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Effect of dietary supplementation of ginger and turmeric rhizomes on angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE) and arginase activities in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats

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... Recently, ginger has indicated several biological activities, including anti-inflammatory [9], antioxidant [10], and antiapoptotic [11] effects to improve several diseases, like neurodegenerative disorders [12], diabetes mellitus [13], cancer, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting [14], respiratory diseases [15] and CVDs [16]. ...
... CVDs involve the heart and blood vessels along with coronary/peripheral arteries dysfunction [17], and ginger can attenuate hypertension [18], platelet aggregation [19], and hyperlipidemia [20] as different aspects of CVDs [16]. Apart from the crude extract of ginger with various polar and non-polar solvents, gingerol, shogaol, paradol, and zingiberol are the main active compounds of ginger with several biological effects. ...
... Ginger has gained broad and increased attention to treat different risk factors of CVDs, including hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, and hypertension [16,106]. Indeed, ginger plays several roles in the improvement of CVDs, which was confirmed by several in silico, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical evidence in the stroke, ischemic, and coronary heart diseases. ...
Article
Background: As a major cause of morbidity and mortality, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are globally increasing. In spite of recent development in the management of cardiovascular complications, CVDs have remained a medical challenge. Numerous conventional drugs are used to play cardioprotective roles; however, they are associated with several side effects. Considering the rich phytochemistry and fewer side effects of herbal medicines, they have gained particular attention to develop novel herbal drugs with cardioprotective potentials. Amongst natural entities, ginger is an extensively used and well-known functional food and condiment, possessing plentiful bioactivities, like antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties in several disorders management. Objective: The current review deliberated phytochemical properties as well as the ginger/ginger constituents' biological activities and health benefits in several diseases, with particular attention to cardiovascular complications. Methods: A comprehensive research was conducted using multiple databases, including Scopus, PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, national database (Irandoc and SID), and related articles in terms of the health benefits and cardioprotective effects of ginger/ginger constituents. These data were collected from inception until August 2019. Results: In recent years, several herbal medicines were used to develop new drugs with more potency and also minor side effects. Amongst natural entities, ginger is an extensively used traditional medicine in several diseases. The crude extract, along with related pungent active constituents, is mostly attributed to heart health. The cardioprotective effects of ginger are contributed to its cardiotonic, antihypertensive, anti-hyperlipidemia, and anti-platelet effects. The signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms of ginger regarding its cardioprotective effects are also clarified. Conclusion: This study revealed the biological activities, health benefits, and cardioprotective properties of ginger/ginger constituents along with related mechanisms of action, which gave new insights to show new avenue in the treatment of CVDs.
... The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been proven to play a key role in maintaining normal blood pressure and fluid balance (Akinyemi et al. 2015, Adefegha et al. 2019. Several diseases, including essential hypertension, have been linked to altered nitric oxide (NO) generation or action (Cardoso et al. 2014). ...
... This has made chronic suppression of baseline NO, using an orally active nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N G -Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) hydrochloride, a particularly interesting hypertension model. Recent reports have shown that a practical approach to controlling hypertension and its complications is to consume foods rich in dietary polyphenols, which have been reported to have antioxidant properties and modulating effects on arginase -an enzyme associated with NO synthesis (Akinyemi et al. 2015) and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) (Oboh et al. 2014, Akinyemi et al. 2015, thereby lowering blood pressure. ...
... This has made chronic suppression of baseline NO, using an orally active nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N G -Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) hydrochloride, a particularly interesting hypertension model. Recent reports have shown that a practical approach to controlling hypertension and its complications is to consume foods rich in dietary polyphenols, which have been reported to have antioxidant properties and modulating effects on arginase -an enzyme associated with NO synthesis (Akinyemi et al. 2015) and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) (Oboh et al. 2014, Akinyemi et al. 2015, thereby lowering blood pressure. ...
Article
Introduction: We investigated the effect of dietary inclusions of Moringa seed (5% and 10%) on blood pressure, angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE) activity, and gene expression, as well as redox status in hypertensive rats. Material and methods: Wistar strain albino rats were fed moringa seed-based diets for two weeks prior L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.) administration for another ten days. Subsequently, the blood pressure was monitored. Furthermore, the kidney homogenates were assayed for ACE activity and gene expression, as well as oxidative stress markers. Results: The increased (systolic = 297 ± 59.30 mmHg; diastolic= 242 ± 51.96 mmHg) blood pressure, arginase activity, and reduced nitric oxide level were significantly ameliorated in hypertensive rats treated with the seed. However, the elevated ACE activity was significantly reduced but not the upregulated ACE1 gene. Also, the reduced antioxidant enzyme activities were ameliorated with a significant downregulation in their regulator-Nrf2. Rutin (4.07 ± 0.02 mg/g) and quercitrin (4.06 ± 0.01 mg/g), among others, were found in the seed. Discussion: This study suggests that moringa seed offers its antihypertensive properties by acting as an ACE inhibitor but not its gene modulator, and also modulates the antioxidant system through interaction with Nrf2. Conclusion: Moringa seed could act as an ACE inhibitor and not its gene modulator.
... TA B L E 1 Diet formulation for basal and supplemented diets for the control and test groups VII: serves as the diet group placed on a diet supplemented with raw WN (20%)/L-NAME. The male rats were put on their respective diets for 2 weeks before receiving L-NAME (40 mg kg -1 day -1 ) care by gavage for 10 days (Akinyemi et al., 2015;Furstenau et al., 2008). ...
... in the blood pressure as reported by Furstenau et al. (2008), Cardoso et al. (2012, and Akinyemi et al. (2015). This effect has been documented as a result of L-NAME's ability to block the action of NO synthase, which prevents the development of NO, a well-known vasodilator molecule (Akinyemi et al., 2015;Cardoso et al., 2012Cardoso et al., , 2014. ...
... in the blood pressure as reported by Furstenau et al. (2008), Cardoso et al. (2012, and Akinyemi et al. (2015). This effect has been documented as a result of L-NAME's ability to block the action of NO synthase, which prevents the development of NO, a well-known vasodilator molecule (Akinyemi et al., 2015;Cardoso et al., 2012Cardoso et al., , 2014. Nonetheless, dietary supplementation with TN (64%) and WN (59%) resulted in a significant reduction in the SBP compared with the control group, according to our findings. ...
Article
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This study examined the behavioral responses, purinergic receptor densities, ectonucleotidases (E-NTPDase), adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity, and nitric oxide (NO) levels along with the parameters of oxidative stress–related to erectile function in the cerebral cortex (CC) of L-NAME-challenged rats pretreated with tigernut (TN) and walnut (WN) dietary supplementation. Wistar rats (male) of 70 total animals (250–300 g) were used in this research and hence separated into seven groups (n = 10): Group I: normal control-fed basal diet; Group II: positive control-fed basal diet/L-NAME/Sildenafil citrate (5 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹); Group III: ED-induced (placed on a basal diet/L-NAME); Group IV: diet supplemented with processed TN (20%)/L-NAME; Group V: diet supplemented with raw TN (20%)/L-NAME; Group VI: diet supplemented with processed WN (20%)/L-NAME; and Group VII placed on a diet supplemented with raw WN (20%)/L-NAME. The rats were pretreated for 2 weeks before the L-NAME (40 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹) challenge on their respective diet. L-NAME brought about a decrease in the sexual behaviors evaluated while the effect was significantly reversed by supplemented diets containing TN and WN. L-NAME increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, E-NTPDase as well as ADA activities, and caused the level of NO in the CC as well as the purinoreceptor densities to be downregulated. Treatments with enriched diets, however, greatly reverse these effects. The behavioral responses and neuromodulatory capacity of the nuts displayed on the CC can, therefore, further support their aphrodisiac property. Practical applications The results revealed the ability of tigernut (TN; Cyperus esculentus L.) and walnut (WN; Tetracarpidium conophorum Müll. Arg.) to enhance behavioral responses; modulate purinergic receptor densities, E-NTPDase, and ADA activities; increase NO levels; and prevent oxidative stress related to erectile function in the CC of L-NAME-challenged Wistar rats. The results show that these nuts are useful feeds for both animal and human nutrition.
... In hypertension, enhanced platelet activation and aggregation has also been linked to cardiovascular changes [4]. Other studies [5,6], as well as studies by our group [7][8][9], have employed the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) as an experimental hypertension model. Due to the emergence and success of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in 1998, the overall general information available regarding erectile dysfunction (ED) has increased [10][11][12] over the past decades. ...
... Throughout the experiment, daily feed intake was monitored. Gavage route of administration was used to produce ED with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) [8,17]. In order to expose the animals in the normal control group (I) to the same stress as the others, they were given water via gavage during the experiment. ...
Article
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In hypertensive individuals, platelet morphology and function have been discovered to be altered, and this has been linked to the development of vascular disease, including erectile dys-function (ED). The impact of nutritional supplementation with Cyperus esculentus (tiger nut, TN) and Tetracarpidium conophorum (walnut, WN) on androgen levels, ectonucleotidases, and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in platelets from L-NAME (Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydro-chloride) challenged rats were investigated. We hypothesized that these nuts may show a protective effect on platelets aggregation and possibly enhance the sex hormones, thereby reverting vasocon-striction. Wistar rats (male; 250-300 g; n = 10) were grouped into seven groups as follows: basal diet control group (I); basal diet/L-NAME/Viagra (5 mg/kg/day) as positive control group (II); ED-induced group (basal diet/L-NAME) (III); diet supplemented processed TN (20%)/L-NAME (IV); diet supplemented raw TN (20%)/L-NAME (V); diet supplemented processed WN (20%)/L-NAME (VI); and diet supplemented raw WN (20%)/L-NAME (VII). The rats were given their regular diet for 2 weeks prior to actually receiving L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) for ten days to induce hypertension. Platelet androgen levels, ectonucleotidases, and ADA were all measured. L-NAME considerably lowers testosterone levels (54.5 ± 2.2; p < 0.05). Supplementing the TN and WN diets revealed improved testosterone levels as compared to the control (306.7 ± 5.7), but luteinizing hormone levels remained unchanged. Compared to control groups, the L-NAME-treated group showed a rise in ATP (127.5%) hydrolysis and ADA (116.7%) activity, and also a decrease in ADP (76%) and AMP (45%) hydrolysis. Both TN and WN supplemented diets resulted in substantial (p < 0.05) reversal effects. Enhanced testosterone levels and modulation of the purinergic system in platelets by TN and WN could be one of the mechanisms by which they aid in vasoconstriction control.
