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Perils and Promise in Defining and Measuring Mindfulness: Observations From Experience


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As mindfulness research advances on a variety of fronts, it has become increasingly important to carefully define and measure the construct. In this commentary, we draw from our recent research experience on these topics in addressing four issues of primary concern to Bishop et al: The nature of mindfulness, the role of acceptance in the phenomenon, the relation between mindfulness and meditation, and the measurement of mindfulness in meditative and other contexts. © American Psychological Association D12 2004; all rights reserved.
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Perils and Promise in Defining and Measuring
Mindfulness: Observations From Experience
Kirk Warren Brown and Richard M. Ryan,
University of Rochester
As mindfulness research advances on a variety of fronts,
it has become increasingly important to carefully define
and measure the construct. In this commentary, we draw
from our recent research experience on these topics
in addressing four issues of primary concern to Bishop
et al: The nature of mindfulness, the role of acceptance
in the phenomenon, the relation between mindfulness
and meditation, and the measurement of mindfulness
in meditative and other contexts.
Key words:
attention, awareness, acceptance, mind-
[Clin Psychol Sci Prac 11: 242–248, 2004]
Mindfulness is increasingly recognized as a phenom-
enon with functional import for outcomes as diverse as
physical health, psychological well-being, work and
sport performance, and relationships. Paralleling this
recognition is an increased interest in naturally occurring
variations in mindfulness and how interventions and
practices that facilitate mindfulness actually work. As
this research advances, the need for exacting theoretical
and operational definitions of mindfulness becomes
more salient. However, mindfulness is a deceptively
simple concept that is difficult to characterize accurately.
Intrepid scholars seeking to do so must enter the
shadowy realm of consciousness, the domain from
which mindfulness arises. As old as the study of con-
sciousness is within the field of psychology, it nonethe-
less remains largely uncharted and mysterious territory
(Chalmers, 1995). Thus, Bishop, Lau, Shapiro, Carlson,
and Anderson (this issue) are to be commended for
taking on the bold task of proposing a definition of
mindfulness, both conceptually and operationally.
In this commentary, we share our perspectives on
Bishop et al.’s theory of, and proposed measurement
approach to, mindfulness, drawing upon our own recent
research experiences (e.g., Brown & Ryan, 2003, in
press). Specifically, we address four topics of central
concern to Bishop et al.: the nature of mindfulness, the
relation of acceptance to present-centered attention and
awareness, the link between mindfulness and meditative
practice, and the measurement of mindfulness in
meditative contexts and beyond.
Bishop et al. propose a two-component model of
mindfulness, incorporating (a) attention and awareness
and (b) acceptance. We will discuss each of these in turn.
First, in highlighting attention and awareness as central
to mindfulness, Bishop et al. are consistent with most
scholarly and popular writings on the topic. However,
they do not define these terms and often use them
interchangeably. Although these terms are commonly
used, clarity on their meaning is important, as this bears
directly on an understanding of the meaning of mind-
fulness, its practice, and its measurement.
refers to the subjective experience of
internal and external phenomena; it is the pure
Address correspondence to Kirk Warren Brown, CSP,
Meliora Hall, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY
14627–0266. E-mail:
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, V11 N3, ÓAmerican Psychological Association D12 2004; all rights reserved. 242
apperception and perception of the field of events that
encompass our reality at any given moment.
a focusing of awareness to highlight selected aspects of
that reality. In everyday awake states, awareness and
attention are intertwined. Phrased in gestalt terms,
awareness is the field or ground upon which perceived
phenomena are expressed, and attention continually
pulls ‘‘figures’’ out of that ground to hold them up for
closer examination.
Awareness and attention are, of course, the primary
features of consciousness, which several authors (e.g.,
Averill, 1992; Mayer, Chabot, & Carlsmith, 1997) have
distinguished from the other primary mental processing
modalities, namely cognition, motives, and emotions.
Consciousness serves at least two key functions: moni-
toring events and experiences as they unfold in real time
and directing or controlling the contents of conscious-
ness (Westen, 1999). Mindfulness specifically concerns
the monitoring, observing capacity of consciousness. As
Bishop et al. point out, mindfulness represents a height-
ened or sustained attention to and awareness of current
events and experience. However, the fact that mindful-
ness, as a quality of consciousness, can be brought to bear
on thought, emotions, and other contents of conscious-
ness means that it cannot be reduced to them. In this
sense, labeling mindfulness a ‘‘metacognitive skill’’ (p.
233) is, we believe, misleading.
As noted above, consciousness and cognition are
distinct processing modalities. As a cognitive process,
metacognition operates within the realm of thought, to
monitor and control cognitive activities and to ensure
that cognitive goals have been met (Schwartz & Perfect,
2002). Specifically, these processes consist of planning
and monitoring cognitive activities and checking or
testing goal-related outcomes. Here is a common
example: After reading this article, a reader may
question herself about the ideas discussed, with the
cognitive goal of better understanding the text. Self-
testing in this way is a typical metacognitive strategy for
monitoring comprehension. If the reader concludes that
her comprehension is less than adequate, she can then
take further action (e.g., re-reading the article and self-
testing again) to ensure that she meets her goal of text
Mindfulness differs from such metacognitive pro-
cesses in that its mode of operation is perceptual,
operating upon thought, as well as upon emotion and
other contents of consciousness, rather than within
them. Simply put, if mindfulness involves observing
thought, including thoughts about thoughts, it cannot
thought. The observing capacity that defines mindful-
ness is one reason why it has been associated with
‘‘psychological freedom’’ (Martin, 1997). Because it
provides a ‘‘bare display of what is taking place’’ (Shear
& Jevning, 1999, p. 204) it is not subject to the distortions
and biases inherent in cognition and, evidence suggests,
in metacognition as well (Glenberg, Wilkinson, &
Epstein, 1982).
