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The evolution of the biological field concept

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Abstract

The dialogue with Nature about Time and Change has pointed to the functional synthesis of linearity with non-linearity since the times of Epicurus. The modern concepts of Quantum Coherence, Self-Organization, Deterministic Chaos and Reciprocal Causality in biology, also suggest an integration of lineari-ty with non-linearity, of molecular with field aspects. In this review, we discuss the theories and experimental evidence on the existence, the role and the properties of a biological field, following the arrow of time in a scientific perspective that unites being with becoming, and particles with fields.
Research Signpost
37/661 (2), Fort P.O.
Trivandrum-695 023
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D. Fels, M. Cifra and F. Scholkmann (Editors), Fields of the Cell, 2015, ISBN: 978-81-308-0544-3, p. 1–27.
Chapter 1
The evolution of the biological field concept
Antonios Tzambazakis
Institute of Anatomy and Clinical Morphology, Department of Human Medicine, Faculty of Health,
Witten/Herdecke University, Alfred-Herrhausen-Straße 50, 58448 Witten, Germany
Abstract: 
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  !
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$

&" '( ! )   * #  )  
+ !  , + -  , .$ /&,*
),01213443/5(%6
1. Introduction
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$ =
:>*922?;
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  $  :5789@;
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  .*A  :.A; B 

Antonios Tzambazakis
2
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788C;
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  $   
!D$
    
         
& $  "% :"% 7381;    
#789?,+
   :+ 789?;  +D  
! *$':! *
78@C;$$:+9227;
$$:!*78C?;,$$
 $   
$  
%%
$$
:+92299272;E$
*),:,78?1;
$
 $
$ 
      $   
$
$#
$$
 :F7832&37B7881;
$  $

 
%
 :@49=9C2 B;, A$ 
A $       $ 
 #$*
The evolution of the biological field concept
3
    $
:922@;  ,
:1@1=4C1B;A:1B;
 %   !:4?2=
@C2B;$$
<$<         
 $   $    

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 
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:5*9222922?>
9279; *     
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 > 9221; #       
$&  
    %       
Antonios Tzambazakis
4
:- 922@;         
   $  :+   9224;  
$   % 
  $ <<  
:B9272;
 "$5
 cooperative nonlinear interactions  
       5 
        $    
 G  
$     % 
<      
$<:57844;
2. Historical development of theoretical concepts and experi-
mental investigations
2.1 Biological field concepts
"%!   $

5",7873:,7873;
 , H <   < 7897 :7897; 
        :B
922@;< <<<
< < 
" ,   A / :/ 78@8; F 
:7812;/ :/781C;  
$*%
  $    :  
;  * B> B
 " "B 5 5:5 *
9222;!:922?;#$5
:5/7839;5:5788?;$
*$
2.2 Biophysical field concepts
)     5
       $          
    <I<  
 < < :B
$ 788C;  *        
  :+-;   $  : * 787?; 
The evolution of the biological field concept
5
$$+-.E:>
7873 ! -  7894; # 5  % 
:5789@;$$$.E
  $  %  
<
<5
$
$ 
A   789@78@3 5      
:;
:557818;
 <<   $    
        
   $$   $   
  $ 5  %
$'+
:+;<$<
   :B 922@;  +D 
  $      5  
:B$
9279;
 # 5D* $ 
  .) $   
$ *     $   7892  78@2 :B$
788C  9228; 5H *    "  
/*$

    .E$ 5  :"G* 78@7
78@@)78@3;.
 !5
  5D *      
$
2.3 Early bioelectromagnetic field concepts
,$%*
        I :7873;
>$:7891;>*$*:7898;B:78@1;:78@?;>:784C;B*
:78?7;":"7843;>*$*'
+$
'C12I, $@22, 
:>*$*7898;>*
 ,%B
< 
Antonios Tzambazakis
6
%
$
<:B78@1B78C9;
 //##$
:A+;  $     $ $ 
 A+  $  %    
  :B 7883;  A+     $
 '      $    A+
$$
$:)7817;
#7814-:  -7814  7811;
*$:422=C22;
*
$'
    #     
I $ !$*  # #  78?2 $ "
   $ I$ E$ J$$   
$
 J$$      *  
.*A    <#
< .A<
<    %
$ I$   .E$
A+.E$I$H
78?8$722$
  7@ 8 3 
:I$78??"78C8;
2.4 Modern bioelectromagnetic field concepts
%$*
     78C2   )%
AD $   *  $  
:A78C2;)$
       '
$ $
   $ '    
$'
2.4.1 Non-equilibrium thermodynamics
 $
'5BE
*B#%$
K$5
The evolution of the biological field concept
7
    A :A784C; K 
 $  $      
:  ; % $
 :  ;   $ :K
7844;5
%&%
: 5781C;
2.4.2 Self-organization and coherence
 
