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Advancing sustainable tourism: A regional sustainable tourism situational analysis: Southern Africa

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Abstract and Figures

Against the background of the importance of tourism to the economies of southern Africa, the purpose of this study was to provide a situational assessment and analysis of the sustainable tourism activities, needs and priorities of countries in Southern Africa; barriers to mainstreaming sustainability in tourism and recommendations for overcoming them; and an overview of stakeholders and funders implementing and enabling sustainable tourism initiatives in the region.
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AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
SOUTHERN
AFRICA
AdvANCINg
SUSTAINAblE
TOURISm
A REgIONAl
SUSTAINAblE
TOURISm
SITUATION
ANAlySIS:
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
/ Main Author
Dr. Anna Spenceley
/ Contributing Authors:
Helena Rey de Assis
Deirdre Shurland
/ Editors
Rebecca Armstrong and Dr. Xavier Font,
Leeds Metropolitan University
This publicaon is part of a series on “Advancing
Sustainable Tourism” promoted by the Global
Partnership for Sustainable Tourism. Reports in the
series are available for download at:
hp://www.unep.org/resourceeciency/tourism;
hp://www.GlobalSustainableTourism.com
This publicaon was made possible through the sup-
port of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperaon
and Development (BMZ) of the Government of Ger-
many in cooperaon with the Deutsche Gesellscha
für Internaonale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ).
This Situaon Analysis report is a joint iniave of UNEP and the Global Partnership for Sustain-
able Tourism, prepared under the supervision of Helena Rey de Assis, Tourism and Environment
Programme Ocer at UNEP/DTIE and Deirdre Shurland, Coordinator of the Global Partnership for
Sustainable Tourism. It has resulted from contribuons, comments and suggesons from countries and
tourism experts in the region.
ACKNOW LEDGEMENTS
I
Acknowledgements
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
tAble
of
contents
Acknowledgements I
List of Figures III
List of Tables III
Abbreviations and acronyms IV
Executive summary VI
Key Findings VI
Key Recommendations VII
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Scope and purpose 2
1.2 Objectives 2
1.3 Methodology 2
1.4 Limitations 2
2 Situation Analysis 2
2.1 Strategies and Policies 3
2.2 Tourism Products and Services 4
2.3 Training and Capacity Building 4
2.4 Technical Tools and Guidance 5
2.5 Major Conservation and Economic Development Initiatives 6
2.6 Networks 6
3 Challenges and Barriers to Sustainable Tourism in Southern Africa 7
4 Needs and Priorities: Approaches to Overcoming the Barriers 9
4.1 Sustainable Tourism Priorities 9
4.2 Needs: Requirements for Strengthening Sustainable Tourism Development 11
5 Opportunities for Mainstreaming Sustainability into the Tourism
Sector: Through Implementation, Support and Innovation 13
5.1 Sustainable Tourism Stakeholders 13
5.2 Regional Bodies 13
5.3 Bilateral Agencies 14
5.4 Multilateral Agencies 14
5.5 Private Sector 14
5.6 Non-Governmental Organisations 14
6 Conclusions 15
7 Recommendations for High Impact Interventions to Mainstream
Sustainable Tourism 16
7.1 Strategies and Policy Recommendations 16
7.2 Tourism Product and Service Recommendations 17
7.3 Training and Capacity Building Recommendations 17
7.4 Technical Tools and Guidance Recommendations 18
7.5 Network Recommendations 18
8 References 19
9 Appendix 20
TABLE OF CONTENTS
II
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
Figure 1: How important are the following barriers to
mainstreaming sustainable tourism in Southern Africa?
Figure 2: What type of activities would be most
effective in mainstreaming sustainable tourism in
Southern Africa?
Figure 3: How important are the following training
and capacity building needs for public institutions
dealing with sustainable tourism development?
Figure 4: What conditions does the private sector
need to develop and operate sustainable tourism
businesses in Southern Africa?
Table 1: Overview of sustainable tourism initiatives in
Southern Africa
Table 2: Countries where bilateral and multilateral
agencies and NGOs are working on sustainable
tourism in Southern Africa
list
of
figures
list
of
tAbles
_3
_15
7_
10_
11_
12_
III
LIST OF FIGURES / LISTE OF TABLES
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
AbbreviAtions
And
Acronyms
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
IV
AEM African Eco-labelling Mechanism
AENP Addo Elephant Naonal Park
AFD Agence Française de Développement
AHRIM Associaon des Hôteliers
et Restaurateurs – Ile Maurice
ANGAP Associaon Naonale pour la Geson
Aires Protége
ARSCP African Roundtable for Sustainable
Consumpon and Producon
ASL African Safari Lodges Program
AU African Union
AUC African Union Commission
AWC African Wildlife Capital
AWF African Wildlife Foundaon
BMZ Federal Ministry of Economic
Cooperaon and Development
BOT Build-Operate-Transfer
CAMP-
FIRE
Communal Area Management Program
for Indigenous Resources
CAPE Biodiversity Conservaon and
Sustainable Development Project
CBNRM Community Based Natural Resource
Management
CBT Community based tourism
CBTE Community based tourism enterprise
COAST Collaborave Acons for Sustainable
Tourism
COMESA Common Market for Eastern and
Southern Africa
DBSA Development Bank of Southern Africa
DCA DolphinCareAfrica
DEA South African Department
of Environmental Aairs
DFID Brish Department for Internaonal
Development
DNP-
WLM
Department of Naonal Parks and
Wild Life Management - Zimbabwe
DRC Democrac Republic of Congo
EIA Environmental Impact Assessment
FFEM Fonds Français pour
l'Environnement Mondial
FIAS Financial Investment Advisory Services
FTTSA Fair Trade in Tourism South Africa
GEF Global Environment Facility
GiZ Deutsche Gesellscha für
Internaonale Zusammenarbeit
GOS Government of Seychelles
GRASP Great Apes Survival Partnership
GSTC Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria
HITT High Impact Tourism Training for the
Informal Sector
IFC Internaonal Finance Corporaon
ILO Internaonal Labour Organisaon
INATUR Naonal Instute of Tourism
INEFP Naonal Instute for Employment and
Vocaonal Training - Mozambique
IRDNC Integrated Rural Development
and Nature Conservaon
ITC Internaonal Trade Centre
IUCN Internaonal Union for
the Conservaon of Nature
KfW Kreditanstalt für Wiederauau
MITUR Ministry of Tourism - Mozambique
MMF Marine Megafauna Foundaon
N$ Namibian dollar
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
NACOBTA Namibia Community Based Tourism
Assistance Trust
NASCO Namibian Associaon of Community
Based Natural Resource Management
Support Organisaons
NDFFC Nyanga Downs Fly Fishing Club
NEAP Naonal Ecotourism
Accreditaon Program
NEPAD New Partnership for
Africa’s Development
NGO Non-governmental organisaon
NMSRT Naonal Minimum Standard for
Responsible Tourism – South Africa
NORAD Norwegian Agency for
Development Cooperaon
ODI Overseas Development Instute
PAN Projecto Arco Norte
PEP Private Enterprise Partnership
PIC Integrated Growth Poles Project
PPF Peace Parks Foundaon
PPP Public private partnership
PSD Private Sector Development
RDC Rural District Council
RETOSA Regional Tourism Organisaon
of Southern Africa
RTTZ Responsible Tourism Tanzania
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
V
SADC Southern Africa
Development Community
SANParks South African Naonal Parks
SCORE Sustaining Compeve
and Responsible Enterprises
SEED Economic expansion and diversicaon
SETS 21 Naonal Ecotourism
Strategy – Seychelles
SGDRN Sociedade para Gestão e
Desenvolvimento da Reserva do Niassa
SLEA South Luangwa Eco Awards
SME Small and Medium Enterprise
SMME Small, micro and medium enterprises
SNV The Netherlands
Development Organisaon
SSTL Seychelles Sustainable Tourism Label
ST-EP Sustainable tourism eliminang poverty
STNSA Sustainable Tourism Network
Southern Africa
TANAPA Tanzania Naonal Parks
TAPAS Tourism and Protected
Areas Specialist Group
TEP Tourism Enterprise Program
TFCA Transfroner Conservaon Area
UNCTAD United Naons Conference
on Trade and Development
UNDP United Naons Development Programe
UNEP United Naons Environment Programe
UNESCO United Naons Educaonal,
Scienc and Cultural Organisaon
UNIDO United Naons Industrial
Development Organisaon
UNWTO United Naons World
Tourism Organisaon
USD United States Dollars
USAID United States Agency for
Internaonal Development
VCA Value chain analysis
WC PA World Commission on Protected Areas
WHL World Hotel Link
WHS World Heritage Site
WMA Wildlife Management Areas
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature
ZAWA Zambia Wildlife Authority
AbbreviAtions
And
Acronyms
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
executive
summAry
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
VI
/ Key Findings
Against the background of the importance of
tourism to the economies of southern Africa,
the purpose of this study was to provide a sit-
uaonal assessment and analysis of the sustainable
tourism acvies, needs and priories of countries
in Southern Africa ; barriers to mainstreaming sus-
tainability in tourism and recommendaons for over-
coming them; and an overview of stakeholders and
funders implemenng and enabling sustainable tour-
ism iniaves in the region.