Distinctions between attention and awareness may
also prove important to the study of mindfulness-
promoting practices. Bishop et al. present two views on
mindfulness practice, one highlighting focused attention,
the other emphasizing conscious awareness. Specifically,
they note that in meditation, ‘‘the client ... attempts
to maintain attention on a particular focus, most
commonly the somatic sensations of his or her own
breathing’’ (p. 232). Yet later they write that mind-
fulness ‘‘begins with making a commitment to maintain
an attitude of curiosity about where the mind wanders
whenever it inevitably drifts away from the breath. ...
All thoughts, feelings and sensations that arise are initially
seen as relevant and therefore subject to observation’’ (p.
233). Citing Hayes, Strosahl, and Willson, they write,
‘‘It involves a conscious decision to abandon one’s
agenda to have a different experience and an active
process of ‘allowing’ current thoughts, feelings and
sensations’’ (p. 233).
Bishop et al. do not make clear how these two forms
of mindfulness meditation are related, and the forms
appear contradictory. How can one ‘‘maintain attention
on a particular focus’’ and at the same time be curious
about where the mind wanders? If one is encouraged to
‘‘abandon one’s agenda,’’ doesn’t this also include the
self-imposed agenda to maintain attentional focus on the
breath? The apparent contradiction here can be resolved
by understanding each form of mindfulness meditation
as distinct aspects of meditative practice that may play
different roles in how mindfulness is realized.
A number of Buddhist scholars and teachers have
described two corresponding forms of meditative prac-
tice: concentration and awareness/insight (e.g., Kapleau,
1980; Kornfield, 1993; Rahula, 1974). Concentration
meditation involves focusing attention fixedly on an
internal object such as the breath, a word, or a phrase
(mantra), or on an external object, such as a candle or
mandala. When attention strays from the object—into
thought, for example—it is gently but firmly brought
back to the object. Concentration can produce highly
positive experiences of peacefulness, tranquillity and
mental silence, and it can set the stage for awareness
meditation (e.g., Rahula, 1974), as will be described
shortly. In contrast, awareness or insight meditation
brings consciousness to bear on the moment-to-moment
flow of our present experience—sense impressions,
thoughts, feelings and so on—and the need lessens for
an attentional object on which to focus. In this form,
attention gives way to a heightened awareness of the
ongoing stream of (ap)perceptual phenomena. While
concentration meditation tends to have a calming effect
on the mind, awareness meditation is active and energy
gathering. Many scholars believe that both forms of
meditation are important: Concentration trains the
attentional capacity of the mind, while active observa-
tion of the ever-changing present encourages insight
into the nature of conscious experience through a clear
‘‘view’ of what makes up our world of consciousness. It
can also facilitate access to experiences that normally lie
outside conscious awareness (Kornfield, 1993; Wilber,
Some meditative traditions—Zen for example—use
a stage model of training that incorporates both forms
of meditation (e.g., Kapleau, 1980). Students are first
encouraged to practice concentration (by counting the
breath or attending to its sensations) to strengthen the
capacity to sustain attention over time before turning to
awareness practice. Adherence to this sequential model
comes in recognition of the fact that, in awareness
meditation, the mind can become easily lost in thought,
mental images, or emotions without the power of
sustained attention to keep one attuned to present ex-
perience. Stage models sometimes imply a hierarchical
ordering of importance, but one form of meditation is
not necessarily ‘‘better’’ than the other; much depends on
the outcome of interest. In daily life, for example, the
insight gained through heightened awareness can only
be translated into concrete action by bringing focused
attention to bear on our behavior or on the task at hand
(cf. Martin, 1997).
What role does acceptance play in mindfulness?
Bishop et al. argue for a second component of mind-
fulness beyond attention and awareness of the present,
When we began our own work on
developing a self-report measure of dispositional mind-
fulness, we started from the theoretical position, as do
Bishop et al., that acceptance is a primary component
of mindfulness. We also hypothesized that attention/
awareness and acceptance are related, as Bishop et al.’s
proposed definition suggests. The first self-report scale
that we developed had two factors. One was labeled
‘‘presence’’ and contained items assessing present-
centered attention and awareness. The other factor was
labeled ‘‘acceptance’’ and included items such as ‘‘When
unpleasant thoughts arise, I don’t feel I have to put my
attention somewhere else’’ and ‘‘I don’t like feelings like
fear or anger, so I don’t allow myself to experience
them’’ (reverse scored). These two factors, each with
satisfactory psychometric properties, were correlated (in
the .20 to .35 range across different samples), and
confirmatory factor analyses found that a second-order
factor model, in which the two factors were nested
under an overarching ‘‘mindfulness’’ factor, provided
a satisfactory fit. However, our convergent, discrimi-
nant, and criterion validity research showed, across
several large samples, that the acceptance factor pro-
vided no explanatory advantage over that shown by the
presence factor alone (Brown & Ryan, 2001).