... Regulations of coronavirus-infection-associated responses by curcumin is also suggested . Moreover, curcumin has been shown to modulate various pathophysiological consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection (Akinyemi et al., 2015;Almatroodi et al., 2020;Dai et al., 2018;Hongtao et al., 2018;Kunnumakkara et al., 2017;Pang et al., 2015;Praditya et al., 2019;Titto et al., 2020;Vishvakarma, 2014). Nevertheless, the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells is also predicted to be hindered by curcumin through direct interaction with viral ligands/target cell receptors (Kandeel and Al-Nazawi, 2020;Maurya et al., 2020). ...
... However, the use of ACE modulators yet not been linked with increased susceptibility for acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection of mortality. Further, curcumin inhibits the ACE1 expression in hypertensive rats (Akinyemi et al., 2015). The inhibition of ACE1 can avoid the formation of excessive AngII and prevent the onset of pathological consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection. ...
... Seus constituintes ativos são compostos fenólicos como o gingerol, gingerdiol shogoal, paradóis e os terpênicos (β-bisaboleno, curcumin, zingibereno, α-farneseno e β-sesquifelandreno) (Stoner, 2013;Yeh, 2014). O extrato aquoso de gengibre pode reduzir a enzima conversora da angiotensina-1 (ACE) e a peroxidação lipídica, um efeito benéfico no combate a hipertensão (Akinyemi, 2015). Segundo Ojulari et al. (Akinyemi, 2015). ...
... O extrato aquoso de gengibre pode reduzir a enzima conversora da angiotensina-1 (ACE) e a peroxidação lipídica, um efeito benéfico no combate a hipertensão (Akinyemi, 2015). Segundo Ojulari et al. (Akinyemi, 2015). Um estudo transversal relacionou a hipertensão e doenças coronárias com a ingestão diária de gengibre, foi evidenciado que os indivíduos que faziam uso do gengibre diariamente tinham menor probabilidade de adquirir essas doenças (Wang et al., 2017). ...
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A hipertensão é uma doença cardiovascular de elevada prevalência entre a população de idosos, representando um fator de risco expressivo de morbidade e mortalidade. A partir do conhecimento empírico, grande parte desta população usa as plantas medicinais para tratamento de enfermidades, como a hipertensão. Objetivou-se identificar na literatura, as principais plantas medicinais com potencial anti-hipertensivo utilizadas por idosos no tratamento da hipertensão, destacando a importância da atenção farmacêutica na terapêutica. A pesquisa foi realizada no Scielo, BVS, PubMed e Google Acadêmico no período entre 2011 e 2021, nos idiomas português, inglês e espanhol. Foram selecionados 45 artigos e escolhidas 7 espécies de plantas medicinais com potencial anti-hipertensivo. Allium sativum, Camellia sinensis, Cymbopogon citratus, Ginkgo biloba, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Panax ginseng e Zingiber officinale, apresentaram ações farmacológicas no controle da hipertensão. O uso indiscriminado, destas espécies, pode provocar efeitos adversos como desconfortos gástrico intestinais, hepatotoxicidade e cefaleia, eventos hemorrágicos e cardiovasculares. Além disso, as espécies, Ginkgo biloba, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Panax ginseng e Zingiber officinale apresentaram interações medicamentosas com medicamentos antiplaquetários e/ou anticoagulantes e antiepilépticos. Diante dos riscos apresentados, principalmente em idosos, a atenção farmacêutica representa uma ferramenta em potencial na terapêutica, evidenciados no acompanhamento farmacoterapêutico, orientação na forma do preparo, coleta e armazenamento das plantas medicinais, facilitador de adesão do tratamento, educador e prescritor na prevenção de doenças crônicas como a hipertensão, promovendo o uso racional das plantas medicinais com propriedade anti-hipertensivas.
... Turmeric has been widely utilized by industries for extraction and isolation of curcuminoids, a prominent nutraceutical to date owing to its diverse biological activities [8]. It is endowed with many bioactive components; however, its analogues have been accounted for many biological activities [9,10]. In present review, we aimed to provide comprehensive information of all the possible molecular signalling pathways viz. ...
... Sufficient NO production improvises the hypertension-mediated reproductive dysfunction and discourages ROS production which is related to vascular dysfunction and high BP. It blocks the activation of diverse molecular mechanisms associated with vascular remodelling and hypertension particularly NOXs in angiotensin signalling [10,165]. ...
Article
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Curcumin, belongs to the curcuminoid family, is a natural phenolic compound, presenting low bioavailability and pleiotropic activity. Since ancient times, curcumin has been in use as food spices and folk remedy to treat cough, cold, cuts and wounds, and skin diseases. Preclinical and clinical studies have indicated that curcumin acts a promising therapeutic agent in the management of a wide array of health issues, viz., hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, anxiety, arthritis, cancer and inflammatory diseases. Owing to its enormous potential, recent research has been focused on the synthesis of curcumin and its analogues for the management of metabolic disorders. In the current scenario, hypertension is considered as a key risk factor due to its involvement in various pathogeneses. Mechanistically, curcumin and its analogues like hexahydrocurcumin, tetrahydrocurcumin, etc. have been reported to elicit anti-hypertensive effect through diverse signalling pathways, viz., pathway mediated by Nrf2-ARE, NF-kB, NO/cGMP/PDE5/MMPs, RAAS/ACE, HAT/HDAC, G0/G1/apoptosis, CYP3A4, UCP2/PARP, VEGF/STAT/AXL/tyrosine kinase and TGF-β/Smad-mediated pathways. Thus, the present review has been aimed to highlight different molecular pathways involved in the amelioration of hypertension and associated conditions.
... Meanwhile, results from this study clearly showed that formulated biscuits from acha-sandpaper leaf flour composite possessed antidiabetic and antihypertensive properties in STZ/l-NAME-induced hypertensive-diabetic rats. Streptozotocin and l-NAME have been used to induce diabetic and hypertensive state in animal models, respectively (Akinyemi et al., 2015;Nastaran, 2011). ...
... Results from this study showed clearly that biscuits from acha-sandpaper leaf composite flour ameliorated the occurrence of elevated FBG in hypertensivediabetic rats which could be linked to the inhibitory effect of the bioactive compounds present in biscuits on key enzymes linked to carbohydrate hydrolysis (Adedayo et al., 2018). Furthermore, the deficit in nitric oxide (NO) production by endothelial NO synthase (Cardoso et al., 2012;Furstenau et al., 2008) and elevated ACE activity (Akinyemi et al., 2015). The antihypertensive properties of formulated biscuits were evaluated in hypertensive-diabetic rats. ...
Article
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Acha grains and sandpaper leaf are commonly used by locals for diabetes and hypertension management, respectively. However, this study sought to produce biscuits from acha–sandpaper leaf composite flour and evaluate their ameliorative potentials in streptozotocin (STZ)/Nω-nitro-l-arginine methylester hydrochloride (l-NAME)-induced hypertensive–diabetic rats. Group I (non-diabetic/normotensive), group II (negative control), group III (positive control) rats were placed on standard drugs, and groups IV–VII rats were placed on formulated biscuits supplemented with 0%, 1.25%, 2.5%, and 3.75% sandpaper leaf flour. The fasting blood glucose (FBG) and blood pressure (BP) of the experimental rats were measured. In addition, the activities of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) as well as antioxidant status were evaluated in all the groups and compared. However, the obtained results showed a significant reduction in the FBG and BP and in the activity of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and ACE in biscuit-fed hypertensive–diabetes rats when compared with group II rats. Meanwhile, antioxidant status in biscuit-fed hypertensive–diabetes rats was enhanced when compared with the untreated hypertensive–diabetic rats. Nevertheless, biscuit with 3.75% sandpaper leaf had better hypertensive–diabetic property than other biscuits which could be linked to bioactive compounds present in the biscuits. Practical applications Acha and sandpaper leaf has been used for the management of diabetes and hypertension respectively. However, formulating medicinal biscuits as a diary approach for the management of diabetic and its complication (hypertension) in STZ/l-NAME-induced hypertensive–diabetic rats is highly imperative. Based on our findings, cookies from the acha and sandpaper leaf flour blend exhibits pharmacological effect which could be linked to the presence of numerous bioactive constituents present in the cookies. Thus, the formulated cookies stand as a promising candidate for functional food and further work in this area is needed.
... Traditionally, turmeric has been used as an antiseptic and for the treatment of dental, respiratory, and digestive problems [78][79][80]. Turmeric and its constituents like curcumin, tetrahydrocurcumin, and demethoxycurcumin have been found to decrease blood pressure in animal models of hypertension via different mechanisms [66,67,[81][82][83][84][85][86][87][88] (Table 1). Curcumin has also been reported to down-regulate vascular AT1 receptors, thereby reducing AT1 receptor-mediated vasoconstriction [88]. ...