The approach used was a literature review and stake-
holder consultaon involving an online quesonnaire
and virtual meeng to discuss the results of the anal-
ysis.
Similar exercises are being undertaken by the United
Naons Environment Programme (UNEP) in two other
regions.
Most countries in southern Africa have sustainable
tourism products and services, and the majority has
conservaon and economic development projects
that support sustainable tourism development. Few-
er countries have training and capacity building inia-
ves for sustainable tourism, or strategies and policies
to underpin it.
Government-level and regional frameworks for sus-
tainable tourism development across the region in-
clude tourism policies, strategies and white papers;
tourism masterplans emphasising the need for pover-
ty reducon through tourism and naonal ecotourism
policies.
Substanal innovaon has been demonstrated in the
development of sustainable tourism products and
services, including joint venture partnerships and
community-based tourism enterprises. Many private
sector operators facilitate biodiversity conservaon;
generate economic benets for local people through
employment and procurement opportunies; and en-
rich the social and cultural environment.
Various forms of technical tools and guidance for sus-
tainable tourism include guidelines, standards, cer-
caon programs, manuals and toolkits, and value
chain analysis tools. Two main networking bodies in
Southern Africa currently promote sustainable tour-
ism across the region.
Principal challenges and barriers to mainstreaming
sustainable tourism include a lack of understanding of
sustainable tourism by the public and private sectors,
and insucient incenves to operate sustainably. Oth-
er barriers include policy barriers; nance constraints;
a lack of tools; negave impacts of tourism and poor
stakeholder relaonships and host communies.
Sustainable tourism priories include eecve naon-
al tourism development strategies and cross-sectoral
policies; improved regional cooperaon; an invest-
ment-friendly enabling environment and capacity
development; increasing awareness and understand-
ing of conservaon of natural resources among local
communies, government ocials, tourism operators
and tourists. Other priories include integrang sus-
tainability criteria into nance opons, land leases
and concession agreements, having desnaon plans
integrang sustainable tourism, and awareness rais-
ing among travellers and the tourism industry.
Key needs are to improve the understanding of basic
principles of tourism and tourism resources, opons
for local communies, environmental, social and cultural
management of tourism, impacts of tourism, and sustain-
1Angola, Botswana, Democrac Republic of Congo, Lesotho,
Malawi, Maurius, Mozambique, Madagascar, Namibia,
Swaziland, Tanzania,
1
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
able tourism principles. Key requirements to main-
stream sustainability into tourism include demand
from tourists for sustainable travel, secure land ten-
ure, aracve desnaons, polical and economic
sustainability, realisc expectaons of communies,
and good governance and transparency.
Key factors in overcoming the constraints to main-
streaming sustainable tourism include: long term
commitment and relaonships, credibility with com-
munies and governments, the concept of sustain-
ability underpinning tourism acvies; working at
scale and networking operaons, and markeng clout
and experience in community ventures.
Opportunies are presented through the region’s key
implementers, supporters, and innovators of sustain-
able tourism. They include regional bodies, bilateral
and mullateral organisaons, the private sector and
NGOs, who provide funding and/or support for sus-
tainable tourism acvies and iniaves.
The four main recommendaons that arose for
future project intervenons to mainstream sus-
tainable tourism were:
1. Tourism products and services: A greater
supply of sustainable tourism products needs to
be smulated in order to reach a ‘pping point’
where sustainable pracces are the norm in the
region. Therefore incenves and technical sup-
port for sustainable tourism developments are
needed, as are mechanisms to ensure that sus-
tainable products have preferenal market ac-
cess.
2. Training and capacity building for people
working within government agencies, tourism
boards and protected area agencies. They have
a key role in developing and promong sustain-
able tourism, and sustainability must be fully in-
tegrated into their work.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
/ Key recommendations
3. Technical tools and guidance, in accordance
with country priories. Research should be un-
dertaken to establish the business case for sus-
tainable tourism, parcularly on cost-savings
and improved market access. Tools need to be
provided in a balanced manner, to reect social
and economic as well as environmental sustain-
ability.
4. Networking organisaons need support to
build relaonships and linkages between people
working on sustainable tourism, and those that
need to be encouraged to do so.
VII
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
1
introduction
INTRODUCTION
1
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
/ 1.1 Scope and purpose
The purpose of this study was to provide a situaon-
al assessment and analysis of the sustainable tourism
acvies, needs and priories of countries in Southern
Africa .
/ 1.2 Objectives
The aim of this report is to provide analysis of:
Current sustainable tourism iniaves in southern
Africa;
Challenges and barriers to sustainable tourism, and
approaches to overcoming them;
Needs and priories of those working to strengthen
sustainable tourism development in the region;
Opportunies to mainstream sustainable tourism
through stakeholders working on sustainable tour-
ism at a regional level; and
Recommendaons for high impact intervenons to
mainstream sustainable tourism.
/ 1.3 Methodology
The evaluaon entailed a literature review, an online
quesonnaire and a virtual meeng:
i) Review of the available online literature and
consultancy reports addressing sustainable tourism in
the region;
ii) Online quesonnaire sent to 170 contacts of
the consultant, UNEP, and the Sustainable Tourism
Network Southern Africa (STNSA) which yielded a 29%
compleon rate (50 respondents);
iii) Virtual meeng, hosted by UNEP and aended
by seven parcipants. A brief overview was given of
the results of this situaonal analysis, and the project
concepts suggested by stakeholders and the literature.
/ 1.4 Limitations
Any situaonal analysis of this type is limited by the in-
formaon readily available in the literature, online, and
of which consulted stakeholders are aware. There may
therefore be addional sustainable tourism iniaves
in southern Africa not described in this study.
Current sustainable tourism iniaves in Southern
Africa
The status of sustainable tourism in southern Africa is
discussed under six key themes:
Strategies and policies;
Tourism products and services;
Training and capacity building;
Technical support and guidance;
Conservaon and economic development inia-
ves; and
Networks.
2
SITUATION
ANALYSIS
INTRODUCTION / SITUATION ANALYSIS
2
2
Angola, Botswana, Democrac Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Malawi, Maurius, Mozambique, Madagascar, Namibia, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia,
Zimbabwe, Seychelles, and South Africa
2
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
Table 1 below provides a brief overview of the types of sustainable tourism inia-
ves idened in Southern Africa in relaon to the above key themes. This indi-
cates that most countries have tourism products and services that are considered
sustainable, and the majority has conservaon and economic development projects
that support sustainable tourism development. Fewer countries have training and
capacity building iniaves for sustainable tourism, or strategies and policies to
underpin it.
/ 2.1 Strategies and Policies
Strategies and policies established by governments, and regional bodies rep-
resenng them, can provide the framework for sustainable tourism devel-
opment across the region. Notable policy instruments which specically
incorporate sustainability and responsible tourism principles such as community
parcipaon and local linkages include Botswana’s Tourism Policy (1990 and its
revised dra of 2008); Madagascar’s new government strategy: “Diversicaon,
Employment, Training, Investments and Sectoral Synergies” (DEFIS 2017); the
Seychelles’ “Vision 21” and the 1996 South African “White Paper on the Devel-
opment and Promoon of Tourism”.
Tourism masterplans in countries including Botswana, Madagascar, Mozambique,
and Namibia emphasize the need for poverty reducon through employment,
ownership and the delivery of products and services in the industry . Countries
that have ecotourism policies (i.e. priorising sustainable nature-based tourism)
include Botswana, Malawi, and the Seychelles . These are countries rich in nat-
ural resources: a strong focus of the tourism supply chain.
At the regional level, the African Union/New Partnership for Africa’s Develop-
ment (AU/NEPAD) strategic focus is outlined in its Tourism Acon Plan for the
Africa Union (AU)/New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD)”. A main
objecve is to provide an engine for growth and integraon and to contribute to
poverty eradicaon .
Regional initiatives
Angola
Botswana
DRC
Lesotho
Madagascar
Malawi
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Seychelles
South Africa
Swaziland
Tanzania & Zanzibar
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Strategies
& Policies
Tourism
Products
and Services
Training
& Capacity
Building
Technical
Tools &
Guidance
Conservation
and Economic
Development
Projects Networks
Table 1: Overview of sustainable tourism iniaves in southern Africa
3
3
4
4
Spenceley and Rozga, 2007
MTT, 2003; COMESA, 2012
UNWTO, 2006, cited but not referenced in Anon, undated
5
5
SITUATION ANALYSIS
2
3
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
2
/ 2.2 Tourism Products and Services
Substanal innovaon has been demonstrated in Southern Africa in the devel-
opment of sustainable tourism products and services. In the accommodaon
sector, these include:
Joint-venture partnerships: generally between private sector operators and
community members. Somemes the partnerships are broader, as public-private
partnerships (PPPs), and also incorporate a government agency, such as conser-
vaon agencies that have tenure over the land used for development. Such part-
nerships promote sustainable operaon pracces as they give opportunity for
marginalized communies to parcipate in a meaningful way in the tourism in-
dustry, and gain equity, employment, training opportunies and dividends, while
the private sector brings business experse and market linkages to the partner-
ship. There are notable joint-venture partnerships operang in countries includ-
ing Mozambique, Namibia, and South Africa . Some of the dicules include
high transacon costs associated with planning and development, low capacity
and skills of communies that partner with the joint venture, and somemes rigid
development opons applied by conservaon agencies.