To illustrate, Table 1 provides zero-order correlations
between the two factors and a number of indicators of
well-being in two samples. Visual inspection suggests
that the presence factor was more highly correlated with
many of these indicators than was the acceptance factor.
This was verified using
-tests to compare the sizes of
values (Cohen & Cohen, 1983). For most of the
well-being indicators, the presence factor correlated
more strongly than the acceptance factor at
For pleasant affect and physical symptoms, the
differences were significant at
,.05; the correlations of
presence and acceptance with PANAS positive affect
and PWB autonomy did not differ significantly from
each other.
The presence factor alone also generally showed
correlations with well-being equal in magnitude to those
of the combined presence and acceptance factors, as
represented by the total mindfulness scale score,
(see Table 1). The correlations of presence with SVS
vitality and PWB relatedness were in fact higher than
those of the total scale score,
s,.05. These and other
findings suggested to us that
as a distinct construct
acceptance is functionally redundant in mindfulness.
We then focused our efforts on the presence construct,
and items from this factor were incorporated into
a second-generation measure: the Mindful Attention
Awareness Scale (MAAS; Brown & Ryan, 2003).
We continued to believe, however, that acceptance is
important to mindfulness, but not in the way we first
thought. We have operationally defined mindfulness
as an
attention to and awareness of
ongoing events and experience (e.g., Brown & Ryan,
2003), and the MAAS measures this by asking
respondents to rate the frequency with which their
day-to-day consciousness reflects this quality. The
redundancy of the acceptance factor that we found in
our preliminary work may be because mindfulness, as
we define it here, subsumes an acceptance of what
Specifically, embedded within the capacity to sustain
attention to and awareness of what is occurring is an
openness to and acceptance of it. Such presence means
‘‘taking each moment as it comes.’’ When an individual
does not accept what is occurring at a given moment,
a natural reaction is to limit awareness and redirect
attention, to seek to avoid or escape from the event
or experience—mentally, behaviorally, or in some
other way. To turn away is to become (intentionally)
inattentive and unaware—that is, to cease to be present,
or to be mindless. Kornfield noted that, ‘‘
to pay attention
is ... a surrender to what is actually happening
in each moment without trying to alter or change or put
a conceptual framework around it. ... This cultivates
a state of mind which allows us to be open, to observe
and experience fully the entire range of mental and
physical reality without either suppressing it or acting
it out’’ (1993, pp. 56–57, emphasis added). Likewise,
Tolle (1999) asserts that in giving ‘‘fullest attention to
whatever the moment presents ... implies that you
also completely accept what is, because you cannot give
your full attention to something and at the same time
resist it’’ (p. 56). Without regular or consistent, open,
and non-judgmental observation, mindful states, as
simply defined by frequent attention to and awareness
to what is occurring, would be uncommon, resulting in
low scores on a mindfulness scale that assesses attention
and awareness, as the MAAS does.
Bishop et al. emphasize the role of meditation in
cultivating mindfulness. They note, for example, the
role of attentional focus on the breath as a means to
Table 1. Correlations of presence, acceptance, and total mindfulness with
psychological well-being indicators
Scale Presence Acceptance Total
Traits and attributes
NEO-PI Neuroticism
.53**** .25**** .52****
NEO-FFI Neuroticism
.46**** .24**** .45****
RRQ Rumination
.47**** .22**** .45****
MSEI Self esteem
.38**** .21**** .37****
TMMS Emotional intelligence
.50**** .18*** .47****
Emotional disturbance
CES-D Depression
.42**** .26**** .43****
STAI Anxiety
.45**** .29**** .46****
Emotional-subjective well-being
Pleasant affect
.32**** .19*** .32****
Unpleasant affect
.38**** .20*** .37****
PANAS Positive affect
.30**** .23**** .33****
PANAS Negative affect
.46**** .25**** .45****
TSWLS Life satisfaction
.30**** .14** .29****
Eudaimonic well-being
SVS Vitality
.44**** .09 .38****
MAP Self actualization
.43**** .24**** .43****
PWB Autonomy
.37**** .29**** .40****
PWB Competence
.44**** .24**** .43****
PWB Relatedness
.31**** .09 .26****
Physical well-being
Reported physical symptoms
.26**** .13** .26****
HSCL Somatization
.40**** .23**** .41****
Note. Superscripts aand brefer to samples with N5313 and N5327,
CES-D Depression 5Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale
(Radloff, 1977); HSCL Somatization 5Hopkins Symptom Checklist
(Derogatis, Lipman, Rickels, Uhlenhuth, & Covi, 1974); MAP Self
actualization 5Measure of Actualization of Potential (Lefranc¸ ois, Leclerc,
´bert, & Gaulin, 1997); MSEI Self esteem 5Multidimensional Self-
Esteem Inventory (O’Brien & Epstein, 1988); NEO-PI Neuroticism 5NEO
Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992); NEO-FFI Neuroticism 5
NEO Five Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992); PANAS Positive affect,
Negative affect 5Positive and Negative Affect Scales (Watson, Clark, &
Tellegen, 1988); Pleasant affect 5Pleasant hedonic valence (Diener &
Emmons, 1984); PWB Autonomy, Competence, Relatedness 5Personal
Well-Being Scales (Ryff, 1989); Reported physical symptoms 5(Larsen &
Kasimatis, 1991); RRQ Rumination 5Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire
(Trapnell & Campbell, 1999); STAI Anxiety 5State Trait Anxiety Inventory
(Spielberger, 1983); SVS Vitality 5Subjective Vitality Scale (Ryan &
Frederick, 1997); TSWLS Life satisfaction 5Temporal Satisfaction With Life
Scale (Pavot, Diener, & Suh, 1998); TMMS Emotional intelligence 5Trait
Meta-Mood Scale (Salovey, Mayer, Goldman, Turvey & Palfai, 1995);
Unpleasant affect 5Unpleasant hedonic valence (Diener & Emmons, 1984).
