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Development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa

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NRI Report No: 2692
Project Code: V0149
Rural Livelihoods and the Tourism Industry
Development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines
for South Africa
Harold Goodwin, Anna Spenceley and Bill Maynard
Final Report
Development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa
2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1BACKGROUND.....................................................................................................4
1.1 South African Tourism and Policy Background................................................4
2AIM..........................................................................................................................7
3OBJECTIVES ..........................................................................................................7
3.1 Development of National Guidelines Framework.............................................7
3.2 Development of a Sub-sector Model..................................................................8
3.3 Design of an Assessment System.......................................................................8
4ACTIVITIES AND PARTICIPANTS.....................................................................8
4.1 Project Team and Timeframe.............................................................................8
4.2 Development Process.........................................................................................9
5ACHIEVEMENTS AND OUTPUTS....................................................................10
5.1 Engaging Official Support from DEAT for the Process of Developing
Responsible Tourism Guidelines...........................................................................11
5.2 Active Participation by South African Stakeholders .......................................11
5.3 The Development Process: From the 1996 White Paper to Provisional
Responsible Tourism Guidelines...........................................................................14
5.4 Buy-in from Tourism Industry and Trade Associations ..................................14
5.5 Case Studies that Tested Application of the Responsible Tourism Guidelines
to Operational Tourism Enterprises.......................................................................18
5.6 Evaluation of SANParks Commercialisation Process in Relation to the
Responsible Tourism Guidelines...........................................................................19
5.7 Peer Review by WTO ......................................................................................21
5.8 Project Outputs.................................................................................................21
5.9 Report Outputs.................................................................................................23
6LIMITATIONS AND CONSTRAINTS................................................................25
7FUTURE ACTIVITES ..........................................................................................25
8 CONCLUSIONS ...................................................................................................26
9REFERENCES ......................................................................................................26
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 Process of development of the Responsible Tourism Guidelines and outputs 9
Table 2 Outputs against Activities and Reports 20
LIST OF BOXES
Rationale for the National Responsible Tourism Guidelines 13
FEDHASA Policy Statement 17
Media statement 13 May 2002, INDABA Durban, South Africa 20
Development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa
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Acknowledgements
NRI gratefully acknowledge the financial and other support provided by the
Rural Livelihoods Department of the U.K. Department of International
Development (DFID) and the South African Department of Environmental
Affairs and Tourism Affairs (DEAT). The views in the documentation are
solely those of the authors and not necessarily those of DFID or DEAT.
This document and supporting documents are available on the following
website http://ww.nri.org/NRET/nret.htm
ABBREVIATIONS AND GLOSSARY
B2B Business to Business
BABASA Bed and Breakfast Association of South Africa
DBSA Development Bank of South Africa
DFID Department for International Development, UK
DEAT Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism
FEDHASA Federation Hospitality Association of South Africa
FTTSA Fair Trade Tourism in South Africa
INR Institute of Natural Resources, South Africa
IYE International Year of Ecotourism
NGOs Non-Government Organisations
NRET Natural Resources and Ethical Trade programme, NRI
NRI Natural Resources Institute, UK
RDP Reconstruction and Development Programme
RLD Rural Livelihoods Department
SANParks South African National Parks
SMME Small Medium and Micro Enterprises
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
USP Unique Selling Propositions
WSSD World Summit on Sustainable Development
WTO World Tourism Organisation
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1 BACKGROUND
DFID is committed to maximising the contribution the private sector can make towards
its poverty reduction goals through encouraging responsible business practices.
Responsible business embraces economic, social and environmental as well as financial
responsibility. DFID’s Rural Livelihoods Department (RLD) is supporting research on
the policy and practice of delivering social and environmental added value through, for
instance, the funding of Natural Resources and Ethical Trade programme (NRET) work
on ethical trade and horticulture, and ethical trade and forest-dependent people. DFID is
also supporting socially responsible business initiatives such as the Ethical Trading
Initiative and the Social Dimensions of Responsible Business Resource Centre, and the
role of business in development is emphasized in the new White Paper on Globalisation.
DFID promoted the concept of Pro-poor Tourism, which was successfully placed in the
report of Commission on Sustainable Development 7 in April 1999 (Goodwin 1998). The
World Tourism Organisation (WTO) and UNCTAD have taken up this theme. Harold
Goodwin was commissioned to write the WTO’s policy paper on The Least Developed
Countries and International Tourism (WTO, 2001). Tourism has also been identified by
the International Trade Centre in Geneva as one of the key sectors for its Export-led
Poverty Reduction Programme. There has been increasing interest in government and in
the tourism industry for some time in the idea of responsible tourism, which is a central
plank of the South African government’s 1996 White Paper on tourism. There has also
been discussion of the possibility of a Tourism Stewardship Council (modelled on the
Forest Stewardship Council). But we know of no examples of the development of
guidelines and benchmarks that would offer a basis for the development of national and
international policies in the sustainable management of tourism, including pro-poor
aspects.
There is often legislation that in its wording and its intent is supportive of rural
livelihoods and empowerment. A major problem has been the difficulty in translating the
aspirational content of much of this government policy into practice on the ground. The
nature, language and style of legislative documents often do not lend themselves to direct
translation into action. This project aimed to address these shortcomings, through the
development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines for the South African tourism industry.
1.1 South African Tourism and Policy Background
Tourism was not included in the African National Congress detailed planning when it
achieved power in 1994. However, the 1996 White Paper recognised that tourism was
one of the best opportunities available to South Africa in creating employment and
livelihoods for the urban and particularly rural poor. In rural areas, other than agriculture,
there are often no other opportunities for economic engagement other than tourism - both
domestic and international. The 1996 White Paper on The Development and Promotion of
Tourism identified the importance of tourism to the poor:
Development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa
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"Yet tourism, perhaps more than any other sector, has the potential to achieve the
objectives of the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) of the new
government. Tourism creates opportunities for the small entrepreneur; promotes
awareness and understanding among different cultures; breeds a unique informal
sector; helps to save the environment; creates economic linkages with agriculture,
light manufacturing and curios (art, craft, souvenirs); creates linkages with the
services sector (health and beauty, entertainment, banking and insurance); and
provides dignified employment opportunities. Tourism can also play a strategic
role in dynamising other sectors of the economy - the agriculture sector that
benefits from the tourism industry (increased demand for new agricultural
products and services such as organic agriculture, farm tourism); the
manufacturing sector (the supply of furniture and fittings, construction, linens,
pots, pans, etc.) as well as crafts (wood-working, curios, fine art). Perhaps the
weakest economic linkages with the tourism industry in South Africa exist in the
services sector (entertainment, health and beauty services, banking, insurance)."
(DEAT 1996)
The tourism sector is now the fourth largest generator of foreign exchange in South
Africa and lies third, after manufacturing and mining and quarrying, in its contribution to
the economy at 6.9%. Although South Africa attracted just 0.9% of the total world
tourism arrivals internationally in 1998 it represents the economic sector with the most
significant growth in the country. During 2001 South Africa received 5.8 million visitors,
of which 1.48 million were from overseas. The average annual growth in foreign visitor
arrivals to South Africa between 1994 and 2001 was 8% whilst the average annual
growth in overseas arrivals during the same period was 16%. In 2000/2001 domestic
tourism accounted for around 67% of the South African tourism receipts, contributing
R16 billion of the R24 billion generated from the combined domestic and foreign tourism
spend. Between April 2000 and May 2001 an estimated 34 million domestic trips were
taken, during which 10.9 million people spent R4.5 billion.
However, the economic impact of tourism on rural and urban livelihoods has not been
researched in South Africa but the Department of Environmental and Tourism Affairs
(DEAT) has overseen a large number of projects that have sought to tackle poverty
through tourism developments. The Responsible Tourism Guidelines lead on the
economic dimension of sustainable tourism for this reason.
The vision of DEAT is to manage tourism in the framework of sustainable development
in such a way that it contributes to the improvement of the quality of life of all South
Africans (Matlou, 2001). In 1996 DEAT published the White Paper on the Development
and Promotion of Tourism. It was developed through a lengthy and inclusive public
consultation process that explored the advantages and constraints of promoting tourism
development.