)#
 <-    B<  E :+
78?8; # A     $  
 :78CC  A   ;  , -K 
        $  
< <%
%
'  BL$  :
;#$
  $         
      $ 
G    
 '

2.4.3 Dissipative structures
A %        
 :A 7841   A 78CC;  
$
:;
%$
%$<<

' $       $  
$
$
) $ 
* 
%$$
 $  

*$  

Antonios Tzambazakis
8
         #
%E.coli 
  
   
      % $  $
**
*$
$
      :;
 $$*
$$
$$)$
$*  
$$
 :  ; $    
%
%
:*;
$%

 &$ 
A$
$$$
:A7832; 
%:A7889;
2.4.4 Coherent excitations
   '  $  %  
$-KD
  % )  -K   
'
     %   $  :-K
78?3;B$$
 :
  ;
(:;  %
 :;
 
:;  

$ 
%-K
 +-  722=7222 5,     
The evolution of the biological field concept
9
72
1
E&
-KD 
2@=72M#":--78?3;29=9
$:5+788C;  rouleaux
formation :"7837"7839
"783@;'
%
2.4.5 Cancer and loss of coherence
-K  :-K7833; 

%'
          
/:/78?3/
78?8; !$*$:!$*$78C@; )$ 
     :
;:783C 7833A
9228;+$"
:+";&%,-':,-;:I*
9227,9223;:*78845*
  78835  9272;" $ $
'%
*     % 
:B  9228    9277
J 9279; $$ $
  *    

2.4.6 The cell membrane as source of cellular EMF generation
+  -KD :
9277;      
e.g.  +- !$*$  *
:!$*$78C@B*7833;$
 %   + $  - 
$    
, :A922C,9223
I9228;5, :B
;, :";:/7832!
783@!57831;
Antonios Tzambazakis
10
2.4.7 The microtubule theory of cellular EMF generation
FA*

7*, 7225, :A*N788C59228,$*
9277;   $   
       
$
   ( :;   :)A 5A  
 ;:;
:;  

)  $    
:/;%$
)A5A:
$;  $  
*   
)'$*
          
     :A*   9279; 
 $        
I, +, :,K 9227FO*92289228;5, 
:FO*9221922CI922?;:FO*
788?7888;:A*9227;
".A:,7887
78329223;#"+-:)
B9222 *!%9227; 
:A*9277;
2.4.8 The emanation from equilibrium
B:A;
%:-K;$
$*-
  
           '
,$E:+78?8;-K
A    
 $  $ '
$%
   -K      
'%
   $
$ 
The evolution of the biological field concept
11
 $"$
':
922C9272A*9277;
$:",9228;:-
9277;
2.4.9 Biophoton Theory and DNA as source of cellular EMF generation
$      
'<B
<$ - ) A#   78C2
.A *:A;B$
:.); * :); # :F;  A :5; B
#A
<
<:A78C?;*
       ' 
   A $   
:A922C;':E7883;
 $ :A 7889; )  B
:A  922@; .A    
 
        '    
AD$    <*<
 $
G:A9222A922C;A!)
      * 
:A 78C8 A 783@; 
G$!):!);
*
:A  783?> 7882 >7889;  
 $      $ :"  
7837 A   7834;     $   
!)%
AD%:B
9277;B    
 !)  !) 
       :E /G* 
 7881 E /G*   788C; ,$     
$   .A :! >;   
       
*   : 788?; $  %
*A*.A
#"
Antonios Tzambazakis
12
.E.A:+$
7833AB$922@I9228;
.A$:A788@P
9221+9221;:*
9224+9221A9228;-AD
%$
 :-9228 $ 9224
9277;
2.4.10 The Electrosoliton theory of cellular EMF generation
sensu!$$:!$$7831;
)+#!7%   
  : ;    
 !)  
$   
$
$
        ' :B *
 * 922@ B *9223    9272; ) 
'
   '     $   
7, -KD:-K
7833;'+-
!$ 
'$

'!
  