** p,.01, *** p,.001, **** p,.0001.
experiencing internal events. In fact, in distinguishing
their conceptualization of mindfulness from that of
Langer (e.g., 1989), they de-emphasize mindfulness of
external stimuli, stating instead that ‘‘our own definition
emphasizes ... attention to primarily
(thoughts, feelings and sensations)’’ (p. 235, emphasis in
original). We have both conceptual and empirical
concerns in binding mindfulness to meditation and to
the consciousness of primarily internal phenomena that
meditation typically involves.
Along with Bishop et al., we believe that meditative
practices can be an effective route to the enhancement of
mindfulness. Yet, mindfulness is not merely a product of
meditation. As we have argued elsewhere (Brown &
Ryan, 2003), mindfulness is an inherent, natural capacity
of the human organism. Dzogchen teaching has called
this inherent capacity ‘‘unfabricated mindfulness’’ (see
Goldstein, 2002). Our research (e.g., Brown & Ryan,
2003; Carlson & Brown, 2003; Levesque & Brown,
2003) has shown that individuals in the general popu-
lation, most of whom have had no formal meditation
experience, reliably differ in the propensity to be mind-
ful, measured using both a dispositional measure (the
MAAS) and on a day-to-day basis using a state measure
derived from the MAAS. Further, this research has
shown that these natural individual differences have
significant self-regulatory and psychological well-being
In accord with our theorizing that mindfulness
involves a present-centered attention to and awareness
of all accessible events and experiences, our measure taps
mindfulness of both internal and external stimuli. By
tying mindfulness primarily to the consciousness of
internal stimuli, Bishop et al. imply that mindfulness
mainly has relevance to situations in which there are no
external demands to negotiate, such as in meditation. Yet
a primary benefit of meditative practice is that it
can change how individuals behave ‘‘off the cushion’’ in
their day-to-day lives (e.g., Kabat-Zinn, 1993), bringing
mindful presence to bear not only on internal events,
but also on our daily social and physical worlds. In this
view, the concept of mindfulness is less restricted in
scope, and the practice of mindfulness can be broadly
Bishop et al. emphasize that meditation can be
a powerful vehicle to enhance mindfulness, and we
agree. Our research with Zen practitioners has shown
that meditation practice is associated with greater
mindfulness (Brown & Ryan, 2003). This research also
showed, however, that dispositional mindfulness is
related to the extent to which individuals carried their
practice over into their daily lives. In addition, we
believe, as Bishop et al. also appear to, that it is im-
portant to remain open to the possibility that mindful-
ness may be cultivated through practices other than
meditation. For example, some theorists (Epstein, 1990;
Martin, 1997; Wilber, 2000) have suggested that a
variety of forms of psychotherapy may facilitate open
or receptive attention and awareness to psychological
and/or behavioral events and experience. Personality
and therapeutic traditions discussing this point have
ranged from psychodynamic (Freud, 1912/963) to
Gestalt (Perls, 1973) to cognitive behavioral (Safran &
Segal, 1990) approaches. Research underway in our
laboratory is testing whether psychotherapy can enhance
clients’ levels of mindfulness.
Measurement in meditative contexts. Bishop et al.’s
development of a measure of mindfulness for use in
meditative contexts could potentially be very useful in
exploring the phenomenology and impact of mindful
states (cf., Forte, Brown, & Dysart, 1987/1988). Bishop
et al.’s other goals for such a measure, including the
investigation of meditational processes, are laudable. We
wish only to add a note of caution regarding their plan
for assessing mindfulness ‘‘in reference to an immedi-
ately preceding [mindfulness] session’’ (p. 237) or
immediately post-training in longitudinal programs. If,
as can be assumed in mindfulness-training contexts,
respondents are aware of the goal to enhance mindful-
ness, care will have to be taken to lessen the effects of
social desirability and demand characteristics. Longitu-
dinal or experimental research will also be needed to
ensure that qualities assumed to follow
can be distinguished from measures
mindfulness. This
points, more generally, to the importance of showing
that a new measure has predictive value, particularly, we
believe, for outcomes such as mental health, equanimity,
compassion, generosity, wisdom, and other human
potentialities that have traditionally been associated
with mindfulness and meditation (Shapiro & Walsh,
2003; Walsh, 1996).