... Angiotensin II is a powerful vasoconstrictor and stimulates the adrenal gland to release aldosterone, leading to sodium and water retention, which then leads to hypertension [7,8,93]. Turmeric and its main constituent, curcumin, have been reported to inhibit ACE activity [84,87]. There is evidence from sin- gle-arm and randomized studies to suggest that certain spices like celery, green cardamom, and garlic may reduce blood pressure, particularly in hypertensive patients [29,41,55,[58][59][60]. ...
Article
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Hypertension is a global public health concern since it can lead to complications like stroke, heart disease and kidney failure. These complications can add to disability, increase healthcare costs and can even result in mortality. In spite of the availability of a large number of antihypertensive drugs, the control of blood pressure is suboptimal in many patients. Spices have been used as flavouring agent and to treat diseases in folk medicine since they are considered to be rich sources of phytochemicals especially polyphenols. Hence, during recent years there is renewed interest among researchers to explore natural sources, especially spices in an attempt to find cheaper alternatives with fewer side effects. Our aim is to review the relevant preclinical and clinical studies focused towards the potential use of spices in the management of hypertension. Studies conducted on the most common spices such as celery, cinnamon, cardamom, garlic, ginger, saffron, and turmeric, have been elaborated in this review. These spices may be lowering blood pressure via several possible mechanisms including antioxidant effect, increase in nitric oxide production, reduction in calcium ion concentration, modulation of renin angiotensin pathway etc.
... Hypertension [102] Rhizome of a turmeric plant Hypertension [103] Crocus sativus L. ...
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The cardiovascular system (CVS) is made up of heart, blood vessels and blood. The fundamental function of the CVS is to transport substances to and from all parts of the body. The heart is the major pumping organ, pressurizing blood for circulation through the blood vessels and blood is propelled away from the heart in the arteries and returns to the heart through the veins. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is an umbrella word for a number of inter-linked diseases, generally defined as coronary artery disease (CAD), cerebrovascular disease, high blood pressure (BP), peripheral arterial disease, rheumatic and congenital heart diseases, venous thromboembolism and arrhythmia. Globally, Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of deaths and according to the estimation of the World Health Organization (WHO), about 17.9 million people died from CVDs in 2019, counting 32% of all global deaths. Of these deaths, 85% were due to heart attack and stroke. About 75% of CVD deaths occur in low-and middle-income countries. The burden of CVDs can be decreased by careful risk reduction (as such, modification of lifestyle, smoking & alcohol cessation, weight optimization by dieting, and physical exercise), and proper medical treatments including herbal components. The prevention of CVDs can reduce the occurrence of major cardiovascular events, thereby reducing premature disability, morbidity and mortality whilst prolonging survival and quality of life.
... 52 The activities of some key enzymes, such as ACE and arginase, were inhibited, and a concomitant increase in NO level was observed. 54 Simultaneously, the antihypertensive effect of ginger was also associated with the platelet hyperactivity 55 and potential neuroprotective effects. 69 Lipid abnormalities are one of the major risk factors for CVD in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. ...
Article
In recent years, metabolic syndromes (MetSs), including diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases, have become a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. Accumulating data have suggested that traditional herbs might be able to provide a wide range of remedies in prevention and treatment of MetSs. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) has been documented to ameliorate hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. These beneficial effects are mediated by transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, and nuclear factor B. This review focuses on recent findings regarding the beneficial effects of ginger on obesity and related complications in MetS and discusses its potential mechanisms of action. This review provides guidance for further applications of ginger for personalized nutrition and medicine.
... Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) is drawing attention to be studied as this plant showed a broad pharmacological activity, such as anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory [7][8][9][10]. Respiratory disorders, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative defects were also reported among diseases that can be treated using ginger [11][12][13][14][15]. Mostly, these activities were reported to possess the such effects due to the content of phenolic compounds, such as gingerols, shogaols, and paradols. ...
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This study aims to identify and isolate the secondary metabolites of Zingiber officinale using GC-MS, preparative TLC, and LC-MS/MS methods, to evaluate the inhibitory potency on SARS-CoV-2 3 chymotrypsin-like protease enzyme, as well as to study the molecular interaction and stability by using docking and molecular dynamics simulations. GC-MS analysis suggested for the isolation of terpenoids compounds as major compounds on methanol extract of pseudostems and rhizomes. Isolation and LC-MS/MS analysis identified 5-hydro-7, 8, 2′-trimethoxyflavanone (9), (E)-hexadecyl-ferulate (1), isocyperol (2), N-isobutyl-(2E,4E)-octadecadienamide (3), and nootkatone (4) from the rhizome extract, as well as from the leaves extract with the absence of 9. Three known steroid compounds, i.e., spinasterone (7), spinasterol (8), and 24-methylcholesta-7-en-3β-on (6), were further identified from the pseudostem extract. Molecular docking showed that steroids compounds 7, 8, and 6 have lower predictive binding energies (MMGBSA) than other metabolites with binding energy of −87.91, −78.11, and −68.80 kcal/mole, respectively. Further characterization on the single isolated compound by NMR showed that 6 was identified and possessed 75% inhibitory activity on SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease enzyme that was slightly different with the positive control GC376 (77%). MD simulations showed the complex stability with compound 6 during 100 ns simulation time.
... 2022, 13, 268 2 of 14 have been made to address plant components such flavonoids, peptides, and phenolic compounds to decrease ACE activity and reduce the high blood pressure [4,5]. Different plants have been reported to inhibit ACE activity such as the "ginger rhizomes" [6], the "Legumes" [3], the "bell peppers" [1], the "Apple" [7], the "Kiwifruit" [8], and the "Oil Palm" [2] but no one has reported the use of Rauvolfia serpentina for ACE inhibition. ...
Article
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Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) overactivation is one of the primary causes of hypertension, which leads to cardiovascular disorders all over the world. In the scientific world, nanosuspension is a novel area of study that could offer an alternative treatment for active pharmaceuticals that are not well soluble in water. Since active compounds’ bioavailability is reduced by their poor solubility, there are eventually fewer applications. Drug solubility, dissolving rate, and bioavailability are improved by nanosuspension, which shrinks medication particle size into the nanoscale range and boosts the surface area to volume ratio of the drug. There is a need to prepare Rauvolfia serpentina’s nanosuspension in order to get around some of the major challenges that it faces because of its poor solubility and wide range of biological activities. Using the antisolvent precipitation approach, a nanosuspension of Rauvolfia serpentina was created with hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC). Rouvolfia serpentina nanosuspensions were prepared using a design of expert (DOE) approach, which allowed for the evaluation of key process parameters. To get an optimal sample, the effects of stabilizer concentration and anti-solvent volume on particle size, zeta potential, and PdI using CCD-RSM were investigated. Using the substrate Hippuryl-histidyl-leucine, the in vitro ACE inhibitory potential was assessed. On human erythrocytes, the safety of nanosuspension was evaluated in vitro. The ideal value of independent variables was discovered to be 0.25% w/v in order to achieve the desired response. Using scanning electron microscopy, the morphology of optimized nanosuspension was discovered to be rod-shaped (SEM). Compared to nanoformulation, crude extract had higher ACE inhibitory potential (83.11%). Human erythrocytes were found to be unaffected by nano-sized particles.
... Furthermore, the capacity to reduce the total cholesterol LDL, triglycerides, and verylow-density lipoproteins (VLDL) in high-fat-diet rats demonstrated a protective effect on cardiovascular function. Studies also demonstrated the promotion of vasodilation and prevention of platelet aggregation in hypertensive rats [203,225]. Other studies also reported the effectiveness of ginger against obesity and diabetes. ...
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Tea is one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages worldwide, and possesses numerous potential health benefits. Herbal teas are well-known to contain an abundance of poly-phenol antioxidants and other ingredients, thereby implicating protection and treatment against various ailments, and maintaining overall health in humans, although their mechanisms of action have not yet been fully identified. Autophagy is a conserved mechanism present in organisms that maintains basal cellular homeostasis and is essential in mediating the pathogenesis of several diseases , including cancer, type II diabetes, obesity, and Alzheimer's disease. The increasing prevalence of these diseases, which could be attributed to the imbalance in the level of autophagy, presents a considerable challenge in the healthcare industry. Natural medicine stands as an effective, safe, and economical alternative in balancing autophagy and maintaining homeostasis. Tea is a part of the diet for many people, and it could mediate autophagy as well. Here, we aim to provide an updated overview of popular herbal teas' health-promoting and disease healing properties and in-depth information on their relation to autophagy and its related signaling molecules. The present review sheds more light on the significance of herbal teas in regulating autophagy, thereby improving overall health.
... In the same way, [13] emphasized the potent value of ginger for various ailments in different parts of the world to treat diarrhea, stomach upset, nausea, and indigestion. Furthermore, [14] reported ginger and turmeric as a protective measure in preventing male infertility. Okesola et al. [15] reported the neuromodulatory effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Zingiber officinale Roscoe to extract in rats with lead-induced oxidative stress as well as the protective role of Zingiber officinal on selected biochemical indices and cytogenic studies in rats induced with lead [16]. ...