Development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa
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It pointed out that tourism had largely been a missed opportunity for South Africa, and
noted that tourism planning had been inadequately resourced and funded, with inadequate
environmental protection, infrastructure development, and little integration of either local
communities or previously neglected groups (DEAT, 1996). The Department of
Environmental Affairs and Tourism has only a very small professional staff dealing with
tourism and they are seriously stretched.
In the White Paper government identified tourism as a sector which could provide the
nation with an, ‘ . . .engine of growth, capable of dynamising and rejuvenating other
sectors of the economy.’ This was due in part to tourism’s capacity to generate
significant employment while creating considerable entrepreneurial opportunities and
potential for linkages (DEAT, 1996). Tourism could also bring development into rural
areas where the levels of poverty were highest (DEAT, 1996). The White Paper laid out
how the government perceived the roles and responsibilities of different stakeholders
such as the private sector and communities.
The White Paper foresightedly proposed to develop and manage the tourism industry in a
responsible and sustainable manner in order that the South African tourism industry
would become a leader in responsible environmental practices. Key elements of its
strategy were identified as:
assessment of environmental, social and economic impacts of tourism
developments;
monitoring of tourism impacts with open disclosure of information;
involvement of local communities in planning and decision making;
ensuring the involvement of communities who benefit from tourism;
maintenance and encouragement of natural, economic, social and cultural
diversity;
sustainable use of local resources;
avoidance of waste and over-consumption. (DEAT, 1996):
Subsequently the government’s Tourism in GEAR emphasized that tourism should be
government led, private sector driven, community based, and labour conscious (DEAT,
1997). However, the government had not had the opportunity to convert the principles of
the tourism White Paper into a formal system that could monitor and reward sustainable
tourism practices. There have been some initiatives developed to address tourism
grading systems in relation to consistency in hospitality levels of quality, health and
safety standards, as well as some ethical environmental and social standards. Some of the
larger private-sector tourism establishments subscribed to international certification
programs such as Green Globe 21 and ISO 14001-based programs, but few applied for
such certification.
Development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa
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2 AIM
This project aimed to identify a system by which the aspirations laid out in a specific
government policy document could be presented in a way that the private sector and rural
communities can use it to manage business at the operational local level. The model
aimed to demonstrate how civil society could use the new responsible tourism policy
criteria that exist to structure management and leverage government support and to guide
and benchmark the achievement against economic (pro-poor) social and environmental
criteria. The project was designed to:
1. translate stakeholder agreed government policy into practical management
guidelines for the whole tourism industry
2. develop, test and adapt the guidelines in the most directly relevant sector for rural
livelihoods impact, that of nature based tourism - applicable across significant
areas of South Africa and far beyond the boundaries of national parks.
3. pilot the guidelines as a system of monitoring against criteria and measurable
indicators that have recently been developed by South African National Parks
within the lodge concession leasing process.
3 OBJECTIVES
The objectives of the Guidelines Development included the production of the following
outputs:
3.1 Development of National Guidelines Framework
Development of a set of national generic guidelines for responsible tourism based on an
international review and national experience. These were to set out the framework for
the development of more detailed implementation guidelines for each sub-sector of the
industry. The objectives of the Responsible Tourism Guidelines were to:
Provide national guidance and indicators to enable the tourism sector to
demonstrate progress towards the principles of responsible tourism embodied in
the South African 1996 Tourism White Paper.
Define a baseline of acceptable practice for the industry against which it could
be judged.
Avoid false claims of responsibility.
Achieve credibility for South African tourism internationally.
Ensure transparency and accessibility.
It was proposed that the outputs would include both a paper document and a web-
based information system, with an implementation strategy and monitoring
framework. In addition, it was proposed that there would be a manual for
responsible tourism.
Development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa
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3.2 Development of a Sub-sector Model
Identify specific guidelines and quantifiable targets for rural and nature based tourism
enterprises selected from the national generic guidelines and test the utility of these
guidelines in assessing performance against the Responsible Tourism criteria.
3.3 Design of an Assessment System
A model assessment system based on the monitoring of the current lodges and the
tendering system used by SANParks in Kruger. These were to use the criteria and
indicators already developed within the SANParks contracts with the lodge management
to identify the critical measurable indicators, to identify areas where national objectives
are not covered by current contracts and to assist in designing a monitoring system and
auditing.
A fourth element (identified as Wrap Up in the original proposal) was envisaged
comprising the writing of a manual of best practise to support the implementation of the
guidelines and containing practical steps for the implementation of responsible pro-poor
tourism for use by large and small-scale businesses, by communities and government at
all levels with a process for quantifying results and encouraging improved performance
and presentation at a pre-World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD)
conference. DFID did not fund this element.
The reports in Appendices are Summative Reports, which contain The Responsible
Tourism Guidelines and the Monitoring Framework for the Nature Tourism sector. They
should be read in conjunction with this report.
6
4 ACTIVITIES AND PARTICIPANTS
4.1 Project Team and Timeframe
Harold Goodwin: Team Leader and Pro-Poor/Responsible Tourism Industry
Specialist (NRI)
Bill Maynard: Guideline and Monitoring Expert (NRET, NRI)
Anna Spenceley: Locally based team leader INR, South Africa
The work programme which was initially outlined at a Scoping workshop in South Africa
in March 2001 is detailed in Table 1.
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4.2 Development Process
The process of development and the outputs are summarised in Table 1.
Table 1: Process of development of the Responsible Tourism Guidelines and outputs
Timing Activity
October 2000 Identification of gaps in responsible tourism policy implementation and lack of
consistency in application of sustainable tourism practices
March 2001 Scoping workshop with representatives of DEAT, the Natural Resources
Institute (NRI) and the Institute of Natural Resources (INR).
31 attendees representing 30 institutions including government, conservation
agencies, NGOs, IGOs, the tourism private sector, and financing agencies.
Official support from the South African Government for the process of developing
national Responsible Tourism (Responsible Tourism) guidelines, and endorsement to
approach DfID to finance technical support for the process.
April 2001 Project proposal submitted to DFID
July 2001 Funding agreed by DFID
Scoping meetings across South Africa with 39 stakeholders from 20 institutions
including government, conservation agencies, NGOs, tourism private sector and
financing agencies. The project was relaunched and renegotiated with DEAT.
August 2001 Review of international best practice in sustainable and responsible tourism,
including guidelines, codes of conduct and certification schemes (Spenceley, 2001b)
September
2001 Technical Working Group to formulate of a proposed guideline development
process and terms of reference for South African consultants to draft the guidelines with
respect to the triple bottom line
13 participants from 8 institutions including DEAT, consultancies, financing
institutions, and civic society
Three South African consultants commissioned to develop draft responsible
economic, social and environmental guidelines in relation to international best practice
and the 1996 White Paper.
October 2001 Technical Working Group convened to oversee consultant progress, including
UNDP and Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) representatives
Consultants present draft guidelines (Elliffe, 2001; GTKF, 2001; INR, 2001)
Draft responsible tourism guidelines report produced for discussion (Spenceley,
2001c)
Workshop with the presentation of the draft guidelines.
37 attendees from 29 institutions, including government, conservation agencies,
tourism trade associations, consultants, financial institutions, NGOs and civic society.
Discussion of draft and potential targets/indicators of responsible tourism at the
workshop
Guidelines re-drafted in light of workshop discussions (Goodwin and Spenceley
2001)
November
2001 DEAT distributed re-drafted guidelines to stakeholders, including 253
individuals, & 195 organisations. Comments received from 20 organisations in South
Africa (10.3% sample)
Technical Working Group convened to develop draft indicators and targets, with
representation from tourism education, community based tourism, consultancies and
World Summit company.
Workshop to review consultation results, draft indicators and targets.
59 attendees representing 52 institutions including government, conservation
agencies, tourism trade associations, consultants, financial institutions, NGOs, and civic
society.