Community-based tourism enterprises (CBTEs) tend to have three main char-
acteriscs: They are: (1) located within a community (e.g. on communal land, or
with community benets nancially from leasing land for development); or (2)
owned by one or more community members (i.e. for the benet of one or more
community members); or (3) are managed by community members (i.e. commu-
nity members could inuence the decision-making process of the enterprise) .
In terms of sustainable tourism, CBTEs are important because they provide com-
munies with direct access to the industry, and with opportunies for ownership
and employment. A review of 218 CBTEs in 12 southern African countries un-
dertaken in 2006 through a UNWTO/RETOSA project found that benets people
gained from the enterprises included access to nance, employment, community
infrastructure development, training, and the purchase of their products. Howev-
er, their main limitaons were physical access (i.e. remote locaons), followed by
market access, adversing, movaon and communicaons . The review was
also used as a basis for developing a CBTE online database to facilitate bookings .
Many private sector operators have made impressive achievements in the conser-
vaon of biodiversity at locaons where they work, generang economic benets
for local people through employment and procurement opportunies, and enrich-
ing the social and cultural environment.
At least 340 accommodaon facilies have been recognized for their sustainable
business pracces, through third-party cercaon, internaonal awards, or in-
clusion on an online booking plaorm that promotes sustainable products. These
accolades are notable for the operaons involved, but level of uptake currently
represents a fracon of all tourism enterprises across the region.
/ 2.3 Training and Capacity Building
Training and capacity building are vital for creang the human resource base that
countries need to develop their tourism industry sustainably. One of the prob-
lems idened through this study in implemenng tourism sustainably is the lack
of widespread understanding among all stakeholder groups of what ‘sustainable
tourism’ is, its importance, its implicaons for conservaon and poverty reducon,
and how it can be implemented. In recognion of this, a number of intervenons
have worked on building skills and experse in sustainable tourism in the region,
such as in Madagascar, Mozambique, and South Africa.
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
910
10
Names of operaons not provided here,
in the interest of not promong specic private sector operators in a UN report.
Spenceley, 2008
Botswana, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Maurius,
Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe
Spenceley, 2008
However, since UNWTO funding for the site ceased,
the informaon has been taken oine and is no longer available.
SITUATION ANALYSIS
4
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
/ 2.4 Technical Tools and Guidance
Various forms of technical tools and guidance for sus-
tainable tourism include guidelines, standards, cer-
caon programs, manuals and toolkits. Some notable
examples are:
- Guidelines and standards include South Africa’s Na-
onal Responsible Tourism Guidelines (2002) which
led to the Naonal Minimum Standard for Respon-
sible Tourism (NMSRT) in 2011. The NMSRT aims
to establish a common understanding of responsi-
ble tourism, harmonize dierent sets of criteria cur-
rently used across the country, and be the baseline
standard for all tourism businesses . Other coun-
tries with naonal sustainable tourism standards
include Botswana and the Seychelles. The Regional
Tourism Organisaon of Southern Africa (RETOSA) is
currently harmonising regional tourism quality stan-
dards, aiming to have 70 sustainable tourism criteria
included . Eco Mark Africa has draed a tourism
standard for serviced accommodaon providers, to
support an African Eco-labelling Mechanism .
- Various countries have developed manuals and
handbooks to provide technical informaon to sup-
port sustainable tourism, including South Africa’s
Responsible Tourism Manual and Handbook ; Bo-
tswana’s Ecotourism Best Pracces Manual; Mauri-
us’ Handbook of Best Environmental Pracces for
the private sector. The last two menoned, received
the nancial support of the Commonwealth Secre-
tariat. The Internaonal Finance Corporaon’s (IFC)
“Private Enterprise Partnership (PEP) Africa” helped
the Pro-Poor Tourism Consorum develop “How
to…?” guides to provide concrete examples and sug-
gesons that the private sector could implement .
- Cercaon programs operate at a naonal level
in Botswana, Madagascar, Namibia, the Seychelles
and South Africa, and others operate regionally and
internaonally. Some have been developed by gov-
ernment bodies (i.e. Botswana, Seychelles); others
by the private sector or NGOs (e.g. in Namibia and
South Africa). These have cered 229 tourism ac-
vies and accommodaon facilies in the region.
Some standards and cercaon programs have been
aligned with the Global Sustainable Tourism Crite-
ria for hotels and tour operators. These include the
standards from Botswana, the Seychelles and South
Africa, and cercaon by Fair Trade in Tourism South
Africa (FTTSA). Among these, the FTTSA standards are
ocially recognized by the Global Sustainable Tourism
Council (GSTC) as being in accordance with its Criteria
for hotels and tour operators .
Tools developed internaonally and applied in Africa,
include value chain analysis tools for tourism, used by
the Internaonal Trade Centre of the United Naons
Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD),
the Overseas Development Instute, and the Neth-
erlands Development Organisaon (SNV). These tools
are used in desnaons including Botswana, Mozam-
bique, the Seychelles and Tanzania to establish the
extent to which local people benet nancially from
tourism supply chains, assess challenges to maximis-
ing opportunies and to design and implement inter-
venons that enhance local linkages and benets.
15
15
16
16
17
17 14
14
11
11
12
12
13
13
STNSA, 2012: pp9
STNSA, 2012: pp10
hp://www.sustainabletourismalliance.co.za/about-stnsa/
STNSA, 2012: pp 15-16. Partners in this iniave include the African
Union Commission (AUV), the African Roundtable for Sustainable
Consumpon and Producon (ARSCP), the United Naons Environ-
ment Programme (UNEP), UN Industrial Development Organisaon
(UNIDO), and GiZ.
STNSA, 2012: pp9
Spenceley and Rozga, 2007
hp://www.gstcouncil.org/sustainable-tourism-gstc-criteria/gstc-rec-
ognized-standards.html
SITUATION ANALYSIS
2
5
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
/ 2.5 Major Conservation and
Economic Development Initiatives
Major investment has been made in conservaon and economic develop-
ment projects in southern Africa, where a component includes support
to tourism. Typically, a project would be a mul-million-US$ iniave,
spanning 3 to 5 years, and focusing on biodiversity conservaon and protected
area management, and/or poverty reducon and economic development. Agen-
cies supporng such programs include the World Bank, the IFC, USAID, UNDP, UN-
WTO, UNIDO, GiZ, and also NGOs such as Conservaon Internaonal and WWF.
These types of intervenons provide signicant investment in southern Africa, and
opportunies to make tangible impacts on biodiversity conservaon and poverty
reducon through sustainable tourism. Many of the programs dealing with pro-
tected areas and tourism promote the use of tourism concessions and licensing as
a tool for raising revenue and management.
/ 2.6 Networks
Networks have an important role to play in linking like-minded stakeholders
across the region and providing opportunies to share knowledge. Two
main networking bodies in southern Africa promote sustainable tourism:
The Sustainable Tourism Network Southern Africa (STNSA) aims to pro-
vide an integrated, regional approach to sustainable tourism development
in SADC as well as a channel for exchanging experiences and best pracces
regarding sustainable tourism policy and pracce throughout the region.
Membership is open to all interested pares including civil society organisa-
ons, cercaon programmes, tourism authories, tourism associaons,
government departments/ministries, travel and tourism businesses and ac-
ademics. The network communicates with its members via a website, an on-
line forum and a quarterly newsleer and hosts an annual conference on
sustainable tourism at the tourism Indaba in South Africa (the largest travel
trade show in southern Africa).
Responsible Tourism Tanzania (RTTZ) aims to encourage the Tanzanian
tourism industry to sustainability, providing support through: internaonally
accepted standards and guidelines; an auding and evaluaon process; a
cercaon scheme; lobbying and advocacy to develop policies and regula-
ons; informaon and praccal ideas, tools and training to assist enterpris-
es to pracce responsible tourism, and promoon of responsible operators
and products to the internaonal tourism market .
2
18
18
19
19
hp://www.sustainabletourismalliance.co.za/about-stnsa/
STNSA, 2012: pp 10-11; Stakeholder survey
SITUATION ANALYSIS
6
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
3
CHALLENGES
AND
BARRIERS TO
SUSTAINABLE
TOURISM IN
SOUTHERN
AFRICA
This secon discusses barriers to mainstreaming sus-
tainable tourism and recommends approaches to over-
coming them, based on the literature and stakeholder
survey.