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Ginger rhizomes have been reportedly used in folk medicine for the management of various ailments. This study, therefore, investigates the ameliorative effect of the ethanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes against DNA damage in rats induced with different carcinogens. Fifteen Wistar rats grouped into 3 of 5 rats per group were used for the study. The first set of blood samples was first collected before the animals were orally treated with heavy metals. After 14 days of induction, the second set of blood was collected. The third phase of blood collection was done after administering an ethanolic extract of Z. officinale for 14 days. The UV wavelength absorption spectrum and conventional PCR analysis were carried out on DNA extracts of all the animals. Cluster analysis of optical density (OD) and PCR data were carried out as well as genomic instability, similarity, and diversity using the best 3 Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers. The PCR –DNA concentration analysis showed the Z. officinale extract's ameliorative effect against lead acetate, cadmium chloride, and arsenic trioxide-induced DNA damage with a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in DNA concentration of the treated rats when compared with induced rats. The cluster analysis of optical density values revealed close similarity between the control animals' DNA, a slight similarity with treated animals' DNA, and a significant difference with the induced animal DNA. These results indicated the ameliorative properties of Z. officinale against these heavy metals induced DNA damage in rats.
... A number of studies have demonstrated that the plant possesses biological activities such as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer effects [13][14][15][16]. In addition, ginger has also been reported to potentially prevent and manage obesity, diabetes mellitus, respiratory disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular disease [17][18][19][20][21]. ...
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Chikungunya (CHIK) is a reemerging arboviral disease caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. The disease is clinically hallmarked by prolonged debilitating joint pain. Currently, there is no specific antiviral medication nor commercial vaccine available for treatment of the disease, which makes the discovery or development of specific anti-CHIKV compounds a priority. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is widely known for its various health benefits. The compound [6]-gingerol is the main active ingredient found in ginger. This study sought to determine the potential of [6]-gingerol antiviral activity against CHIKV infection using in vitro human hepatocyte HepG2 cells. The antiviral activity mechanism was investigated using direct virucidal and four indirect (pre-, post-, full-, and prevention) treatment assays. [6]-Gingerol showed weak virucidal activity but significant indirect antiviral activity against CHIKV through post- and full treatment with IC50 of 0.038 mM and 0.031 mM, respectively, without showing cell cytotoxicity. The results indicated that [6]-gingerol inhibits CHIKV infection through suppression of viral replication. Together, this study confirms the potential use of [6]-gingerol for CHIK antiviral compound.
... Previous studies reported that chronic L-NAME treatment led to high blood pressure and altered vascular reactivity to vasoactive agents as a result of decreased NO bioavailability [19,26]. Consistent with our findings, arginase activity was increased in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats, and pre-treatment with ginger and turmeric rhizomes that are rich in phenolic compounds caused significant decreases in ACE and arginase activities with a concomitant increase in NO level [29]. ...
... The homogenate was subsequently centrifuged for clear supernatant that was used for the determination of biochemical assays. The diet formulation followed the protocol of Akinyemi et al. (2015) as reported in Oboh et al. (2018) ( Table 1). The dosage (2 and 4%) of Moringa leaf and seed was established based on our previous toxicological and sensory evaluation and palatability of the formulated diets, which is in line with the of safe consumption of Moringa reported by Ambi et al. (2011) as documented in the report of Stohs, and Hartman, (2015). ...
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We aim to evaluate the effect of Moringa leaf (ML) and seed (MS) inclusive diets on critical biomarkers [acetylcholinesterase (AChE), monoamine oxidase (MAO), angiotensin‐I converting enzyme (ACE), adenosine deiminase (ADA) and arginase activities, and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) level] associated with erectile dysfunction (ED) in the penile tissue of diabetic male rats treated with/without Acarbose (ACA). About 60 mg/kg BW streptozotocin (STZ)‐induced diabetic rats were fed with ML and MS inclusive diets and cotreated with ACA for 14 days. The result indicated that AChE, MAO, ADA, ACE, and arginase activities, as well as TBARS level were (p < .05) restored in the diabetic rats fed with ML/MS inclusive diets treated with/without ACA compared to the untreated diabetic rats. In conclusion, the combination therapy of ML/MS inclusive diets plus ACA could be explored toward the management of diabetic‐induced ED. Practical applications We discovered in this study, treatments of diabetic rats with ACA and co‐fed with 2% and 4% of Moringa leaf and seed inclusive diets for 14 days, could be of great benefit toward the management of ED caused by diabetes, as evidenced by the expression of some ED‐related biomarkers in the penile tissue of diabetes male rats, compared to that of ACA treated alone. Thus, it seems reasonable to explore the effect of food–drug interaction on the large‐scale clinical trial to manage diabetes complications, such as the potential effect of Moringa leaf and seed inclusive diets co‐administered with ACA for the holistic management of diabetes‐induced erectile dysfunction (ED).
... Several studies have revealed the multiple biological activities of ginger root extract. These include immune modulation of lymphocytic (T and B) and macrophage response [147], antioxidant and anti-inflammatory [148], antimicrobial [149], cardiovascular [150] and respiratory [151] protective effects, all specifically relevant to the Covid-19 infection process. The antiviral efficacy of ginger has been further shown by in vitro experiments with the human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV). ...
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SARS-CoV-2 diffuses quite easily among humans, causing a variety of symptoms from a mild flu to a fatal illness mostly involving the lungs and sometimes the kidneys or the heart, organs that express high concentration of the ACE2 viral receptor. No vaccine is available, although several are under scrutiny. From the therapeutic side, many different products are being tested, from antiviral to anti inflammatory drugs taken from the repertoire of other diseases, however with variable success. In fact, the death toll of this viral infection remains quite high. Containment of the infection is based on mechanical devices (goggles and masks) that shield the entrance doors of the virus (eyes, nose, mouth), and on tight social restrictions to limit the possibility of contact among people living in a community. Nonetheless, the virus apparently survives for hours on different surfaces and in droplets suspended in the air and dispersed by the micro particulate that is so abundant in industrialized towns, thus reaching further away from the originator, and tricking human defenses. In this situation, a possible complementary – however unspecific – approach to limit the infectivity of the virus could be based on a range of natural compounds which may interfere with the diffusion of the virus within the body, and increase the efficacy of the immune defenses of the organism. This is meant to be a non-toxic, preventive or adjuvant treatment so that in case of infection, the symptoms might not develop to full scale, giving the organism more time and strength to fight it. Keywords: Covid-19, Computational chemistry, Drugs, Epidemiology, Food supplements, Probiotics, Therapy.
... Gingerols are the most abundant compounds present in the fresh and dry roots of ginger. Gingerol compounds with varying chain lengths were reported from the species of which 6-gingerol is the most abundant form [6]. Gingerols possesses diverse biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, analgesic, gastroprotective, cardiotonic, antipyretic, anti-angiogenic, anti-platelet aggregation effects and anti-hyperglycemia [7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20]. There is great demand for 6-gingerol due to its low toxicity and attractive medicinal potential [21]. ...
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Objective: Development and validation of a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous estimation of 6-, 8-, 10-Gingerols and 6-Shogaol in ginger extract using authentic standards. Methods: The chromatographic separation was achieved by using a C18 column and a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile, ortho-phospohoric acid in water and methanol. The proposed method was validated in terms of the analytical parameters such as specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, range, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) according to ICH guidelines. Results: Linear calibration curves were obtained over concentration ranges of 10-250 µg/ml for 6-, 8-, 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol with determination coefficients more than 0.99 for each analyte. Intra and inter-day precisions of the method were found to be below 2% for each analyte, with relative standard deviation (% RSD) values in the range of 0.47 to 1.55% for 6-gingerol, 0.44 to 1.51% for 8-gingerol, 0.24 to 1.90% for 10-gingerol and 0.25 to 1.67% for 6-shogaol. The percentage recovery of gingerols and shogaol was obtained with an average of 99.53%, 99.97%, 100.13% and 100.53% respectively, which was well within acceptance range. Conclusion: Simple, accurate, precise and rapid HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 6-, 8-, 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol and validated in accordance with ICH guidelines. The developed method was found to be suitable for the standardization of herbal extracts and polyherbal formulations for the content of 6-, 8-, 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol.
... Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a very well-known spice and herbal medicine, especially in Asia that possesses many health functions such as an antioxidant (Nile & Park, 2015), reducing inflammation (Nile & Park, 2015;M. Zhang, Viennois, Prasad, et al., 2016), preventing microbial growth (Kumar et al., 2014), alleviating cancer (Morimoto et al., 2019), protecting nervous (Ho et al., 2013), cardiovascular (Akinyemi et al., 2015), and even respiratory system (Townsend et al., 2013). A complete review of ginger's health effects is available (Mao et al., 2019), while a thorough review of ginger's health effects on gastrointestinal cancer is also available (Prasad & Tyagi, 2015). ...
Article
Plant-derived exosome-like nanoparticles (PDENs) are small vesicles released by multivesicular bodies mainly to communicate between cells and regulate immunity against pathogen attack. Current studies have reported that PDENs could modulate gene expression in a cross-kingdom fashion. Therefore, PDENs could be a potential future functional food ingredient as their cross-kingdom communication abilities were reported to exert multiple health benefits. Macrophage and other cells have been reported to absorb PDENs in a manner regulated by the membrane lipid and protein profile and the intactness of the PDENs lipid bilayer. PDENs could be extracted from plant materials by various techniques such as ultracentrifugation, immunoaffinity, size-based isolation, and precipitation, though each method has its pros and cons. PDENs mainly contain lipid, protein, and genetic materials, mainly micro RNAs, which could exert multiple health benefits and functionalities when consumed in sufficient amounts. However, most studies on the health functionalities of PDENs were conducted through in-vitro and in-vivo studies, and its potency to be used as a functional ingredient remains a question as PDENs are sensitive to storage and processing condition and requires costly extraction method. This concise review features various exosome extraction methods, contents of PDENs and their roles, the health functionalities of PDENs, and its potency as a functional food ingredient.