The field of mindfulness studies is still in an early stage
of development. Much of the research to date has
concerned the efficacy of mindfulness training to
enhance well-being in clinical contexts, and the results
have been quite positive (Baer, 2003). As researchers
begin to explore the applications of mindfulness in more
varied contexts and populations, scientific progress will
rest upon our definitions and measures of the phenom-
enon. In this regard we share Bishop et al.’s deep interest
in basic questions concerning mindfulness: What is it?
How is it expressed and how is it best measured? How
does mindfulness operate to produce salutary outcomes?
Given the depth and complexity of the phenomenon,
debate over such basic issues is to be expected and well-
conducted empirical research can help to refine both
answers and questions. Equally importantly, the study
of basic questions will also help to more firmly place
mindfulness within a network of other, established fields
of study, and thereby enhance our understanding of
human nature as a whole.
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... This definition of mindfulness incorporates two elements: the self-regulation of attention to experience in the present moment, and the attitude of curiosity, openness, and acceptance. Brown and Ryan [32] distinguished awareness from attention by claiming that awareness is about the ongoing experience of the present moment (thoughts, emotions, bodily sensations, and sensory perceptions); while attention is the fact of focusing awareness on a particular phenomenon. Awareness and attention are interwoven, and they are the main properties of consciousness; and mindfulness is about observing consciousness by having a complete picture of it, which involves both awareness and attention. ...
... For the objectives of this study, mindfulness is defined as intentionally focusing the attention on what happens in the present moment (thoughts, emotions, bodily sensations, and external stimuli) and accept it without judgment. This state of being is characterized by many attitudinal factors (openness, acceptance, equanimity, patience, empathy, calmness, trust, gratitude, kindness, etc.) [32,34]. According to Dekeyser et al. [35], individual involved in the practice of mindfulness can develop four distinctive competencies: attentively and consciously observe the internal and external phenomena (thoughts, emotions, sounds, smells etc.); consequently act by being fully engaged in an activity with total focus of attention; non-judgmentally accept the unfolding experience; immediately appreciate the unfolding experience. ...
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The main objective of this work is to explore the concept of mindfulness and its growing popularity within organizations with the introduction of the concept of mindful leadership in the management literature. This paper is one of the first in a pair of papers to explore the concept of mindful leadership in organizations. The first section of the paper provides a brief inquiry into the history of mindfulness, the definitions of mindfulness and the neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness meditation. In the second section, the author considers mindfulness in the organizational research before conducting discussion on the concept of mindful leadership in the third section. The paper claims that while many studies have been conducted on mindfulness in diverse research areas, mindful leadership research is still developing, and the author vows for its adoption by business leaders for positive transformation within their organizations. Putting mindfulness into perspective as an energy resource that can activate a spiral of gains, the paper calls for greater research into the concept of mindful leadership. The paper offers a starting point for researchers and organizational development professionals to consider the possibility that mindfulness can be used as an efficient tool for the benefit of business executives.
... Typically, these instruments are selfreport measures of state or trait mindfulness. Whereas state mindfulness refers to the ability to cultivate a particular state of mind, experienced by meditators during practice or non-meditators in daily life (Brown & Ryan, 2004), trait mindfulness refers to the individuals' predisposition to be mindful in their daily life (Baer et al., 2006;Kiken et al., 2015). Mindfulness as a trait is a stable or dispositional quality, which serves as basis for the development of state mindfulness (Lawlor et al., 2013;Quaglia et al., 2016). ...
... In general, all definitions conceptualize mindfulness as involving an awareness and an acceptance dimension. However, whereas unidimensional approaches argue that these dimensions cannot be separated (e.g., Brown & Ryan, 2004), multidimensional approaches tend to decompose them into specific facets (e.g., observing, describing, acting with awareness, non-judging of inner experience, and non-reactivity to inner experience; Baer et al., 2006). Given the exploratory nature of the present study along with the availability of validated instruments in Portuguese, the design of this study was grounded on a unidimensional definition of mindfulness. ...
Writing is a complex task that requires the activation and coordination of several processes. In addition to the research on the domain-specific factors that contribute to school achievement, there is an increasing interest on general variables, such as mindfulness. Here, we aimed to test the contribution of middle-grade students’ trait mindfulness to writing achievement, after controlling for well-known writing predictors. One hundred and eighty-seven 6th-graders (M = 11.66 years) were assessed on transcription, text quality, executive functions, and self-reported trait mindfulness. Preliminary analyses showed that our trait mindfulness measure had two factors: mindful awareness and acceptance. However, because only the latter was found to be reliable, main analyses were exclusively focused on the acceptance facet of mindfulness. A multiple hierarchical regression analysis was conducted. After controlling for demographic characteristics (Step 1), transcription skills (Step 2), and executive functions (Step 3), we examined the predictive role of mindful acceptance (Step 4) to writing achievement. Findings indicated that mindful acceptance had a significant contribution to writing achievement in Grade 6 (b = .18). These are pioneering findings about the contribution of mindful acceptance to writing. The putative mechanism underlying this contribution is discussed, and indications for future research are proposed.