CHALLENGES AND BARRIERS TO MAIN-
STREAMING SUSTAINABLE TOURISM
Survey respondents rated the relave importance of a
number of barriers to mainstreaming sustainable tour-
ism. Their feedback, summarized in Figure 1 below,
shows that all the barriers idened were considered
“important” by a majority of respondents. Those most
frequently rated as important included “lack of under-
standing of sustainable tourism” by public and private
sectors, and “insucient incenves to operate sustain-
ably”.
0%
Insufficient incentives
to operate sustainably
20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Lack of understanding of
sustainable tourism by the public sector
Insufficient regulations enforcing
sustainbale operations
Lack of understanding of sustainable
tourism by the private sector
Lack of demand for
sustainable travel from tourists
Weak enforcement
of regulations and policies
Lack of training opportunities
in sustainable tourism
Lack of technical support
and guidance on sustainability
Corruption
Percentage
Important Not important
Average
Figure 1: How important are the following barriers to main-
streaming sustainable tourism in Southern Africa?
CHALLENGES AND BARRIERS TO SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN SOUTHERN AFRICA
7
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
Policy barriers: A lack of polical buy-in to sustain-
able tourism, including a lack of willingness
by state agencies to give communies tenure
within natural areas where they could own
land and concession rights; regulatory chal-
lenges, including restricve planning process-
es; and the diculty of establishing new tour-
ism desnaons, due to the limited supporng
infrastructure and services.
Finance issues: A lack of steady interest by donors
in the tourism agenda; high costs of creang/
securing access (e.g. access to funds; achieving
sucient nancial returns to ensure connued
conservaon and community support); high
transacon costs for the private sector and
NGOs in developing joint-venture partnerships ;
lack of funding for research to develop sustain-
able tourism case studies and best pracce ex-
amples; and "leakage", whereby the economic
benets of local tourism acvity ow out of
the local community and country back to for-
eign corporaons.
Low awareness: Lack of a common understand-
ing of what sustainable tourism and ecotour-
ism” means (including by tourists); a lack of
perceived importance of sustainable tourism
among people working in the private and pub-
lic sector, and some companies paying lip ser-
vice to sustainable tourism without really un-
derstanding it, or “greenwashing”.
Lack of tools: Lack of voluntary cercaon pro-
grams throughout all Southern African coun-
tries; prohibively expensive cercaon
schemes; no uniform system for assessment of
sustainability, and no penalty for non-compli-
ance.
Negave impacts of tourism: Degradaon of re-
sources in sensive habitats, failing to ensure
the disposal of sewage, wastewater and solid
waste is properly managed; increased preva-
lence of prostuon, crime, and migrant and
child labour; commodicaon of cultural heri-
tage resources, and failing to recognize the cul-
tural value of events or products so that they
are more aracve or more frequently avail-
able to tourists;
Poor relaonships with host communies: Unre-
alisc expectaons by communies (fuelled
by uninformed NGOs and governments that
promise more than can be delivered); low lev-
els of literacy; conicts between tourism oper-
ators and local people, in relaon to their tra-
dional resource and land use pracces (e.g.
farming, hunng, shing).
The tourism industry being in a depressed state
resulng in short term cost reducons by op-
erators, reducing the incenve for more costly
investments but which would oer long-term
benets.
Regarding the specic barrier of a ‘lack of under-
standing of sustainable tourism by the public sector’:
a 2007 IFC market research study examined the sup-
ply and demand for tourism training in nine African
countries. It highlighted that skills needed by public
sector employees fell into two categories: desnaon
planning and desnaon management. Key problems
idened with tourism training were scarcity of lo-
cal trainers, poorly designed training, no follow-up,
and trainers with poor communicaon skills. Specif-
ic needs included a greater understanding of tourism
and conservaon, of environmental impacts, and of
opons available to local communies in the tourism
industry .
CHALLENGES AND BARRIERS TO SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN SOUTHERN AFRICA
Other barriers that were highlighted, but not rated, in the survey included :
20
20
21
21
22
22
Stakeholder survey; Anon, undated; Spenceley, 2010a
Spenceley, 2010a
Spenceley and Rozga, 2007
8
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
NEEDS
AND
PRIORITIES:
APPROACHES
TO OVERCOMING
THE BARRIERS
/ 4.1 Sustainable Tourism Priorities
Policy recommendaons from a World Bank study
to overcome barriers facing sustainable tourism
in sub-Saharan Africa included :
Naonal tourism development strategies: should be
well-conceived, properly arculated and realis-
c and with mul-year tourism policy objecves
developed through a mul-stakeholder process,
involving social, economic and environmental
sectors. Policies should be developed with strong
input by local communies in planning, decision
making and service delivery; foster local involve-
ment and control over tourism development;
minimize leakage; contribute to raising gender
awareness and enhance women’s parcipaon
in and contribuon to the tourism sector; and be
pro-poor; whilst ensuring required tourism ser-
vices quality standards are met. An alternave
livelihood must be provided where tourism devel-
opment leads to reduced access to local common
resources for the local populaon.
Cross-sectoral policies aimed at encouraging tourism
development: including aspects of enhancing pub-
lic health and safety, air transportaon, policy, hu-
man resources development, instuonal capaci-
ty and environmental protecon.
Regional cooperaon: Most countries in the region of-
ten face similar problems and could benet from
cross-pollinaon of ideas and resources.
Investment-friendly enabling environment: An ap-
propriate legal framework to support tourism is
needed in the region, which aracts foreign direct
investment whilst ensuring equity in tourism ben-
ets-sharing between communies, investors and
governments, within a framework of triple boom
line sustainability. This may include forging pri-
vate-public sector partnerships for tourism devel-
opment to further expand tourism entrepreneur-
ial iniaves and investment opportunies.
Capacity development: Increasing awareness and un-
derstanding of conservaon of natural resources
among local communies, government ocials,
tourism operators and tourists.
Stakeholders parcipang in the online survey rated
the relave eecveness of a range of acvies with
regards to how eecve they would be in mainstream-
ing sustainable tourism in Southern Africa (see gure
2 below). All the acvies suggested were rated as ‘ef-
fecve’ by the majority of respondents. A majority of
respondents agreed on integrang sustainability cri-
teria into nance opons, land leases and concession
agreements, plus having desnaon plans integrang
sustainable tourism, and awareness raising among
travelers and the tourism industry. Addional sugges-
ons made by stakeholders included monitoring and
enforcement, as well as programs for incenves and
awards for innovaons with penales for unsustain-
able pracces. Sharing informaon on sustainability
with the private sector was also considered as useful,
including cost-benet examples of implemenng sus-
tainable tourism pracces.
NEEDS AND PRIORITIES: APPROACHES TO OVERCOMING THE BARRIERS
23
23
Spenceley, 2010a
9
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
0%
Sustainability criteria within land lease
or concession agreements
20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Integrating sustainability
criteria into finance options
Training and tools available to the private sector
on sustainable tourism practices
Awareness raising of sustainability
wihtin the tourism industry
Awareness raising of
sustainability among travellers
Destination plans that
address sustainable tourism
Subsidies for environmental
technologies (e.g. renewable energy)
Conservation of natural and
cultural heritage in destinations
Sustainability criteria within
business registration processes
National policies
on sustainable tourism
Business development support to
entrepreneurs living within tourism destinations
Development of networks of
sustainable tourism stakeholders
Voluntary mechanisms to encourage
sustainable tourism practices (e.g. certification)
Law to regulate sustainable tourism practices
(e.g. environmental, social, cultural and economic impacts)
Percentage
Effective Not effectiveModerate
Figure 2: What type of acvies would be most eecve in
mainstreaming sustainable tourism in Southern Africa?
NEEDS AND PRIORITIES: APPROACHES TO OVERCOMING THE BARRIERS
10
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
All the listed needs except “tourism policy and legisla-
on” were rated as ‘important’ by the majority of re-
spondents. The issues most frequently rated as ‘import-
ant’ were basic principles of tourism, understanding
tourism resources, opons for local communies, envi-
ronmental, social and cultural management of tourism,
impacts of tourism, and sustainable tourism principles.
One stakeholder added that it was important to ensure
that fully qualied and experienced people were em-
ployed in the rst place. Another noted that instability
in public sector enes meant that capacity building
is a connuous process, and that training programs
should be praccal and easy to understand.
Survey respondents were also asked to rate the relave
importance of a series of condions for private sector
development and operaon of sustainable tourism. The
results, in Figure 4 below, show that all the factors ex-
cept one were rated as ‘important’. The most frequent
‘important’ rang were: demand from tourists for sus-
tainable travel, secure land tenure, aracve desna-
ons, polical and economic sustainability, realisc
expectaons of communies, and good governance
and transparency . Addional comments from stake-
holders included that there needs to be a realisaon
within the private sector that operang sustainably
equates to operang eciently which in turn equates
to cost savings and a more nancially viable operaon.
