Article

Behavioral Processes Underlying the Decline of Narcissists' Popularity Over Time

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Following a dual-pathway approach to the social consequences of grandiose narcissism, we investigated the behavioral processes underlying (a) the decline of narcissists' popularity in social groups over time and (b) how this is differentially influenced by the 2 narcissism facets admiration and rivalry. In a longitudinal laboratory study, participants (N = 311) first provided narcissism self-reports using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire, and subsequently interacted with each other in small groups in weekly sessions over the course of 3 weeks. All sessions were videotaped and trained raters coded participants' behavior during the interactions. Within the sessions participants provided mutual ratings on assertiveness, untrustworthiness, and likability. Results showed that (a) over time narcissists become less popular and (b) this is reflected in an initially positive but decreasing effect of narcissistic admiration as well as an increasing negative effect of narcissistic rivalry. As hypothesized, these patterns of results could be explained by means of 2 diverging behavioral pathways: The negative narcissistic pathway (i.e., arrogant-aggressive behavior and being seen as untrustworthy) plays an increasing role and is triggered by narcissistic rivalry, whereas the relevance of the positive narcissistic pathway (i.e., dominant-expressive behavior and being seen as assertive) triggered by narcissistic admiration decreases over time. These findings underline the utility of a behavioral pathway approach for disentangling the complex effects of personality on social outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... The interpersonal tradition in personality and clinical psychology (Benjamin, 1974;Carson, 1969;Kiesler, 1983;Leary, 1957;Sullivan, 1953) has long held that personality and emotional adjustment are primarily evident in recurring patterns of social interaction and experience. Contemporary integrative interpersonal theory (CIIT) extends this farreaching premise in emphasizing the key role of interpersonal situations, including those that comprise interactions between individuals, but also individuals' internal representations of such interactions (Hopwood et al., 2021;Pincus et al., 2020). ...
... Horney's "neurotic trends" comprise interpersonal motives or goals, as well as characteristic social behavior. Initially, the trends help individuals cope with basic anxiety, but over time they become maladaptive and inflexible, contributing to distress and impaired relationships, similar to an overarching conceptual premise of early (Carson, 1969;Leary, 1957) and recent (Benjamin, 2018; statements of the interpersonal perspective. Horney (1945Horney ( , 1950) described a variety of responses to basic anxiety, grouped into three broader trends: compliant (i.e., moving toward others), aggressive (moving against others), and detached (moving away from others). ...
... However, hostile dominance is often associated with reciprocated hostile-dominance (e.g., interpersonal conflict; Cundiff et al., 2015;Kiesler, 1983), as opposed to the capitulation or begrudging deference (i.e., hostile-submissiveness) predicted by the complementarity principle. Further, the hostile-dominant goals and style associated with "moving against others" are also evident in narcissistic rivalry (Back et al., 2013;Grove et al., 2019), which is associated with increasing interpersonal difficulty over time (Leckelt et al., 2015). Thus, all three styles assessed by the HCTI domains contain possible indications of recurring maladaptive processes. ...
Article
Karen Horney’s interpersonal theory of adjustment defined three different neurotic trends involving characteristic social behavior and motives: compliant (moving toward people), aggressive (moving against people), and detached (moving away from people). The Horney–Coolidge Type Inventory (HCTI) was developed to assess these trends, but has not been validated using standard methods in the interpersonal perspective. The studies reported here refined the structure of the HCTI, and utilized the structural summary method (SSM) to identify relationships of the three shortened HCTI trend scales with the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) in single university (n = 514) and multisite university (n = 3,283) samples. Results across both studies confirmed predicted interpersonal characteristics of each trend: Compliance was associated with warm submissiveness, aggression was associated with hostile dominance, and detachment was associated with hostile or cold submissiveness. However, analyses of facets within the three HCTI trend domains revealed significant differences. Results are discussed as a potential guide to further refinement of assessments of the Horney maladaptive trends, and support inclusion of Horney’s model in current interpersonal theory.
... The two-dimensional conceptualization of grandiose narcissism proposed by the NARC model (Back et al., 2013) can be used to explain narcissists' success in obtaining status, especially in early acquaintanceships. Narcissistic admiration accounts for the enactment of dominant behaviors, which can appear assertive and thereby increase the perception of competence (Leckelt et al., 2015;Carlson & DesJardins, 2015). However, narcissists often fail to maintain this status over the long-term (Carlson & DesJardins, 2015;Paulhus, 1998). ...
... However, narcissists often fail to maintain this status over the long-term (Carlson & DesJardins, 2015;Paulhus, 1998). Narcissistic rivalry may account for declining popularity and status over time, which evidently results from narcissistic expressions of antagonistic and aggressive behaviors (Leckelt et al., 2015); this may lead to a revolving door of interpersonal relationships such that narcissists are perpetually in the relationship "emerging zone"-a stage in which relationships are new and relatively shallow (Campbell & Campbell, 2009). An endless stream of new relationships may allow narcissists to use interpersonal charm and similar traits to their advantage in extracting resources from others (Back et al., 2010). ...
... Altogether, narcissism brings benefits and costs, but from an evolutionary perspective, the costs may not outweigh the benefits. For instance, the fact that the popularity and status benefits of narcissism are short-lived (Leckelt et al., 2015) does not diminish their evolutionary relevance. Narcissists are judged attractive and popular at first sight (Back et al., 2010;Sedikides & Campbell, 2017) and this advantage and its associated support for mating success might be sufficient to "keep it in the population's genetic pool". ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The three goals of this chapter are to introduce readers to construct of narcissism, to review the literature on the evolutionary origins of narcissism, and to review the literature on narcissism and emotions. Narcissism will be discussed as both a personality trait that is comprised by grandiose and vulnerable expressions, as well as a personality disorder characterized by extreme levels of narcissistic personality combined with impairment. Some discussion throughout will be devoted to whether grandiose and vulnerable expressions of narcissism should be conceptualized as relatively stable and separable traits versus oscillating narcissistic states. Evolutionary topics discussed will include the heritability of narcissism, the genetic foundations (or lack thereof) of narcissism, evolutionarily grounded strategies, including mating and survival strategies, that may have facilitated sexual and natural selection of narcissistic traits, as well as critiques of existing theory in this literature. The emotion section will focus on the emotional experiences of narcissists, paying particular attention to how these experiences contrast depending on whether narcissism is more grandiose or vulnerable. Attempts will be made throughout the chapter to identify connections between the conceptual, evolutionary, and emotion literatures.
... It is used in a number of psychological and nonpsychological disciplines, including personality and social psychology, educational psychology, clinical psychology, political science, and anthropology, to disentangle the components that underlie interpersonal phenomena. For example, social and personality psychologists use the SRM to better understand liking between unacquainted individuals (e.g., Küfner et al., 2012;Leckelt et al., 2015;Salazar-Kämpf et al., 2018). Clinical psychologists have used the model to investigate interpersonal processes in group psychotherapy (e.g., Christensen & Feeney, 2016), and educational psychologists have examined students' performance in learning groups to determine which students profit the most from such groups (e.g., Horn et al., 1998). ...
... This tendency is corroborated by technical developments such as smartphone apps or online diaries that allow for the economical measurement of SRM data. Personality psychologists, for example, are interested in how liking changes as individuals become acquainted with each other and how these changes can be explained (see, e.g., Leckelt et al., 2015;Salazar-Kämpf et al., 2018). They also investigate whether low perceptions of others in terms of self-confidence or assertiveness go along with increases in assertiveness reputations over time (Rau et al., 2019). ...
... How would an applied SRM researcher currently examine such longitudinal round-robin data? Three approaches have been used or suggested (see also Nestler et al., 2017, for a similar discussion): using multiple cross-sectional SRMs (e.g., Gill & Swartz, 2007;Hoff, 2005), a two-step approach in which time-point-specific SRM effects are estimated and then used in standard longitudinal models (e.g., Küfner et al., 2012;Leckelt et al., 2015), and the social relations growth model (Nestler et al., 2017). Below, we discuss the limitations of these three approaches. ...
Article
Full-text available
The social relations model (SRM) is very often used in psychology to examine the components, determinants, and consequences of interpersonal judgments and behaviors that arise in social groups. The standard SRM was developed to analyze cross-sectional data. Based on a recently suggested integration of the SRM with structural equation models (SEM) framework, we show here how longitudinal SRM data can be analyzed using the SR-SEM. Two examples are presented to illustrate the model, and we also present the results of a small simulation study comparing the SR-SEM approach to a two-step approach. Altogether, the SR-SEM has a number of advantages compared to earlier suggestions for analyzing longitudinal SRM data, making it extremely useful for applied research.
... The first path may initially be associated with positive impressions, but the second path is associated with reduced likability. Empirical verification of this model has shown the second, more problematic path becomes increasingly prominent with the passage of time, ultimately resulting in negative perceptions of narcissists' trustworthiness (Leckelt et al., 2015). Given the sense of superiority embodied in high narcissism, O'Boyle et al. (2012) argued that narcissists give less regard to reciprocal exchanges. ...
... For example, although Castille et al. (2017) found a main effect for Machiavellianism on coworker-directed social undermining, this effect was amplified in conditions characterized by resource constraints. Work by Leckelt et al. (2015) and others (e.g., Grijalva et al., 2019) have found that the effects of narcissism are contingent on the passage of time, which allows for familiarity to grow among interaction partners. ...
... Importantly, this line of reasoning implies a temporal element, whereby the problematic potential of such traits may be concealed during early interactions, but with the passage of time there are more opportunities for exploitation and negative interactions to occur. The most direct evidence for this supposition can be found in relation to narcissism, where research has shown that narcissistic individuals may initially be perceived as dominant and expressive, but with the passage of time they are increasingly seen as aggressive and arrogant (Leckelt et al., 2015). These findings are concordant with the notion that negative traits may be related to leader emergence but not necessarily leader effectiveness (LeBreton et al., 2006;Smith et al., 2018) and that those high on these traits may be successful in a selection context but problematic once hired (LeBreton et al., 2018;O'Boyle et al., 2012). ...
Article
Despite the well-established importance of team composition, there has been relatively little research that focuses on compositions regarding problematic personality traits. This study examines the impact of Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy, and sadism—all operationalized as team composition variables—on team cooperation and performance over time. This was done in a sample of 43 graduate student teams (n = 269) engaged in an immersive business simulation that unfolded over a 6-week duration. In addition, the parameters of the simulation task were altered midway through the simulation without forewarning, in turn creating a shock event that allowed for an examination of whether team composition for negative personality had similar effects under conditions of business-as-usual versus a disruptive change. Results indicated that both team average Machiavellianism and sadism had deleterious effects on team cooperation and performance over time, while controlling for two closely associated positive personality traits (honesty-humility and agreeableness). These damaging effects were further revealed to especially detract from performance trajectories after teams experienced a disruptive event. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of including problematic personality traits in considerations pertaining to team composition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... The focus on this critical path is theoretically relevant because it helps pinpoint how employees might cope with the depletion of a key resource that is highly valuable to their personal well-being: their emotional connectivity with others (Hobfoll, 2001). Second, and also consistent with COR theory, we propose that this process is invigorated when employees exhibit high levels of narcissistic rivalry, because this personal factor, and its associated tendencies for selflove, increases the sense of offense employees experience when they must deal with emotionbased quarrels (Leckelt et al., 2015). ...