... ACE plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure and formation of Ang II by proteolysis of angiotensin I to the active form, Ang II. Several lines of evidence suggest that renin angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in NO deficiency-induced hypertension [22,23]. In the current study, we found that plasma ACE activity and plasma Ang II levels were markedly elevated in L-NAME hypertensive rats ( Fig. 4a and b), and these levels significantly reduced after treatment with SRH (p < 0.05, Fig. 4). ...
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Rice bran hydrolysates contain highly nutritional proteins and beneficial phytochemicals. Sang-Yod rice bran hydrolysates (SRH) extracted from red pigmented rice is a rich source of nutrients and phenolic compounds. The present study evaluated the antihypertensive effect of SRH and its safety in Sprague-Dawley rats. Hypertension was induced in male rats by administration of L-NAME (50 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for three weeks, and the antihypertensive effect of SRH was evaluated. Treatment of SRH (250 or 500 mg/kg) significantly reduced arterial blood pressure and improved hemodynamic parameters. The antihypertensive effect was associated with decreased oxidative stress, suppressed p47phox NADPH oxidase expression, increased nitric oxide bioavailability and decreased angiotensin II level and ACE activity. The SRH was shown to be safe after feeding male and female rats with a rodent diet containing 1.5% SRH for 90 days. Overall, these findings suggest that SRH is safe and may help to prevent hypertension.
... This mechanism involves curcumin's capacity to inhibit AT1R in the arteries, which reduces vasoconstriction and induces vasodilation [56,28,33,57,58]. It has been reported that curcumin, by suppressing the expression of AT1R in vascular smooth muscle cells, increased vasodilation and, subsequently, prevented the progression of hypertension (induced by angiotensin-2) in rats [52,56,59]. Moreover, curcumin has been demonstrated to increase both the production of NO, as well as NO availability, by upregulation of eNOS in the vascular wall, which serves to reduce vascular dysfunction (i.e., improve overall vascular function) [60,61]. ...
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Pulmonary hypertension is one of the most common diseases among older people. This disease is usually associated with complications such as vascular changes, vascular remodeling, vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction, right ventricular failure, and reduction in nitric oxide availability. Many chemical drugs have been used to treat pulmonary hypertension, but result in limited efficacy and several side effects, and these medications are not always available worldwide. Various studies in traditional medicine have shown that changes in lifestyle and nutritional habits can be extremely effective in both the prevention and treatment of various diseases. One treatment method related to changing nutritional habits is the use of curcumin as a nutritional supplement. Curcumin plays an important role in treating pulmonary hypertension and positively alters the aforementioned complications.
... Ginger has strong antioxidant activity following alcohol extraction, making it a good antioxidant supplement. ethanol and methanol extracts had stronger anti-free radical and antioxidant activity than water-based extracts (8)(9)(10) . In a previous study, ginger outperformed turmeric extract in scavenging DPPH radicals and FRAP activity. ...
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Age-related ailments are on the rise as people live longer. Worldwide, there is an increasing need for dementia drugs, however the current medications do not meet those needs. Natural compounds, used in ancient medicine for their advantages and tolerance, have recently attracted scientific study. This analysis examines ginger's anti- and anti-vascular dementia (Zingiber officinale) properties, two of the most common and devastating dementias. Clinical trials on Alzheimer's and Vascular Dementia models have indicated therapeutic advantages from ginger compounds. This research reveals that ginger's components may help treat and prevent the disease. Alzheimer's disease is a neurological disorder that primarily affects the elderly and causes cognitive failure. Various cellular problems such as amyloid-beta buildup, hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, neurotransmitter imbalance, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammatory reactions cause this disease. New Alzheimer's medicines should be able to tackle additional ailments, such as side effects and pharmacokinetic difficulties. Phytochemicals are powerful anti-disease agents that are widely used in humans. In vitro trials are included after eligibility screening. The most frequent interventive processes are oxidative stress and apoptosis. A recent study links Alzheimer's pathology with signalling pathways. In vivo studies and clinical trials assist clarify cognitive test results.
... It also protects against HTN-derived complication by preventing platelet aggregation. [30] According to Ayurveda, Akika has Kashaya, Madhura Rasa, and Sheeta Virya with Hridya Prabhava and Pittashamaka properties. It is used in Hriddaha (burning sensation in heart region), Pitta Roga (diseases due to Pitta Dosha), Vataroga (diseases due to Vata Dosha), Kasa (cough), Hridroga (heart disease), Kshaya (phthisis), and shiroroga (diseases of head). ...
... Ginger has been found to possess various biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory [17], antioxidant [18], anticancer [19] and antimicrobial [20] activities. Furthermore, numerous studies have shown that ginger possesses the potential to prevent and ameliorate the effect of several diseases, such as obesity [21], diabetes mellitus [22], neurodegenerative diseases [23], respiratory disorders [24] and cardiovascular diseases [25]. ...
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Objective: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome is a well-known food spice and flavoring ingredient with wide range of medicinal properties. The rhizome of ginger consists of unique secondary metabolites compounds. The study evaluates the secondary metabolites profiling of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and its antibacterial potential on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Methodology: The GC-MS and phytochemical screening of the aqueous ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome extract were determined using standard procedures. Antibacterial activities were determined by agar well diffusion methods. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using standard procedure. Results: The result of the GC-MS analysis shows that thirty six compounds were identified in the ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome using GC-MS analysis with tridecane with molecular formula of C 13 H 28 being the most abundant with peak area of 16.94% and retention time of 12.849. The phytochemical screening shows that the plant contains saponins, alkaloids, glycoside, simple Original Research Article Momoh and Olaleye; MRJI, 32(7): 7-31, 2022; Article no.MRJI.92461 8 phenolics, tannins, flavonoids carbohydrates and reducing sugar. The study shows that at 250 mg/ml, the aqueous ginger extract exhibited little or no response with zone of inhibition of 9.85±0.39 and 8.19±1.33 mg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli respectively. The extract exhibited weak response antibacterial activity against E. coli and moderate response against S. aureus with zone of inhibition of 13.62±2.03 and 16.73±1.83 at 500 mg/dl respectively. Augmentin showed moderate and strong response with zone of inhibition of 17.23±1.67 and 21.13±1.34 mg/ml against E. coli and S. aureus at concentration of 7.50 mg/ml respectively. At 15 mg/ml, augmentin showed strong response with zone of inhibition of 23.00±2.88 mg/ml against E. coli and potent response with zone of inhibition of 30.50±2.64 mg/ml against S. aureus. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for the aqueous ginger are 125 and 250 mg/ml for S. aureus and E. coli and 7.81 and 15.63 for augmentin solution for the sane organisms respectively. Conclusions: The aqueous ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome contains secondary metabolites and possesses poor antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and may prevent pathogenic diseases caused by these organisms.
... In vitro research studies reported that turmeric extract also inhibited an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, accompanied by increased NO production in L-NAME-induced hypertension (Akinyemi et al., 2015). It has been reported that treatment with curcumin can lower blood pressure in Angiotensin II (Ang II) induced hypertensive rats. ...
Article
Hypertension is one of the significant risk factors for cardiovascular disease and can lead to complications. Uncontrolled hypertension can lead to vascular endothelial dysfunction and other complications of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to determine the effect of turmeric rhizome (Curcuma longa L.) in extracts and the fractions on a hypertensive rat’s model induced by L-NAME 40 mg/kg for three weeks and an acute toxicity study of the extract. Antihypertensive research was performed on male Wistar rats utilizing non-invasive procedures. Turmeric extract at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg and its fraction of n-hexane, acetyl acetate, and ethanol at a dose of 25 mg/kg, respectively, were given daily per oral for three weeks to 2.5 mg/kg captopril. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at 0, 21, and 42 days after treatment and was calculated as mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Acute toxicity testing refers to the OECD 420 Fixed-Dose method with several dosage levels, consists of 300, 2000, and 5000 mg/kg. The turmeric extract at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg and its fraction of n-hexane, acetyl acetate, and ethanol significantly reduced mean arterial blood pressure (p<0.05) compared to the control group. Acute administration of turmeric extracts up to a dose of 5000 mg/kg in test animals did not show any death. Turmeric and its components are considered to possess antihypertensive actions. Antihypertensive activity increased in a dose-dependent manner. Turmeric extract is categorized as being almost entirely non-toxic.
... angiotensin-1 converting enzyme, Bambara groundnut, high-fat diet, lipid profiles, sweet orange peels evaluated to determine the nutritional content required for the formulation of different percentage inclusions (0%, 25%, 50%, and 75%) of Barbara groundnut samples (Akinyemi et al., 2015). The BGF-WWF blends were mixed with other ingredients (bread improver, cocoa butter, skimmed milk, aspartame, and egg white) to meet up with the nutritional content requirements of the composite bread as previously reported in our previous report (Oguntuase et al., 2022). ...