Sustainable tourism businesses should strive to develop
compeve advantages by demonstrang tangible evi-
dence of sustainable tourism best pracce policies and
procedures, regardless of polical and economic stabil-
ity. Addionally, supply should ideally match demand
for sustainable travel from tourists.
/ 4.2 Needs: Requirements for Strengthening Sustainable Tourism Development
The survey respondents were asked to rate the relave importance of dierent training and capacity needs
for public instuons working on sustainable development.
0%
Environmental management of tourism
20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Sustainable tourism principles
Impacts of tourism
Social and cultural
management of tourism
Basic principles of tourism
(i.e. how the tourism industry works)
Options for local communities in tourism (including joint ventures,
provision of goods and services, employment)
Understanding tourism resources (including natural,
cultural, infrastructure, human and financial
Exposure to examples of
sustainable tourism (i.e. field trips)
Monitoring and evaluation
of sustainable tourism
Tourism destination
planning
Financial and economic
management of tourism
Tourism business planning
and development
Tourism policy
and legislation
Tourism research methods
Percentage
Important Not importantAverage
NEEDS AND PRIORITIES: APPROACHES TO OVERCOMING THE BARRIERS
Figure 3: How important are the following training and capacity building needs for public instuons dealing
 with sustainable tourism development? 24
24
see also Spenceley, 2010a
11
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
Key factors in overcoming the constraints to prac-
cing sustainable tourism include: long term
commitment and relaonships; credibility with
communies and governments, the concept of sus-
tainability underpinning tourism acvies, working at
scale and networking operaons, and markeng clout
and experience in community ventures.
NEEDS AND PRIORITIES: APPROACHES TO OVERCOMING THE BARRIERS
0%
Demand for sustainable
travel from tourists
20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Good governance and transparency
(i.e. lack of corruption)
Attractive destinations and sites with
potential to develop tourism products
Realistic expectations
of communities
Secure land tenure
Political and economic stability
Technical support and guidance
An established or developing
tourism industry in the destination
Availability of communities
with whom to work
Easy physical access
Appropriate cost of secure tenure
Rational economic policies
in the destination
Destinations fit the company image
Supportive infrastructure
(e.g. roads, communication, health facilities)
Percentage
Important Not importantAverage
Figure 4: What condions does the private sector need to
develop and operate sustainable tourism businesses
in Southern Africa?
12
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
southern African member countries include DRC, Malawi, Madagascar, Maurius, Seychelles, Swaziland,
Zambia and Zimbabwe
COMESA, 2012 hp://www.retosa.co.za/about-retosa Stakeholder survey
/ 5.1 Sustainable Tourism Stakeholders
The key players in sustainable tourism in the region are also the major implement-
ers, supporters and innovators. They include regional bodies, bilateral and mul-
lateral organisaons, private sector and non-governmental organisaons (NGOs),
which provide funding and/or support for sustainable tourism iniaves.
/ 5.2 Regional bodies
Two main regional bodies working on sustainable tourism in Southern Africa have
strategic importance for implemenng sustainable tourism iniaves on a regional
scale:
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) : its strategy pro-
motes adopng a common denion of sustainable tourism; developing a code
of conduct including environmental and cultural preservaon; development of
sustainable tourism indicators; encouraging voluntary cercaon schemes;
development of policies, guidelines and products for cultural and community
tourism; markeng COMESA as a sustainable tourism region; and undertak-
ing research on the impact of the tourism industry on the natural and cultural
environment .
Regional Tourism Organisaon of Southern Africa (RETOSA): is the regional mar-
keng and promoon organisaon for SADC countries, managed by a board
comprising naonal tourism authories and tourism private sector umbrella
bodies drawn from the region . Apart from its role in harmonising regional
tourism quality standards, RETOSA’s mandate also includes development of a
regional framework for transioning Southern Africa into a regional “green/ eco”
desnaon for tourism .
Numerous agencies provide funding and technical development assistance in the
region.
5
OPPORTUNITIES
FOR
MAINSTREAMING
SUSTAINABILITY
INTO THE
TOURISM SECTOR:
THROUGH
IMPLEMENTATION,
SUPPORT
AND INNOVATION
25
25
26
26
27
27
28
28
OPPORTUNITIES FOR MAINSTREAMING SUSTAINABILITY INTO THE TOURISM SECTOR:
THROUGH IMPLEMENTATION, SUPPORT AND INNOVATION
13
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
/ 5.3 Bilateral Agencies
Bilateral agencies form agreements with governments
to provide support on a country-by-country basis.
Some examples of those with programs in southern
Africa on tourism include the Commonwealth Sec-
retariat (ComSec); Norwegian Agency for Development
Cooperaon (NORAD); Deutsche Gesellscha für Inter-
naonale Zusammenarbeit(GiZ) (formerly GTZ); and
United States Agency for Internaonal Development
(USAID).
Other agencies with projects on sustainable tourism in
Southern Africa, but which are not necessarily part of
a broader program on this theme include the Agence
Française de Développement (AFD) of the Government
of France, the Brish Department for Internaonal
Development (DfID), Kreditanstalt für Wiederauau
(KfW), and the Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Af-
fairs (SECO) .
/ 5.4 Multilateral Agencies
Mullateral development agencies provide nancial
support and professional advice for economic and so-
cial development acvies in developing countries .
Some with programs in the region include: Internaon-
al Finance Corporaon (IFC) and the World Bank’s “Afri-
can Finance and Private Sector Development” program;
United Naons Conference on Trade and Development
(UNCTAD); United Naons Educaonal, Scienc and
Cultural Organisaon (UNESCO); United Naons Envi-
ronment Programme (UNEP); and the United Naons
World Tourism Organisaon’s (UNWTO) Sustainable
Tourism Eliminang Poverty (ST-EP) program.
There are also other agencies with parcular projects
on sustainable tourism in southern Africa, but which
are not part of a broader program on this theme.
These include the United Naons Development Pro-
grame (UNDP), United Naons Industrial Development
Organisaon (UNIDO), and the Internaonal Labour
Organizaon (ILO).
/ 5.5 Private Sector
The private sector’s role and responsibilies in sus-
tainable tourism should not be underesmated. The
business of tourism involves the concept of matching
supply with demand to generate prot. Working with-
in the enabling environment provided by governments,
the private sector has impacts on the local economy,
through employment and procurement, on the natural
environment from the way in which infrastructure is de-
veloped, product and service oerings, tours and use of
resources; and on the society and culture in which they
operate and commercialize .
In terms of sustainable tourism, enterprises tend to op-
erate independently of one another, rather than collab-
oravely though umbrella associaons or networks. A
number of enterprises across the region have been rec-
ognized by internaonal awards or cercaon bodies
as operang sustainably.
/ 5.6 Non-Governmental
Organisations
The NGO and not-for-prot sector has mixed success in
tourism in the region. In the best situaons, they ac-
cess funds, they provide high quality technical exper-
se on nature conservaon, deliver capacity building
and training for local people, and link local entrepre-
neurs with the private sector. In the worst instances,
they nance tourism infrastructure development for
communies that does not match demand, expect lo-
cal communies to manage sophiscated tourism busi-
nesses and share the benets equitably (for example,
numerous community-based tourism enterprises in
Southern Africa ), or raise unrealisc expectaons of
what tourism can deliver . However a number of ma-
jor NGOs working in southern Africa are doing impres-
sive work on sustainable tourism . These have recently
included the African Safari Lodges Program (ASL); the
African Wildlife Foundaon; Conservaon Internaonal
(CI); Internaonal Union for the Conservaon of Nature
(IUCN); Peace Parks Foundaon (PPF); SNV; Sustainable
Tourism Network Southern Africa (STNSA) and World
Wide Fund for Nature (WWF).
Other NGOs with more discrete programs that address
sustainable tourism include the Carr Foundaon, En-
vironment Africa, Ford Foundaon, the Frankfurt Zoo-
logical Society, the Internaonal Centre for Responsible
Tourism – South Africa (ICRT-SA), Namibia Community
Based Tourism Assistance Trust (NACOBTA), Integrated
Rural Development and Nature Conservaon (INDRC)
and Open Africa.
Adapted from Spenceley, 2010a
hp://www.giz.de/
SIPPO, 2010
Adapted from Spenceley, 2010a
Spenceley, 2010
See for example Spenceley, 2008a; Dixey, 2008; Ashley et al, 2008
Spenceley, 2010a
Adapted from Spenceley, 2010a
29
29
30
30
31
31
32
32
33
33
34
34
35
35
36
36
OPPORTUNITIES FOR MAINSTREAMING SUSTAINABILITY INTO THE TOURISM SECTOR:
THROUGH IMPLEMENTATION, SUPPORT AND INNOVATION
14
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
This report has demonstrated that there are sev-
eral credible sustainability iniaves ongoing
in southern Africa and by a diversity of actors
from the private and public sectors and NGOs. Many
are linked to community-based tourism enterprises
and joint-venture (public/private) partnerships, which
have delivered local benets to communies. In spite
of this, the southern African tourism industry is sll
falling short of expectaons in meeng naonal and
regional level goals for sustainable development and
poverty alleviaon.