... The intensification then may activate their relatedness need frustration and subsequent knowledge hiding, which they perceive as well-justified responses (Van den Broeck et al., 2014). The theoretical value of examining the contingent role of this specific dark personality trait stems from its ability to pinpoint a notable, indirect, dysfunctional effect, thereby extending traditional considerations of its direct harmful impact on work attitudes or behaviors (Helfrich and Dietl, 2019;Leckelt et al., 2015). In a related contribution, we address calls for novel insights into the influence of dark, competition-oriented personality traits in general on employees' behaviors (Hernaus et al., 2019;Pan et al., 2018). ...
... Emotion-based quarrels might cause employees in collectivistic settings to experience a strong sense of abandonment. These two cultural features, in turn, may encourage narcissistic employees to feel even more offended by interpersonal conflict, representing an additional stimulus to respond forcefully and in counterproductive ways (Leckelt et al., 2015). To be clear though, our theoretical arguments are explicitly country-neutral, so the nature of the proposed relationships is unlikely to vary across countries, even if their strength might. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between employees’ experience of interpersonal conflict and their engagement in knowledge hiding, according to a mediating effect of their relatedness need frustration and a moderating effect of their narcissistic rivalry. Design/methodology/approach The tests of the hypotheses rely on three-wave, time-lagged data collected among employees in Pakistan. Findings A critical reason that emotion-based fights stimulate people to conceal valuable knowledge from their coworkers is that these employees believe their needs for belongingness or relatedness are not being met. This mediating role of relatedness need frustration is particularly salient among employees who are self-centered and see others as rivals, with no right to fight with or give them a hard time. Practical implications The findings indicate how organizations might mitigate the risk that negative relationship dynamics among their employees escalate into dysfunctional knowledge hiding behavior. They should work to hire and retain employees who are benevolent and encourage them to see colleagues as allies instead of rivals. Originality/value This research unpacks the link between interpersonal conflict and knowledge hiding by explicating the unexplored roles of two critical factors (relatedness need frustration and narcissistic rivalry) in this relationship.
... In the present study, we examined the role of two personality traits that could underlie such links: extraversion and narcissism. Extraversion and narcissism are two of the most frequently examined and significant predictors of both social media use and social outcomes in in-person interactions (Amichai-Hamburger & Vinitzky, 2010;Amiel & Sargent, 2004;Back et al., 2013;Chen & Marcus, 2012;Hamburger & Ben-Artzi, 2000;Kraut et al., 2002;Küfner et al., 2013;Kuo & Tang, 2014;Leckelt et al., 2015Leckelt et al., , 2018Ross et al., 2009;Ryan & Xenos, 2011;Tosun & Lajunen, 2010;Wyatt & Phillips, 2005). For example, extraversion, which includes being more outgoing and talkative, is associated with both offline and online positive social experiences, such as greater offline and online civic engagement (Elshaug & Metzer, 2001;Kavanaugh et al., 2005;Russo & Amnå, 2016) and communication (Akert & Panter, 1988;Seidman, 2013). ...
... For example, extraversion, which includes being more outgoing and talkative, is associated with both offline and online positive social experiences, such as greater offline and online civic engagement (Elshaug & Metzer, 2001;Kavanaugh et al., 2005;Russo & Amnå, 2016) and communication (Akert & Panter, 1988;Seidman, 2013). Similarly, narcissism, defined as having an excessive positive self-image, feelings of superiority, and desire for admiration (Bosson et al., 2008;Morf & Rhodewalt, 2001), has been linked to indicators of more positive social media use, such as having more friends on social media (McKinney et al., 2012), and more positive, charming social behavior, particularly for more agentic aspects of narcissism such as narcissistic admiration Küfner et al., 2013;Leckelt et al., 2015Leckelt et al., , 2018. ...
... Perhaps social media allows narcissists to present their most favorable characteristics to a large audience (Andreassen et al., 2017) while also increasing feelings of inferiority in their rivals (Seidman et al., 2019). Furthermore, low extraversion and high narcissistic rivalry have been shown to be associated with more negative social experiences, including social withdrawal (Coplan & Armer, 2007), negative social evaluations (Hendrick & Brown, 1971) and being liked less in inperson interactions Leckelt et al., 2015). Thus, we also examined whether narcissism and (low) extraversion played a role in any negative links between social media use and in-person interactions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Does how people generally engage with their online social networks relate to offline initial social interactions? Using a large-scale study of first impressions ( N = 806, N dyad = 4,565), we examined how different indicators of social media use relate to the positivity of dyadic in-person first impressions, from the perspective of the participants and their interaction partners. Many forms of social media use (e.g., Instagram, Snapchat, passive) were associated with liking and being liked by others more, although some forms of use (e.g., Facebook, active) were not associated with liking others or being liked by others. Furthermore, most associations held controlling for extraversion and narcissism. Thus, while some social media use may be generally beneficial for offline social interactions, some may be unrelated, highlighting the idea that how, rather than how much, people use social media can play a role in their offline social interactions.
... Given the trait character of admiration and rivalry, we did not expected significant changes in their levels of intensity (H4). Finally, we scrutinized whether the behavioural pathways related to being liked, reflecting underlying processes are the same as in adult research (Leckelt et al., 2015;. ...
... This is because, the interpersonal processes took place during real social interactions and these might be easily overlooked as they appear only under specific circumstances (here -the course of getting acquainted). The trajectory of admiration and rivalry are much different -while admiration explains initial gain on being liked, rivalry explains its later loss (Leckelt et al., 2015(Leckelt et al., , 2019. This is consistent with previous longitudinal studies (Paulhus, 1998) but also with the theoretical expectations (Campbell & Campbell, 2009). ...
... One of the important limitations is that we used NPIC only during the last measurement occasion, thus we were unable to conduct any longitudinal analyses nor assess whether the links to being liked would be replicated as well. However, the model behind NPIC does not seem to provide any explanations regarding the processes underlying such behavioural pathways, while NARC does (Back, 2018;Back et al., 2013;Grapsas et al., 2020;Leckelt et al., 2015Leckelt et al., , 2019. Therefore, we believe that application of NARC to the adolescent narcissism research will enhance future studies on the development of, and underlying dynamics associated with, the narcissistic personality. ...
Article
Full-text available
To date, adolescent and adult narcissism research are independent research branches with almost no cross-talk. In the current paper, we argue that it is possible to merge them. The study was completed by adolescents (N = 269) three times during one year period and we compared their scores with adult population (N = 351). Further, we evaluated whether the two-dimensional model of narcissism fits the data from adolescents and whether is invariant in comparison to the adults. Third, we analysed whether narcissism in adolescence is stable. Finally, we scrutinized whether the pathways underlying the link of narcissistic personality to being liked are the same in adolescent as reported in adult narcissism. We have found support for linking adolescent and adult narcissism.
... Together, these components form the selfregulatory process of grandiose narcissism (Back, 2018). The introduction of NARC explained some of the inconsistencies found within the literature, for example, it resolved the question of why grandiose narcissists are liked at first sight (i.e., due to the effect of agentic Admiration) but are disliked in the long run (i.e., due to the effect of antagonistic Rivalry; Leckelt et al., 2015;Paulhus, 2001). The NARC model describes and explains grandiose narcissism beyond the structural organization of the NSM, treating narcissism not only as a stable trait, but also as an underlying process, providing a discreet peek into the functioning of grandiose narcissists (e.g., Grapsas et al., 2020). ...
... In our fourth hypothesis (H4 -Study 5) we expected that Rivalry and Enmity would be significant predictors of two sorts of social relations: liking others and being liked. Previous studies revealed that the effects of Admiration are also possible, however only in zero-or short-term acquaintances, while the effects of Rivalry appear in long-term relationships (Leckelt et al., 2015(Leckelt et al., , 2019. Thus, given the fact that we analyzed social relations within well-acquainted individuals, we did not hypothesize strong effects for Admiration and Isolation as their effects are expected to occur during the 'emerging zone' of social relationships (Campbell & Campbell, 2009). ...
... Despite the fact that the NSM (Krizan & Herlache, 2018) and the works of prominent researchers (e.g., Ackerman et al., 2019;Miller, Lynam, Hyatt, & Campbell, 2017a) constantly draw attention to vulnerable narcissism, there is still a significant disproportion in the amount of research and knowledge conducted on this form of narcissism. The introduction of the NARC model (Back et al., 2013), which disentangled bright and dark face of grandiose narcissism was a milestone as it solved many existing ambiguities, such as the interplay of narcissism and self-esteem, the dynamics of interpersonal relations, and the location within the structure of personality (Back, 2018;Back et al., 2013;Geukes et al., 2017;Leckelt et al., 2015;Rogoza et al., 2019). While this promising model successfully covered the grandiose half of the NSM's conceptual space (Krizan & Herlache, 2018;Rogoza et al., 2019;, the other conceptual half of the NSM was still in need of a comprehensive model. ...
Article
Full-text available
A theoretical model of the vulnerable half of the Narcissism Spectrum Model (NSM) – the Vulnerable Isolation and Enmity Concept (VIEC) is presented in this paper. In five studies (total N = 2,383), we show the personality underpinnings of the VIEC in terms of normal and pathological personality and explore the social relations of liking others and being liked. Isolation explains the role of avoidance and social withdrawal, whereas Enmity explains the role of reactive antagonism in vulnerable narcissism. We suggest that vulnerable narcissism is related to internalizing and grandiose narcissism to externalizing pathology. Through the prism of the Circumplex of Personality Metatraits, we argue that the VIEC together with the narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry concept (NARC) covers the whole NSM.
... By contrast, if the situation was one in which the ego was threatened, narcissistic rivalry would be the chosen option. Similarly, Leckelt, Küfner, Nestler, and Back (2015) suggested that narcissistic admiration was the default mode of behaviour for the narcissist early in acquainting oneself with others, and that narcissistic rivalry may be displayed, if and when the narcissist were threatened or challenged, which is more likely to occur as an acquaintanceship matures. Such theories imply that narcissistic admiration and narcissistic rivalry may have state like qualities. ...
... We propose a complimentary, more trait-like, hypothesis. 3 Specifically, in a manner similar to Leckelt et al. (2015), we propose that narcissistic admiration is the default/dominant trait early in the life of a narcissist. However, over time, narcissistic admiration may develop into narcissistic rivalry, contingent partly upon the degree to which the narcissist is frustrated by failing to achieve his/her goals. ...
... On the basis of the results of their longitudinal study, Huesmann, Eron, and Yarmel (1987, p. 239) suggested that "…a lower IQ may make success at any endeavor more difficult…, resulting in increased frustration, lower self-esteem, and stimulated aggression." Such behaviours correspond to the rivalry dimension of narcissism (Leckelt et al., 2015;Rogoza, 2018). Thus, it may be hypothesized that intelligence moderates (reduces) the association between narcissistic admiration and narcissistic rivalry. ...
Article
Within the narcissistic admiration and rivalry concept (NARC), it has been theorized that narcissistic admiration is the default mode of narcissistic expression, however, relatively little research has examined this possibility. Furthermore, although narcissistic admiration and narcissistic rivalry have been reported to be inter-correlated positively, no research has examined any factors that might moderate the association, which may have implications for our understanding of the development of narcissistic rivalry. Consequently, on the basis of two samples (sample 1: N = 169; sample 2: N = 484) that completed the Narcissistic Admiration Rivalry Questionnaire (NARQ), we tested whether people, on average, report higher levels of NARQ-Admiration than NARQ-Rivalry. Additionally, we tested whether intelligence moderated (reduced) the association between NARQ-Admiration and NARQ-Rivalry. Across two samples, we found that NARQ-Admiration had a statistically significantly higher mean than NARQ-Rivalry (sample 1: d = 0.71; sample 2: d = 0.65). Additionally, across both samples, we found that intelligence moderated (reduced) statistically significantly the association between NARQ-Admiration and NARQ-Rivalry. The results were interpreted as supportive of the contention that narcissistic admiration may be the default mode of narcissism. Additionally, whether narcissistic rivalry is developed or manifested may be contingent, in part, upon a person's level of cognitive intelligence.