    $
           

*%+-$''
'    +-     
$
2.4.11 The Water Coherence Domains theory of cellular EMF generation
)G%+-
     /  ! :E*$  !
59228 !5 9272 B * 9277; 
+-*:'$;
$
$:!;$ 
The evolution of the biological field concept
13
+-)$!/$
'  %      
  '         
       
          
$ 
<<
$   %   ! :J   922?
   9228 A*   9228; $    
%'*$*
       % +-   
 $  ":E*  7884;
 << :E*$  
9272;$
:@1=1M;!
          $
:B *9228;# 
$ $   
 
% '
 :, 788@;        
        ' 
   '    !) 
':+92289228;
'!):59277;
2.4.12 Contributing concepts
  $    
<<#:/**783@;
    * :+ $ 7833;
     A :A 7837 7839;  $
  A   
B$J*:E*$92279227
788?;  +- 
 :!A; 1 *, =8+,  :A 7831 F$Q 783C
, 9227;
)     >$B$
$ 
   &  
    
         
       * 

Antonios Tzambazakis
14
   .A 
:B$9277;#$
         
.A:P9221B$*9229;
 $/**
> "A+BB,
:B7883 922@;   $ 
'$'
A
<*<$
    
$     :; $  
        !)%   
:A7881;
 )    +- 
   *, =5,       .A :$  .E
;       A     
$   5,  ' 
$  $:922?A
922?9223;
3. Towards quantum biology
F$$ $$
 cooperative interactions  
      &   
*$
    $    
$
   
   $ *  
*     
        
 $$  '
 $$
  .A    & 
!)  
:; 
$ #  % 
      +- * :  
'$;
)           
$     *     
The evolution of the biological field concept
15
       $   
  %    

   $  :A 9229;     
          
''
%
 +-
  '  * ,-&+"    '
*& &  
+-'$

 - %   $ :
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  $&  
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) $   %    
 G:7;
$$5$
 
$     : 9;
         
  $ $    
  $   
  $$$  
     

  

Acknowledgements
)  A-  )A  ##B:5
;    A>$ B$ A>
B *   !! -
!+ 
$
Antonios Tzambazakis
16
Detection
method
Organism/
structure
EMF fre-
quency/
wavelength
Phenomena/
effects References
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

:;
AA*
:783?;
FO*
:9228;
:9228;
:;
5+
:788C;
--
:78?3;
+
$:7833
7889922@
9223;
:;
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
1*, =
8+, 
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:;
A:7831;
A*N:7882;
:;
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, , 
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$
I
:9228;
!5
:7831;
:;
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$
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#"$
.E
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%
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:;
5:7887;
-:9228;
:9224;
:9277;
:;
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
(
+-
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
72
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=72
97
/&, 
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
:;
5*
:7883;
:9277;J

:9279;
:;
Table 1. #$$
The evolution of the biological field concept
17
Approach Concept Major concept authors - References to books and/or articles
Reciprocal
causality
Biophysical
field
!5:9272;/$
/91??=13?
B *>&*):922@;STU
B+99(@7@8
A*F:788C;EFBA
9@7C77C8
,+/:788@;"//
A-):78C?;BEV+ !-,
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#FE9?47?48
5):781C;B)A
B,&-:78@1;"$
BE72@99@@@
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J$@9341343?
Self-organi-
zation
>5:9279;#$ 
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723774
I:9223; ("$
+B+8:@;(911?9
 :9227; BA
.$A
BA:7888;+(A-%
.$A
I:7881;),.$(>
 %%.$A
,*,&5":78C7;*./*
,?787
A#&5:78?C;*$
FA4?@149=@112
System
theory
)+&:9277; 
B@@@@9@42
!:922?;%.$A
I+&5F:9221;A>("$!H!
P.$A
5:788?;" $$
!$B7C@:9;@1C=@C9
5B&/5:7839;(
FB171=4C
B>E:78?3;5B 
"":78?3;)+,7?7:@3@?;(@4=@1
Organicism,
Holism,
Morpho-
genetic field
/:781C;5).
F:7812;B+.$A
/A:789@;77??8
,:7897;! SU"%)*
43(1@@=1C2
Top down
causality Vitalism
,):78?1;>$,"
!,:7823;A5>
)XB*
Bottom up
causality
Reduction-
ism
!*":78C?;5%.$A
! *:78@C;5.$A
+,:789?;5P.$A
"%/:7381;"%D)*77=49
Table 2. $
Antonios Tzambazakis
18
References
)B 5 :9222;"$ %    
$-)BF7473?4=73??
)":78@3;!$"*)
1771@=7?@
B)-ABB+"B-IAB:9228;
)     (!$ 
' $F
%X"93(17
B$>E:788C;>)%55$   
#F!$B$47
CC7=CC8
B$>E:9277;+A5!$ 
( - + +  + - F A(  
E@987=7@
B$>E:9279;A
B*B5 +B!$*$!:7833;+/$B:"
;+$EEB?- *J+*$
B+:7881;E
#(B='BB
B>EB$-)A+(B@=74
B + :7883;,  -    @87( -) A   :;
BI)A@C1=@84
B+:922@;##$B#(A- )&B$
>$E:;(#$BI)A!
B *> *) :922@;
         