There is a denite need for greater networking be-
tween all tourism stakeholders, that promotes a
clearer understanding of and support for naonal and
regional tourism sustainability objecves. Regional
stakeholders have also idened the need for beer
organised informaon on funding opportunies avail-
able to the sector, and a focus on capacity building
that directly supports naonal and regional priories
and transforms the industry towards greater sustain-
ability.
6
concLuSion
Table 2: Countries where bilateral and mullateral agencies and NGOs are working on sustainable
tourism in southern Africa
Regional
Angola
Botswana
DRC
Lesotho
Madagascar
Malawi
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Seychelles
South Africa
Swaziland
Tanzania & Zanzibar
Zambia
Zimbabwe
ComSec
GiZ
NORAD
USAID
IFC
UNCTAD
UNESCO
Bilateral agencies Multilateral agencies NGOs
UNEP
UNWTO
World
Bank
ASL
AWF
CI
IUCN
PPF
SNV
STNSA
WWF
OPPORTUNITIES FOR MAINSTREAMING SUSTAINABILITY INTO THE TOURISM SECTOR:
THROUGH IMPLEMENTATION, SUPPORT AND INNOVATION
/ CONCLUSIONS
15
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
Stakeholders’ suggesons of acvies to include in a 3-year project to main-
stream sustainable tourism in southern Africa, together with recommenda-
ons from a World Bank study on sustainable tourism in the region, were
presented and discussed during the virtual meeng, to priorize the main project
ideas that could have high impacts in advancing sustainable tourism. Parcipants
were asked what combinaon of acvies would be: most eecve at generang
impact; quickest and easiest to implement; most cost ecient; and able to oer
the most meaningful and measurable impacts.
/ 7.1 Strategies and Policy Recommendations
The prevalence of strategies, policies, regulaons and plans on sustainable tourism
is patchy across southern Africa. More consistent implementaon of sustainable
pracces would be encouraged through a stronger enabling environment for plan-
ning and development of sustainable tourism in desnaons. Stakeholders that
could contribute include regional bodies (e.g. RETOSA) and relevant naonal gov-
ernment departments.
Specic recommendaons are to:
Develop a regional framework for sustainable tourism, which countries could
then use to develop their own legislaon. The framework should evolve from
parcipatory processes and incorporate a review of exisng regulatory frame-
works that highlight any sustainability gaps.
Integrate sustainable tourism goals and objecves into the operaons of all
naonal tourism oces.
Create mechanisms for incenves and nancial support for tourism develop-
ments that meet sustainability criteria.
Ensure parcipatory desnaon planning for sustainable tourism development
takes place, and acon plans are developed with local stakeholder parcipa-
on. Such plans should focus on yield (i.e. revenue per tourist) rather than the
number of tourists in a desnaon.
7
recommendationS
for HigH impact
interventionS
to mainStream
SuStainabLe
touriSm
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR HIGH IMPACT INTERVENTIONS TO MAINSTREAM SUSTAINABLE TOURISM
16
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
/ 7.2 Tourism Product and Service
Recommendations
There needs to be a sucient supply of sustainable
tourism products for tourists and tour operators to use
in order to reach a ‘pping point’ where sustainable
pracces are the norm. As yet there is no evidence
that tourists are demanding sustainable tourism, so
the market is not yet a movator for the majority of
operators. Incenves and technical support should be
provided for sustainable tourism developments, and
once operaonal they should have preferenal mar-
ket access to those that are not sustainable. Great-
er interest and understanding of sustainable tourism
needs to be generated among tourists and tour oper-
ators in relaon to their purchasing decisions.
Key stakeholders who could collaborate on projects to
strengthen sustainable tourism products and services
would include RETOSA, naonal tourism boards and
tourism sector associaons across the region that can
work between the private sector and government,
and research instuons and consultancies which can
develop appropriate tools to guide sustainable busi-
ness pracces. Specic recommendaons are to:
Develop a regional markeng plan and/or brand,
focused on southern Africa as a sustainable tour-
ism desnaon.
Mobilize the private sector to develop and oper-
ate sustainable tourism, and provide them with
trust, space and me for innovaon. Encourage
collecve and parcipatory planning and design of
tourism involving public, private sector, and com-
munity representaves.
Develop a mechanism for monitoring the imple-
mentaon of management plans for sustainable
tourism, including audits to ensure they accom-
plish their goals.
Promote beer sustainable tourism product mar-
ket t through careful matching of supply with
demand (i.e. idenfy sustainable tourism opera-
tors and supplying them with sustainable tourism
products; develop combined sustainable tourism
packages and tours).
Promote opportunies for local communies in
tourism, including through local supply chains and
linkages, as well as employment that is fairly re-
munerated, and through ownership and equity in
joint ventures.
/ 7.3 Training and Capacity
Building Recommendations
Training and capacity building acvies should be
targeted to persons working within government
agencies, tourism boards, and protected area agen-
cies. These professionals have a parcularly import-
ant role in mainstreaming sustainable tourism, and
sustainability needs to be fully integrated into their
work. Many government ministries and departments
have linkages to tourism: Environment, Industry and
commerce, Energy, Transport, and of course Tourism.
Across Africa, the majority of government depart-
ments have only a small number of stawho gener-
ally understand sustainable tourism. Understanding
and experse needs to be expanded and enhanced,
if sustainability is to be integrated into naonal strat-
egies, policies and regulaons. For tourism boards,
this relates to markeng their desnaons, and work-
ing with operators on the ground. For protected area
agencies, training and capacity building relates to
planning and managing tourism development and vis-
itaon, including tourism concessions, to ensure that
the natural capital is not undermined.
Key stakeholders who could collaborate on projects to
strengthen training and capacity building in sustain-
able tourism include training service providers and
educators who can design and deliver training cours-
es for current employees, by trainers who are experi-
enced in building skills in each stakeholder group. In
the long term, integrang sustainability themes into
the types of terary and post-graduate courses that
people working for these instuons undertake would
be preferable to retro-training people who are already
working. This would require linkages and coordinaon
with relevant Ministries of Educaon and specic uni-
versies and technical colleges in the region.
Specic recommendaons are to:
Develop capacity at universies and centres of
excellence in the region for delivering sustainable
tourism training, distribung knowledge, learning
and training materials on sustainable tourism for
dierent stakeholders.
Train and build capacity of key stakeholders in
sustainable tourism, with parcular focus on the
private and public sectors, and tourism prac-
oners. At the micro level, encourage profession-
al development for community-based organisa-
ons and the private sector.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR HIGH IMPACT INTERVENTIONS TO MAINSTREAM SUSTAINABLE TOURISM
17
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
Ensure regular disseminaon of informaon and
awareness raising on sustainable tourism, par-
cularly in relaon to: the public sector on pol-
icies and frameworks for sustainable tourism;
informaon for internaonal and domesc
source markets; and materials on the dierenc-
es between tourism that is truly sustainable and
‘greenwashing’.
/ 7.4 Technical Tools and Guidance
Recommendations
Research is needed to establish the business case for
sustainable tourism, parcularly in terms of cost-sav-
ings and improved market access. Exisng tools to
support sustainable tourism tend to focus on the en-
vironmental side (e.g. biodiversity conservaon, ener-
gy, water and waste) but must be more balanced, ad-
dressing components of social, cultural and economic
sustainability. Exisng regional or naonal tourism
cercaon standards should be accredited to the
internaonally recognized GSTC criteria, rather than
developing new or regional systems and standards.
Key stakeholders who could collaborate on projects to
strengthen sustainable tourism products and services
would include the GSTC and current standard seng
agencies in the region (e.g. cercaon bodies, tour-
ism boards). Academic instuons and researchers
with experse in tourism and sustainability would
also need to be engaged.
Specic recommendaons are to:
Develop and promote consumer informaon
tools to address social, environmental, and eco-
nomic issues; and which can build public support
for sustainable tourism.
Develop and provide easy access tools and tech-
nical informaon to encourage uptake of sustain-
able tourism. Include guidelines for communies
on involvement in tourism, and how to reduce
environmental impacts from operaons.
Undertake research on sustainable tourism to col-
late informaon on best pracce examples and
case studies; evidence on the cost advantages
of sustainable tourism; feasibility studies for sus-
tainable tourism intervenons; and to monitor
and evaluate the impacts of sustainable tourism
against baselines.
Share informaon on best pracces in sustain-
able tourism, and encourage eld visits to maxi-
mize learning. Avoid duplicaon of unsustainable
pracces, and encourage scaling up of acvies
that work.
/ 7.5 Network Recommendations
Networking should be encouraged to build relaon-
ships and linkages among professionals and instu-
ons on sustainable tourism. There is a strong sense
that people want to collaborate regionally, and share
resources and informaon.
