Responsible wildlife tourism in Africa

Chapter · September 2012with 62 Reads
In book: Responsible tourism: Concepts, theory and practice, Edition: 1, Chapter: 10, Publisher: CABI, Editors: David Leslie, pp.130-141
Tourism is one of the world's biggest industries. Responsible tourism is concerned with the effects of tourism on people, ecology, and communities, and seeks to ameliorate these impacts by providing tourism which benefits host communities, improves working conditions, involves the local community, promotes cultural heritage, and benefits the environment. This book discusses responsible tourism as a whole, including the politics, policy and planning behind it, and the major subject sub-topics, such as poverty reduction, the environment, transport, governance, wildlife tours and heritage. It is suitable for university libraries, policy makers and researchers in responsible and sustainable tourism.

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  • ... Other innovative mechanisms for involving communities in conservation on private land have been explored in South Africa. For example, game reserves such as Phinda and Mala Mala were claimed by communities, who then leased the land back to the reserve mangement, maintaining wildlife as the land use and retaining the expertise and capital of the former owners, but bringing revenue to the community (Masombuka, 2015; Spenceley & Rylance, 2012). Similar programmes have also been successful in national parks. ...
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    Large carnivores are decreasing in number due to growing pressure from an expanding human population. It is increasingly recognised that state-protected conservation areas are unlikely to be sufficient to protect viable populations of large carnivores, and that private land will be central to conservation efforts. In 2000, a fast-track land reform programme (FTLRP) was initiated in Zimbabwe, ostensibly to redress the racial imbalance in land ownership, but which also had the potential to break up large areas of carnivore habitat on private land. To date, research has focused on the impact of the FTLRP process on the different human communities, while impacts on wildlife have been overlooked. Here we provide the first systematic assessment of the impact of the FTLRP on the status of large carnivores. Spoor counts were conducted across private, resettled and communal land use types in order to estimate the abundance of large carnivores, and to determine how this had been affected by land reform. The density of carnivore spoor differed significantly between land use types, and was lower on resettlement land than on private land, suggesting that the resettlement process has resulted in a substantial decline in carnivore abundance. Habitat loss and high levels of poaching in and around resettlement areas are the most likely causes. The FTLRP resulted in the large-scale conversion of land that was used sustainably and productively for wildlife into unsustainable, unproductive agricultural land uses. We recommended that models of land reform should consider the type of land available, that existing expertise in land management should be retained where possible, and that resettlement programmes should be carefully planned in order to minimise the impacts on wildlife and on people.
  • Article
    Conservation philosophy is swinging away from the traditional approach of setting up reserves to give absolute protection to wildlife and is replacing it with more realistic strategies. To succeed today, conservationists should take into account the needs of the people who share their land with wild species. The author examines some of the ways in which wildlife can be valuable to local people and made to pay for its own conservation – game viewing, sport hunting, game cropping and ranching. The advantages and pitfalls are discussed and it is concluded that while these uses are possible for some some wildlife species, others will never have a direct economic value. Someone will have to pay for their conservation – and it should not be those who can least afford it.
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    This paper formulates a bio-economic model to analyze community incentives for wildlife management under benefit-sharing programs like the Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) in Zimbabwe. Three agents influence the wildlife stock: a parks agency determines hunting quotas, outside poachers hunt illegally, and a local community may choose to protect wildlife by discouraging poaching. Wildlife generates revenues from hunting licenses and tourism; it also intrudes on local agriculture. We consider two benefit-sharing regimes: shares of wildlife tourism rents and shares of hunting licenses. Resource sharing does not necessarily improve community welfare or incentives for wildlife conservation. Results depend on the exact design of the benefit shares, the size of the benefits compared with agricultural losses, and the way in which the parks agency manages hunting quotas. KeywordsBio-economics–Benefit sharing–CAMPFIRE–Conservation–Elephants–Hunting quotas–Poaching–Renewable resources–Wildlife
  • Article
    Analysis of the value of different potential combinations of elephant use in Botswana at various times since 1989 indicates that, with the 1990 CITES Appendix I listing, when international trade in elephant products was effectively banned, about half of potential, economic, use values were lost. Evidence suggests that the ban has helped slow the species' decline in many range states. But data from Botswana, where poaching levels have been low, indicate that most elephant range will be converted to livestock keeping in the next 15 years unless local communities can realise high elephant use values. The trade ban has jeopardised the future of the elephant in Botswana. The solution to elephant conservation involves investment in land and management, within appropriate property rights, for the existence of natural elephant populations. If the international community is serious about elephant conservation, it should actively assist African governments and local communities with funds and expertise for this. Total economic value should be maximised, including complementary combinations of non-consumptive and selected consumptive use values, as well as non-use values. African elephant values must contribute competitively to African rural development.