Development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa
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Presentation of by the Open Africa Initiative on responsible tourism routes and
Code for Responsible Tourism for the Wild Coast.
Technical working group in National Workshop approved provisional national
generic guidelines.
January 2002 Trade Associations initiate development of sub-sectoral guidelines (e.g.
Federated Hospitability Association of South Africa (FEDHASA); the Bed and
Breakfast Association of South Africa (BABASA); Off Road-Tactix (4x4 group for
Nissan); the Development Bank of Southern Africa)
Development of methodology to test application of national Responsible
Tourism guidelines to the nature-based tourism sub-sector, with review by
representatives of South African National Parks and DEAT (Spenceley, 2002d)
Consultant commissioned to implement 3 case studies to address terrestrial and
marine nature-based tourism and to practically test national targets and indicators
February 2002 Consultants reports on case studies undertaken at Jackalberry Lodge in the
Thornybush Game Reserve (Relly & Koch, 2002); Pretoriuskop Camp in Kruger
National Park (Kalwa et al, 2002) and Coral Divers in Sodwana Bay (Spenceley et al,
2002).
March 2002 Case study overview and implications report compiled (Spenceley, 2002b)
National conference to present progress on trade association sub-sector
guidelines (FEDHASA, BABASA, Off Road-Tactix, The Mountain Club of South
Africa, and the South African Boat-Based Whale Watching Association) and case study
findings, with discussion of targets and indicators
52 attendees representing 45 institutions including government, conservation
agencies, tourism trade associations, consultants, financial institutions, tourism private
sector, and NGOs.
Evaluation of commercialisation of South African National Parks in relation to
the Responsible Tourism Guidelines, and development of an assessment methodology
(Spenceley, Goodwin and Maynard 2002)
Peer review of guidelines by the World Tourism Organisation initiated.
Provisional Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa published
(DEAT, 2002)
5 ACHIEVEMENTS AND OUTPUTS
The key achievements and outputs of the guidelines development process were:
Facilitating wider ownership of the process within DEAT (to Ministerial level)
and others for the process of developing Responsible Tourism Guidelines.
Engendering active participation by South African stakeholders
Allowing a continuous development process from the 1996 White Paper to
provisional Responsible Tourism Guidelines.
Facilitating wider ownership and buy-in from tourism industry and trade
associations
Completion of Case studies that tested application of the Responsible Tourism
Guidelines to operational tourism enterprises.
Evaluation of SANParks commercialisation process in relation to the Responsible
Tourism Guidelines
Development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa
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5.1 Engaging Official Support from DEAT for the Process of Developing
Responsible Tourism Guidelines
Gaining and maintaining ownership by the Department of Environmental Affairs and
Tourism for the Responsible Tourism Guidelines development process was critical to the
process. This was necessary both to the process of sourcing funding from DFID to
finance facilitation and technical support, and also in relation to key individuals who
drove the process. Support from the Chief Director of Tourism Development in DEAT,1
was critical at the initiation of the process. DEAT was seeking to present examples of
sustainable development and poverty alleviation initiatives during the World Summit on
Sustainable Development (WSSD) in August/September 2002 in Johannesburg. In
addition, the International Year of Ecotourism (IYE) summit was to be held in Quebec
during May 2002, and organised by UNEP and the WTO. Since nature-based tourism is
a key South African market, this provided another opportunity for the government to
present its proactive and responsible activities in an international forum. The Deputy
Director of DEAT and national project leader2, played a key role in keeping the process
moving forward in order to achieve the very tight timetable required if the project was to
deliver on time.
The rationale for the production of the Guidelines is reproduced here from the
Explanatory Notes that accompanied the Provisional Responsible Tourism Guidelines.
With minor editing these explanatory notes became the introduction to the published
guidelines.
5.2 Active Participation by South African Stakeholders
The process of development of the Responsible Tourism Guidelines included 27 scoping
meetings, 4 technical working groups, 3 national workshops, a stakeholder consultation
incorporating 195 organisations, and a dissemination conference. In all, 176 individuals
representing 121 South African institutions participated in the development of the
guidelines. They represented all sectors of the tourism industry: government (including
DEAT, the Department of Arts, Culture Science and Technology; and, the Department of
Land Affairs), national and provincial conservation authorities; provincial and municipal
tourism associations; tourism trade associations; the tourism private sector, community
based tourism; NGOs; civic society; committed individuals and consultants. Although
there was some disappointment in the level of support from individual private sector
enterprises and the hunting fraternity, their interests were represented by the tourism
trade associations.
The widespread and committed participation by a diversity of stakeholders, in addition to
the continual support by key individuals throughout the process, was critical in providing
an inclusive forum in which the unique issues of Responsible Tourism in South Africa
could be addressed. The degree of buy-in from key stakeholders was not only critical to
1 Moeketsi Mosola, he is now working at SA Tourism as Chief Operating Officer
2 Dr Johan Kotzé
Development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa
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the development of the Responsible Tourism Guidelines, but also vital to the continuation
of the process and uptake by the tourism sector once the technical support for the
development financed by DFID ceased.
Development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa
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Rationale for the National Responsible Tourism Guidelines
Around the world, tourism destinations are facing increasing pressures on their natural,
cultural and socio-economic environments. Uncontrolled tourism growth, often based on
short-term priorities, invariably results in unacceptable impacts that harm society and the
environment. This is not acceptable in South Africa. In 1996 the White Paper on Development
& Promotion of Tourism in South Africa was produced with the following vision:
“…to develop the tourism sector as a national priority in a sustainable and acceptable
manner, so that it will contribute significantly to the improvement of the quality of life
of every South Africa. As a lead sector within the national economic strategy, a
globally competitive tourism sector will be a major force in the reconstruction and
development efforts of the government.”
Responsible Tourism is the key guiding principle for tourism development in South Africa.
As was agreed in the 1996 White Paper, “Responsible tourism is not a luxury for South Africa.
It is an absolute necessity if South Africa is to emerge as a successful international
competitor”. The White Paper committed us to pursuing a policy of Responsible Tourism.
Government, the private sector and communities are working together to practice tourism
responsibly. The Responsible Tourism Guidelines identify specific ways in which these
commitments can be realised. Each enterprise and association is expected to develop its own
agenda for action – prioritising those issues where the particular business or group of
businesses can make a significant impact by improving its product, the destination, or the
livelihoods and quality of life of local people.
We recognise that a profitable tourism industry is essential to the sustainability of the sector
and to the private sector’s ability to spread benefits. Everyone in the industry can do something
more to make their product more responsible, and we want to maintain our position as leaders
in this area. International trends in the market have moved further towards our responsible
tourism agenda since 1996 when the policy was adopted. Our decision to adopt a responsible
tourism approach was farsighted five years ago, and today it offers competitive advantage and
a fresh approach.
Government and the private sector are committed to work in partnership with the people of
South Africa to develop and market tourism experiences that demonstrate our social,
economic, environmental, technical, institutional and financial responsibility. We are working
together to develop domestic and international tourism, which contributes equitably to the
economic and social development of all South Africans, which offers domestic and
international visitors a quality experience, and which is environmentally sustainable. These
generic national guidelines provide a framework within which responsible tourism is defined
in South Africa and within which benchmark standards can be set for accommodation,
transport, cultural and natural heritage and for operators and marketing associations. This
approach is necessary to ensure that the tourism sector in South Africa keeps pace with
international and national trends towards responsible business practice – a trend that is
increasingly evident in our international originating markets and within our domestic market.
