ecotourism in originating markets.
Box 6: Reporting
Reporting is the public – and very crucial – face of any company’s socially responsible actions. It encourages
a company to monitor and evaluate its own activities, improve performance, and bring greater benefits to
workers, people in the supply chain and in communities where the company operates. Reporting also means
that a company is more transparent and accountable to external stakeholders, enabling investors and
consumers to support responsible companies.14
Users of the “Responsible Tourism” guidelines and manual will help to create a transparent
framework within which trade buyers and tourists are able to judge the competing claims of
13 Spenceley, A., Goodwin, H., and Maynard, W. (Draft) The development of Responsible Tourism guidelines for South
Africa, Chapter in Diamantis, D. and Geldenhuys, S. (Eds) Ecotourism: Management and Assessment, Due for publication
by Continuum International
14 Ibid
Responsible Tourism Manual for South Africa
14
enterprises and associations in the marketplace. As companies in the originating markets adopt
strong “Responsible Tourism” strategies and criteria, operators and other business
intermediaries will require practical ways of verifying claims made in the destinations by
enterprises, communities and government. Fair Trade in Tourism South Africa, for instance,
has introduced an independent hallmark of ‘fairness’ in tourism business, in the form of a new
tourism brand / trademark that can be awarded to tourism businesses that comply with Fair
Trade principles and criteria.
Box 7: Fair Trade in Tourism South Africa (FTTSA)
FTTSA (www.fairtourismsa.org.za) is a non-profit organisation under the auspices of
IUCN (the World Conservation Union) South Africa that is working to maximise the
market advantage of tourism products working in a fair and responsible manner.
FTTSA award a trademark (see left) to fairly traded tourism products, and promote
the FTTSA brand more generally so that tour operators and consumers can choose
tourism products with an independent hallmark of ‘fairness’. Globally, the Fair Trade
movement has been driven by growing public awareness, particularly in Northern
Europe, about trade and wealth imbalances and a corresponding increase in consumer
demand for ‘fair’ alternatives to conventional, often multi-national brands of coffee,
bananas, chocolate, fruit juices and other agricultural products. What started off
as something of a fringe movement has grown into a strong and vibrant niche market:
in 2000, the retail value of Fairtrade products in the United Kingdom was nearly £33
million (~R462 million), up from £2.75 million (~38.5 million) in 199415. The
experience of the Fair Trade movement thus demonstrates that consumers and
activists
can
influence big business. FTTSA is at the forefront of efforts to
replicate this experience within national and international tourism markets.
3.3 Trade / Tourism Associations
Trade associations are well positioned to develop “Codes of Conduct” or “Codes of Best Practice”
for their members. A trade association can provide support to its members and also monitor
their compliance to the principles and criteria contained in the Code.
Box 8: Some South African Trade Associations and their Codes of Conduct
The Mountain Club of South Africa (MCSA) (www.mcsa.org.za) has a draft Code of Conduct for
Mountaineering. This Code deals primarily with issues surrounding environmentally sensitive mountaineering
and hiking and the protection of sensitive habitats. The Code of Conduct also guides members in culturally
sensitive behaviour and safety.
The South African Boat-Based Whale Watching Association (SABBWWA) has a Code of Conduct for its
members, which aims to minimise harmful impacts on cetacean populations by
Ensuring that the normal pattern of activity of whales and dolphins is maintained
Ensuring opportunities for watching or interacting with cetaceans in the wild can be sustained; and
Developing a supportive public, to encourage realistic expectations of encounters and to prevent
pressure from the public for increasingly risky behaviour.
Any trade / tourism association can develop a “Code of Conduct” / “Code of Best Practice” for its
members. A ten-step model for developing a code is described in Table 4.
15 Tickle, L. (2001) What price fair trade? In developments, 3rd quarter, 15-17
Responsible Tourism Manual for South Africa
15
Table 4: Towards a Code of Conduct / Code of Best Practice
Step 1 Nominate individual/s who will be responsible for driving the development of a code
Step 2 Circulate the national “Responsible Tourism” guidelines (Appendix 1) amongst all members
and/or key stakeholders.
Step 3 Members and/or key stakeholders select 4-5 guidelines from the economic, social and
environmental sections (total 12-15 guidelines) that they believe to be most relevant to the
work of the association. This participation helps to achieve buy-in by members.
Step 4 Designated person/s to compile members’ comments and selections and identify the guidelines
that were most frequently chosen by members.
Step 5 Publish the list as a “Code of Conduct” / “Code of Best Practice”. Distribute the code to all
members and other relevant stakeholders.
Step 6 Prepare a “Memorandum of Understanding” (MOU) or a statement of intent, which should be
signed by all members to show their commitment to the code. The MOU should include the
member’s intent to monitor and report its progress annually.
Step 7 Use the “Responsible Tourism” manual to show members how they can make progress towards
fulfilling the guidelines contained in the code, and to indicate where members can obtain advice,
information and support.
Step 8 Show members how to self-monitor and request annual reports detailing their activities and
progress towards fulfilling the guidelines listed in the code. Ask members to show how and
where they have improved and to identify areas for further improvement.
Step 9 Encourage initiative and reward innovation by members, for example by offering rewards for
best practice, by publicising specific examples of “Responsible Tourism” by members and/or by
providing cash incentives like preferential rates or fees.
Step 10 Provide regular feedback to members on collective progress (e.g. at annual general meetings,
tourism sector forums, via newsletters) and use these opportunities to set (new) benchmarks
and targets for the group as a whole.
By collecting self-monitored information from members, the association will be able to track and
improve the collective level of responsible practice. As the association builds up information on
good practice, it can help members by setting association benchmarks and targets of best
practice that they can really strive for. Such initiatives will help to raise the profile of the
association both nationally and internationally.
Box 9: The Nature and Ecotourism Accreditation Program (NEAP)
NEAP was a world first - a sector initiative developed in response to the need for a system to identify
genuine nature tourism and ecotourism products in Australia. The NEAP system provides the sector with
an assurance that the tourism product will be delivered with a commitment to best practice environmental
management and the provision of quality experiences.16 (www.ecotourism.org.au or
www.vtoa.asn.au/accreditation/neap)
3.4 Tourism enterprises
A tourism enterprise that chooses to implement “Responsible Tourism” guidelines would typically
do so to achieve one or more of the following objectives:
To reduce costs (e.g. through increased efficiency)
To create a unique selling point (USP)
To maximise comparative advantage in the marketplace (e.g. in relation to competitors)