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The effects of dietary inclusion of Bambara groundnut and sweet orange peels composite bread on low‐dose streptozotocin and high‐fat diet (HFD)‐induced type‐2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) complications was evaluated in the present study. Male experimental rats‐induced T2D were administered with acarbose (standard) and fed with Bambara groundnut and sweet orange peels composite bread for a period of 14 days while monitoring their blood glucose levels. More so, the activities of angiotensin‐I‐converting enzyme (ACE), serum aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase activities, as well as nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), albumin, total bilirubin, creatinine, urea, and uric acid serum concentrations were assayed for. Diabetic untreated rats showed disorders in ACE, AST, ALT, and ALP activities, and NO, ROS, glucose, albumin, bilirubin, creatinine, urea, uric acid levels, as well as lipid profiles. Interestingly, these disorders were significantly ameliorated in composite bread diet‐fed rats in comparison to the diabetic untreated rats. Meanwhile, the presence of polyphenols in the Bambara groundnut and sweet orange peels composite bread diet could have aided the amelioration of these metabolic disorders after the 14th day of administration. Finally, it was proposed that the ability of Bambara groundnut‐wheat and sweet orange peel composite bread to treat T2D and its complications makes it a more successful therapy than medications that just target one of the diseased states. Practical applications Diabetes mellitus is a global and chronic disease that presently affects 536.6 million people alongside 1.5 million deaths directly attributed to it yearly. Several drug and medicinal agents have been employed for the management of diabetes but those drugs are mostly limited to the management of diabetes while the associated complications are most untreated, while drugs that can manage diabetes and its related complications mostly come at high prices. Therefore, there is an urgent need to evaluate legumes, such as Bambara groundnut, with proven therapeutic potential in the management of diabetes and its complications. However, the Bambara groundnut takes a long period to prepare for a meal, therefore including it in a ready‐to‐eat product will not only improve its acceptability but also add to economic improvement. Furthermore, adding a waste product, sweet orange peels, will both add flavor and source of additional antioxidant attributes.
... The diet formulation followed the protocol of Akinyemi et al. [7] as reported in Oboh et al. [26] ( Table 1). The inclusion of (5 %) of Deffated Aduwa protein meal and aduwa protein concentrate were established based on previous toxicological and sensory evaluation and palatability of the formulated diets, which is in line with the of safe consumption of aduwa seed extracts by [21] and also aduwa leaf tree portions extract reported by [43]. ...
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Balanites aeqyptiaca (BA) seeds were toasted at 70 °C, milled and the oil expelled to resolve to meal which were defatted to resolve to defatted balanites aeqyptiaca (BA) protein meal and (BA) protein concentrate respectively. These were subjected to analysis using standard methods. There exist marked trend between defatted balanites aeqyptiaca protein meal, protein concentrate and incidences of diabetes. This work investigated the anti- diabetic effects of balanites aeqyptiaca defatted protein meal and concentrate supplemented diets in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The rats were fattened for two weeks with high fat diet (HFD) to introduce Hyperglycemia and then made diabetic by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (35 mg/kg body weight) and fed diets containing 5 % defatted balanites aeqyptiaca protein meal (DAPM) and 5 % balanites aeqyptiaca protein concentrate (APC) for 14 days. The effect of the diet on blood glucose, serum glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione transferase (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase activities were investigated. There was marked increase in the blood glucose, TBARS, pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glycosidase with corresponding decrease in serum GPx and GSH contents in diabetic rats control groups. These trends were however, reversed in diabetic rats fed diet supplemented with the balanites aeqyptiaca protein meals for 14 days. The meals from defatted and protein concentrate inhibit α-amylase and α-glycosidase inhibitory activity in vivo. Thus, the anti-diabetes properties of the defatted meal and protein concentrate may be attributed to the influence of its constituent phytochemicals on starch digestion as well as endogenous enzymes activities. The study revealed that defatted aduwa meal and proteins concnentrate demonstrated potentials used as functional ingredients in food materials and could also increase income access of low resource populace.
... The ginger has been discovered to possess numerous biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant [4], anticancer [5] and antimicrobial activities [6]. The bioactivities of the ginger make it capable to avert and control several diseases, for instance neurodegenerative diseases [7] cardiovascular diseases [8], obesity, obesity mellitus [9] chemotherapy-induced nausea and emesis [10], and respiratory disorders [11]. Due to the unbranched alkyl chain, gingerols are identified as analogous phenolic ketones and subsist as 6, 8, and 10-gingerols among all the bioactive compounds found in ginger. ...
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Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) as a medicinal herb is frequently neglected for other possible applications and usually only be consumed as spices. It shows unpredictable potentialities in both food and pharmaceutical industries. This study aims to provide the comprehensive view on the optimization model of extraction of polyphenols from ginger as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity of ginger extracts. Extraction parameters screening of various parameters assessed the influence of these parameters against the efficiency of recovering polyphenols from ginger. This includes the extraction temperature (60-80 °C), quantity of spice which represent the concentration of ginger (200-600 mg/20 ml solvent) and the solvent concentration (60-80 %) for the extraction of polyphenols from ginger. The optimum parameters were found to be at 80 °C, 468 mg/20 ml solvent and the solvent concentration at 70 % and the extraction time was found to have minimal influence on the extraction process. The total yield of phenolic content under optimum condition were found to be at 22.333 ± 0.2462 mg GAE/g of dry weight of ginger extract.
... According to (stoner 2013) most medicinal property of Ginger has been attributed to the presence of 6-gingerol (5hydroxy -1 -(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)decan-3-one). In addition accumulating studies have demonstrated that ginger possess the potential to prevent and manage several diseases such as Cardiovascular disease (Akinyemi et al 2015), obesity (Suk et al 2017), neurodegenerative disease(ho et al 2013), respiratory disorder (Townsend et al 2015), and diabetes mellitus (Wei etal). In recent years, ginger has also been found to possess anti-inflammatory (Zhang etal2016), anticancer (Cintroberg et al 2013) and antioxidant (Nile et al 2015) activities. ...
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The use of Organic Manures to meet the nutrient requirement of crops is likely to be an unavoidable practice in so many years for sustainable agriculture since it has been proven to improve soil's physical, chemical and biological properties. It has also been used widely to dispose of animal waste and reduce environmental pollution. This study evaluates the influence of different organic amendments on the 6-gingerol content of ginger to identify the best organic material source for improved 6-gingerol content. The treatments used were sawdust, Cow dung, Poultry manure, rice mill waste and Absolute control (no manure or inorganic fertilizer). Five treatments were used and replicated three times using a randomized complete block design (RCBD). 6-gingerol content of the harvested ginger was quantified in the laboratory using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Data analysis was done using "R" statistical software version 4.1.0, and further mean separation was obtained by honest significant difference (HSD) at 5%. The result showed that the organic amendments enhanced the 6-gingerol concentration of ginger. The plot amended with cow dung gave the highest value of 489.1331 ug/ml, which was significantly different from the absolute control and other organic amendments used in this experiment, followed by poultry manure(476.3344 ug/ml), Rice mill waste (430.1956 ug/ml), sawdust(343.2329 ug/ml), and Absolute control(270.1886 ug/ml). The result showed that using cow dung manure at the rate of 268g/plot of 2m should be applied to enhance the 6-gingerol content of ginger without compromising yield significantly.
... According to (stoner 2013), the presence of 6-gingerol (5-hydroxy -1 -(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) decan-3-one) is responsible for the majority of Ginger's therapeutic properties. Furthermore, numerous studies have shown that ginger has the potential to prevent and control a variety of ailments, including cardiovascular disease (Akinyemi et al 2015) [1] , obesity (Suk et al 2017) [11] , neurological disease (ho et al 2013), and respiratory disorder (Townsend et al 2017)., and diabetes mellitus (Wei et al). In recent years, ginger has also been found to possess anti-inflammatory (Zhang et al 2016) [15] , anticancer (Cintroberg et al 2013) and antioxidant (Nile et al 2015) activities. ...
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Organic manure use to meet crop nutrient requirements is anticipated to become an inevitable practice for sustainable agriculture in the future, as it has been shown to improve soil physical, chemical, and biological qualities. It is also been frequently utilized to dispose of animal waste and reduce pollution. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of combination of organic material for enhanced 6-gingerol content of ginger hence field and laboratory experiments were carried out to evaluate this. The treatments used were Cow dung+ Sawdust at 50% each, Cow dung+ Poultry manure at 50% each, Poultry manure+ rice mill waste at 50% each, Rice mill waste + Sawdust at 50% each, absolute control(no amendments), Poultry manure+ Sawdust at 50% each, Cow dung +Rice mill waste at 50%each and Poultrymanure +Rice mill waste + Sawdust+Cowdung at 25%each.Eight treatments were used and replicated three times using randomized complete block design (RCBD). 6-gingerol content of the harvested ginger was quantified in the laboratory using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Data analysis was done using Open source R environment version 4.1.0 statistical software. The result showed that combination of organic amendments enhanced the 6-gingerol concentration of ginger at different rates. The plot amended with cowdung+poultry manure gave the highest value which was significantly different from the absolute control. 6-gingerol content of other combinations of organic materials used in this experiment were also significantly different from the control. The rank order of 6-gingerol content among the treatments were >cowdung + Poultry manure (476.5089 ug/ml) > Cowdung +Ricemillwaste,(467.1398ug/ml) > PoultryManure+Ricemillwaste+Sawdust+Cowdung(455,4349ug/ml)>Poultry manure + Rice mill waste (449.0128 ug/ml) > Cowdung + Sawdust (444.8956 ug/ml) >Poultry manure + Sawdust (434.4819 ug/ml) > Rice mill waste + Sawdust (428.5675 ug/ml) > Absolute Control (270.1886 ug/ml).. The result showed that use of cowdung manure +poultry manure at the rate of 134g and 157g respectively for a 2m bed gave the best result among the organic combinations used in this study.
... These anti-hyperglycaemic effects from aduwa hydrolysate probably reflect the more potent insulin tropic response observed by APHpa and APHpa+pe in Figure 4 and 5 compared to drug treated STZ + ACA group. The Aduwa hydrolysate may also be assisting in promoting anti-diabetic actions by promoting insulin release (Akinyemi et al., 2015). ...