B+99(@7=@8
B * > :9223;    *    
#F%B4?:1;@1@=@1C
B *>!5 +/A-)IA:9228; 
  $  B+
93:7;93=42
B *> ! 5 ) E*$E> :9277;    
%    +
99993?8=93CC
B$*)B$*> -I) )*I :9229;)
$
F)BC?:@4;771=792
B,-:78@1;"$B
E72@99=@@@
B,:78C9;B(!%
The evolution of the biological field concept
19
B I+ B ) B B/ B "!  5, :9272; "
        " C2 ?@@?=
?@4@
B$) B:7832;>$ $
BF73??18=??C
B P , A* 5 :9228;  
FAB77@7@81@=7@813
+:9228;*, 5, 
A! .$A "
+ - FJ-):9277;A
B+B$721@99@=94?
> -.:7814;>  # $ 
$797712=71@
 > - . 5 5 ! > "  + $ 
:7811; -        
+>77:79;4C8=437
/P/*IA+BA5!:9272;
$(
4?@=?44
-A$)+"++JG"+
"+ +!)JFB $# IB)
AB:9277;$$$
   Y B F  721 ?42=
?43
I:9223;)* #(
AA#$C21CC21=C23
!*":78C?;5%.$A
!:7318;+
!$$):7831;+!("
!- "!- ":7894;)X$
) #448=412
!5A"):9272;/!"+
>$/FE91??=13?
!5!  + +  //:7831;A
"$A>)72C:9;83=722
!$*$!:78C@;#
G:";.- *E77?(41@=414
! *  :78@C; 5       .$A 
P*
!->:783@;%BB
,P*%"?=3
 #" I :788?;   ( 
FA722:@7;7@7@9=7@74C
Antonios Tzambazakis
20
5 "  )+ PB*"-5
:922C;$$*'
44?(C39=C3?
-:922@;+!&
B7@7@?1=7@CC
-!:9228;A>4:4;123?
-+> + ) **  :9277;"  ,(   
!A).)723@C8C
-)-),:78?3;$$
$BF3C@7=C@4
-K,:78?3;>#
FE9?47=?48
-K,:;:7833;B"%
B
5+")5A-)/:7887;B
!()%E
4C41C=4?2
5,) + A-:788C;$  #
F#+/$73:1;817=81C
5- F+""):788?;" $$
!$B7C@:9;@1C=@C9
5-*:9222; %( 97 !$
!9787=8
5B/5:7839;(FB
171=4C
5B + P " :9228; +     
$)+92C:@;781=928
5>  + :; :9272; 
    $   F   > E 1
#++" #B#
5>!D>+5>):9277;A$  B
  B   +( !)   ! A
FA(#AAE@987=72
5)5:7879;!EE*$<BJ
$@93413=43?
5)5 :789@; !    J< )$
**$722:79;77=42
5 )5 :7844; ) B -  $* *  71? +
:";
5)55>!:7818;!*
5)B+ EB5$-
EF
The evolution of the biological field concept
21
5*BA*A$)):7883;%D*+"
 ####E    A )$ E?( 8C=
771
,):78?1;>$,"
,>I!,*+ AO*$Q):9223;I 
$XF3C:7;77=73
,"5:7873;%$ )
'F%JE91:9;
47@=4?7
,$*!+IFA*FE:9277;,'  
 * F  B
E93?@7=42
,ZI+#,:7887;* 
BB):BB);B
7283:7;9C=@7
,+/:788@;"//
,K ":9227;$%'
+92:7;7=7@
,5:9223;A$$
#F%BE4?42@=478
F*  > +F :9221; $    +#  
+
F+-)5977@=797:7832&37;
F$Q)I*$QFA*Q!J,A*NF:783C; 
*#(-FA*NF
:;B)7@9=747
FO*-F*EA*NF:788?;+%
$-KBB47
:7;@1=@3
FO*- A*NFF*E ,*FAQB:7888;+
  $%
BB43:9;9?7=9??
FO*-A*NF  F ,*F :9221; %$ 
 $     $ B 
+94:@;@27=@23
FO*-FI,*FA*NFF "A
>:922C; +$ 495, "