Specic recommendaons are to:
Support networking and sharing best pracce on
sustainable tourism through networks. Ensure
dierent types of stakeholders parcipate, includ-
ing the public and private sectors, communies
and NGOs.
Organise an annual conference on sustainable
tourism to share knowledge and network.
Create a network of technical advisors available
to support desnaons in developing sustainable
tourism.
Develop partnerships arrangements to promote
sustainability, including with airlines, hotels, tour
operators, travel agencies.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR HIGH IMPACT INTERVENTIONS TO MAINSTREAM SUSTAINABLE TOURISM
7
18
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
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impacts of tourism supply chains: increasing the im-
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Ashley, C. and Jones, B. (2001) ‘Joint ventures be-
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rience in Southern Africa’, Internaonal Journal of
Tourism Research, vol 3, no 5, 407–423
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
(COMESA) (2012) COMESA sustainable tourism de-
velopment framework: A basis for development of a
regional tourism strategy and policy for the COMESA
region
Dixey, L. (2008) The Unsustainability of Communi-
ty Tourism Donor Projects: Lessons from Zambia. In
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de/Themen/en/dokumente/en-tourism-projects.pdf
Ministry of Tourism and Transport (MTT) (2003) To-
wards and ecotourism strategy for the 21st century
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Themac working group on ecotourism, 12 June 2003
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ty-based tourism in southern Africa, In Spenceley, A.
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on and development, Earthscan: London & Sterling
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Spenceley, A. (2010a) Tourism Product Development
Intervenons and Best Pracces in sub-Saharan Afri-
ca. Part 1: Synthesis report, Report to the World Bank,
27 December 2010
Spenceley, A. (2010b) Tourism Product Development
Intervenons and Best Pracces in sub-Saharan Afri-
ca. Part 2: Case studies, Report to the World Bank, 27
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mendaons for biodiversity conservaon and tourism
development, Desk study, Report to USAID, 23 March
2011
Spenceley, A. and Rozga, Z. (2007) IFC Tourism Train-
ing Network Market Research report, Report to the
Global Business School Network, Internaonal Fi-
nance Corporaon, December 2007
Spenceley, A. and Fabricius, M. (2012) External evalu-
aon report, Internaonal Finance Corporaon (IFC)
Tourism investment generaon program in Mozam-
bique, June 2012.
Tourism Network Southern Africa (STNSA) (2012) Con-
ference Report, Sustainable Tourism Network South-
ern Africa (STNSA), 1st Annual Conference 2012, 10
May 2012, Hilton Hotel, Durban, South Africa
8
referenceS
REFERENCES
19
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
Funders, stakeholders and examples of projects
in southern Africa
9
appendiX
APPENDIX
Source(s)
Bilateral agencies
Focus Examples
Commonwealth
Secretariat (ComSec)
Norwegian Agency
for Development
Cooperation
(NORAD)
Deutsche Gesellschaft
für Technische
Zusammenarbeit
(GiZ) (formerly GTW)
EU
(European Union)
Commonwealth Tourism Centre,
responsible for promoting intra-com-
monwealth tourism, capacity building,
facilitating information exchange,
promoting tourism investment and
to develop strategic partnerships.
Supra-regional project on ‘Tourism and
sustainable development’: largely in
focal areas of economic development,
management of natural resources and
biodiversity, resource efficiency,
vocational education and regional
development .
Thematic area of ‘Climate change
and the environment’, under which a
number of tourism projects have been
supported.
Development of environmental good practice
guidelines for private sector in Mauritius
Ecotourism manual in Botswana
Value chain analysis in the Seychelles
Projects include tourism infrastructure & Communi-
ty-based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM)
initiatives in Zambia (Kafue), South Africa, Tanzania,
Mozambique (Niassa & Bazaruto) and Malawi .
South Africa: work on ecotourism, livelihood interven-
tions and value chain linkages: has included activities
on public private partnerships and value chain linkages
in tourism .
Other projects in DRC and regionally, also support
EcoMark Africa
Group of tourism operators (‘Go To Madagascar’) ran
a tourism training program part-financed by European
Commission under ProInvest Program: introduction to
sustainable tourism concepts, how to make tourism
products more responsible, and take market advantage .
Mozambique: “High Impact Tourism Training for the
Informal Sector” (HITT) - 4-year European Union
project implemented by SNV & National Institute for
Employment and Vocational Training. Aims to develop
integrated market driven system of vocational training
in tourism; expand access for disadvantaged communi-
ties to such training and facilitate direct links with
tourism industry to maximize employment & income
opportunities .
37
38
39
40
41
Stakeholder survey
GiZ, 2012
Spenceley and Rozga, 2007
Spenceley and Batey, 2011
hp://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOU-
TUS/0,,contentMDK:20040612~menuPK:41694~page
37
38
39
40
41
20
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A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
APPENDIX
Multilateral agencies
United States Agency
for International
Development (USAID)
United Nations
Conference on Trade
and Development
(UNCTAD)
International Finance
Corporation (IFC)
“Environment and Climate Change” program
has a number of conservation projects with
sustainable tourism components .
Tourism-Led Poverty Reduction Program
(TLPRP) focuses on value-chain interventions
to expand opportunities for the poor and
improve market linkages.
Mozambique:
Financed development of a series of tourism plans in the Northern Arc,
supporting conservation and tourism development in Gorongoza National Park and Lake
Niassa,
SPEED program supported development of a tourism concessions analysis and private
sector manual
Madagascar:
WWF program funded by USAID on ecotourism and protected area management. Sent
staff from Association Nationale pour la Gestion Aires Protégé (ANGAP) for training in
South Africa & Canada on interpretation, park management, and creating tourism circuits .
Mozambique: strengthening agricultural value chains between suppliers and tourism
industry in Maputo. Also developed training modules on tourism development,
agricultural and cultural tourism, and craft production.
South Africa: Private Enterprise Partnership (PEP) Africa program supported Pro-Poor
Tourism Consortium to develop 4 sets of guidelines: partnerships with communities,
boosting local input in tourism supply chain, stimulating local tourism products, and
encouraging small & medium enterprises.
Tanzania: helped finance construction of 3 lodges in Northern Safari Circuit (US$9
million). Project expected to benefit Tanzania's conservation efforts, through revenues to
Park & Conservation Area authorities, reducing poaching, and promoting welfare of local
communities .
Mozambique: US$30 million “Transfrontier Conservation Areas and Conservation Project
(TFCA)” in (2005-2013). Includes Community Enterprise Fund, supported by the IFC’s
“Anchor Program”, a US$1.8 million project (2007-2011) . Program identified, planned,
packaged and designed marketing for 'Anchor Sites' to investors. As a result, a conces-
sion in Chemucane region of Maputo Special Reserve (part of Lubumbo TFCA) is now
in development phase, as a joint venture between private sector and a local community .
United Nations
Educational,
Scientific & Cultural
Organisation
(UNESCO)
Works on World Heritage Site (WHS)
designation, conservation and management
of sites in danger, and World Heritage Centre
addresses tourism at WHSs.
WHSs across southern Africa, including in South Africa (8); Namibia (1); Mozambique (1);
Tanzania (7); Botswana (1); Kenya (4); Malawi (2); Madagascar (3); DRC (5); Zambia (1);
Seychelles (2); and Zimbabwe (5).
United Nations
Environment Program
(UNEP)
Production Branch works to promote
sustainable resource management in
a life cycle perspective for goods and services
produced and used by governments, business
and civil society .
Mozambique: capacity building for tourism operators and national consultants.
South Africa: worked in partnership with GEF & South African Department of Environ-
mental Affairs (DEA) to develop sustainable tourism project to green the 2010 World
Cup including renewable energy interventions, awareness-raising and a carbon offsetting
programme.
Also supported the Great Apes Survival Partnership (GRASP), (DRC & other countries),
and the COAST project (operating in the Seychelles, Mozambique, and Tanzania)
Part of World Bank group (see below);
provides advisory and investment services
to private sector.
42
43
44
45
46
47
www.usaid.gov
Spenceley and Rozga, 2007
Spenceley and Rozga, 2007
Spenceley and Fabricius,
2012
Spenceley and Batey, 2011,
Spenceley and Fabricius,
2012
hp://www.unep.fr/scp/
42
43
44
45
46
47
21
AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
A Regional Sustainable Tourism Situation Analysis: Southern AfricA
APPENDIX
Anon, undated
Spenceley et al, 2011
MGOS/GEF/UNDP
(undated)
see hp://www.sey-
chelles.travel/sstl
48
49
50
51
52 hp://web.worldbank.org/
WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/
AFRICAEXT/EXTAFRSUMAFTPS/0,,-
contentMDK:20793743~menuP-
K:2145169~pagePK:51246584~piP-
K:51241019~theSitePK:2049987,00.
html
United Nations
World Tourism
Organisation
(UNWTO)
World Bank
UNDP
The UNWTO “Sustainable Tourism –
Eliminating Poverty Initiative” (ST-EP)
program has a variety of projects that
aim to reduce poverty levels through
developing and promoting sustainable
forms of tourism products, and building
capacity in destinations . They have a
number of projects in southern Africa
(including Madagascar (5 projects);
Mozambique (1 project); South Africa
(1 project); Southern Africa (1 project);
Tanzania (3 projects); Zambia
(1 project), and SADC (1 project)); for
implementation in these countries they
partner with the IUCN and SNV and the
ST-EP Foundation.