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Citation: Friday O.A et al., (2022). Enzymatic protein hydrolysates from aduwa (Balanities Aeqyptiaca L) seed meal supplemented diet on α-amylase, α-glucosidase and anti-oxidants activity of Streptozotocin-induced diabetic wister albino rat. AJFST. 13: 029. Abstract The Aduwa seeds were toasted, milled, and defatted. The defatted meal is used to produce protein isolate. The Aduwa enzymatic hydrolysed peptides were produced from Aduwa protein isolate using pancreatin, and pancreatic-pepsin enzymes combination. The work investigated the anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant effects of Aduwa enzymatic hydrolysed peptides supplemented diet in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The rats were given high fat diet (HFD) for two weeks and made diabetic by intra peritoneal administration of STZ (35 mg/kg b.w.) and fed diets containing 5% (APHpa) and 5% (APHpa + pe) for 14 days. The effects of the diet on blood glucose, α-amylase, α-glycosidase, and anti-oxidant activities were monitored. Marked increases in the blood glucose and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS); with corresponding decrease in feed intake weight gain, fed conversion ratio, α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and anti-oxidant capacity were monitored in diabetic rats. These trends were however reversed in diabetic rats fed diets supplemented with Aduwa protein hydrolysates of APHpa and APHpa+pe for 14 days. The Aduwa Protein hydrolysates were able to attenuate starch digestion, absorption and anti-oxidant capacity in serum hydrolysate supplemented diet. Thus, these anti-diabetic properties and anti-oxidant capacities from Aduwa supplemented diet may be attributed to the influence of its constituent phytochemicals and peptides inherent in hydrolysates supplemented diet. Afr. J. Food Sci. Technol 2 Citation: Friday O.A et al., (2022). Enzymatic protein hydrolysates from aduwa (Balanities Aeqyptiaca L) seed meal supplemented diet on α-amylase, α-glucosidase and anti-oxidants activity of Streptozotocin-induced diabetic wister albino rat. AJFST. 13: 029.
... 6-gingerol is the main compound which is responsible for the strong aroma of ginger. The biological properties of gingerols are antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiallergic (Akinyemi et al. 2015). ...
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Abstract Medicinal plants have been used as therapeutic agents since the origin of mankind. Many medicinal plants like Tinospora cordifolia, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa, Withania somnifera, Zingiber officinale, etc. are used to treat cancer. Ginger is reported to show anticancer effect in many cancer types like liver cancer, gastric cancer, oral cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, and ovarian cancers in animal models and cell lines. To date, over 400 bioactive compounds have been identified in ginger, they are gingerols, shogaols, and paradols. These compounds possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties. Gingerol especially shows anticancer effects in different cancer subjects. Gingerol may act on the TNF-α, IL-6, NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and caspase-3, and other tumor-metabolic pathway factors in the prevention of cancer. We hope that this chapter will attract more attention on ginger’s therapeutic potential and impact on cancer subjects.
... Viburnum opulus L. fruits (often consumed as juice or jam) extract exerted a significant inhibition of bovine liver Arg and consequent vasorelaxation (Bujor et al., 2019). In another study, turmeric or ginger rhizomes diet supplementation in hypertensive rats caused a significant decrease in Arg activity and a concomitant increase in nitric oxide (Akinyemi et al., 2015). The observed effect could be attributed to the phenolic compounds, acting either synergistically or additively, and could support the antihypertensive benefits of these products in folk medicine. ...
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Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is widely used for food analysis and quality control. As an open chromatographic system, TLC is compatible with microbial-, biochemical-, and chemical-based derivatization methods. This compatibility makes it possible to run in situ bioassays directly on the plate to obtain activity-profile chromatograms, i.e., the effect-directed analysis of the sample. Many of the properties that can be currently measured using this assay format are related to either desired or undesired features for food related products. The TLC assays can detect compounds related to the stability of foods (antioxidant, antimicrobial, antibrowning, etc.), contaminants (antibiotics, pesticides, estrogenic compounds, etc.), and compounds that affect the absorption, metabolism or excretion of nutrients and metabolites or could improve the consumers health (enzyme inhibitors). In this article, different food related TLC-assays are reviewed. The different detection systems used, the way in which they are applied as well as selected examples are discussed.
... It was reported that intravenous administration of fresh ginger extract lowers blood pressure in anesthetized rats, and this activity was attributed to its inhibitory effect on voltage-dependent calcium channels [104]. In a rat model 8 Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity of hypertension induced by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME, pretreatment with ginger rhizomes was shown to lower blood pressure, inhibit the angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) and arginase activities, and increase vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) levels [105]. Another study showed that 6-GN inhibits the activation of angiotensin II type 1 receptors [106]. ...
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... In the past few months, innumerable reports are published regarding pathophysiological aspects of COVID-19, along with evidence about the therapeutic effects of curcumin in COVID-19 (Rocha & de Assis, 2020). Using the best rationale to look, there is some consistency as well as a controversy between epidemiological and laboratory findings given that Curcumin was shown to down-regulate the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene receptor (ACE2), the entry point of COVID-19 (Akinyemi et al, 2015). It has already been proven that pro-inflammatory molecules like prostanoids and cytokines are down-regulated by Curcumin, hence bringing homeostasis during extreme immune responses of the body towards either any pathogen or cancer. ...
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Objectives This study aimed to explore the protective mechanism of caffeic acid (CAA) and chlorogenic acid (CHA) on cyclosporine (CSA) induced hypertensive rats. Methods Effect of CAA and CHA on diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), e-nucleotide triphosphate dephosphorylase (e-NTPDase), 5′ nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in CSA-induced hypertensive rats were determined. Results CAA and CHA administration stabilized hypertensive effect caused by CSA administration. Also, altered activity of ACE (lung), e-NTPDase, 5′ nucleotidase, ADA as well as elevated malondiadehyde (MDA) level was restored in all the treated hypertensive rats in comparison with the untreated hypertensive rats. Conclusion Hence, these observed results could underlie some of the mechanisms through which CAA and CHA could offer antihypertensive effect.
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Ginger (Zingiber officinaleRoscoe) has been used as a spice and as a traditional remedy since ancient times, especially in traditional Chinese medicine. It has been applied as a treatment for many diseases either alone or in combination with other remedies. Many studies were conducted on ginger and its constituents and a wide array of bioactivities were reported,e.g., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiemetic, and anticancer activity. Most of these had been correlated to gingerols and shogaols, the most abundant secondary metabolites in ginger. This inspired several research groups to explore the biomedical value of the chemical space around these compounds, and many of their synthetic or semi-synthetic analogues have been prepared and studied for various bioactivities. Thanks to this, many valuable structure activity relationships have been revealed for such compounds. Herein, we provide a brief summary on the synthetic derivatization efforts that had so far been implemented on 6-gingerol, the main constituent of fresh ginger. This review covers 160 natural, semisynthetic, or synthetic 6-gingerol derivatives and their reported bioactivities.
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In 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated with coronavirus is a new highly pathogenic human coronaviruses that emerged in china and has quickly spread all over the world. The mortality rate is about 26% globally. This has resulted in an urgent need to identify antiviral drugs that are active against SARS-Covid-19. Several compounds extracted from natural product and herbs exhibit antiviral activity. In the present study, eight compounds from natural products and five antiviral drugs have selected and docked against SARS-CoV-2. Curcuminoid are chief constituent of turmeric, has been used as a food additive and herbal increment due to its potential medicinal behavior. Curcumin has shown better antiviral effect against dengue, hepatitis C, zika and chikungunya viruses earlier. The molecular docking for exploring the binding abilities between naturally obtained known compounds comparable with Oseltamivir, Remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, Zanamivir and Ribavirin against SARS-CoV-2, whose results may be used to design potential drug to meet out the need of the hour. The results showed that bismethoxycurcumin, demethoxycurcumin and gedunin have comparable high binding pose energies against SARS-CoV-2. We anticipate that these molecules may lead to the design or discovery of new effective actions for SARS-CoV-2.
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Essential hypertension is one of the most prevalent and important public health concerns in both westernized and developing countries. Recent studies have demonstrated that successful long-term treatment of hypertension has a significant impact on morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and stroke. Chinese classical formulas, which are important components of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), have been increasingly accepted by patients with CVDs worldwide. According to TCM theory and syndrome differentiation, hypertension could be categorized into 3 patterns including fire syndrome, fluid retention syndrome, and deficiency syndrome. Chinese classical formulas, including Chaihu Jia Longgu Muli tang, Tianma Gouteng yin, Zhen Gan Xifeng tang, Banxia Baizhu Tianma tang, Liu Wei Dihuang wan, etc, play an important role in the treatment of essential hypertension, which could be further research priorities.
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Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM), as the most common form of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been playing an important role in the treatment of elderly cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in China. In this paper, we briefly discuss on the potential benefits of CHM for elderly patients with CVDs. Initially, we summarize the characteristics of CVDs in the elderly, the present treatment of CVDs in the elderly, and the clinical applications of CHM for CVDs. Secondly, in addition to introducing the features of CHM, we discuss the differences between CHM and Western medicine. Lastly, the potential benefits of CHM are presented. We came to a conclusion that as mutual complementary, Western medicine and TCM together shall benefit the elderly patients with CVDs.