7?:7;@?=@8
FO*-+A*NF,*FEFF-N$Q#:9228;+
$ 
7*, B+93:9;99@=9@9
I + I*! * , :9228; # .*  A
,B!!"A>4:C;(?91?
Antonios Tzambazakis
22
I$E>*$5:78??;E*
$B77472=47@
I:922?;+$$
 B .$A
I!,>,*+BQ$[A:9228;
$XF722
:7;13=?4
I**& *)G#&A 5E:9227;#  
'   :)
$  *  "  .* ;    
A*#E@7=7=@7
>*$*5:7898;>E:>;78985E
A
>I,A-)(!!)%:7882;#(+B
A >$ I+I )A!
B@7=19
>I:7889;"!)+A-)")$
B")/71C=789
>*+:922?;-$(B
B$E*$+*:;9@?
>*+:7889;$*W 
:)%55;#(A>5:;("
)$B"/A4?8=
484
>5+'A))+:9279;#$
 WAB+B728723=
774
>:7873;":,;/VB91
:4;78=92:5;
++E)+F+ .)):9224;
F77C7481=7129
++:;:78?8;ABA- #
    A  B E 9?@2 F 78?C
,)
+>X!:9229;)'P*P(B B*
+:9227;/$#P*(BB*
+,:789?;5P.$AP*
+ > )\F -  + F >$L :9228; 
'$!)'
#(>7:9;(37=82
+>)\F>$L++EF,:9228;
,#E!))#!$
#(>7:4;941=91@
+$:7833;B%44:C;
The evolution of the biological field concept
23
+$ :7889; B    % 43:77=
79;
+ :922@;     B # F  %
B47:1;
+:9223;B$#F%
B4?:1;
+ -   A$ 5   :9221; >$) 
*     F  B E 72
9
+-  :9221;  *  
   (F
AAB(BC88@=88
F:7812;B+.$A
5 A # :78CC;  '  F /
P*>
!:922?;%.I(%.$A
!:9272;BA")(@?37791=77@8
,F:788?; +.A
3@47=44
A*5 E ! )$ ! F >  +* 
 5 :9277; ! $  '    
$%A).)$72319(92823=92879
A"+"I*P:922C;)$$
%71:8;1138=1184
A,):7837;F
BA8:4;787=922
A ,) :7839;   # F 
(B8@88=42C
A,):7831;#-   A 
P*>)->$4@C=413
A*NF:7882;$ **L
$L $N  * A! - +A
.$
A*NFFO*-*E>#,K ":788C;E 
FBA9@7C7=7C8
A*NF ,*FFO*-FAQB:9227;$
++92:7;@C7=@8?
A*FE+I:9277;(
   $    B F
E42(C4C=C18
A*FF$)$+F*-+I,$*!EF
*FI*$F :9279; + +=  >*  
A+"&E77@937=84
Antonios Tzambazakis
24
A*5-]J:9228;+(
#F+72:4;7478=7498
A-):78C?; B( / >K I
IB?EV+ !-,
A -) /* . IK ,> A* / :; :78C8;  B
#.X +V/B
A-)/ :783@;):; 
E@C41=?9C7=3@
A-)/>I, //^/":7834;B
$!) BE? @@=
17
A-)/:783?;*( 
'ABE7138=87
A-):7889;$%#("*B$:;(
       -   
.$A
A-)>I,:788@;,%
#FAE@9  8  71C@=
713@
A -) B$ >E :; :7881; B '  
BBBB$+
A -)   FF :9222; +    
$:;4@:1;(12C=173
A-):9229;B)$#(
-)A/>W/
A -) B$ >E:; :922@; #$ B = B I
)A
A-):922?;-K #(,
5F"A:;,-K-"A),(
,>/*.$>$7@8=7C1
A-)I*/:922C;A*
(B$>EE*$E>:;BB
9C=@7
A-):922C;)$'   D  
-AE7?(42_4?
A-):9228;
B+E93(1@=?2
A):78C2;->AAP*
A#:7841;)"BB@7(?22
A # :784C; Z '  L[ $ A
>V
The evolution of the biological field concept
25
A#:7832;-BB(%A