... Typically, these instruments are selfreport measures of state or trait mindfulness. Whereas state mindfulness refers to the ability to cultivate a particular state of mind, experienced by meditators during practice or non-meditators in daily life (Brown & Ryan, 2004), trait mindfulness refers to the individuals' predisposition to be mindful in their daily life (Baer et al., 2006;Kiken et al., 2015). Mindfulness as a trait is a stable or dispositional quality, which serves as basis for the development of state mindfulness (Lawlor et al., 2013;Quaglia et al., 2016). ...
... In general, all definitions conceptualize mindfulness as involving an awareness and an acceptance dimension. However, whereas unidimensional approaches argue that these dimensions cannot be separated (e.g., Brown & Ryan, 2004), multidimensional approaches tend to decompose them into specific facets (e.g., observing, describing, acting with awareness, non-judging of inner experience, and non-reactivity to inner experience; Baer et al., 2006). Given the exploratory nature of the present study along with the availability of validated instruments in Portuguese, the design of this study was grounded on a unidimensional definition of mindfulness. ...
Writing is a highly complex and demanding task, that requires the activation and coordination of several processes. In addition to the extensive research on the domain-specific factors that contribute to school achievement, there has been an increasing interest on general variables, such as mindfulness. This study aimed to test the contribution of middle-grade students’ mindfulness skills to writing achievement, after controlling for well-known writing predictors. Participants were one hundred and eighty-seven Portuguese-native speakers in Grade 6 (M = 11.66 years). They were assessed on transcription, text quality, executive functions, and self-reported mindfulness skills. A multiple hierarchical regression analysis was conducted. After controlling for demographic characteristics (Step 1), transcription skills (Step 2), executive functions (Step 3), we examined the effects of mindful acceptance (Step 4) to writing achievement. Findings indicated that mindful acceptance had a significant and unique contribution to writing achievement in Grade 6 (b = .18).These are pioneering findings about the contribution of mindfulness to writing. The putative mechanism underlying the link between higher mindful acceptance and better texts is discussed, and indications for future research are proposed.
... (2) diminished self-talk; (3) nonjudgment (nonjudgment); (4) inaction (non-doing); and (5) particular philosophical, ethical, or therapeutic convictions. Scientists like Demick (2000), Langer (1989Langer ( , 2000, Rosenberg (2004), and Brown and Ryan (2004) all strongly support the "perceptual capacity" element among these characteristics. ...
Purpose: The study investigates the moderating impact of interpersonal mindfulness (IM) on the link between perceived similarity (OPS), physical appearance (OPA), and suitable behavior (OSB)-three key factors of other consumer perception (OCP) and brand experience (BE) in distribution of OCP and brand. Research design, data, and methodology: This study collected data from 612 consumers at shopping malls. SmartPLS 3.3.9 software were used to assess the measurement model and structural model. Results: According to the study's findings, IM has a negative modality in the impact between BE and OPS, OPA, and OSB. That also demonstrates how distribution of OCP and brand can affect a person's brand experience. Conclusions: The distribution of OCP and IM interactions have a significant influence on the brand experience in brand distribution. The study's results show that IM including mindfulness will function as a moderator between perceived similarity, physical appearance, suitable behavior regarded proper by other consumers, and brand experiences; therefore, they impact to brand distribution. The findings give a foundation for further IM research and add to the brand distribution theory that already exists. The findings also have some managerial implications in brand distribution.
... Studies indicated that acting with awareness and nonjudging were positively associated (Hearn & Stocker, 2022). Both were supported by negative correlations with MW (Rahl et al., 2017) but positive correlations with openness, emotional intelligence, and self-compassion (Bond & Bunce, 2003;Brown & Ryan, 2004). Individuals with high non-judging and awareness are not prone to evaluate and judge their feelings and are reluctant to rush through activities on automatic pilot (Debettencourt et al., 2018). ...
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Objectives This study investigated the latent profiles of mindfulness in a sample of Chinese university students and explored the links between specific mindfulness profiles and mind wandering outcomes through a combination of questionnaires and behavioral experiments. Method University students (n = 1557; 67% women; Mage = 21.27 ± 1.14 years) completed various measures addressing mind wandering, cognitive errors, mindfulness, and the sustained attention response task (SART). Results Latent profile analysis identified four mindfulness profiles: moderate mindfulness (33%, n = 519), observing/describing (20%, n = 314), judgmentally observing (12%, n = 182), and high non-judgmentally aware (35%, n = 543). Findings demonstrated that the high non-judgmentally aware profile was associated with less mind wandering, fewer cognitive errors, lower omission and commission errors, and less reaction time variability in the SART. Contrastingly, students with the judgmentally observing profile demonstrated more frequent mind wandering, more cognitive errors, higher omission and commission errors, and more reaction time variability. Conclusions High non-judgmentally aware was the most adaptive profile, while the judgmentally observing profile was the most maladaptive profile. The high non-judgmentally aware students differed from people with judgmentally observing in levels of non-judging, suggesting non-judging might be associated with reduced mind wandering, which implies that it is necessary to bring forward personalized mindfulness interventions in accordance with specific problems.