... Children are generally less socially dominant than adults (Roberts, Walton, & Viechtbauer, 2006) and may therefore be less likely to act in ways that harm their group. For example, whereas adults with relatively high narcissism levels often quickly lose popularity among peers (Leckelt et al., 2015), children with relatively high narcissism levels are generally able to maintain their popularity over time (Poorthuis et al., 2019). ...
... Research in adults suggests that the associations of narcissism levels with leadership emergence and functioning may be driven by agentic traits (e.g., self-confidence; Grijalva et al., 2015;Leckelt et al., 2015;Watts et al., 2013). We explored this possibility. ...
... The association between narcissism levels and leadership may be driven, in part, by agentic traits (e.g., self-confidence; Grijalva et al., 2015;Watts et al., 2013). For example, when adults with relatively high narcissism levels enter a new peer group, their agentic traits predict initial increases in popularity (Leckelt et al., 2015). In our study, agentic traits did not significantly mediate the association between narcissism levels and leadership emergence. ...
Article
Full-text available
Some leaders display high levels of narcissism. Does the link between narcissism levels and leadership exist in childhood? We conducted, to our knowledge, the first study of the relationship between narcissism levels and various aspects of leadership in children (N = 332, ages 7-14 years). We assessed narcissism levels using the Childhood Narcissism Scale and assessed leadership emergence in classrooms using peer nominations. Children then performed a group task in which one child was randomly assigned as leader. We assessed perceived and actual leadership functioning. Children with higher narcissism levels more often emerged as leaders in classrooms. When given a leadership role in the task, children with higher narcissism levels perceived themselves as better leaders, but their actual leadership functioning did not differ significantly from that of other leaders. Specification-curve analyses corroborated these findings. Thus, children with relatively high narcissism levels tend to emerge as leaders, even though they may not excel as leaders.
... Crucially, the dimensions of narcissistic admiration and rivalry distinguish between the assertive (i.e., social potency) and antagonistic (i.e., social conflict) interpersonal processes associated with narcissism. Despite mounting evidence showing how narcissistic admiration and narcissistic rivalry are linked to distinct intra-and interpersonal processes (e.g., Back et al., 2013;Leckelt et al., 2015), existing work has yet to consider how these dimensions of narcissism map onto team conflict processes. ...
... Narcissistic rivalry is associated with more fragile self-views (Geukes et al., 2017), negative views of others (Back et al., 2013), and a desire to disrupt group membership in response to group failure (Benson et al., 2019). Notably, individuals higher in narcissistic rivalry tend to experience more negative social outcomes (e.g., rejection, criticism, distrust) due to their arrogant and aggressive interpersonal behaviors (Back et al., 2013;Leckelt et al., 2015). Individuals higher in narcissistic rivalry may also be more likely to aggressively advance their own ideas and derogate others in group discussions marred by disagreement. ...
... Narcissistic admiration is characterized by assertive self-enhancement, which includes grandiose fantasies, striving to be unique, and charm. Unlike the rivalry dimension of narcissism, individuals higher in narcissistic admiration tend to be liked and afforded high status due to their selfassured and dominant behavior (Leckelt et al., 2015). Narcissistic admiration is associated with more positive and stable self-views (Geukes et al., 2017) and a tendency to view ingroup members more positively (Benson et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals higher in grandiose narcissism strive to create and maintain their inflated self-views through self-aggrandizing and other-derogating behaviors. Drawing from the dual-process model of narcissistic admiration and rivalry, we proposed that individuals higher in narcissism may contribute to more competitive and less cooperative conflict processes. We tracked over 100 project design teams from inception to dissolution, gathering data at three time points. We evaluated how team levels of narcissism (i.e., maximum team score, team mean, and team variance) related to latent team means of cooperative and competitive conflict processes. Team mean scores of narcissistic rivalry corresponded to less cooperative and more competitive team conflict processes as teams approached their final project deadline. Our results show how narcissistic rivalry (but not admiration) alters the types of team conflict processes that arise within groups, and is particularly consequential as teams approach major project deadlines.
... Extraversion is the trait that most consistently and most strongly relates to measures of overt social behavior, including a more neat and stylish physical appearance and behavioral indicators such as smiling, expressive gestures, self-assured posture and body movements, expressive and loud voice, amount of speaking, and the use of humor (Back et al., 2009Eaton & Funder, 2003;Levesque & Kenny, 1993;Riggio & Riggio, 2002;Scherer, 1978). Similar relations to self-assured and expressive behaviors have been reported for other agentic traits such as narcissistic admiration Leckelt, Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2015). Agreeableness and other communal versus antagonistic traits (e.g., narcissistic rivalry) have been related to more attentive, modest, and friendly and less arrogant, combative, and aggressive behaviors as well as to social orientation in verbal content Back et al., 2009;Berry & Hansen, 2000;Borkenau & Liebler, 1992;Holtzman, Vazire, Mehl, 2010;Küfner, Back, Nestler, & Egloff, 2010;Leckelt et al., 2015). ...
... Similar relations to self-assured and expressive behaviors have been reported for other agentic traits such as narcissistic admiration Leckelt, Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2015). Agreeableness and other communal versus antagonistic traits (e.g., narcissistic rivalry) have been related to more attentive, modest, and friendly and less arrogant, combative, and aggressive behaviors as well as to social orientation in verbal content Back et al., 2009;Berry & Hansen, 2000;Borkenau & Liebler, 1992;Holtzman, Vazire, Mehl, 2010;Küfner, Back, Nestler, & Egloff, 2010;Leckelt et al., 2015). Neuroticism has been related to more tensed and nervous postures, facial expressions, and gestures; a more awkward interpersonal style; a restricted, less fluent, and nervous voice; and more negative verbal content (Asendorpf, 1988;Back et al., 2009;Creed & Funder, 1997;Pennebaker & King, 1999;Pilkonis, 1977;Riggio & Riggio, 2002). ...
... Aspects of traits (e.g., observability, evaluativeness), information (e.g., amount and non-redundancy), targets (e.g., expressivity, stability), perceivers (e.g., intelligence, extraversion), and interactions between these factors (e.g., diagnosticity/trait*information: traits observed in trait-relevant situations) that increase the expression and utilization of valid cues moderate the degree of self-other agreement/accuracy (see Back & Nestler, 2016;Funder, 1999;Hirschmüller, Breil, Nestler, & Back, in press, for overviews). Applying and extending the lens model logic , the relation of personality measures to popularity can similarly be understood as the result of a process pathway that includes behavioral expression processes (personality trait relates to actor effect behavior), interpersonal perception processes (actor effect behavior relates to target effect personality impression), and evaluation processes (target effect personality impression relates to target effect liking/attraction; Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2011;Back et al., 2018;Leckelt, et a., 2015). ...
Chapter
Social interactions are one of the most relevant contexts of our lives and they are intimately connected to the conceptualization, dynamics, development, and consequences of personality. In this chapter, I will first analyze the way social interactions unfold via interaction states of all interaction partners and describe how people differ in social interaction processes. Following the PERSOC model, I will argue that these individual differences are a key window to understanding the nature of some of the most popular personality traits (e.g., extraversion, dominance, shyness, agreeableness, narcissism), as well as their effects on and development in social relationships. Empirical research on individual differences in interaction state levels, contingencies, and fluctuations is summarized. In closing, I describe a couple of current limitations, and outline perspectives for understanding and assessing personality traits as dynamic social interaction systems.
... The strategy is likely to lead to social failure (e.g., being perceived as untrustworthy or unlikeable; Back et al., 2013), and consequently perpetuates the narcissist's negative views of others. Narcissistic admiration and narcissistic rivalry correlate moderately to strongly with each other (Back et al., 2013;Leckelt et al., 2015;Wurst et al., 2017), meaning that the two dimensions can co-occur, but do not have to. In sum, this two-dimensional approach describes how narcissists behave toward others and is therefore relevant for leadership contexts, which typically rely heavily on interactions between leaders and followers. ...
... Furthermore, in romantic relationships, only narcissistic rivalry (but not narcissistic admiration) is related to lower relationship quality and a higher occurrence of conflict (Wurst et al., 2017). Additionally, individuals high in narcissistic rivalry (but not those high in narcissistic admiration) show arrogant and aggressive behaviors and are perceived as untrustworthy, which results in a decrease in popularity over time (Leckelt et al., 2015). In sum, individuals high in narcissistic rivalry have little interest in others, are unable to maintain close relationships, and are likely to engage in aggressive behaviors toward others. ...
... In sum, individuals high in narcissistic rivalry have little interest in others, are unable to maintain close relationships, and are likely to engage in aggressive behaviors toward others. Accordingly, we expect that the behavioral dynamics associated with narcissistic rivalry in interpersonal contexts (e.g., conflicts or aggressiveness; Leckelt et al., 2015;Wurst et al., 2017) will also be relevant for leadership contexts. ...
Article
Full-text available
Narcissists often attain leadership positions, but at the same time do not care for others and often engage in unethical behaviors. We therefore explored the role of leader narcissism as an antecedent of abusive supervision, a form of unethical leadership. We based our study on the narcissistic admiration and rivalry concept (NARC) and proposed a direct positive effect of leaders’ narcissistic rivalry—the maladaptive narcissism dimension—on abusive supervision. In line with trait activation and threatened egotism theory, we also proposed a moderated mediation assuming that leaders high in narcissistic rivalry would be particularly prone to showing abusive supervision in reaction to followers’ supervisor-directed deviance, as this form of follower behavior would threaten their self-esteem. We conducted a field study with leader–follower dyads (Study 1) and an experimental vignette study with leaders (Study 2). Leaders’ narcissistic rivalry was positively related to abusive supervision (intentions) in both studies. This effect was independent of followers’ supervisor-directed deviance and leaders’ perceived self-esteem threat. We discuss our findings in light of the NARC, as well as threatened egotism theory, and offer directions for future research. Finally, we make practical recommendations for organizations.
... These questions are, for example, especially interesting in the context of newly acquainted individuals and the role of personality differences for relationship development. Previous research suggests that how personality drives social interaction changes when individuals become acquainted with each other (Leckelt, Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2015;Leckelt et al., 2020) but this has not yet been properly tested in a truly continuous fashion. ...
... As the students get to know each other, it is to be expected that what drives the social interactions between them changes (Leckelt et al., 2015. We illustrate how the basic relational event modeling analysis can be extended with a so-called "moving window" approach to study how the drivers of social interaction processes in the CONNECT data change over time. ...
Article
Real-life social interactions occur in continuous time and are driven by complex mechanisms. Each interaction is not only affected by the characteristics of individuals or the environmental context but also by the history of interactions. The relational event framework provides a flexible approach to studying the mechanisms that drive how a sequence of social interactions evolves over time. This paper presents an introduction of this new statistical framework and two of its extensions for psychological researchers. The relational event framework is illustrated with an exemplary study on social interactions between freshmen students at the start of their new studies. We show how the framework can be used to study: (a) which predictors are important drivers of social interactions between freshmen students who start interacting at zero acquaintance; (b) how the effects of predictors change over time as acquaintance increases; and (c) the dynamics between the different settings in which students interact. Findings show that patterns of interaction developed early in the freshmen student network and remained relatively stable over time. Furthermore, clusters of interacting students formed quickly, and predominantly within a specific setting for interaction. Extraversion predicted rates of social interaction, and this effect was particularly pronounced on the weekends. These results illustrate how the relational event framework and its extensions can lead to new insights on social interactions and how they are affected both by the interacting individuals and the dynamic social environment.