“African Finance and Private Sector
Development” program addresses
tourism in relation to investment
climate, competitiveness, PPPs and
financial sector development , and
also works under themes of “Sustain-
able development” and “Environment”.
Funded a number of projects in
southern Africa that have dealt with
tourism, in addition to conservation
and development.
Madagascar: development of Community-based Ecotourism in the Anjozorobe-Angavo
Protected Area
Mozambique: Community-based Lodges Training Programme
Mozambique: 2-year “Human Resource and SME Development for the Tourism Sector
in Inhambane Province” project. Main objective to enhance local economic impact from tourism
through human resource development and SME development in the tourism sector
South Africa: Pro-Poor Tourism Leadership and Empowerment Training to Pondoland
Community Trust
Southern Africa: Marketing Support for Community-based Tourism (RETOSA Network)
Tanzania: Cultural Tourism Enhancement and Diversification Programme
Tanzania: Pangani-Saadani Coastal Protection
Tanzania: Uluguru Mountains Ecotourism Project
Zambia: Village Action for Sustainable Tourism
Botswana: project on wildlife tourism
Madagascar: on conservation and ecotourism in national parks and on poverty reduction
Mozambique: on TFCAs and private sector development in tourism
Namibia: on conservancies
South Africa: supporting Greater Addo National Park, Richtersveld, Greater St Lucia Wetland
Park & CAPE project
Zambia: economic expansion and diversification (SEED).
The value of projects identified during this study that incorporate tourism elements amounts to
US$365 million.
In relation to tourism, initiative has supported :
development of improved guidance for biodiversity conservation in project
implementation for tourism developers;
development, adoption & promotion of Seychelles Sustainable Tourism Label (SSTL) &
Environmental Management Systems for tourism operators ;
support to Joint Management Systems for management of ecologically sensitive areas with
private sector operators;
development of guidelines and criteria for joint management of ecologically sensitive sites.
UNIDO
The “Collaborative Actions for
Sustainable Tourism” (COAST) project:
US$ 29 m Global Environment Facility
(GEF) funded initiative spearheaded by
UNIDO and the UNWTO. Aims to
demonstrate best practices & strategies
for sustainable tourism development to
reduce degradation of marine & coastal
environments of trans-boundary
significance.
Participating countries in southern Africa include Mozambique, Seychelles and Tanzania. Project
includes sustainable tourism initiatives to (1) develop eco-tourism initiatives to alleviate poverty
through sustainable alternative livelihoods, and generate revenues for conservation of biodiversi-
ty and for the benefit of local communities; (2) implement and evaluate eco-certification and
environmental management systems for use by private sector and community lead investments;
and (3) improve reef recreation, management and monitoring mechanisms.
Government of Seychelles – United
Nations Development Program – Global
Environment Facility (GOS-UNDP-GEF)
“Mainstreaming Biodiversity Project”
provides grants to projects with a
primary focus on protection of the
environment and biodiversity.
48 49
50
51
52
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NGOs
International Labour
Organisation
African Safari Lodges
Program (ASL)
Millennium
Corporation
Manages an innovative programme designed to
galvanize transformation
in deep rural areas of Southern Africa. Lasting
partnerships created between safari lodge
operations and people of surrounding
communities are generating wealth and
well-being. Aim to set up a capable regional
institution that provides technical skills,
knowledge, capacity and advocacy for
increasing ability of partnerships between
safari lodges, protected area managers, and
rural residents. Aim to optimize benefit flows to
rural households; ensure healthy commercial
returns for lodge operators; and operate within
ecological limits as prescribed by public, private
or community-owned reserve managers .
In South Africa: “Sustaining Competitive and Responsible Enterprises (SCORE)”
programme: aims to improve productivity and competitiveness of SMMEs through
developing workplace cooperation between management and labour. Developed series
of training courses and case studies in tourism, tested in Amakhala and Madikwe Game
Reserves. One course on “Responsible Wildlife Tourism: Business sustainability, environ-
mental responsibility and community engagement.”
African Wildlife
Foundation (AWF)
Work across Africa in the following destinations: Congo (DRC); Kazungula (Botswana,
Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe); Kilimanjaro (Kenya and Tanzania); Limpopo (Mozambique,
South Africa and Zimbabwe); Maasai Steppe (Tanzania); Regional Parc W (Benin, Burkina
Faso, Niger); Samburu (Kenya); Virunga (DRC, Rwanda and Uganda); Zambezi (Mozam-
bique, Zambia and Zimbabwe).
Operate in South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Mozambique, and in partnership with other
agencies including the Ford Foundation, the IFC and Technoserve.
“Conservancy Development Support Services Programme” in Namibia funded by
Millennium Challenge Corporation that aims to improve sustainability of 31 community
conservancies (areas of land where people acquire rights and responsibilities for
consumptive and non-consumptive use and management of wildlife and natural
resources, on behalf of the community) , particularly through development of tourism
joint-ventures .
Conservation
International (CI) South Africa: worked with Richtersveld community’s World Heritage Site
Helped to finance tourism lodges in both Mozambique and Madagascar
Works in destinations to involve, educate &
equip local people to practice sustainable land
management, and to generate economic
benefits from them. Mission-related investment
company, African Wildlife Capital (AWC): offers
alternative development financing as
structured loans to selected small &
medium-sized conservation enterprises in
agricultural & tourism sectors.
Works in biodiversity hotspots globally
56
53
54
55
Spenceley et al, 2011
Ashley and Jones, 2001
Stakeholder survey
Stakeholder survey
56
54
55
53
APPENDIX
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AdvAncing SuStAinAble touriSm
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International Union for
the Conservation of
Nature (IUCN)
SNV
Peace Parks
Foundation (PPF)
Global NGO, with office for east and southern
Africa based in Nairobi. World Commission on
Protected Areas – Tourism Specialist
(WCPA-TAPAS) Group has an international
network of 160 volunteers.
Recent initiatives in Africa by TAPAS group include a regional conference on tourism
concessions.
Sustainable Tourism
Network Southern
Africa (STNSA)
Aims to establish an integrated, regional approach to sustainable tourism development
in SADC and provide channel for all SADC countries to exchange experiences and best
practices regarding sustainable tourism policy and practice throughout the region
Tourism now phased out as a strategic theme, but some countries such as previously
supported by SNV (e.g. Tanzania and Mozambique) continue to work in this field.
Working in 10 TFCAs in southern Africa: Ai Ais Richtersveld, Kgalagadi, Greater Mapun-
gubwe, Maloti Drakensberg, Great Limpopo, Lubombo, Malawi/Zambia, KAZA, Lower
Zambezi, Liuwa Plains.
World Wide Fund
for Nature (WWF)
Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) programs across the region
include:
Namibia (LIFE program, and human-wildlife conflict activities)
South Africa (Black Rhino range expansion program, turtle conservation, Biodiversity
and Wine Initiative)
Zambia (Kafue)
Uganda (Rwenzoris)
Mozambique (Quirimbas)
Until recently, SNV had 85 tourism advisors in
West, Central, East and Southern Africa; Asia;
Latin America; and the Balkans. Main focus was
on pro-poor tourism, destination management
and value chain development, with interven-
tions to build capacity of local tourism
stakeholders. SNV has been a main partner of
UNWTO in implementing ST-EP projects.
Programs focus on conservation and develop-
ment, and have collaborated with agencies
across east and southern Africa on tourism-re-
lated initiatives.
Helps to organise communities, support
development of tourism enterprises and
tourism plans.
57
hp://www.sustainabletourismalliance.co.za/about-stnsa/
57
APPENDIX
24
Article
Full-text available
While the tourism industry as an ideal industry to fast track poverty alleviation in South Africa, the uptake of sustainable tourism practices amongst many players, including small accommodation establishments (SAEs) remains a challenge. The lack of awareness of the benefits and value that sustainable tourism practices may bring, is amplified by the absence of appropriate policies, low collaboration levels, a shortage of capacity to implement sustainable tourism practices and a perceived weak business case for sustainable tourism implementation amongst SAE owners and managers. This paper presents a proposed framework that may be used to support the implementation of sustainable tourism practices amongst SAEs. The framework is a flexible, adaptable and scalable tool that assists in communicating a specific approach that could be utilised by role players including SAE owners, public sector entities, private sector business, industry professionals and community members. The essence of the framework is to support the implementation of sustainable tourism practises amongst SAEs, thus enhancing the overall sustainability of the tourism sector while simultaneously addressing the sustainability of the destination
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