Explanatory notes Provisional Guidelines for Responsible Tourism Management March 2002
Development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa
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5.3 The Development Process: From the 1996 White Paper to Provisional
Responsible Tourism Guidelines
As described in Table 1, guidelines were developed through a process of research,
animation, development, stakeholder consultation and review. The 1996 White Paper
and the review of international best practice (Spenceley, 2001b) provided the basis for
consultants to devise draft economic, social and environmental Responsible Tourism
Guidelines for discussion. Through a series of technical working groups and workshops
this expertise was used to draw up a provisional list of 104 guidelines (Goodwin and
Spenceley 2001), addressing the triple bottom line of Rio in the context of South African
socio-economic and environmental issues, and political objectives. Uniquely they
provide a basis for transparent, quantifiable monitoring reporting of responsible tourism
practices. These provide a basis to collate Responsible Tourism information at a regional
or national level in order that DEAT can report on its progress towards implementing
Responsible Tourism, as laid out in the 1996 White Paper. The 104 Guidelines, which
were produced in October 2001, remained substantially unaltered going through a series
of national workshops and review processes in March they were published as Provisional
National Responsible Tourism Guidelines.
5.4 Buy-in from Tourism Industry and Trade Associations
The guidelines were developed in order that marketing, trade and professional
associations, and geographically based groups could use the guidelines to develop Codes
of Conduct and Codes of Best Practice. It was envisaged that these Codes would place
commitments on association members (which the associations themselves would
monitor) and report annually on progress. It was not envisaged that associations would
attempt to implement all 104 of the Responsible Tourism Guidelines, but rather that they
would select those that were most appropriate to their business, geographical area or
sector. They would do this by proactively examining sectors in which they could
showcase responsible business practice through economic, social and environment
initiatives that demonstrate commitment and which may secure them market advantage
within the specific market segments that they operated in. Integral to the ethos of
responsible business was the assumption that enterprises would comply with all relevant
national legislation and regulations, in addition to accepting the principle that the
“polluter pays”.
Evidence of buy-in within the tourism industry and trade associations of South Africa
came from initiatives that utilised the national Responsible Tourism Guidelines to
develop sub-sector Codes. The Federated Hospitability Association of South Africa
(FEDHASA); the Bed and Breakfast Association of South Africa (BABASA); Off Road-
Tactix (4x4 group for Nissan); the Wild Coast Spatial Development Initiative and the
Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) are all developing specific guidelines for
their use.
Development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa
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FEDHASA in association with the WSSD Greening Initiative has launched a Hospitality
Industry Campaign for Responsible Tourism widening the agenda to adopt improved,
social, economic and environmental principles. This represents a significant movement
beyond the now well established green agenda in the hotel sector. FEDHASA has taken
a strong lead by recasting its established environmental award to create the new Imvelo
Responsible Tourism Award scheme. Through a series of 22 forthcoming workshops
with its private sector members it is promoting the importance of triple bottom line
Responsible Tourism to its members and using the DEAT Responsible Tourism
Guidelines to do so. The winners of the Responsible Tourism award in 2002 will be
announced at a ceremony during WSSD. The categories include best community
involvement programme, and in addition to the environmental awards, best practice
awards for accommodation establishment, restaurant and SMME. FEDHASA is asking
members to sign a Statement of Intent committing them to implement a Responsible
Tourism programme in line with the national guidelines. All signatories to the Statement
of Intent are to be included in a Responsible Tourism Guide to South Africa to be
published during WSSD by the Business Day and Financial Mail.
The Statement of Intent commits FEDHASA members to “compile and implement a
Responsible Tourism Management Plan” for use in their establishment “as per the
National Responsible Tourism Guidelines for the South African Hospitality Sector” (see
box on previous page). The Statement of Intent requires those who sign to recognise their
“responsibility, as a manager/owner of an accommodation establishment, to comply with,
and implement, standards that will assist in addressing social, economic and
environmental shortcomings.” Furthermore they commit to the requirement that these
“standards must be measurable and sustainable”. FEDHASA has published a Sample
Responsible Tourism Management System. (FEDHASA 2002).
FEDHASA’s National Responsible Tourism Guidelines for the South African Hospitality
Sector reflects the strong emphasis on the environmental aspects of sustainable tourism,
which has been a corner stone of the work of the International Hotels Environment
Initiative and other schemes in the 10 years since Rio. Whilst it does not give equal
weight to the social and economic dimensions of the triple bottom line there are
significant commitments to supporting the local community through the use and/or
promotion of their products and linkage programmes particularly with local suppliers and
historically disadvantaged businesses. The policy is also very strong on the need for
managers and owners to commit to taking responsibility for creating more balanced
tourism. It will take time for the economic and social agenda to become as prominent as
the environmental in the FEDHASA membership, but the process has been commenced
and it has been stimulated – but not supported – by the DFID project.
Fair Trade Tourism in South Africa (FTTSA) awarded exhibitors for “responsible” and
“fair” stands at INDABA across the full range of travel industry categories from tourism
marketing, through provincial authorities, tourist attractions and transport.
Development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa
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The next stage of development has been initiated by the FEDHASA “campaign” with its
extensive series of workshops around the country and as individual enterprises take up
the challenge. There is still a good deal of work to be done in promoting the responsible
tourism concept in South Africa and in implementing the changes required by the policy.
The strategy is market driven as was made clear in the guidelines as they were published.
“The credibility of this national strategy will require transparency, the clear
communication of particular responsible tourism objectives, and verifiable
evidence of success in achieving targets. Responsible marketing is fundamental
to the approach. One of the purposes of the guidelines is to avoid unsubstantiated
claims of responsibility, of the sort that undermined the concept of ecotourism in
the originating markets. They also aim to ensure a transparent framework within
which trade buyers and tourists can judge the competing claims of enterprises and
associations in the market place. As the operators in the originating markets adopt
strong responsible tourism strategies they will need to be able to rely on the
credibility of claims made in the destinations by enterprises, communities and
government. Enterprises and associations must avoid raising expectations that
cannot be realised.(Goodwin & Spenceley 2002).
Development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa
17
FEDHASA Policy Statement What is Responsible Tourism?
Responsible tourism implies a pro-active approach by the tourism sector to the promotion of balanced and
responsible tourism. It is underpinned by sustainable environmental, social and economic principles, which
include: Assessing environmental impacts as prerequisite to developing tourism
Using local resources sustainably: avoiding waste and over-consumption
Maintaining and encouraging natural diversity
Involving local communities in planning and decision-making
Ensuring that local communities derive economic benefits
Assessing social impacts as a prerequisite to developing tourism
Maintaining and encouraging social and cultural diversity
Responsible Tourism Guidelines for the Hospitality Industry
Air quality and pollution
Managing and reducing, where possible, emissions into the atmosphere.
limiting or reducing emissions into the air (e.g. cleaning air filters, exhaust systems, reducing odours)
eliminating or minimising the effects of noise pollution (e.g. reducing vibrations, fitting silencers)
ensuring quality air in public areas through air flow and purification
Community and social involvement
Managing and involving all stakeholders in the environmental programme:
involving the local community and encouraging them to develop their own programmes
providing resources and/or funds for local community health and environmental education
supporting the local community through the use and/or promotion of their products
linkage programmes with industry and SME enterprise
advising stakeholders of environmental programme success
ensuring the continuation of environmental programmes by management.
Energy management
Measuring and monitoring or appropriate long and short-term energy usage
regularly monitoring all energy usage
investigating the findings of adverse energy measurements
fitting of energy saving technology and devices (e.g. power correction. time clocks)
use of insulation on hot water pipes and tanks
use of natural power e.g. solar power
Health management and awareness
Taking positive steps in the management and creation of awareness of the relevant health issues such as
HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, hepatitis and waterborne diseases:
providing information campaigns for staff, guests and the community
providing first aid training and facilities
distributing protective items (e.g. condoms, gloves)
offering aids counselling
advising guests unfamiliar with our region of the relevant health issues such as the possibility of
contracting malaria
ensuring the promotion of health care facilities
Procurement policies
Conducted with minimal impact on the environment
implementation of programmes to ensure the purchase of goods which have minimal negative impact
on the environment if possible, from local suppliers and historically disadvantaged businesses
investigation into the environmental practises of suppliers
use of natural and recyclable materials
Waste and pollution
Collecting, storing and recycling of waste material and by-products
sorting and separating different types of waste such as cans, glass and paper
ensuring that no waste escapes, particularly liquids
introducing schemes to manage waste, using local communities, thus empowering them to participate
in recycling schemes
recycling used cooking oil
Water Conservation
Measuring and monitoring water use and conserving this natural resource:
regularly monitoring water usage
implementing water saving programmes
fitting water saving devices
recycling water where appropriate FEDHASA 2002
Development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa
18
The expectations of individual enterprises were made clear in the explanatory
note with accompanies the guidelines:
Individual enterprises will need to develop their own policies and make
commitments within this national and sub-sectoral framework and report on
progress. This is a market led initiative, and enterprises will want to seek to
maximise their advantage through non-price competition, creating enterprise level
policies which fulfil the requirements of any association of which the enterprise is
a member and to develop Unique Selling Propositions (USP) to attract tourists
and tour operators.