... Beberapa tahun terakhir banyak penelitian yang telah dilakukan berkaitan dengan pengaruh berbagai intervensi terhadap stress yang dialami oleh mahasiswa (Abasimi et al. Mindfulness adalah kemampuan yang dimiliki seseorang untuk secara langsung dapat memusatkan perhatian, keterbukaan akan pengalaman, dari satu waktu ke waktu berikutnya, dengan keterbukaanpikiran serta penerimaan diri (Brown & Ryan, 2004). Mindfulness mengacu pada menyadari momen yang terjadi saat ini, dengan sengaja memberi perhatian tanpa penilaian (Brown & Ryan, 2003). ...
This study aimed to determine the relationship between mindfulness and stress among final year students of the Faculty of Law at Haluoleo Kendari University. This research uses correlational quantitative method. The population of this study were final students of the Haluoleo Faculty of Law with a sample of 265 students. The sampling method using cluster sampling technique. The measuring instrument used in this study consisted of 2 research scales. The first scale is the MAAS (Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale) with a scale reliability value of 0.895. The second scale is the PSS (Perceived Stress Scale) scale with a scale reliability value of 0.773.The results of the Pearson product moment correlation analysis showed that there was a significant negative relationship between mindfulness and stress, with a correlation level of -0.408. The effective contribution given by the variable in this study was 16.6%. Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara mindfulness dengan stress pada mahasiswa tingkat akhir Fakultas Hukum di Universitas Haluoleo Kendari. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kuantitatif korelasional. Populasi dari penelitian ini adalah mahasiswa akhir Fakultas Hukum Haluoleo dengan sampel sebanyak 265 mahasiswa. Metode pengambilan sampel menggunakan teknik cluster sampling. Alat ukur yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini terdiri atas 2 skala penelitian. Skala pertama merupakan skala MAAS (Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale) dengan nilai reliabilitas skala sebesar 0,895. Skala kedua adalah skala PSS (Perceived Stress Scale) dengan nilai reliabilitas skala sebesar 0,773. Hasil analisis korelasi product moment Pearson menunjukan bahwa ada hubungan negatif yang signifikan antara mindfulness dengan stress, dengan taraf korelasi yaitu sebesar -0,408. Sumbangan efektif yang diberikan oleh variable pada penelitian ini sebesar 16,6%.
... The concepts represented in dual-system theory are listed in Table 1. Although the concepts may be expressed in a variety of ways, the core meaning focuses on the processing mode of the impulsive system as fast and effortless, while that of the reflective system is thoughtful and systematic (Brown & Ryan, 2004). ...
Cyberloafing is a prevalent phenomenon in organisations that may cause serious problems. In previous studies, cyberloafing has been studied as planned and intentional behaviour. Interestingly, we have observed that cyberloafing frequently happens when employees use smartphones to assist with work tasks, but they may not necessarily intend to engage in this activity. We distinguish between active and passive cyberloafing and focus on studying the latter. Based on dual-systems theory, we introduce the construct of mindfulness in the exploration of the antecedences and internal mechanism of passive cyberloafing. We conducted a research survey with employees who use smartphones to assist with work tasks and collected 474 valid questionnaires to examine our research model. The results showed that dual systems are associated with cyberloafing by influencing mind-wandering, and mindfulness significantly decreased mind-wandering when using a smartphone. This study analyses cyberloafing from an innovative neuroscience perspective and contributes to the literature by proposing a new classification of cyberloafing behaviour, reveals the internal mechanism of how dual systems impact an individual’s behaviour, and introduces mindfulness as an antecedent factor of dual systems.
... The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) contains 15 items scored on a 6-point Likert-type scale for measuring attention to and awareness of experiences. It has satisfactory reliability, and a number of studies attest to its validity (Brown & Ryan, 2004). Compared to other scales, the Chinese version of the MAAS has better construct validity (Chang et al., 2011). ...
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Objectives Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe mental disorder characterized by difficulty in emotion regulation and interpersonal relationships. Many researchers have focused on high baseline emotional intensity and emotional reactivity, but very little research has examined the difficulty of recovery to baseline in patients with BPD. This study focused on emotional recovery after Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) intervention on psychophysiological indexes in individuals with BPD features. Methods In all, 179 participants were recruited and invited to complete the questionnaire. Based on the cutoff scores of the Borderline Features Scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI-BOR), 32 participants with BPD features and 32 healthy controls (HC) were invited to participate in the psychophysiological studies. In the second phase, 16 of the 32 participants with BPD features were included in the MBSR intervention, and the other 16 were included in the uninvolved group. Results There were significant differences between the BPD-features and HC groups on all the self-report scales. The individuals with BPD features experienced more difficulty in recovering from anger, sadness, and fear emotions, according to psychophysiological indicators of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). MBSR intervention was effective in improving emotion regulation, the traits of mindfulness, depression, and withdrawal of the PNS in the BPD-features group. During the recovery periods, the activities of the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and high frequency of heart rate variability (HRV-HF) increased in the participants with BPD features after MBSR intervention. Conclusions The present results are in line with the polyvagal theory. MBSR intervention may provide paths for gaining control over top-down influences on the PNS via skills of observation and acceptance to avoid the loop of rumination and associated physiological arousal, which is thought to prevent efficient emotional recovery from stressful emotional experiences.