... Although obtaining higher level positions through peer nominations or in a selection context might occur after shortterm interactions, supervisory evaluations of employees' promotability are often based on longer term observations of employee functionality. Interestingly, narcissists may be initially evaluated positively, both on popularity and leadership capabilities, but these positive impressions diminish over time as others become aware of narcissistic individuals' undesirable characteristics (Leckelt et al., 2015;Ong et al., 2016;Paulhus, 1998). This phenomenon poses a crucial question. ...
... Our findings indicate that individuals high in narcissism differentiate their behavior depending on observer status. Although narcissistic individuals may lose their appeal to peers over time (Leckelt et al., 2015;Paulhus, 1998), appeal loss is not evident when supervisors rate narcissistic employees in longer term work contexts. The discrepancy could be explained by status differences between employees and their supervisors, and suggests that narcissistic employees are more motivated to hide their negative side from their supervisor than their peers. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Narcissistic individuals often rise to positions of influence, but how so? Upward mobility in formal hierarchies is frequently contingent upon supervisory evaluations. We examined the relation between employee narcissism and supervisor promotability ratings, testing predictions from the display of power perspective (narcissism will positively predict promotability due to higher perceived power) and impression management perspective (narcissism will positively predict promotability due to self‐promotion). Method In two multi‐source studies involving employees and their supervisors from diverse organizations (S1: Nemployees=166; Nsupervisors=93; S2: Nemployees=128; Nsupervisors=85), we measured employee narcissism (S1, S2), employee sense of power, employee impression management tactics towards the supervisor (S2), and employee promotability as rated by supervisors (S1‐S2). Further, in an experiment (S3: N=181), we tested the causal effect of employee sense of power on promotability. Results Results favored the display of power perspective. Although narcissism predicted both higher self‐promotion toward the supervisor and greater sense of power, it was the latter that explained the positive relation between employee narcissism and promotability ratings. Conclusion Employees high on narcissism act as if they have more power in organizations and thus demonstrate behavior that would be expected in higher‐level positions. The findings help to explain narcissistic individuals’ rise through the ranks.
... Participants indicated their level of agreement with each statement using scales that ranged from 1 (not agree at all) to 6 (agree completely). The narcissistic admiration and narcissistic rivalry subscales of the NARQ have demonstrated adequate psychometric properties in previous research (e.g., Back et al., 2013;Leckelt, Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2015). Previous research has shown that the NARQ evinced convergent and divergent validity with the SD3. ...
Article
Full-text available
Network analysis offers an opportunity to gain a more nuanced view of the connections between the darker aspects of personality by examining the interrelationships between the components that make up these constructs. We examined the associations that five dark personality dispositions (i.e., narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, sadism, and spitefulness) had with pathological personality traits (i.e., antagonism, disinhibition, detachment, negative affectivity, and psychoticism) via network analysis. These dark personality networks were examined in four studies (N = 1,800), wherein the second study attempted to replicate the network from the first study, while the last two studies incorporated more specific and independent measures of dark personality features (e.g., grandiose and vulnerable narcissism). Although there were differences across network structures in these studies, the pathological personality trait of antagonism consistently evinced high expected influence centrality (i.e., it was the most strongly connected and possibly influential trait in each network). Our discussion focuses on the implications of these results for the understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality.
... They perceive themselves to be more intelligent than and superior to others (Gabriel et al., 1994), and are more likely to engage in self-promoting behaviors as they want to be at the center of the stage (Buffardi & Campbell, 2008). The other perspective focuses on the vulnerable aspect of narcissism (Leckelt et al., 2015), indicating that narcissists are hypersensitive and have fragile self-esteem (Miller et al., 2011). Narcissists prioritize self-worth over other goals and may become stuck when they are criticized or denied. ...
Article
Full-text available
In response to recent calls to understand whether and when narcissism is detrimental to the organization in particular cultural contexts, the current research aims to investigate whether employee narcissism is related to employee silence, and how supervisor narcissism and employee traditionality moderate this relationship in China. The hypotheses were tested in multi-source data collected from 227 employees and their 56 supervisors in a Chinese machinery company. The results from the multi-level analyses showed that employees’ narcissism was positively related to their silence behavior. In addition, this positive relationship was only positive and significant when supervisor narcissism or employee traditionality was high. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications, as well as future research directions.
... Agentic narcissism is connected to extraversion (Back et al., 2013; and making a good first impression (Leckelt et al., 2015). Those narcissists care about being better than others, not by putting others down but by getting better themselves (Lange et al., 2016). ...
Article
In the Polish community sample (N = 662), we examined the relationship between three facets of grandiose narcissism (agentic, antagonistic, and communal) and loneliness, mediated by the social support. Data was collected during the COVID-19 pandemic. Agentic narcissism was unrelated to loneliness and social support. People characterized by a high level of antagonistic narcissism reported getting less social support and therefore feeling more lonely. People characterized by a high level of communal narcissism reported getting more social support, protecting them from feeling lonely. Our study points to different consequences of social restrictions posed by the COVID-19 pandemic to people characterized by higher agentic, antagonistic, and communal narcissism levels. This research expands current knowledge about grandiose narcissists and their social functioning, also during forced isolation. Antagonistic narcissism seems to be maladaptive, communal narcissism has no adverse consequences, while agentic narcissism is unrelated to reactions toward forced isolation. Keywords: grandiose narcissism; social support; loneliness; COVID-19
... Interestingly, one study found narcissism to be a predictor of leadership emergence among unacquainted individuals, even though leader narcissism contributed to worse intrateam communication and, ultimately, poorer group performance (Nevcika, Ten Velden, De Hoogh, & Van Vianen, 2011). The ability of individuals scoring high in narcissism to elevate their social status during group interactions is partly driven by their social assertiveness (Leckelt, Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2015). Despite emerging as leaders during short-term interactions, the charm of highly narcissistic individuals tends to wane over time or with frequent interactions (Nevicka, Van Vianen, De Hoogh, & Voorn, 2018;Ong, Roberts, Arthur, Woodman, & Akehurst, 2016). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Theoretical and methodological concepts on how personality is implicated in team functioning and performance
... For example, grandiose narcissists place great value on being admired by others, and attempt to gain this admiration by being charming in social settings and making positive first impressions (Back et al., 2010). Unfortunately for these individuals, however, the appeal of their charm tends to deteriorate over time (Leckelt et al., 2015). In addition, the emergence of charmingness as a highly central bridge node between narcissistic admiration and narcissistic rivalry suggests the intriguing possibility of the "Janusfaced" nature of charm. ...
Article
Full-text available
The narcissistic admiration and rivalry concept (NARC) model of grandiose narcissism posits that striving for uniqueness, grandiose fantasies, and charmingness define narcissistic admiration, whereas striving for supremacy, devaluation, and aggressiveness define narcissistic rivalry. Given these complex interrelationships, we explored the structure of grandiose narcissism using the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire (NARQ) and Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) via network analysis in four separate samples which allowed us to assess the extent to which these networks replicated across these samples (total N = 3,868). Overall, grandiose cognitions from the NARQ emerged as a highly central node in each network, providing compound evidence for its replicability and generalizability as an important feature of grandiose narcissism within the NARC model. Charmingness from the NARQ emerged as a central node throughout Samples 1, 2, and 3, with strong connections to features of narcissistic admiration and narcissistic rivalry (e.g., grandiose fantasies and aggressiveness), but was less central in Sample 4. To our knowledge, this is the first research to examine the replicability of the network structure of grandiose narcissism across various samples. These findings add to an increasingly important dialogue regarding replicability in psychological network science.
... In more intimate interactive situations that are typical for longer-term acquaintance, antagonistic aspects of narcissism should be expressed and lead to negative evaluations while agentic expressions might lose some of their appeal to partners with increased exposure. Initial evidence for this model has been found in the domains of peer (Leckelt et al., 2015) and romantic relationships (Wurst et al., 2018). Future research might expand the range of examined social contexts (e.g., leadership positions) and further specify relevant situational triggers that (a) moderate how strongly agentic and antagonistic narcissistic behaviors are expressed (by means of circumscribed motivational dynamics) and (b) how these expressions are perceived and evaluated by social partners. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Narcissism is of great interest to behavioral scientists and the lay public. Research across the last 20 years has led to substantial progress in the conceptualization, measurement, and study of narcissism. The present paper reviews the current state of the field, identifying recent advances and outlining future directions. Advances include hierarchical conceptualizations of narcissism across one (narcissism), two (grandiose vs. vulnerable narcissism), and three factor levels (agentic extraversion, antagonism, narcissistic neuroticism), the development of measures to assess the components of narcissism, clarification of the relations between narcissism and self-esteem, an understanding of the behavioral and motivational dynamics underlying narcissistic actions and social outcomes, and insight regarding potential fluctuations between narcissistic states. Future directions point in general to increased research using the lower levels of the narcissism hierarchy, especially the three-factor level. At this level, more research is required on the etiology, heritability, stability, and centrality of the three components.
... Indeed, self-presentation strategies have been associated with reduced liking (Vonk, 1999). Past research on narcissism similarly suggests that narcissists are liked less than their nonnarcissistic counterparts (Czarna et al., 2014(Czarna et al., , 2016Leckelt et al., 2015;Back et al., 2018;Rentzsch and Gebauer, 2019). However, most of this research has only focused on agentic narcissism, which is distinct from communal narcissism (Gebauer et al., 2012) and pertains to excessive self-enhancement in the domain of agency (e.g., competence, performance). ...
Article
Full-text available
Outstandingly prosocial individuals may not always be valued and admired, but sometimes depreciated and rejected. While prior research has mainly focused on devaluation of highly competent or successful individuals, comparable research in the domain of prosociality is scarce. The present research suggests two mechanisms why devaluation of extreme prosocial individuals may occur: they may (a) constitute very high comparison standards for observers, and may (b) be perceived as communal narcissists. Two experiments test these assumptions. We confronted participants with an extreme prosocial or an ordinary control target and manipulated comparative aspects of the situation (salient vs. non-salient comparison, Experiment 1), and narcissistic aspects of the target (showing off vs. being modest, Experiment 2). Consistent with our assumptions, the extreme prosocial target was liked less than the control target, and even more so when the comparison situation was salient (Experiment 1), and when the target showed off with her good deeds (Experiment 2). Implications that prosociality does not always breed more liking are discussed.
... But in social and giving situations, modest approaches may be more appropriate. Self-enhancers may obtain immediate personal gains, but at the long-term expense of reputation and sincerity (Crocker & Park, 2004;Leckelt et al., 2015). Even pride can be misperceived: When self-aggrandizing goals are salient, pride appears more boastful and competitive (i.e., hubristic) than when cooperative goals are activated (Tracy & Robins, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Past research reliably shows that spending money on others (termed prosocial spending) makes people happier than spending money on oneself. The present research tested whether the happiness benefits of prosocial spending may be reduced when spending money on others for self-centered reasons—to benefit the self—than when done for recipient-centered reasons—to benefit the recipient. Four specific spending motives—spending on others to self-enhance, out of obligation, to enhance recipients, and to support recipients—were derived empirically and tested for their unique effects on hedonic and eudaemonic well-being. Across four studies, recipient-enhancement, a recipient-centered motive with a positive effect on well-being, and obligation, a self-centered motive with a negative effect on well-being, emerged as the most reliable motivational predictors of well-being from prosocial spending, across hedonic and eudaemonic forms. These findings offer the first evidence of specific interpersonal motives on prosocial spending behaviors and their effects on levels of rewards in addition to kinds of rewards.