The guidelines contain an enabling framework within which people engaged in
the travel and tourism industry can make a difference. Entrepreneurs in the
industry can grow their businesses, while providing social and economic benefits
to local communities and respecting the environment, creating better places for
locals and tourists alike.
Choose your criteria from the menu
Identify standards and targets appropriate to your business (e.g. “local” can only
be defined by those involved)
Report progress in a transparent way which can be verified by the trade
association
Use responsible tourism as part of your marketing strategy
(Goodwin & Spenceley 2002).
Given trends in the UK, German and French originating markets there is considerable
potential for B2B (Business to Business) supply chain linkages using the concept of
Responsible Tourism and these are being explored in work stimulated – but not funded
by – the DFID project. B2B linkages involves developing links between operators in the
originating markets committed to responsible tourism and those in the destinations -
particularly among South Africa’s emerging entrepreneurs - who are using responsible
tourism policies at enterprise level to foster linkages.
5.5 Case Studies that Tested Application of the Responsible Tourism Guidelines to
Operational Tourism Enterprises
Sixteen of the 104 economic, social and environmental guidelines were selected to assess
application to the nature-based tourism sub-sector. These guidelines were highlighted for
testing due to:
Their attractiveness and interest amongst consumers (tourists and tour operators);
That they were objectively and transparently measurable and declarable (rather
than qualitative or intangible issues that were open to interpretation);
That they dealt with Responsible Tourism issues that could decrease costs for
business, and improve marketability.
Development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa
19
The assessment methodology built on doctoral research3 undertaken in South Africa to
develop a sustainable nature-based tourism assessment framework. The assessments
were implemented using a previously prepared comparative methodological framework.
This was provided to ensure consistency between the studies and the production of
comparable data and reports, which would allow the performance of the operations to be
transparently assessed and compared (Spenceley, 2002b).
The nature-based tourism industry was examined since it relies heavily on the integrity of
an attractive environment to persist, and occurs in rural areas where the majority of South
Africa’s poor people reside. The study sites were chosen to illustrate the application of
the guidelines to nature-based tourism operations in national and provincial parks and on
privately owned land within three of South Africa’s provinces. They were also selected
to illustrate terrestrial photographic safaris and marine scuba diving. The study sites were
Jackalberry Lodge in the Thornybush Game Reserve (Relly & Koch, 2002); Pretoriuskop
Camp in Kruger National Park (Kalwa et al, 2002) and Coral Divers in Sodwana Bay
(Spenceley et al, 2002).
Comparison of the case studies revealed that the level of interest and assistance from
enterprise management staff had great implications for the level of success of the
assessment. It was encouraging that the tests provided a stimulus for enterprises to
consider ways in which the sustainable tourism agenda can be widened to reflect the
triple bottom line rather than simply dealing with environmental issues (Spenceley,
2002b). The Comparative Report has laid the groundwork for a national reporting
system, although further technical support would be necessary to create this.
Despite provision of a detailed methodological framework for assessment and reporting,
it was found that there were difficulties in collating comparable data across enterprises.
This has implications for the collation of progress within trade associations and
government in monitoring and reporting Responsible Tourism, and clear assessment
guidance would be required for future assessments. In addition, training in responsible
tourism practices and evaluation would be valuable for assessors and businesses, as
would the provision of a best practice manual. The manual would guide enterprises and
assessors in designing and operating responsible tourism (Spenceley, 2002b)
5.6 Evaluation of SANParks Commercialisation Process in Relation to the
Responsible Tourism Guidelines
The application of the Responsible Tourism Guidelines to the SANParks
commercialisation process provided another opportunity to test the guidelines, and also to
determine whether the SANParks programme was in line with national policy. The
evaluation of the bidding process in addition to concessionaire’s empowerment and
environmental proposals revealed that the commercialisation process had incorporated a
3 By Anna Spenceley – see references.
Development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa
20
significant proportion of the Responsible Tourism Guidelines. SANParks had also
developed a system of applying penalties for concessionaires failing to comply with their
empowerment and environmental targets, including the last resort of loosing their
contracts (Spenceley, Goodwin and Maynard, 2002). The concessions policy could be
operated with the National Responsible Tourism Guidelines much will depend upon how
the next round of concessions is let and on the process of auditing used.
Media statement 13 May 2002, INDABA Durban, South Africa
MINISTER MOOSA UNVEILS INIATIVES TO BOOST TOURISM.
The minister of environmental affairs and tourism, Mohammed Valli Moosa, today
announced tourism initiatives by the Department for Environmental Affairs and Tourism
(DEAT) which will significantly contribute to tourism promotion and growth in the
country. Minister Moosa launched a handbook on tourism funding for small, medium and
micro enterprises (SMMEs), unveiled a poster campaign against illegal tour guiding and
released guidelines on responsible tourism)…. The responsible tourism guidelines,
developed during 2001, provide a national framework for the tourism industry to exercise
its commitment towards the principles of responsible tourism. These principles are
embodied in the 1996 White Paper on the 'Development and promotion of tourism in South
Africa'.
The White Paper concluded that tourism development in SA had previously largely been a
missed opportunity, and that the earlier focus on a narrow market had reduced the potential
of the industry to spawn entrepreneurship and to create new services. (NP) "Responsible
tourism is about enabling local communities to enjoy a better quality of life, through
increased socio-economic benefits and aim improved environment. It is also about
providing exciting holiday experiences for tourists, and stimulating business opportunities
for tourism enterprises.
Responsible tourism must become the key guiding principles for tourism development in
South Africa. Government, the private sector and communities are working together to
practice tourism responsibly, and the guidelines provide the mechanisms through which
this can be realized, " said Minister Moosa.
In the development of these guidelines, the different tourism enterprises and associations
are expected to develop their own agenda for action, and to prioritise those issues that will
make a significant socio-economic and environmental impact.
"This approach is necessary to ensure that the tourism sector in South Africa keeps apace
with international trends towards responsible business practice. I hope the brochure on
responsible tourism guidelines will continue to educate and create awareness to the tourism
industry," said Minister (NP) issued by the Ministry of Environmental Affairs and
Tourism.
For media enquiries, please contact: Phindile Makwakwa, Media Liaison Director: 072 216 7062
Development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa
21
5.7 Peer Review by WTO
Peer review by the World Tourism Organisation was included in the project in order to
ensure that what was produced in South Africa would fit within the emerging
international framework of governance. The review was undertaken by Dawid de Villiers
deputy Secretary-General of the World Tourism Organisation who circulated the
Provisional Guidelines to all heads of departments within WTO and collated the results
and Eugenio Yunis, Chief of Sustainable Tourism, who commented separately.
Their comments were sought at the end of the process in order to address both the detail
of the Guidelines and to allow discussion of dissemination. The specific comments were
overtaken by the decision of the Minister to publish the Guidelines on May 13 2002 as
the official national Responsible Tourism Guidelines, a decision over which we had no
control. However, some of the questions raised by the WTO review are dealt with in the
explanatory introduction, which formed part of the publication.
The review by WTO led to detailed discussion about the relationship between the concept
of Responsible Tourism and Sustainable Tourism. Within the overarching framework of
the World Tourism Organisation’s Global Code of Ethics The World Tourism
Organisation is contributing the time of Dawid de Villiers and Eugenio Yunis to the
process of preparing a Draft Charter on Responsible Tourism in Destinations which is to
be considered at the Cape Town Conference on Responsible Tourism in Destination in
August 2002.