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A growing body of research has documented the negative relationship between mindfulness and ego depletion. However, most of this research has taken a static view while ignoring the effects of mindfulness temporal changes at work. Thus, it is unclear whether the relationship between mindfulness change and ego depletion is still negative when this factor is added into the mix. To address this issue, we examine mindfulness change at the within‐person level (mindfulness shift) and the between‐person level (mindfulness variability) and explore their distinctive impacts on ego depletion and subsequently on counterproductive work behaviour (CWB). Drawing on ego depletion theory and mindfulness research, we propose that an upshift in mindfulness is negatively related to employee ego depletion and CWB at the within‐person level, whereas high chronic mindfulness variability is positively related to employee ego depletion and CWB at the between‐person level. To test our hypotheses, we used an experience sampling methodology to collect three‐wave data within a day from 166 employees over 10 consecutive workdays. At the within‐person level, we observed a negative and indirect effect of an upshift in daily mindfulness on daily CWB via daily ego depletion. At the between‐person level, we found a positive and indirect effect of chronic mindfulness variability on chronic CWB via chronic ego depletion.
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Background: Chronic muscle diseases (MD) are progressive and cause wasting and weakness in muscles and are associated with reduced quality of life (QoL). The ACTMuS trial examined whether Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) as an adjunct to usual care improved QoL for such patients as compared to usual care alone. Methods: This two-arm, randomised, multicentre, parallel design recruited 155 patients with MD (Hospital and Depression Scale ⩾ 8 for depression or ⩾ 8 for anxiety and Montreal Cognitive Assessment ⩾ 21/30). Participants were randomised, using random block sizes, to one of two groups: standard medical care (SMC) (n = 78) or to ACT in addition to SMC (n = 77), and were followed up to 9 weeks. The primary outcome was QoL, assessed by the Individualised Neuromuscular Quality of Life Questionnaire (INQoL), the average of five subscales, at 9-weeks. Trial registration was NCT02810028. Results: 138 people (89.0%) were followed up at 9-weeks. At all three time points, the adjusted group difference favoured the intervention group and was significant with moderate to large effect sizes. Secondary outcomes (mood, functional impairment, aspects of psychological flexibility) also showed significant differences between groups at week 9. Conclusions: ACT in addition to usual care was effective in improving QoL and other psychological and social outcomes in patients with MD. A 6 month follow up will determine the extent to which gains are maintained.
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A distinction between ruminative and reflective types of private self-attentiveness is introduced and evaluated with respect to L. R. Goldberg's (1982) list of 1,710 English trait adjectives (Study 1), the five-factor model of personality (FFM) and A. Fenigstein, M. F. Scheier, and A. Buss's(1975) Self-Consciousness Scales (Study 2), and previously reported correlates and effects of private self-consciousness (PrSC; Studies 3 and 4). Results suggest that the PrSC scale confounds two unrelated motivationally distinct disposition-rumination and reflection-and that this confounding may account for the "self-absorption paradox" implicit in PrSC research findings: Higher PrSC sources are associated with more accurate and extensive self-knowledge yet higher levels of psychological distress. The potential of the FFM to provide a comprehensive Framework for conceptualizing self-attentive dispositions, and to order and integrate research findings within this domain, is discussed.
There is a growing theoretical and practical interest in the topic of metacognition; how we monitor and control our mental processes. Applied Metacognition provides a coherent and up-to-date overview of the relation between theories in metacognition and their application in real-world situations. As well as a theoretical overview, there are substantive chapters covering metacognition in three areas of application: metacognition in education, metacognition in everyday life memory and metacognition in different populations. A diverse range of topics are covered such as how we judge our own learning, why we create false beliefs about our past, how children learn to monitor and control their memory, how well eyewitnesses can judge the accuracy of their own memories and how memory judgements change across the lifespan. The book has contributions from many of the leading researchers in metacognition from around the world.
Self-determination theory argues that motivational orientations that guide behavior have important consequences for healthy behavioral regulation and psychological well-being. This chapter discusses the nature of motivation in terms of its relative autonomy and reviews evidence in support of its role in positive psychological and behavioral outcomes. The chapter begins by describing variations in the orientation of motivations as outlined within SDT. It then address factors that impact motivation at two levels: how motivators and social contexts can foster or undermine autonomous motivation; how individuals can best access and harness self-regulatory powers from within. The chapter demonstrates that autonomous regulation of inner states and overt behavior is key to a number of positive outcomes that reflect healthy behavioral and psychological functioning. Autonomy can be facilitated both from without and from within, through the receptive attention and awareness to present experience that helps to characterize mindfulness.
Objectives: This study examined the construct and criterion validity of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) in cancer outpatients, using matched community members as controls. Methods: Cancer outpatients (n = 122) applying for enrollment in a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program completed the MAAS and measures of mood disturbance and stress. Local community members (n = 122) matched to the patients on gender, age, and education level completed the same measures. Results: The single-factor structure of the MAAS was invariant across the groups. Higher MAAS scores were associated with lower mood disturbance and stress symptoms in cancer patients, and the structure of these relations was invariant across groups. Conclusions: The MAAS appears to have appropriate application in research examining the role of mindfulness in the psychological well-being of cancer patients, with or without comparisons to nonclinical controls. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.