... In more intimate interactive situations that are typical for longer-term acquaintance, antagonistic aspects of narcissism should be expressed and lead to negative evaluations, whereas agentic expressions might lose some of their appeal to partners. Initial evidence for this model has been found in the domains of peer relationships (Leckelt et al., 2015) and romantic relationships (Wurst et al., 2017). Future research might expand the range of examined social contexts (e.g., leadership positions) and further specify relevant situational triggers that (a) moderate how strongly agentic and antagonistic narcissistic behaviors are expressed (by means of circumscribed motivational dynamics) and (b) how these expressions are perceived and evaluated by social partners. ...
Article
Narcissism is of great interest to behavioral scientists and the lay public. Research across the past 20 years has led to substantial progress in the conceptualization, measurement, and study of narcissism. This article reviews the current state of the field, identifying recent advances and outlining future directions. Advances include hierarchical conceptualizations of narcissism across one-factor (narcissism), two-factor (grandiose vs. vulnerable narcissism), and three-factor (agentic extraversion, antagonism, narcissistic neuroticism) levels; the development of measures to assess the components of narcissism; clarification of the relations between narcissism and self-esteem; an understanding of the behavioral and motivational dynamics underlying narcissistic actions and social outcomes; and insight regarding potential fluctuations between narcissistic states. Future directions point in general to increased research using the lower levels of the narcissism hierarchy, especially the three-factor level. At this level, more research on the etiology, heritability, stability, and centrality of the three components is required.
... Výsledkom je, že neprispôsobivé formy narcizmu, ktoré slúžia ako prekážka úspechu, sa v dospelosti postupne zmierňujú. Takáto divergencia v užitočnosti rôznych aspektov narcizmu sa prejavuje v mnohých rôznych prostrediach a doménach života (Grijalva et al., 2015;Leckelt et al., 2015;Miller et al., 2014;Pincus a Lukowitsky, 2010). Z týchto dôvodov majú grandiózne a iné maladaptívne formy narcizmu tendenciu počas života klesať a adaptívne formy narcizmu majú tendenciu narastať, čo potvrdzujú aj niekoľké prierezové štúdie (Barlett a Barlett, 2015;Foster, et al., 2003;Roberts et al., 2010). ...
Article
Objectives. The present study aimed to investi- gate the generational and gender differences in narcissism score, and value orientation among Slovakian generations Y and Z. Sample and settings. The sample of the research consisted of 955 participants, 192 men and 763 women. Generation Y consisted of 501 respondents and generation Z consisted of 454 respondents. The 16-Item Narcissistic Personality Inventory and Portrait Values Questionnaire were administered. Hypotheses. The score of narcissism is higher in generation Z compared to generation Y and there are no differences in the value preference between these generations. There is a positive relationship between the narcissism score and individualistic values and negative relationship between narcissism score and collectivist values. Statistical analyses. Descriptive statistics: percentage, averages and standard deviations. Inferential statistics: ANOVA, Pearson corelation analysis, Z-test for independent samples, multiple linear regression. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS. Results. The results revealed higher narcissism scores among generation Y in comparison to generation Z, with men having a higher rate of narcissism. The results indicated differences between the generations and gender in the preference for the values of power, hedonism, stimulation, benevolence, universalism and security. The data supported significant positive relationship between narcissism and individualistic values; negative relationship between narcissism and collectivist values, regardless of gender and generation. The preference for individualistic values was predicted by the narcissism and generation; within collectivism, only the narcissism proved to be a significant predictor. Limitations. The limitations result from data collection, research design, the nature of the research group and the methods used. The results are valid for the researched group only. Key words: generational differences, generation Y, generation Z, narcissism, value orientation
... Similarly, top executive personality research poses questions about the effects of leader narcissism. Research on retail managers and student leaders suggests that narcissistic leaders hold inflated views of their own performance, and they become less popular and are viewed as less effective leaders over time (Campbell, Hoffman, Campbell, & Marchisio, 2011;Leckelt, Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2015;Nevicka, van Vianen, De Hoogh, & Voorn, 2018). These findings raise critical questions about how narcissists ascend to top executive positions, maintain amicable relations with boards and other stakeholders, and remain in these positions. ...
Article
The top executive personality literature has grown significantly in recent years. We review this literature, consider its contributions to leadership research and practice, and discuss how future research on top executive personality should draw more heavily on the broader leadership literature. The paper first describes the top executive context and highlights the advantages and challenges of studying top executives. We then review the top executive personality literature in four areas that capture the bulk of the research: leadership of human resources, ethical leadership, strategic leadership and corporate governance, and firm performance. We examine how the top executive personality research in each area compares with other research on leaders’ and their personalities that has been conducted on similar topics. The paper concludes with a future research agenda, which identifies other leader, team, and contextual considerations to advance our understanding of top executive personality and its influence. We also address methodological challenges related to measurement and endogeneity, because they are important for theory development and have received much attention in top executive personality research. In short, our paper examines how the literatures on top executives and leadership inform one another, and it helps lay a foundation for integrating these literatures more thoroughly.
... That is, results have confirmed that the four previously discussed behavioral factors of agency, communion, interpersonal calmness, and intellectual competence are generally related to positive interpersonal evaluations. For example, agentic behaviors have been found to be related to success in selection interviews (Gallois et al., 1992;Gifford et al., 1985;Tullar, 1989), high-status attributions (Schmid Mast & Hall, 2004), and general popularity (Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2011;Leckelt et al., 2015). A cheerful and friendly facial expression, which often represents the most powerful nonverbal indicator of communal behavior, has been found to be related to positive evaluations on all Big Five traits , motivation in employment interviews (Gifford et al., 1985), popularity (Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2011;Naumann et al., 2009), and competence (Burgoon et al., 1990;Reis et al., 1990). ...
Preprint
Although the behaviors displayed by assessees are considered to be the currency of assessment centers (ACs), they have remained largely unexplored. This is surprising because a better understanding of assessees’ behaviors may provide the missing link between research on the determinants of assessee performance and research on the validity of performance ratings. On a practical level, a focus on assessees’ behaviors also informs dimension selection, exercise design, rating aids, and assessor training. Therefore, this study draws on behavioral personality science to scrutinize the behaviors that assessees express in interpersonal AC exercises. Our goals were to investigate (a) the structure of interpersonal behaviors, (b) the consistency of these behaviors across AC exercises, and (c) their effectiveness. We obtained videotaped performances of 203 assessees who took part in short interpersonal AC role-plays in a high-stakes context. Apart from assessors’ performance ratings, trained experts also independently coded assessees on over 40 specific behavioral cues in these role-plays (e.g., clear statements, upright posture, lively expressions, freezing). Results were threefold: First, the structure underlying behavioral differences in interpersonal AC exercises was represented by four broad behavioral constructs: agency, communion, interpersonal calmness, and intellectual competence. Second, assessees’ behaviors showed more consistency across exercises than performance ratings did. Third, the behaviors were related to role-play performance and predicted future interpersonal performance. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this study’s granular, behavior-driven perspective.
... As for which traits might explain a rise or fall in popularity, there is evidence that people higher on traits such as narcissistic admiration and extraversion tend to become more popular in early interactions of newly formed groups (Back et al., 2011;Grosz et al., 2020;Leckelt et al., 2015). Supporting the idea that social experiences are associated with positivity in peer perceptions, Wood et al. (2010) observed more positive perceiver effects among participants who were popular in a study among floormates and members of the same fraternity or sorority. ...
Article
Full-text available
People have characteristic ways of perceiving others’ personalities. When judging others on several traits, some perceivers tend to form globally positive and others tend to form globally negative impressions. These differences, often termed perceiver effects, have mostly been conceptualized as a static construct that taps perceivers’ personal stereotypes about the average other. Here, we assessed perceiver effects repeatedly in small groups of strangers who got to know each other over the course of 2 to 3 weeks and examined the degree to which positivity differences were stable vs. developed systematically over time. Using second order latent growth curve modelling, we tested whether initial positivity (i.e., random intercepts) could be explained by several personality variables and whether change (i.e., random slopes) could be explained by these personality variables and by perceivers’ social experiences within the group. Across three studies (ns = 439, 257, and 311), personality variables characterized by specific beliefs about others, such as agreeableness and narcissistic rivalry, were found to explain initial positivity but personality was not reliably linked to changes in positivity over time. Instead, feeling liked and, to a lesser extent, being liked by one’s peers, partially explained changes in positivity. The results suggest that perceiver effects are best conceptualized as reflecting personal generalized stereotypes at an initial encounter but group-specific stereotypes that are fueled by social experiences as groups get acquainted. More generally, these findings suggest that perceiver effects might be a key variable to understanding reciprocal dynamics of small groups and interpersonal functioning.
... Admiration (the interpersonal component) and rivalry (the intrapersonal component) supplement each other to form a more inclusive picture of grandiose narcissism. This approach, operationalized by the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire (NARQ), has demonstrated its utility in studies on social consequences of narcissism, as initial admiration-driven popularity of narcissists is quenched by their manifestations of rivalry (Leckelt et al., 2015) eventually affecting quality and stability of romantic relationships (Wurst et al., 2017). Furthermore, admiration is positively correlated while rivalry is negatively correlated with forgiveness (Fatfouta et al., 2017) and willingness to apologize (Leunissen et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
While it is universally agreed that empathy deficit is a necessary condition for the dark roster membership, the literature provides no consensus regarding differential associations between individual Dark Triad traits with cognitive and affective empathy. With this in mind, we have investigated topology of the network consisting of Affective and Cognitive Measure of Empathy, Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire, and Short Dark Triad traits (SD3). The network analysis disclosed cohesive configuration of multiply connected study variables, thus confirming their aversive coaction. Two main axes of study variables were identified: the ‘dark’ affective dissonance-rivalry-psychopathy axis, and the ‘brighter’ admiration-SD3 narcissism axis; each characterized by its specific manifestation of empathic deficit. Affective dissonance was the most central while affective resonance was the most redundant node of the network. Rivalry — a node connecting the two axes — had the greatest strength in the network and was closer to affective dissonance than to psychopathy. Involvement of affective dissonance uncovered the dual nature of Machiavellianism by shifting it away from psychopathy and closer to narcissism. Overall, by use of structural information not accessible by other means, this study substantiates the proposition about the essential role of distinct empathic deficits in the constellation of antagonistic traits.
... These dominant characteristics might offer a route for narcissists to be perceived as emergent leaders. Equally, narcissists' proclivity to being admired and socially popular (Leckelt et al., 2015;Paulhus, 1998) is likely due to their capacity to exhibit behaviors that are suggestive of abilities that others consider to be valuable. For example, narcissists' capacity to communicate charismatically about a specific vision could result in narcissists being perceived as having concrete plans and competencies to lead effectively. ...
Article
Objective: Narcissistic leaders’ engagement in strategies of dominance and/or prestige at different times across their leadership tenure could explain why they are perceived favorably as leaders early on, and unfavorably later on. Method: Over a 12-week period, we found that narcissism was positively associated with peer-rated leadership during initial group formation, but not later. Results: Dominance and prestige mediated these initial positive perceptions of narcissists as leaders. However, neither dominance nor prestige mediated the relationship between narcissism and leadership later on. Conclusions: The findings highlight a mechanistic role for dominance and prestige in explaining the rise and fall of narcissistic leaders over time.