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Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a well-known and widely used herb, which contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health-promoting properties. The proximate, mineral, antinutrient, amino acid, and phytochemical components of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) were investigated. Amino acid composition was determined using standard analytical techniques. The results obtained in percentages in the two varieties of ginger (white and yellow types) were crude fibre (21.90, 8.30), fat (17.11, 9.89), carbohydrate (39.70, 58.21), crude protein (12.05, 11.65), ash (4.95, 7.45) and moisture (3.95, 4.63) contents respectively. Elemental analysis revealed that potassium (0.98 ppm and 1.38 ppm) is the most abundant, while copper (0.01 ppm) is the least. Phytochemical screening indicated that they are both rich in saponins, anthraquinones, phlobatannin and glycosides. Also, the antinutrient constituents of white ginger were lower than yellow ginger, although the levels of the antinutrient constituents in the two varieties are saved for consumption. The essential amino acids in the two varieties were almost the same, with Leu being the most abundant in both. The two ginger varieties were adequate only in Leu, Phe + Try, and valine based on FAO/WHO provisional pattern. Overall, the findings indicate that the two varieties of ginger are good sources of nutrients, mineral elements, amino acid, and phytochemicals which could be exploited as great potentials for drugs and/or nutritional supplements.
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Oxidative stress and inflammation are implicated in the pathogenesis of retinopathy in diabetes. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of curcumin, a polyphenol with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, on diabetes-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in the retina of rats. A group of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats received powdered diet supplemented with 0.05% curcumin (w/w), and another group received diet without curcumin. The diets were initiated soon after induction of diabetes, and the rats were sacrificed 6 weeks after induction of diabetes. The retina was used to quantify oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory markers. Antioxidant capacity and the levels of intracellular antioxidant, GSH (reduced form of glutathione) levels were decreased by about 30-35%, and oxidatively modified DNA (8-OHdG) and nitrotyrosine were increased by 60-70% in the retina of diabetic rats. The levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were elevated by 30% and 110% respectively, and the nuclear transcription factor (NF-kB) was activated by 2 fold. Curcumin administration prevented diabetes-induced decrease in the antioxidant capacity, and increase in 8-OHdG and nitrotyrosine; however, it had only partial beneficial effect on retinal GSH. Curcumin also inhibited diabetes-induced elevation in the levels of IL-1beta, VEGF and NF-kB. The effects of curcumin were achieved without amelioration of the severity of hyperglycemia. Thus, the beneficial effects of curcumin on the metabolic abnormalities postulated to be important in the development of diabetic retinopathy suggest that curcumin could have potential benefits in inhibiting the development of retinopathy in diabetic patients.
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Solanum torvum (Solanaceae) is a plant currently used in Cameroon ethnomedicine for the treatment of stomach ailments. The present study was undertaken to determine the anti-ulcer potential of the aqueous and methanol extracts from the leaves of Solanum torvum. The aqueous and methanol extracts from the leaves of Solanum torvum were tested orally at the doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg, on gastric ulcerations experimentally induced by HCl/ethanol, indomethacin, pylorus ligation and stress. The fractionation of the methanol extract through silica gel column chromatography produced seven different fractions (A-G) which were tested orally at the dose of 100mg/kg against HCl/ethanol-induced ulceration. The methanol extract at the dose of 750 mg/kg produced 98.12, 99.16, 98.70 and 96.03% inhibition when gastric ulcerations were induced by HCl/ethanol, indomethacin, pylorus ligation and stress, respectively. The aqueous extract at the same dose produced 96.55, 96.86, 98.63 and 98.63% inhibition on ulcerations induced respectively by HCl/ethanol, indomethacin, pylorus ligation and stress. All the fractions of the methanol extract significantly inhibited ulcer formation. Fraction F which contains flavonoids and triterpens was the most active and exhibited an inhibitory percentage of 84.74. Both extracts significantly increased mucus production and reduced gastric acid secretion. The aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves of Solanum turvum possess anti-ulcerogenic properties that may be due to cytoprotective mechanism. These results support the ethnomedical uses of the plant in the treatment of gastric ulcer.
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Objective: To investigate the effects of ginger root juice on contractibility of resistance blood vessels from mice and on activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells. Methods: Juice was prepared from semi-dry ginger roots. Mesenteric artery rings were dissected from healthy adult C57BL/J6 mice. Primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were isolated from umbilical cords of normal full-term babies. The contractibility of the dissected vessel rings in the presence or absence of ginger root juice at 0.1% (v/v) after potassium (100 mM KCL) stimulation was measured by wire myography. The phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and eNOS in the presence of ginger root juice in the culture medium at 0, 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2% (v/v) in HUVECs were assessed by western blotting analysis. Results: An immediate sharp increase in the contractile activity was observed in mesenteric artery rings in response to KCL stimulation. Ginger root juice effectively attenuated the KCL-mediated vessel contraction. Moreover, ginger root juice significantly increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and eNOS in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: Ginger root juice is capable of relaxing resistance blood vessels. Activation of ERK1/2 and eNOS through phosphorylation in endothelial cells may be a mechanism underlying the vasodilator activity of ginger root.
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A protein determination method which involves the binding of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 to protein is described. The binding of the dye to protein causes a shift in the absorption maximum of the dye from 465 to 595 nm, and it is the increase in absorption at 595 nm which is monitored. This assay is very reproducible and rapid with the dye binding process virtually complete in approximately 2 min with good color stability for 1 hr. There is little or no interference from cations such as sodium or potassium nor from carbohydrates such as sucrose. A small amount of color is developed in the presence of strongly alkaline buffering agents, but the assay may be run accurately by the use of proper buffer controls. The only components found to give excessive interfering color in the assay are relatively large amounts of detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100, and commercial glassware detergents. Interference by small amounts of detergent may be eliminated by the use of proper controls.
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Curcumin has been shown to improve cardiac function by reducing degradation of extracellular matrix and inhibiting synthesis of collagen after ischemia. This study tested the hypothesis that attenuation of maladaptive cardiac repair with curcumin is associated with a dual ACE-inhibition and angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonism after myocardial infarction. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 45min ischemia followed by 7 and 42 days of reperfusion, respectively. Curcumin was fed orally at a dose of 150mg/kg/day only during reperfusion. Relative to the control animals, dietary treatment with curcumin significantly reduced levels of ACE and AT1 receptor protein as determined by Western blot assay, coincident with less locally-expressed ACE and AT1 receptor in myocardium and coronary vessels as identified by immunohistochemistry. Along with this inhibition, curcumin significantly increased protein level of AT2 receptor and its expression compared with the control. As evidenced by less collagen deposition in fibrotic myocardium, curcumin also reduced the extent of collagen-rich scar and increased mass of viable myocardium detected by Masson׳s trichrome staining. Echocardiography showed that the wall thickness of the infarcted anterior septum in the curcumin group was significantly greater than that in the control group. Cardiac contractile function was improved in the curcumin treated animals as measured by fraction shortening and ejection fraction. In cultured cardiac muscle cells, curcumin inhibited oxidant-induced AT1 receptor expression and promoted cell survival. These results suggest that curcumin attenuates maladaptive cardiac repair and enhances cardiac function, primarily mediated by a dual ACE-inhibition and AT1 receptor antagonism after myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance: The plant Cecropia pachystachya Trécul has been used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat hypertension, bladder and kidney inflammation and renal diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of the aqueous fraction from the ethanolic extract of Cecropia pachystachya (FCP) in the management of hypertension, inflammation and progressive renal disease in rats submitted to 5/6 nephrectomy. Materials and methods: Thirty male Wistar rats submitted to 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 NE) were untreated (NE) or treated (NE+FCP) with the FCP (0.5g/kg/day). The treatment started 15 days after surgery, and the rats were followed for a period of 60 days. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and albuminuria were evaluated from 15-60 days after the surgical procedure. Function and estructural renal changes, TGF-β (transforming growth factor β), MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) and nitric oxide (NO) urinary excretion were analyzed. Expression and activity of the renal enzymes arginase (ARG), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), and MAP kinase p-JNK expression also were analyzed. Results: The nephrectomized rats developed progressive albuminuria and increased SBP that was less intense in the treated group. There was a reduction in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the nephrectomized rats, which was attenuated by treatment with FCP extract. The treatment with FCP also attenuated the histological changes, reduced the expression and activity of renal arginase, the number of macrophages (ED-1 positive cells) and the p-JNK expression in the renal cortex of the rats submitted to 5/6 NE. The urinary excretion of TGF-β was less intense in the treated group and was associated with the reduction of the expression and activity of the renal arginase. Conclusions: These results suggest that the reduction of renal arginase activity, p-JNK and TGF-β expression can explain the mechanism by which the treatment with C. pachystachya reduced the inflammation and improved renal function. This study presents the potential use of Cecropia pachystachya in the treatment of chronic renal diseases.
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Abstract Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are widely used in the therapy of cardiovascular diseases. This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of two commonly consumed varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in Nigeria on ACE activity in a high cholesterol fed diet. The inhibition of ACE activity of two varieties of ginger (Z. officinale) was investigated in a high cholesterol (2%) diet fed to rats for 3 days. Feeding high cholesterol diets to rats caused a significant (P<.05) increase in the ACE activity. However, there was a significant (P<.05) inhibition of ACE activity as a result of supplementation with the ginger varieties. Nevertheless, rats that were fed 4% white ginger had the highest inhibitory effect as compared with a control diet. Furthermore, there was a significant (P<.05) increase in the plasma lipid profile with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content in rat liver and heart tissues. However, supplementing the diet with red and white ginger (2% and 4%), respectively, caused a significant (P<.05) decrease in the plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level, and MDA content in the tissues. Conversely, supplementation caused a significant (P<.05) increase in plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level when compared with the control diet. Nevertheless, rat fed 4% red ginger had the highest lowering effect as compared with control diet. In conclusion, both ginger varieties exhibited anti-hypercholesterolemic properties in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats. This activity of the gingers may be attributed to its ACE inhibitory activity. However, white ginger inhibited ACE better in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats than red ginger. Therefore, both gingers could serve as good functional foods/nutraceuticals in the management/treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.