"G*B:78@7;` ^A*J@9(797
" + A-) / :7837; $    !) 
$E?3771C9=1C@
"/:7843;B#AP*
"%/:7381;$"
+F:783?;!B72C=743,$.$A
" ,A:9228; ( 
A).)72?(@1@
"  > >$ " B* F   :7837; ) -K 
A>)39:3;4@?=4@3
">:7839;-$-K
A>)3C:1;91?=9?2
" B :78C8; % #$  .* A  #(
 B# -)A 5B* ,>IK  /A*
:;.X +EB72C=799
E B  :9277; (<!
 SA > ) 98@ :9229; 8@U< A>)@C1(91@7=
91@9
 *N - :787?; A  $   
A <BJ$CC7@=7?
K:7844;/>W.$A
) "5+5 >> -+5A$+ )
>B *:9272;!
#FE772#7997=998
 / * .A-)/:7833;>*
/B7@(11=?@
!,FE/G* ":783C;(A  
# F * * F    A   B 
(/A7@C=719
> ":783@;-K
A>)8@:C;@?@=@?4
:922@;B*5)AB*A
/  , :78@@;A*5
! $97:8;78@=784
*AX+*>:7884;#+I$A
,:7897;! 
    .  "% )
43(1@@=1C2
 F> ") X B "E :7883;>*H ( , 
  !H   ) X . - 
(A!$)
Antonios Tzambazakis
26
B>)/:7817;>F5A
@4(328=392
":788C;I$B
E71784=922
 F :922?;      $    
-K$
F :9223;+ $ ( 
#F%B4?@38=@84
 5):781C;B)AP*
* + I+ * +  :9224; B    $
'$81:3;?1?=??7
+E :9224;!$  
"$B&B-8C@88=4@9
 *F)!%F+:9227;$'
% A"$?4:1;217871
E/G*"$)*,:7887;>
B7371=98
E/G*"E)*F+XF+:7881;.*
#B$>EXA
-):;B:997=9@9;+(B$
E/G* "E)* F +XF +:788C;)$ 
A A 4
3C=8C
E*E>!$5)"P>$$*!)$*#:7884;!
$"@C:7;
31=33
E*$E>I$EEI$!:9227;>
   '"F
AC1:8;744@=7443
E*$E>I$EE I$!:9227;'
  I
49?2?=?23
E*$ E> ! 5 :9228; / "   B   >$
/FE719=C1
E*$E>,!+:9272;)$
       $   # F !
1:7;@2=@3
E"V":7883;/*
#(BFF-FA-)I )
A!78=44
/,:781C;5).>
/F!!:78?3;973@C4=@C1
/FB)!:78?8;9997788=7922
The evolution of the biological field concept
27
/F+-K,:78CC;$ % 
$$A>)?@42C=423
/F:7832;>"  $ A"?2 :4; 927=
994
/A:78@8;A!$.$A
/**J/*/J F :783@; 
'#(A
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JF/A+FB $#P"*")! +
"+I-A B)AB:9279;
    ' B F   E72?
:9;(@2C=7@
Antonios Tzambazakis
28
Chapter
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In this chapter, we postulate an integral concept of information processing in the universe, on the basis of a new biophysical principle, coined the generalized music (GM)-scale of EMF frequencies. Meta-analyses of current biomedical literature revealed the presence of a distinct pattern of discrete EMF frequency bands in a wide range of animate and non-animate systems. The underlying algorithm of harmonic solitonic waves provided a novel conceptual interface between living and non-living systems being of relevance for the areas of brain research as well as biological evolution. We hold that nature is guided by resonating quantum entities related to quantum vacuum fluctuations of an imminent zero-point energy (ZPE) field, also regarded as a superfluid quantum space (SQS). Since the whole human organism, including the brain is embedded in this dynamic energy field, a pilot wave guided supervenience of brain function is conceived. Conversely, the brain may write discrete informational states into the ZPE- field as individual memory traces. Both information fluxes may be related to a holofractal memory workspace, associated with, but not reducible to the brain, that operates as a scale-invariant mental attribute of reality. Our concept, therefore, addresses the earlier postulated “hard problem” in consciousness studies. The proposed field-receptive workspace, integrates past and (anticipated) future events and may explain overall ultra-rapid brain responses as well as the origin of qualia. Information processing in the brain is shown to be largely facilitated by propagation of hydronium (proton/water) ions in aqueous compartments. The hydronium ions move freely within a hexagonally organized H2O lattice, providing a superconductive integral brain antenna for receiving solitonic wave information, according to the Schrödinger wave equation. The latter quantum process enables an ultra-rapid soliton/biophoton flux that may orchestrate overall brain binding and the creation of coherent conscious states. In a cosmological context, we envision a scale-invariant information processing, operating through a toroidal/wormhole operator at the interface of our 3D world and a 4D acoustic phase space. We submit that the resulting meta-language is instrumental in a partially guided evolution and the creation of first life. This implies that sentience exists on infinite scales, on the basis of an electromagnetic signature of the universe providing an intrinsic cosmic connectivity that is mirrored in the human brain and that we may experience as a vivid dream of a concealed reality. Humans, in this respect, are not only observers but also active participants in this cosmic endeavor: the evolution of conscious entities has been woven into the cosmic mastercode from the beginning. The main thesis of this chapter is that in science and philosophy the dominant paradigm of materialism should be considered as incomplete for explaining the whole of reality.
Article