... The grandiose self is maintained with self-protection, which involves striving for supremacy and devaluation of others (Back et al., 2013). Linked to low empathy and poor social relations (e.g., Leckelt et al., 2015), rivalrous narcissism is characterized by dysfunctional emotional regulation (Cheshure et al., 2020). Such a self-protection strategy might be manifested as aggressive online behavior (e.g., interpersonal manipulation, cyberbullying, and trolling; Craker & March 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Narcissism was found to be one of the essential personality-related risk factor of Social Networking Sites (SNS) addiction. However, most of the research neglected its heterogeneous nature. In this study, we focus on four aspects of narcissism (i.e., admirative narcissism, communal narcissism, rivalrous narcissism, and vulnerable narcissism), acknowledging that they might be associated with different underlying narcissistic motives (i.e., self-enhancement or self-protection) and realized in different domains (i.e., agency or communion). We tested whether four aspects of narcissism separately and additively contribute to SNS addiction using self-report measures of narcissism and SNS addiction in three cross-sectional studies (N = 1659; one students' sample and two general Polish samples). The results indicate that all four aspects of narcissism were positively related to SNS addiction. However, only rivalrous, communal, and vulnerable narcissism aspects were independent predictors of SNS addiction. We also conclude that SNSs might not be the optimal platform for gaining gratifications via solely agentic self-enhancement. Furthermore, SNS addiction may develop not only as a compensatory mechanism of interpersonal sensitivity and poor social relations in the relatively controllable SNS' environment (as indicated by vulnerable narcissism) but also maladaptive self-regulation via antagonism and hostility towards others (as indicated by rivalrous narcissism).
... For example, workplaces can incentivize collaboration over competition, make power-related cues less salient (e.g., highlight collective rather than individual achievements), encourage employees to interpret feedback as opportunities for growth rather than a threat to their power, and offer employees the means to pursue power in socially adaptive ways (e.g., by assigning them a leadership position to facilitative withingroup collaboration in the service of between-group competition). More broadly, interventions can inform narcissists about the potentially undesirable interpersonal consequences of the unmitigated pursuit of power (e.g., decrease in status and likeability and a reputation of low affiliation; Carlson & DesJardins, 2015;Imhoff & Koch, 2017;Küfner et al., 2013;Leckelt et al., 2015;Scopelliti et al., 2015). Of course, these are not ready-to-implement interventions. ...
Article
Several theories propose that narcissism is rooted in affective contingencies. Given narcissists' focus on power, these contingencies should be strong in the power domain but not in the affiliation domain. We systematically investigated narcissists' contingencies and explored whether these contingencies might link narcissism to social behavior. In a multimethod longitudinal study, we assessed unidimensional narcissism levels as well as two main narcissistic strategies: Admiration and rivalry. We measured 209 participants' affective contingencies (i.e., affective responses to satisfying and frustrating experiences of power and affiliation) via self-reports (n = 207) and facial electromyography (fEMG, n = 201). In a 1-year follow-up, we observed participants' power- and affiliation-related behaviors in the laboratory (valid n = 123). Results indicated that narcissism was linked to increased affective reactivity to power, and this pattern was present for both admiration and rivalry. Narcissism was unrelated to affective reactivity to affiliation, with an important exception: Individuals with higher levels of narcissistic rivalry exhibited decreased reactivity toward satisfactions and increased reactivity toward frustrations of affiliation. Results were more robust for self-reported than for fEMG-indexed reactivity. Although overall narcissism and narcissistic admiration were related to power-related behaviors 1 year later, affective contingencies did not generally account for these links. These findings inform why narcissists have a relatively strong power motive and why some narcissists high in rivalry have a relatively weak affiliation motive. More broadly, these findings provide insight into the affective contingencies underlying personality traits and call for research on the contexts in which these contingencies guide behavior. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Narcissism is conceptualized as a tendency to obtain and maintain grandiose self-views through persistent self-enhancement and selfprotection ( Back et al., 2013 ). Back et al. (2013) distinguished two aspects of grandiose narcissism that reflect different motivational and behavioural tendencies: narcissistic admiration (e.g., thriving for uniqueness) and narcissistic rivalry (e.g., devaluation, aggression), which have distinct implications for social behavior at the individual, interpersonal and group level ( Leckelt et al., 2015 ). Narcissistic admiration (i.e., agentic narcissism) is characterized by assertive self-enhancement that entails striving for uniqueness, charm, and grandiose fantasies. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cultures that value individuality over collective cohesion tend to report higher levels of narcissism. One plausible explanation is that individuals with vertical individualistic orientations might find it easier to justify motivations to procure individual status and success, which may reinforce narcissistic tendencies. We tested this idea with samples of university students (N1 = 545) and working adults (N2 = 534). Specifically, we examined the degree to which cultural orientations related to grandiose narcissism through the fundamental social motives of status and affiliation. The indirect effects of vertical individualism on narcissism exhibited consistent patterns in both samples. As expected, vertical individualism related to higher levels of both agentic and antagonistic narcissism via a stronger status motive. The indirect effects of horizontal collectivism on narcissism were only observed for narcissistic rivalry. Specifically, horizontal collectivism related to lower levels of antagonistic narcissism via a stronger affiliation motive and a weaker status motive. Through documenting the interconnectedness of individuals’ cultural orientations, social motives, and narcissism, our findings demonstrate the central role of the status motive for narcissism.
... Moreover, there are differences between narcissism facets in other interpersonal settings (Back et al., 2013): Especially in the short term, agentic narcissism leads to positive peer perceptions. However, in the long term, negative effects of antagonistic narcissism are more relevant as perceptions become increasingly negative (Leckelt et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Broad sections of the population try to be more mindful, often with quite self-centered motives. It is therefore not surprising that there is growing interest in the investigation of narcissism and mindfulness. Despite theoretical and empirical ties, however, existing research on this association is scarce. In two studies (N = 3,134 and 403) with English- and German-speaking participants, we apply structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relationships between facets of grandiose narcissism and trait mindfulness. Across both studies and, using different narcissism and mindfulness measures, SEM consistently revealed opposing patterns for agentic and antagonistic narcissism, with agentic narcissism being positively related to trait mindfulness, and antagonistic narcissism being negatively related to it. Findings highlight the necessity to acknowledge the conceptual heterogeneity of narcissism when examining its relationship with trait mindfulness. Practical implications regarding how agentic and antagonistic narcissists might profit differently from mindfulness practice are discussed.
... According to selfregulation theory, such self-regulation (self-protection or assertive self-enhancement) is a process by which individuals control their impulses that are incompatible with societal norms (Muraven & Baumeister, 2000). Narcissistic rivalry influences one's behavior through a self-protecting process and has been found to be positively associated with envy, annoyed reactions, and aggressiveness; conversely, narcissistic admiration influences one's behavior through a self-enhancing process and has been found to be positively associated with a self-assured voice, engagement, and attractiveness (Lange et al., 2016;Leckelt et al., 2015). Empirical evidence has shown that grandiose narcissism is not a homogenous trait Crowe et al., 2019;Wurst et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Narcissism is considered a generally undesirable trait in the workplace, but is this the whole story? In grandiose narcissism, two dimensions (narcissistic rivalry and narcissistic admiration) are recognized corresponding to self-protecting and self-enhancing regulatory processes separately. Applying the self-regulation theory and the conservation of resources theory, we investigated the distinct outcomes and influencing mechanisms of the two dimensions in an organizational context using multilevel structural equation modeling. Whereas previous literature has found narcissism to be mainly related to negative outcomes in the workplace, our dimensional framework indicates that grandiose narcissism may have a Janus face—i.e., a dark side of unethical behaviors and a light side of prosocial behaviors. From a sample of 646 frontline employees in a Chinese call center, we found that while employee narcissistic rivalry was positively related to customer-directed sabotage through the mediation of emotional exhaustion, narcissistic admiration was positively related to organizational citizenship behavior toward customers (OCB-C) through the mediation of self-perceived status. In addition to the internal self-regulation of these two narcissism dimensions, political skill provides an external self-regulation that moderates the mediating effect of self-perceived status at the first stage—that is, the positive relationship between narcissistic admiration and self-perceived status is stronger when political skill is high rather than low. Our post hoc analyses further reveal that narcissistic rivalry is negatively related to OCB-C through the mediation of self-perceived status. Theoretical contributions and practical implications are discussed.
... Most studies show that narcissism in leaders can be detrimental to employees and their organizations. For instance, narcissistic leaders will encroach on employees' rights and interests, weaken employees' autonomy and boost their pressure (Nevicka et al., 2018a), and often make employees intimidated due to negative aspects of arrogance, hostility and manipulation (Leckelt et al., 2015), lead to counter-productive work behavior and workplace deviation of subordinates (Penney and Spector, 2010), keep down honesty in communication and subordinates' trust in leaders (Benson and Hogan, 2008). However, some scholars have found out that narcissistic leaders can win the followership of their subordinates by their acts of humility (Owens et al., 2015), and motivate their employees with enthusiastic and spiritual description, making the employees sincerely committed to the leader and dedicated to the organization (Rosenthal and Pittinsky, 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic gave rise to social and economic problems and pose a threat to most of enterprise. Faced with crisis and challenge, effective leaders and devoted employees are important factors for enterprises to overcome difficulties. We propose a moderated mediation model wherein narcissistic leader predicts subordinate’s followership through leader self-interest behavior perceived by subordinates, with organizational identification of leader acting as the contextual condition. Two-wave data collected from 303 employees in the manufacturing and technology industry in China supported our hypothesized model. We found that narcissistic leader has negative impact on subordinates’ followership due to their perception of leader’s self-interest behavior. Further, organizational identification of leader plays a moderate role in the relationship between narcissistic leader and subordinates’ followership. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. We also offer several promising directions for future research.
... Thus, no such heroes are needed (Venus et al., 2019). However, in an environment full of uncertainty, narcissism is valued because people who believe that they should dominate (Zhu and Chen, 2015), be leaders (Judge et al., 2006), firmly pursue goals despite adversity (Rosenthal and Pittinsky, 2006), and behave assertively rather than cautiously and indecisively (Leckelt et al., 2015) can help organizations (Wallace and Baumeister, 2002). Uncertainty has been found to enhance the preference for narcissistic leaders, as the overconfidence and dominance of narcissistic leaders satisfy the demand for "strength and toughness" in uncertain contexts (Nevicka et al., 2013, p. 371). ...
Article
Full-text available
During the COVID-19 pandemic, organizations need to effectively manage changes, and employees need to proactively adapt to these changes. The present research investigated when and how individual employees' narcissism was related to their change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior. Specifically, based on a trait activation perspective, this research proposed the hypotheses that individual employees' narcissism and environmental uncertainty would interactively influence employees' change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior via felt responsibility for constructive change; furthermore, the effect of narcissism on change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior via felt responsibility for constructive change would be stronger when the environmental uncertainty prompted by the COVID-19 pandemic was high rather than low. Two studies were conducted to test these hypotheses: an online survey of 180 employees in mainland China (Study 1) and a field study of 167 leader-follower dyads at two Chinese companies (Study 2). The current research reveals a bright side of narcissism, which has typically been recognized as a dark personality trait, and enriches the understanding of the antecedents of change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior. This research can also guide organizations that wish to stimulate employee proactivity.
... e., entering relationships with fellow narcissists; Grosz et al., 2015;Lamkin et al., 2015). As targets of perception, narcissists elicit more positive impressions earlier (than later) in relationships (Czarna et al., 2016;Leckelt et al., 2015), with corresponding implications for partnerenhancement. ...