5.8 Project Outputs
The Outputs agreed with DFID are described in Table 2 below.
Table 2: Outputs against Activities and Reports
Outputs proposed Activities Outputs File Name (Italics)
1. Development of National Guidelines Framework:
Identification of the
framework and structure that
the guidelines must fit into
See Table 1, July 01
Identification of individual
sub-sectors within the
industry
See Table 1, July 01
Identification of generic
tourism objectives drawing
on international best practice
and the South African White
Paper
See Table 1, August
01 Spenceley (2001b)
GuidelinesLitRep
Draft Guidelines at a generic
level See Table 1,
September 01
January 02
A set of national generic
guidelines for responsible tourism
based on an international review
and national experience. These set
out the framework for the
Elliffe (2001) Social
Guidelines – Final Draft
2
GTKF (2001)
GuidelineReptFramwk –
Development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa
22
development of more detailed
implementation guidelines for
each sub-sector of the industry.
GTKF
INR (2001)
Environmental
guidelines
Spenceley (2001c)
“DraftGuidelinesRept”
Peer review by World
Tourism Organisation See § 5.7 de Villiers and Yunis
2002
2. Development of Sub-sector Model
A methodology for assessing
the application of the
National Guidelines to
specific sectors.
See Table 1,
January 02 Spenceley (2002d)
“ListGLtoassessMethod3
Case studies to highlight how
the National Generic
Guidelines would fit the
needs of one specific sector.
(more than one if possible)
See Table 1,
January-February 02 Tested, consensus built, specific
guidelines & quantifiable targets
for rural & nature based tourism.
Kalwa et al (2002)
“Pretoriuskop Report
final revised (22apr02)”
Relly & Koch (2002)
“Jackalberry final final
17 March ed’
Spenceley et al
(2002)”CSReportCoral
DiversFINAL”
A synthesis report See Table 1, March
2002 Report on the case studies,
community-private sector
workshops and the replicable
model of a process through which
such guidelines could be realised
and the poor empowered in
planning and managing tourism.
Spenceley (2002b)
“NRTGCaseStudies
OverviewFin”
A national validation process
to gain consensus on the
Guidelines and how they
should be used by the
industry as a whole.
See Table 1, March
2002
3. Design of Assessment System
Review the SANP
documentation, bidding
process and tenders
submitted. Identify the
explicit management
objectives and the measurable
indicators that have been
specified.
See Table 1, March
2002
Development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa
23
Design monitoring system for
measuring outputs against
targets.
See Table 1, March
2002 A model assessment system based
on the monitoring of the current
lodges and the tendering system
used by SANParks. This used the
criteria and indicators already
developed within the SANParks
contracts with the lodge
management to identify the critical
measurable indicators.
Identify areas within national
objectives that are not
covered by current contracts.
Assist in audit with SANP.
See Table 1, March
2002 Audit not undertaken since
SANParks not ready to undertake
it and most of the concessions are
still not operational.
Lessons on how easy it is to
identify tangible, measurable
indicators,
See Table 1, March
2002
Fieldwork methodology
appropriate for the sector, See Table 1, March
2002
Identification of skills needed
by auditors. See Table 1, March
2002
Spenceley, Goodwin &
Maynard (2002)
SANParks
Commercialisation
Report
5.9 Report Outputs
a) Literature Review
Spenceley, A. (2001b) Development of National Responsible Tourism Guidelines and
Indicators for South Africa: Literature Review: Principles, Codes, Guidelines, Indicators
and Accreditation for Responsible and Sustainable Tourism, Report to the Department of
Environmental Affairs and Tourism, and the Department for International Development,
August 2001 “GuidelinesLitRep
Goodwin H (2001) Responsible Tourism and the Market International Centre for
Responsible Tourism 2001
b) Drafting Guidelines
Elliffe, S. (2001) Draft framework – Number two: Social guidelines for responsible
tourism,
10th October 2001Ballygrooby Investments & Business Solutions “Social Guidelines –
Final Draft 2
GTKF (Grant Thornton Kessel Feinstein) (2001) Framework for economic guidelines for
sustainable tourism development, October 2001 “Social Guidelines – Final Draft 2
(INR) Institute of Natural Resources (2001) Framework for the Environmental
Guidelines for sustainable tourism, 8 September 2001 “GuidelineReptFramwk – GTKF
Development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa
24
Spenceley, A. (2001c) Responsible tourism guidelines for the South African Tourism
Industry: Draft Guidelines for Discussion, Report to DfID/DEAT, October 2001
“DraftGuidelinesRept”
Goodwin H and Spenceley A (2001/2002) National Responsible Tourism Guidelines For
South Africa and Explanatory letter to accompany them. DEAT November 2001.
Finalised March, 2002 subsequently published as Guidelines for Responsible Tourism by
DEAT, May 2002
c) Case Study Reports
Spenceley, A. (2002d) Methodology for Case Study Assessments, Application of the
Guidelines to the Nature-based tourism sector; National Responsible Tourism Guidelines
Version 3: 26 January 2002 “ListGLtoassessMethod3”
Kalwa, R., van der Walt, W., Moreko, J., and Freitag-Ronaldson, S. (2002) Case Study
Assessment of Pretoriuskop Camp, Kruger National Park, National Responsible Tourism
Guidelines for the South African Tourism Sector, Application of the Guidelines to the
Nature-Based Tourism Sector, Report to DfID/DEAT “Pretoriuskop Report – final
revised (22apr02)”
Relly, P. and Koch, E., (2002) Case study assessment Jackalberry Lodge- Thornybush
Game Reserve, National Responsible Tourism Guidelines for the South African Tourism
Sector, Application of the Guidelines to the Nature-Based Tourism Sector, Report to
DFID March 2002
Spenceley, A., Roberts, S., and Myeni, C. M. (2002a) Case Study Assessment of Coral
Divers, ,South Africa National Responsible Tourism Guidelines for the South African
Tourism Sector, Application of the Guidelines to the Nature-Based Tourism Sector,
Report to DfID/DEAT “CSReportCoralDiversFINAL”
Spenceley, A. (2002b) Overview report of three case studies: Pretoriuskop Camp,
Jackalberry Lodge, and Coral Divers, National Responsible Tourism Guidelines for the
South African Tourism Sector, Application of the Guidelines to the Nature-based tourism
sector, Report to DFID/DEAT, March 2002 “NRTGCaseStudies OverviewFin”
Spenceley, A. (2002d) Methodology for Case Study Assessments, Application of the
Guidelines to the Nature-based tourism sector; National Responsible Tourism Guidelines
Version 3: 26 January 2002 “ListGLtoassessMethod3”
d) Commercialisation of South African National Parks
Spenceley, A., Goodwin, H., and Maynard, W. B. (2002) Commercialisation of South
African National Parks and the National Responsible Tourism Guidelines, Report to
DFID/SANParks, April 2002 CONFIDENTIAL NOT FOR CIRCULATION
Development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa
25
e) Peer Review by the World Tourism Organisation
de Villiers D (2002) Comments on Draft Guidelines for Responsible Tourism
Development in Destinations, WTO
Yunis E (2002) South African Responsible Tourism Guidelines, WTO
6 LIMITATIONS AND CONSTRAINTS
This was a short term Technical Assistance Project and the time available for the project
was not as originally planned, causing some difficulties, particularly at the
commencement of the project. The elements of the initial project proposal, which were
not funded by DFID, have been part funded by other agencies, but this has impacted on
some of the outputs.
7 FUTURE ACTIVITES
In Soweto there is an initiative to create a locally owned tourism product, which
will provide opportunities for tourists to engage on a more equitable basis with
the local community. This new product organised within the context of a Soweto
Responsible Tourism framework will create a business structure which will
enable Soweto based SMMEs to sell into the hotels in Sandton in time for WSSD,
but more importantly to enable this new product to be sold through the hotels on
an ongoing basis. FEDHASA is playing a major role in this initiative, as they are
able to create the B2B linkages essential to sustainability.