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Part 2 of this review article provides a novel conceptual bridge between living and non-living systems, being of relevance for the areas of biophysics, brain research, as well as for mechanisms of biological evolution. As to the latter aspect, the potential role of phyllosilicates (clay materials) in the generation of a primordial biofield is treated and seen as instrumental in a partially guided creation of first life. We hold, in general, that nature is guided by a discrete pattern of harmonic solitonic waves, likely originating from quantum vacuum fluctuations derived from an immanent zero-point energy (ZPE)/superfluid quantum space. Since the whole human organism, including brain is embedded in this dynamic energy field, a comprehensive model for human (self)-consciousness could be conceived. Evidence is presented for a pilot wave guided supervenience of brain function that may arise from a holofractal memory workspace, associated with, but not reducible to the brain, that operates as a scale-invariant mental attribute of reality. This field-receptive, workspace integrates past and (anticipated) future events and may explain overall ultra-rapid brain responses, as well as the origin of qualia as proposed in the so called hard problem of consciousness studies.
Article
Self-referential cellular homeostasis is maintained by the measured assessment of both internal status and external conditions based within an integrated cellular information field. This cellular field attachment to biologic information space-time coordinates environmental inputs by connecting the cellular senome, as the sum of the sensory experiences of the cell, with its genome and epigenome. In multicellular organisms, individual cellular information fields aggregate into a collective information architectural matrix, termed a N-space Episenome, that enables mutualized organism-wide information management. It is hypothesized that biological organization represents a dual heritable system constituted by both its biological materiality and a conjoining N-space Episenome. It is further proposed that morphogenesis derives from reciprocations between these inter-related facets to yield coordinated multicellular growth and development. The N-space Episenome is conceived as a whole cell informational projection that is heritable, transferable via cell division and essential for the synchronous integration of the diverse self-referential cells that constitute holobionts.
Article
The toxicity development process of the studied Carboxylic− (R1–[C(O)–OR2]n) (n = 1–4), and α–Amino–C–Phosphonates ({R1–CH[(O)P(OR2)2]}n–R3) (n = 1–2) esters is based on the Congenericity Principle and is quantified by the measured values (Mes) using the scientifically developed Köln–Model and Hydractinia echinata Toxicity Screening Test System (HeTSTS). The process consists of two successive steps: i) hydrolysis of the esters in the seawater alkaline medium (pH 8.2) with the formation of the xenobiotic substrate (SbX) consisting of the binary acid–alcohol mixture and ii) their interaction with the cellular receptors (R). In both series of esters, the results indicate, within the combination of the electronic effects, the steric effects, the possible hydrogen bonds, and so on, the clear and well–defined influence of the number of alcoholic carbon atoms (R2) on the Mes values as Class Regulated Increased Toxicity. The approach was also successfully applied and confirmed by published data in what concerns the similarly carboxylic esters for the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis (T. pyriformis) and the freshwater fish Pimephales promelas (P. promelas) as Toxicity Screening Tests Systems (Tp–PpTSTS’s). Based on this research model, there is a possibility of making predictions of toxicity values with respect to these systems for substances not tested yet. Since the hydrolysis of natural or anthropogenic esters requires an important solvation of the formed ions, its importance to its aquatic surrounding environment is directly due to the action of the reaction products.
Article
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Life is based on two aspects: matter and a non-material, electrical component. In a dynamic system of reciprocal causality, matter and the so-called bioelectricity interact with one another, forming a functional unity. The aim of this essay is to summarize evidence for bioelectricity, for the sensitivity of biosystems to external physical factors and for the interactions of internal bioelectricity with internal biochemical structures. I propose non-material information of bioelectrical states to be just as inheritable from generation to generation as is the material genetic code.
Chapter
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The origin of life enigma still baffles scientists. Since contemporary biology is strongly based on molecular (biochemical) outlook on life and there is an apparently insurmountable abyss between the chaos of random complex chemical systems and high orderliness of organisms, it is difficult to picture a stable path from the inanimate nature to full life. The question becomes much easier to handle, if we consider life (organisms) based not only on (bio)chemistry but also on endogenous coherent electromagnetic fields and partially ordered water. This was postulated, researched and also to some measure empirically proven by many authors. In contrast to the chemical level, this level of life may be called the physical level. It interacts in an orderly fashion with the chemical level and via this interaction active ordered and dispersed information characterizing life may emerge. The quantum field theoretical consideration of pure water postulates that even at room temperature miniscule compartments (so