Article
Full-text available
Partner-enhancement refers to perceiving the romantic partner more positively than one’s own self. Partner-enhancement often varies as a function of relationship duration: It is stronger in the earlier than later stage of a relationship. We asked whether narcissism moderates the association between relationship duration and partner-enhancement. We conducted three studies, with two testing participants individually (N1 = 70; N2 = 412) and the third testing couples (N3 = 84). Overall, narcissism negatively predicted partner-enhancement. However, low narcissists enhanced their partners at earlier but not later relationship stages, whereas high narcissists showed little partner-enhancement across relationship stages. High narcissists do not enhance their partner, albeit they self-enhance, a pattern that may have consequences for the quality of their relationships.
... That is, results have confirmed that the four previously discussed behavioral factors of agency, communion, interpersonal calmness, and intellectual competence are generally related to positive interpersonal evaluations. For example, agentic behaviors have been found to be related to success in selection interviews (Gallois et al., 1992;Gifford et al., 1985;Tullar, 1989), high status attributions (Schmid Mast & Hall, 2004), and general popularity (Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2011;Leckelt et al., 2015). A cheerful and friendly facial expression, which often represents the most powerful nonverbal indicator of communal behavior, has been found to be related to positive evaluations on all Big Five traits , motivation in employment interviews (Gifford et al., 1985), popularity (Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2011;Naumann et al., 2009), and competence (Burgoon et al., 1990;Reis et al., 1990). ...
Article
Full-text available
Although the behaviors displayed by assessees are the currency of assessment centers (ACs), they have remained largely unexplored. This is surprising because a better understanding of assessees’ behaviors may provide the missing link between research on the determinants of assessee performance and research on the validity of performance ratings. Therefore, this study draws on behavioral personality science to scrutinize the behaviors that assessees express in interpersonal AC exercises. Our goals were to investigate (a) the structure of interpersonal behaviors, (b) the consistency of these behaviors across AC exercises, and (c) their effectiveness. We obtained videotaped performances of 203 assessees who took part in AC role-plays in a high-stakes context. Apart from assessors’ performance ratings, trained experts also independently coded assessees on over 40 specific behavioral cues in these role-plays (e.g., clear statements, upright posture, freezing). Results were threefold: First, the structure underlying behavioral differences in interpersonal AC exercises was represented by four broad behavioral constructs: agency, communion, interpersonal calmness, and intellectual competence. Second, assessees’ behaviors showed more consistency across exercises than performance ratings did. Third, the behaviors were related to role-play performance and predicted future interpersonal performance. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this study’s granular, behavior-driven perspective.
Article
On the basis of the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Concept and recent theories on narcissistic pursuit of status, we provide a differentiated analysis of individual differences in the within-person dynamics of grandiose narcissism. In two daily diary studies (Sample 1: 56 days; Sample 2: 82 days; total participants: N = 198; total observations: N = 12,404), we investigated the degree, stability, and trait correlates of individual differences in average narcissism-relevant states (perceived status success, perceived admiration and rejection, positive and negative affect, and assertive and hostile behavior) as well as individual differences in within-person contingencies between these states. The results indicated substantial and stable between-person differences in averaged states that were related to their corresponding narcissism trait self-reports. State contingencies showed substantial strength, significant interindividual differences, and stability across the 56 and 82 days, respectively. We only found weak support for associations between state contingencies and trait narcissism self-reports. These findings support a differentiated approach to the conceptualization and assessment of grandiose state narcissism and call for even more comprehensive and fine-grained investigations.
Article
Full-text available
Debates about the benefits of self-esteem have persisted for decades, both in the scientific literature and in the popular press. Although many researchers and lay people have argued that high self-esteem helps individuals adapt to and succeed in a variety of life domains, there is widespread skepticism about this claim. The present article takes a new look at the voluminous body of research (including several meta-analyses) examining the consequences of self-esteem for several important life domains: relationships, school, work, mental health, physical health, and antisocial behavior. Overall, the findings suggest that self-esteem is beneficial in all these domains, and that these benefits hold across age, gender, and race/ethnicity, and controlling for prior levels of the predicted outcomes and potential third variable confounds. The meta-analytic estimates of self-esteem effects (which average .10 across domains) are comparable in size to estimates for other hypothesized causal factors such as self-efficacy, positive emotionality, attachment security, and growth mindset, and larger than some generally accepted pharmaceutical interventions. Discussion focuses on several issues that are critical for evaluating the findings, including the strength of the evidence for making causal inferences, the magnitude of the effects, the importance of distinguishing between self-esteem and narcissism, and the generalizability of the results. In summary, the present findings support theoretical conceptions of self-esteem as an adaptive trait that has wide-ranging influences on healthy adjustment and adaptation, and suggest that interventions aimed at boosting self-esteem might, if properly designed and implemented, benefit individuals and society as a whole.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Based on a personality-behavior-outcome framework, this study analyzes how entrepreneurs' dual narcissism (i.e. narcissistic admiration and rivalry) affects new venture growth (NVG) through learning from entrepreneurial failure (LFEF) and discusses the moderating effect of personal initiative on the relationship between dual narcissism and LFEF. Design/methodology/approach A total of 294 entrepreneurs from different cities and industries in China were selected as the research sample. The mediation effect was examined using the PROCESS macro, and the moderation effect was tested via hierarchical regression analysis. Findings This study found that narcissistic admiration positively affected NVG, while narcissistic rivalry had the opposite effect. LFEF mediated the relationships between narcissistic admiration/rivalry and NVG. In addition, the effects of narcissistic admiration and rivalry on LFEF were moderated by personal initiative. Practical implications The findings suggest that entrepreneurs with narcissistic rivalry should deliberately regulate their cognition of failure and strengthen their learning from failure. Moreover, entrepreneurship education mentors should emphasize cultivating and guiding entrepreneurs' personal initiative in the context of frustration education. In addition, venture capitalists can consider incorporating the personality traits (i.e. dual narcissism and personal initiative) of entrepreneurs into the investment decision-making index system. Originality/value This study advances the relationship between narcissism and performance through the perspective of dual narcissism and provides a learning theory perspective for analyzing the narcissism–performance relationship. Moreover, by exploring the moderating role of personal initiative, this study enriches the understanding of the conditional factor that affects the ability to learn from failure.
Article
Full-text available
Research on grandiose narcissism distinguishes between self-promotional processes (i.e., narcissistic admiration) and other-derogative processes (i.e., narcissistic rivalry; Back et al., 2013). Moreover, research has begun to assess and investigate narcissistic manifestations in different domains (e.g., communal narcissism). To integrate these two lines of research, we developed the Domain-Specific Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire (D-NARQ), a 72-item narcissism questionnaire that contains a self-promotional (narcissistic admiration) process scale and an other-derogatory (narcissistic rivalry) process scale for four domains: intellectual ability, social dominance, communal care, and physical attractiveness. We investigated the psychometric properties of the D-NARQ in a large online study (N = 1,635). Model fit statistics were largely in line with the theorized factor structure. The measurement precision of the D-NARQ scales were good to very good, and their correlations with established narcissism scales, the Big Five personality traits, and comparative self-evaluations largely supported their convergent and discriminant validity.
Article
Previous research highlights that narcissism predicts a wide range of antisocial tendencies. We propose that the expression of such tendencies is contingent on the level of dispositional self-control. Three independent studies (N total = 1,458) using three different narcissism measures and self-reported as well as behavioral indicators of antisocial tendencies tested this moderation hypothesis. In Study 1, antagonistic narcissism was positively related to self-reported revenge following an interpersonal transgression and this relationship was weakened among individuals high (vs. low) in self-control. Studies 2 and 3 conceptually replicated this finding using different narcissism measures, respectively, and trait (Study 2) as well as behaviorally assessed aggression (Study 3) as outcome variables. Results support the moderating role of self-control in the antagonistic narcissism-antisociality link.
Article
Research on seafarers' personality traits is sparse, and little is known about the influence of personality traits on seafarers' behaviour on board. An important aspect of seafarer behaviour on board is effective communication and coordination with other crew members. Since previous research has associated Dark Triad traits with ineffective team performance, the study aimed to examine the relationship between these traits and attitudes toward communication and coordination on board in a sample of 318 seafarers from Croatia. The results of the study show that psychopathy has a negative relationship with seafarers' attitudes toward communication and coordination on board, while narcissism has a positive relationship with the same construct. Practical implications are given.
Article
Background In the development of narcissism, besides genetic factors, hostile educational conditions, including adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), are discussed as causal factors. ACE may play a causal role in the development of antagonistic behavior due to negative interpersonal experiences. However, studies assessing the role of ACEs in the etiology of narcissism are still inconsistent, particularly regarding grandiose narcissism. This may be due to the complexity of grandiose narcissism, which can be distinguished into agentic (admiration) and antagonistic (rivalry) facets. Understanding the role of early traumatic events in the etiology of grandiose narcissism may be important for psychotherapeutic treatment in both, patients with trauma history and narcissistic patients. Objective We aimed to specify the role of ACEs in grandiose narcissism by differentiating between admiration and rivalry. Participants and setting In a cross-sectional survey conducted from November 2017 to February 2018, a representative sample of the German population above the age of 14 (N = 2531) was selected in a random route approach. Results Increased numbers of ACEs were associated with higher mean scores for rivalry in females (B = 0.04, p = 0.02) and males (B = 0.08, p < 0.01), while no significant associations were seen for admiration. Focusing on individual ACEs, in males, all maltreatment experiences were associated with narcissistic rivalry, with the exception of physical neglect, while in women only emotional maltreatment and emotional neglect were significant. Associations with household dysfunction were shown only in men. There were no significant associations between individual ACEs and admiration. Conclusions Our results suggest emotional coldness and negative relationship experiences play a role in the development of, in particular, antagonistic and unfavorable narcissistic traits, such as admiration. Therapy with individuals who have experienced ACEs should take into account possible narcissistic personality traits related to ACEs to facilitate successful treatment. Thus, our findings may help building a therapeutic alliance though a better understanding of the development of current behavioral problems for both patient and psychotherapist.
Preprint
On the basis of the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Concept and recent theories on narcissistic pursuit of status, we provide a differentiated analysis of individual differences in the within-person dynamics of grandiose narcissism. In two daily diary studies (Sample 1: 56 days; Sample 2: 82 days; total participants: N = 198; total observations: N = 12,404), we investigated the degree, stability, and trait correlates of individual differences in average narcissism-relevant states (perceived status success, perceived admiration and rejection, positive and negative affect, and assertive and hostile behavior) as well as individual differences in within-person contingencies between these states. The results indicated substantial and stable between-person differences in averaged states that were related to their corresponding narcissism trait self-reports. State contingencies showed substantial strength, significant interindividual differences, and stability across the 56 and 82 days, respectively. We only found weak support for associations between state contingencies and trait narcissism self-reports. These findings support a differentiated approach to the conceptualization and assessment of grandiose state narcissism and call for even more comprehensive and fine-grained investigations.
Article
The dual-strategies theory of social rank proposes that both dominance and prestige are effective strategies for gaining social rank (i.e., the capacity for influence) in groups. However, the only existing longitudinal investigation of these strategies suggests that, among undergraduate students, only prestige allows people to maintain social rank over time. The current study provides a longitudinal test of dominance and prestige in a context where dominance is more normative: MBA project groups. Among 548 MBA students in 104 groups, peer-rated dominance and prestige predicted gains in social rank over the course of 4 weeks, indicating that both strategies may help people not only gain social rank but also maintain it over time. Furthermore, prestige—but not dominance—led to social rank because of willingly given deference from group members. This confirms a central but thus-far-untested principle of dual-strategies theory: While prestige is based on freely conferred deference, dominance is not.