In Cape Town a new product is to be launched which will create another “must
do” Cape Town activity to parallel the Wine Route. The Wine Route is actually a
range of different tours but with sufficient in common to define a particular
experience and one which tourists and business travellers recommend to each
other. The emerging entrepreneurs are organising their own Responsible Tourism
Association and will create a Code of Conduct for the tours. Through work with
UK outbound operators links will be forged between the emerging entrepreneurs
and the established inbound operators. Harold Goodwin is working on this with a
core group of Africa operators. This strategy builds on DFID Tourism Challenge
Fund work in The Gambia on improving access to the market for informal sector
entrepreneurs.
In August there will be a three day international conference held with the support
of the World Tourism Organisation to test the South African Responsible Tourism
Guidelines on field visits in the Cape Town area and to discuss a draft
international charter on Responsible Tourism in Destinations. Harold Goodwin is
drafting this Charter with assistance from WTO
The national series of workshops planned by FEDHSASA to promote the
guidelines is still underway. Anna Spenceley is closely involved in this process.
Willem Fick of FEDHASA is working through the Tourism Business Council of
South Africa to encourage the other trade association to place more emphasis on
the creation of Responsible Tourism Guidelines.
Development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa
26
The Department for Environmental Affairs and Tourism is planning a series of
further case studies to develop specific guidelines for other sectors of the tourism
industry and to test the reporting criteria.
The Department for Environmental Affairs and Tourism is funding the
preparation of the Manual necessary to support the implementation of the
Guidelines. Anna Spenceley is leading a South African team producing the
Manual which will be placed on the International Centre for Responsible Tourism
website.
The South African data on the case studies will feature in a report on Tourism and
Poverty Reduction being prepared by Harold Goodwin for the World Tourism
Organisation. The Report is to be launched at WSSD.
Ecotourism Management and Assessment, Diamantis D and Geldenhuys S will
include a chapter by Spenceley, Goodwin and Maynard on The Development of
Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa. Publication is expected late in
2002.
8 CONCLUSIONS
The project has demonstrated that Responsible Tourism Guidelines can be created
through a multi-stakeholder process and that they can assist in moving the issue of
sustainable tourism beyond the relatively narrow green agenda. The objectives of the
project were met and there is a good prospect that these national guidelines will be
developed into a Charter for Responsible Tourism in Destinations encouraging more
balanced and equitable tourism development and creating the basis for local management
of an industry with the potential to generate significant benefits if the negative impacts
can also be managed.
The monitoring and reporting methods are sufficiently robust to provide a means of
verifiable reporting on the triple bottom line benefits of particular initiatives. However,
this work needs to be developed if an adequate database is to be created which will allow
standards to be ratcheted up.
9 REFERENCES
DEAT (1996) The development and promotion of tourism in South Africa, White Paper,
Government of South Africa, Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism
DEAT (1997) Tourism in GEAR: Tourism development strategy 1998-2000
Elliffe, S. (2001) Draft framework – Number two: Social guidelines for responsible
tourism,
10th October 2001Ballygrooby Investments & Business Solutions
FEDHASA (2002) Statement of Intent To adhere to the Responsible Tourism Guidelines
for the Hospitality Sector FEDHASA
Development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa
27
Goodwin H (1998) Sustainable Tourism and Poverty Elimination, A Discussion Paper
for the Department for the Environment, Transport and the Regions and the Department
for International Development pp7, International Centre for Responsible Tourism
Goodwin H (2001) Responsible Tourism and the Market International Centre for
Responsible Tourism 2001
Goodwin H and Spenceley A (2001/2002) National Responsible Tourism Guidelines For
South Africa and Explanatory letter to accompany them. DEAT November 2001.
Finalised March, 2002 subsequently published as Guidelines for Responsible Tourism by
DEAT, May 2002
Goodwin H (2002) The Case for Responsible Tourism. Chapter in Ethical Tourism: Who
Benefits? Hodder and Stoughton
Grant Thornton Kessel Feinstein (2001) Framework for economic guidelines for
sustainable tourism development, October 2001
(INR) Institute of Natural Resources (2001) Framework for the Environmental
Guidelines for sustainable tourism, 8 September 2001
Kalwa, R., van der Walt, W., Moreko, J., and Freitag-Ronaldson, S. (2002) Case Study
Assessment of Pretoriuskop Camp, Kruger National Park, National Responsible Tourism
Guidelines for the South African Tourism Sector, Application of the Guidelines to the
Nature-Based Tourism Sector, Report to DFID/DEAT
Matlou, P. (2001) The potential of ecotourism development and its partnership with
spatial development initiatives (SDI), Seminar on Planning, Development and
Management of Ecotourism in Africa, Regional Preparatory Meeting for the International
Year of Ecotourism, 2002, Maputo, Mozambique, 5-6 March 2001
Relly, P. and Koch, E., (2002) Sustainable Nature-Based Tourism Assessment
Jackalberry Lodge, Thornybush Greater Game Reserve, National Responsible Tourism
Guidelines for the South African Tourism Sector, Application of the Guidelines to the
Nature-Based Tourism Sector, Report to DFID/DEAT
Seif, J. A. (2002) Facilitating Market Access for South Africa’ Disadvantaged
Communities through ‘Fair Trade in Tourism’," Paper prepared for Reispavilion travel
fair, Hanover, Germany, January 2002
Spenceley, A. (2002b) Overview report of three case studies: Pretoriuskop Camp,
Jackalberry Lodge, and Coral Divers, National Responsible Tourism Guidelines for the
South African Tourism Sector, Application of the Guidelines to the Nature-based tourism
sector, Report to DFID/DEAT, March 2002
Development of Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa
28
Spenceley, A., Roberts, S., and Myeni, C. M. (2002) Case Study Assessment of Coral
Divers, Sodwana Bay, National Responsible Tourism Guidelines for the South African
Tourism Sector, Application of the Guidelines to the Nature-Based Tourism Sector,
Report to DfID/DEAT
Spenceley, A., Goodwin, H., and Maynard, W. B. (2002) Commercialisation of South
African National Parks and the National Responsible Tourism Guidelines, Report to
DfID/SANParks, April 2002
Spenceley, A. (2001b) Development of National Responsible Tourism Guidelines and
Indicators for South Africa: Literature Review: Principles, Codes, Guidelines, Indicators
and Accreditation for Responsible and Sustainable Tourism, Report to the Department of
Environmental Affairs and Tourism, and the Department for International Development,
August 2001
Spenceley, A. (2001c) Responsible tourism guidelines for the South African Tourism
Industry: Draft Guidelines for Discussion, Report to DfID/DEAT, October 2001
Spenceley, A. (2002d) Methodology for Case Study Assessments, Application of the
Guidelines to the Nature-based tourism sector; National Responsible Tourism Guidelines
Version 3: 26 January 2002 “ListGLtoassessMethod3”
WTO (1999) Global Code of Ethics on Tourism WTO Madrid Spain
WTO (2001) Tourism in the Least Developed Countries Third UN Conference on LDCs
WTO Madrid Spain
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... Linkages were formed with tools from complementary research programmes to improve the validity of the research. The main sources of associated research lay in the fields of pro-poor tourism (Ashley et al., 2001;Poultney & Spenceley, 2001), (Spenceley, 2003b), responsible tourism (Spenceley et al., 2004;DEAT, 2002), and Fair Trade in Tourism. ...
Chapter
Inbound tour operators play a crucial role in sustainable tourism development, as they provide the link between the supply and demand of tourism products and services. Embedded in this position, inbound tour operators can pressure their suppliers to operate more sustainably, influence consumers’ decision-making before purchasing tourism products and services, and educate their clients on sustainable tourism practices. Sustainable inbound tour operators can become certified by a sustainable tourism certification programme to showcase their commitment to sustainability. In reviewing the level of sustainability, this chapter looks at the approaches taken by both the demand- and supply sides of inbound tour operators and the role of certification in furthering sustainability. A study conducted in South Africa identified gaps in sustainability and suggested potential strategies to overcome these gaps.