called coherent domains) of highly ordered water come out. In water solutions of ions and polar molecules these domains may become much more complex and may result in a higher level of orderliness called extended domains—coordinated clusters of basic coherent domains. They include coherent oscillations of electromagnetic field that may be resonantly connected to countless molecules and their interactions. Consequently, even in inanimate systems we may get a high orderliness that resembles the one of living beings. This does not hold only in theory or in very special systems, on the contrary, systems that demonstrate high orderliness and many striking similarities to organisms were either synthetically produced (coacervates, microspheres, bions) or even found in nature (nanobacteria, nanobes). If at least some of these systems has an open evolutionary path, they may be considered alive even if they lack chemical characteristics and preciseness of contemporary life.
Chapter
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Today’s biology, dominated by the molecular approach developed since about 1940, is suffocated by an immense number of experimental data on molecular aspects of biological functions which present an extremely fragmented view of the living state. The very success of this approach is now becoming biology’s greatest enemy; the low prestige awarded for such efforts has made unifying concepts a rarity and has not favored the emergence of any comprehensive picture of the living state. There is neither a conceptual framework to unify the findings into a theory of biology, nor even one to guide further research.
Book
Most of the specialists working in this interdisciplinary field of physics, biology, biophysics and medicine are associated with "The International Institute of Biophysics" (IIB), in Neuss, Germany, where basic research and possibilities for applications are coordinated. The growth in this field is indicated by the increase in financial support, interest from the scientific community and frequency of publications. Audience: The scientists of IIB have presented the most essential background and applications of biophotonics in these lecture notes in biophysics, based on the summer school lectures by this group. This book is devoted to questions of elementary biophysics, as well as current developments and applications. It will be of interest to graduate and postgraduate students, life scientists, and the responsible officials of industries and governments looking for non-invasive methods of investigating biological tissues.
Chapter
If you look through a number of contemporary textbooks and introductions of biophysics, in order to find out what exactly biophysics is and what the field covers, you will be quite bewildered. Even the titles of the books with their diversity of names for the field, which include, besides biophysics itself, “Medical Physics ”, “Medical and Biological Physics”, “Physical Biology”,“Physical Bases of Medicine and Biology”, and “Molecular Biology ”, already show the existence of different interpretations and tendencies.
Chapter
In this paper we present a survey on our investigations on ultraweak photon emission from bacterial cultures. We report on some aspects of the chemiluminescence of culture media, the interaction between culture media and cells and its consequences for the light emission. We observed a sudden decrease of the light emission of a wide variety of bacterial cultures, that occurs at, in general, low cell densities of about 107 cells/ml. Probable explanations point to active centers located in the cell membrane, where the inactivation of light generating species or its precursors takes place. Results on cell lysis after phage infection and on DNA-free minicells support this hypothesis. Finally we examined more in detail the emission pattern of strains of the lactic acid group and report on results concerning the underlying mechanisms of light generation in these strains.
Article
Based on nonlinear phenomena of biophoton emission observed in the past, an interference model concerning with the mechanism of interaction between living organisms and electromagnetic fields was raised. Caused by biological nonlinearly polarizable double layer, destructive interference of incoming and reflected waves establishes in the outside. As a consequence, in the inside constructive interference takes place at the same time. The interference patterns may play an important role in biological self organization and in biological functions. We investigate the boundary conditions necessary for explaining these non-linear optical effects in terms of the phase conjugation. It turns out that there are solutions of the Maxwell equations which satisfy destructive interference of biophotons in agreement with the experimental results. Necessary provisions are nonlinearly polarizable optically active double layers of distances which are small compared to the wavelength of light. In addition, they have to be able to move into the nodal planes of the impinging waves within a small time interval compared to the coherence time. These conditions are likely fulfilled in the optically dense, but ordered and optically excited, highly polarizable living matter.