Article
As a form of tourism that aims to be sustainable and, in broader terms, responsible and ethical, ecotourism occupies a peak position in terms of people’s understanding of sustainable tourism. The purpose of this paper is to articulate how responsibility can be actuated through a deeper consideration of duty (good as intrinsic) and strategic (good for business) perspectives. In pursuit of this overall aim, the paper investigates a sample of Ecotourism Australia (EA) certified company websites to examine inclusivity barriers based on the social model of disability: physical, attitudinal, and informational. The choice of Australia is based on the observation that ecotourism providers in this region are often cited as highly advanced in terms of policies and practices. Results suggest that there is only limited statistical support for the hypothesis that the “leading” ecotourism operators (with advanced EA certification) in Australia pay more attention to disability issues than those in the “following” group (with lower categories of EA certification). The paper concludes by suggesting that the responsibility agenda is most likely to move forward by providers adopting ways of "thinking" and "doing" that emphasise duty and justice instead of following accepted business practice.
Conference Paper
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Eight International Business Conference.
Article
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Tourism creates benefits such as foreign revenue, business development and employment opportunities for host countries. Although, alongside other impacts, there are many hidden costs of tourism to the host community such as leakages. Developed countries are often better able to profit from tourism than underdeveloped and developing ones because of high leakages in these countries. For a sustainable and healthy tourism development, it is an important issue to measure tourism industry's contribution and leakages. Tourism satellite accounting can be a method to overcome this problem. In this study, Turkish and foreign literature has been examined, economic impacts of tourism, concept, importance and dimensions of leakages and value added are introduced and as a new concept for Turkey, Tourism Satellite Account is explained.
Chapter
Full-text available
New economic opportunities emerged during the post-apartheid period in South Africa. Tourism was one sector that presented untapped potential to its citizens and the global community. This sector became one of the key generators of economic activity, and “halal tourism,” also referred to as Islamic tourism, developed as part of this emerging market. Research in Islamic tourism is still in its infancy, but due to the historical presence of Muslims, Islamic culture has always been regarded as an integral part of the South African cultural heritage. Evidence that Islamic tourism is an emerging sector is the recently convened conference on “halal tourism” in South Africa. Islamic tourism cannot be understood without an appreciation of the history of Muslims in South Africa. Since their arrival as political exiles and slaves beginning in 1652, Muslims struggled against colonialism and oppression, and today, their vibrancy is visible in the cultural, social, and economic landscape of South African society. The critical question that informs this chapter is, What is the potential of Islamic tourism in South Africa? Through a theoretical lens, tourism is viewed from a postmodern perspective that critiques the dominant homogenous views of Islam and Muslims. While Muslim culture evolved over time, it changed into a hybrid of cultural and religious confluences shaped by internal and external forces. Muslim culture consequently forms a significant component of the national heritage and is an integral part of the tourism industry. This chapter locates the manifestation of Islam in the context of tourism, arguing for its viability as a significant component of an emerging global Islamic tourism market.
Chapter
Full-text available
New economic opportunities emerged during the post-apartheid period in South Africa. Tourism was one sector that presented untapped potential to its citizens and the global community. This sector became one of the key generators of economic activity, and "halal tourism," also referred to as Islamic tourism, developed as part of this emerging market. Research in Islamic tourism is still in its infancy, but due to the historical presence of Muslims, Islamic culture has always been regarded as an integral part of the South African cultural heritage. Evidence that Islamic tourism is an emerging sector is the recently convened conference on "halal tourism" in South Africa. Islamic tourism cannot be understood without an appreciation of the history of Muslims in South Africa. Since their arrival as political exiles and slaves beginning in 1652, Muslims struggled against colonialism and oppression, and today, their vibrancy is visible in the cultural, social, and economic landscape of South African society. The critical question that informs this chapter is, What is the potential of Islamic tourism in South Africa? Through a theoretical lens, tourism is viewed from a postmodern perspective that critiques the dominant homogenous views of Islam and Muslims. While Muslim culture evolved over time, it changed into a hybrid of cultural and religious confluences shaped by internal and external forces. Muslim culture consequently forms a significant component of the national heritage and is an integral part of the tourism industry. This chapter locates the manifestation of Islam in the context of tourism, arguing for its viability as a significant component of an emerging global Islamic tourism market.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Three responsible nature-based tourism assessments were implemented in South Africa during February 2002. The case studies aimed to pilot test three commercial tourism enterprises in relation to a selection of the National Responsible Tourism Guidelines for South Africa that were developed in 2001. This report presents a summary of the results of the case studieS
Development of National Responsible Tourism Guidelines and Indicators for South Africa: Literature Review: Principles, Codes, Guidelines, Indicators and Accreditation for Responsible and Sustainable Tourism
  • A Spenceley
Spenceley, A. (2001b) Development of National Responsible Tourism Guidelines and Indicators for South Africa: Literature Review: Principles, Codes, Guidelines, Indicators and Accreditation for Responsible and Sustainable Tourism, Report to the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, and the Department for International Development, August 2001
Case Study Assessment of Coral Divers,South Africa National Responsible Tourism Guidelines for the South African Tourism Sector, Application of the Guidelines to the Nature-Based Tourism Sector
  • A Spenceley
  • S Roberts
  • C M Myeni
Spenceley, A., Roberts, S., and Myeni, C. M. (2002a) Case Study Assessment of Coral Divers,,South Africa National Responsible Tourism Guidelines for the South African Tourism Sector, Application of the Guidelines to the Nature-Based Tourism Sector, Report to DfID/DEAT "CSReportCoralDiversFINAL"
Sustainable Tourism and Poverty Elimination, A Discussion Paper for the Department for the Environment, Transport and the Regions and the Department for International Development pp7
  • H Goodwin
Goodwin H (1998) Sustainable Tourism and Poverty Elimination, A Discussion Paper for the Department for the Environment, Transport and the Regions and the Department for International Development pp7, International Centre for Responsible Tourism Goodwin H (2001) Responsible Tourism and the Market International Centre for Responsible Tourism 2001
Seminar on Planning, Development and Management of Ecotourism in Africa, Regional Preparatory Meeting for the International Year of Ecotourism
  • P Matlou
Matlou, P. (2001) The potential of ecotourism development and its partnership with spatial development initiatives (SDI), Seminar on Planning, Development and Management of Ecotourism in Africa, Regional Preparatory Meeting for the International Year of Ecotourism, 2002, Maputo, Mozambique, 5-6 March 2001
Commercialisation of South African National Parks and the National Responsible Tourism Guidelines
  • A Spenceley
  • H Goodwin
  • W B Maynard
Spenceley, A., Goodwin, H., and Maynard, W. B. (2002) Commercialisation of South African National Parks and the National Responsible Tourism Guidelines, Report to DFID/SANParks, April 2002 CONFIDENTIAL NOT FOR CIRCULATION
Responsible tourism guidelines for the South African Tourism Industry: Draft Guidelines for Discussion
  • A Spenceley
Spenceley, A. (2001c) Responsible tourism guidelines for the South African Tourism Industry: Draft Guidelines for Discussion, Report to DfID/DEAT, October 2001 "DraftGuidelinesRept"
National Responsible Tourism Guidelines For South Africa and Explanatory letter to accompany them
  • H Goodwin
  • A Spenceley
Goodwin H and Spenceley A (2001/2002) National Responsible Tourism Guidelines For South Africa and Explanatory letter to accompany them. DEAT November 2001.
Methodology for Case Study Assessments, Application of the Guidelines to the Nature-based tourism sector
  • A Spenceley
Spenceley, A. (2002d) Methodology for Case Study Assessments, Application of the Guidelines to the Nature-based tourism sector; National Responsible Tourism Guidelines Version 3: 26 January 2002 "ListGLtoassessMethod3" d) Commercialisation of South African National Parks
Responsible Tourism and the Market International Centre for Responsible Tourism
  • H Goodwin
Goodwin H (2001) Responsible Tourism and the Market International Centre for Responsible Tourism 2001