Article
Full-text available
Narcissists successfully emerge as leaders. However, the processes by which this occurs are mostly unknown. Following a dual-pathway approach and differentiating between agentic (narcissistic admiration) and antagonistic (narcissistic rivalry) narcissism, we investigated the behavioral processes underlying narcissists’ leadership emergence in social groups. We applied data from a multimethodological laboratory study ( N = 311) comprising three groups of variables: personality traits, expressed interaction behaviors, and interpersonal perceptions. Prior to the laboratory sessions, participants provided self-reported answers to various narcissism measures. Interpersonal perceptions were obtained from round-robin ratings after participants completed the Lost on the Moon task in small groups. Participants’ behaviors during the group discussion were videotaped and coded by trained raters. Results supported the notion of a pathway from agentic narcissism to leadership (measured as target effects of being seen as a leader) determined by narcissistic admiration, dominant-expressive behavior, and being seen as assertive. To clarify narcissism’s relationship to leadership emergence, the effects were (a) contrasted with narcissism’s effects on popularity and (b) set in relation to process pathways leading from intelligence and physical attractiveness to leadership. The findings underscore the benefits of a behavioral pathway approach for unravelling the impact of narcissism on leadership emergence.
Article
How do leaders matter? What do leaders want? Grandiose narcissism provides a pathway to understanding how personality can impact a leader’s preference formation and foreign policy behavior. More narcissistic leaders will focus their efforts on maintaining their inflated self-image by selecting how they will fight on the world stage and who they will fight against. While most leaders will divert attention to easier won battles, more narcissistic leaders will prefer to fight against high-status states by themselves. This article introduces a new measure of US’ presidential narcissism, and finds support for the argument that more narcissistic US presidents prefer unilaterally initiating Great Power disputes using data from 1897–2008. A brief review of Theodore Roosevelt’s handling of the Venezuela Crisis of 1902–1903 is used as a plausibility probe of the theory’s causal mechanisms.
Article
Full-text available
Reactions to trait self-enhancers were investigated in 2 longitudinal studies of person.perception in discussion groups. Groups of 4-6 participants met 7 times for 20 rain. After Meetings 1 and 7, group members rated their perceptions of one another. In Study 1, trait self-enhancement was indexed by measures of narcissism and self-deceptive enhancement. At the first meeting, self-enhancers made positive impressions: They were seen as agreeable, well adjusted, and competent. After 7 weeks, however, they were rated negatively and gave self-evaluations discrepant with peer evaluations they received. In Study 2, an independent sample of observers (close acquaintances) enabled a pretest index of discrepancy self-enhancement: It predicted the same deteriorating pattern of interpersonal perceptions as the other three trait measures. Nonetheless, all self-enhancement measures correlated positively with self-esteem.
Article
Full-text available
Taxonomies of person characteristics are well developed, while taxonomies of psychologically important situation characteristics are underdeveloped. A working model of situation perception implies the existence of taxonomizable dimensions of psychologically meaningful, important, and consequential situation characteristics tied to situation cues, goal affordances, and behavior. Such dimensions are developed and demonstrated in a multi-method set of six studies. First, the “Situational Eight DIAMONDS” dimensions Duty, Intellect, Adversity, Mating, pOsitivity, Negativity, Deception, and Sociality are established from the Riverside Situational Q-Sort (Study 1). Second, their rater agreement (Study 2) and associations with situation cues and goal/trait affordances (Studies 3 and 4) are examined. Finally, the usefulness of these dimensions is demonstrated by examining their predictive power of behavior (Study 5), particularly vis-à-vis measures of personality and situations (Study 6). Together, we provide extensive and compelling evidence that the DIAMONDS taxonomy is useful for organizing major dimensions of situation characteristics. We discuss the DIAMONDS taxonomy in the context of previous taxonomic approaches and sketch future research directions.
Article
Full-text available
Above and beyond the benefits of biases such as positivity and assumed similarity, does the accuracy of our first impressions have immediate and long-term effects on relationship development? Assessing accuracy as distinctive self-other agreement, we found that more accurate personality impressions of new classmates were marginally associated with greater liking concurrently, and significantly predicted greater interaction throughout the semester and greater liking and interest in future interactions by the end of the semester. Importantly, greater distinctive self-other agreement continued to promote social interaction even after controlling for Time 1 liking, suggesting that these positive effects of accuracy operate independently of initial liking. Forming positively biased first impressions was a strong predictor of both initial and longer term relationship development, while assumed similarity showed strong initial but not long-term associations. In sum, independent of the benefits of biased impressions, forming accurate impressions has a positive impact on relationship development among new acquaintances.
Article
Full-text available
We present a process model that distinguishes 2 dimensions of narcissism: admiration and rivalry. We propose that narcissists' overarching goal of maintaining a grandiose self is pursued by 2 separate pathways, characterized by distinct cognitive, affective-motivational, and behavioral processes. In a set of 7 studies, we validated this 2-dimensional model using the newly developed Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire (NARQ). We showed that narcissistic admiration and rivalry are positively correlated dimensions, yet they have markedly different nomological networks and distinct intra- and interpersonal consequences. The NARQ showed the hypothesized 2-dimensional multifaceted structure as well as very good internal consistencies (Study 1, N = 953), stabilities (Study 2, N = 93), and self-other agreements (Study 3, N = 96). Narcissistic admiration and rivalry showed unique relations to the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), the Big Five, self-esteem, pathological narcissism, and other narcissism-related traits like Machiavellianism, psychopathy, self-enhancement, and impulsivity (Study 4, Ns = 510-1,814). Despite the positive relation between admiration and rivalry, the 2 differentially predicted general interpersonal orientations and reactions to transgressions in friendships and romantic relationships (Study 5, N = 1,085), interpersonal perceptions during group interactions (Study 6, N = 202), and observed behaviors in experimental observations (Study 7, N = 96). For all studies, the NARQ outperformed the standard measure of narcissism, the NPI, in predicting outcome measures. Results underscore the utility of a 2-dimensional conceptualization and measurement of narcissism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Full-text available
The present article reviews current research on the application and extension of the lens model to interpersonal judgments. We first explain how the basic lens model can be used to describe the processes underlying the accuracy of personality judgments at zero acquaintance. Then we outline how this model can be differentiated by assimilating it with research on intuitive and reflective personality judgments, implicit and explicit personality tests, and more or less controlled behavior. We continue by integrating the research on the lens model with research on judgmental errors and knowledge updating. Finally, we describe extensions of the lens model to other interpersonal phenomena at zero acquaintance, such as metaaccuracy and liking. Overall, this review shows that the lens model is a persuasive and flexible framework that can be used to understand interpersonal judgments.
Article
Full-text available
Two studies examined narcissism and commitment in ongoing romantic relationships. In Study 1, narcissism was found to be negatively related to commitment. Mediational analyses further revealed that this was primarily a result of narcissists’ perception of alternatives to their current relationship. Study 2 replicated these findings with an additional measure of alternatives. Again, narcissists reported less commitment to their ongoing romantic relationship. This link was mediated by both perception of alternatives and attention to alternative dating partners. The utility of an interdependence approach to understanding the role of personality in romantic relationships is discussed.
Article
Full-text available
The subclinical Dark Triad traits narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy (Paulhus & Williams, 2002) are related to antagonistic behaviors in interpersonal situations. The current study addresses whether these three traits entail different social consequences by investigating self-ratings, ratings of others, and ratings by others for the Dark Triad. In a naturalistic setting, 93 informal, minimally acquainted student dyads worked briefly on a cooperative task and subsequently provided self- and other- ratings on the Big Five and intelligence, self-ratings on the Dark Triad, and ratings on properties of the interaction. Overall, narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy manifested differently: profile analyses indicated that Machiavellians diverged from narcissists and psychopaths in self-ratings, ratings of others, and ratings by others, while narcissists and psychopaths converged to a moderate degree. Findings are discussed regarding the distinction of the Dark Triad traits.
Article
Full-text available
Consensus between self-ratings and stranger ratings of personality traits was investigated. A sample of 100 adults was videotaped while entering and walking through a room, sitting down, looking into the camera, and reading a standard text. The targets then provided self-descriptions on 5 personality factors. A sample of 24 strangers who had never seen the targets before was given 1 of 4 types of information on the targets: (1) sound-film, (2) silent film, (3) still, or (4) audiotape. Strangers rated various physical attributes and 20 traits of each target. Level of information influenced the validity but not the reliability of the stranger ratings, which were most valid for extraversion and conscientiousness. Extraversion covaried most strongly with physical attributes, and implicit theories on the covariation of traits with physical attributes were more accurate for extraversion and conscientiousness than for agreeableness, emotional stability, and culture. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have used cross-sectional designs to demonstrate the beneficial effect of acquaintanceship on the validity of personality impressions. To counter critiques of those studies, a longitudinal design was used. Participants were randomly assigned to 16 groups of 5–7 members who met once a week for 7 wks. None of the participants in any group were previously acquainted. Before the 1st meeting, they completed a battery of self-report measures, including the NEO Five Factor Inventory and the revised Interpersonal Adjective Scales. After Weeks 1, 4, and 7, group members rated each other on single-item measures related to each of the Big Five. All correlations between self-reports and corresponding peer ratings (i.e., validities) were significant by Week 7. The mean Big Five validity increased significantly from .21 to .26 to .30 at Weeks 1, 4, and 7, respectively. Extraversion showed the highest validity and consensus. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Recent reviewers have concluded that dispositions are not very reliably encoded in nonverbal behavior, although observers seem eager to use nonverbal information to decode the dispositions of others. A modified Brunswik lens model (E. Brunswik, 1956) and behavior mapping were used to examine the encoding and decoding of 8 interpersonal dispositions from nonverbal cues. First, 20 triads completed self-assessments and were videotaped during conversation. Next, 38 of their nonverbal behaviors were independently scored. Finally, 21 unacquainted peers rated all 60 conversers on the same dispositions. Across the 8 dispositions, encoding multiple correlations ranged from 0 to .62 and decoding ranged from .74 to .82. Achievement (self-other correlations) ranged from .18 to .45. Some implications of the results for interpersonal conflict and personality assessment are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has suggested that narcissism can be conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of the related, but unique, dimensions of grandiosity and entitlement. The current studies examined the divergent associations of grandiosity and entitlement with respect to different types of self-serving strategies. In Study 1, we found that narcissistic grandiosity, but not entitlement, was positively associated with a self-enhancing strategy of unrealistic optimism. This association was not mediated by self-esteem. In Study 2, narcissistic entitlement, but not grandiosity, was predictive of unethical decision-making, an interpersonal self-promotional strategy that advances the self at the expense of others. Together, both studies support a model of narcissism consisting of a relatively intrapersonal dimension of grandiosity and a relatively interpersonal dimension of entitlement.
Article
Full-text available
A new model of narcissism is presented, the contextual reinforcement model. This model describes an area where narcissism will be largely beneficial to the self and, to a lesser extent, to others. This “emerging zone” includes situations involving unacquainted individuals, early-stage relationships, and short-term contexts. The costs of narcissism are seen primarily in the “enduring zone.” These are situations involving acquainted individuals, continuing relationships, and long-term consequences. A dynamic in which narcissists cyclically return to the emerging zone is described. Research on the functioning of narcissism in leadership settings is presented as a case study of the contextual reinforcement model. Implications for understanding self-enhancement more broadly are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
An interactionist principle of trait activation is proposed, emphasizing situation trait relevance (i.e., opportunity for trait expression) as a moderator of trait–behavior relations and cross-situational consistency (CSC). One hundred fifty-six students completed trait measures and expressed intentions in 10 scenarios targeted to each of five traits (e.g., risk taking). Trait–intention correlations within scenario sets were themselves correlated with mean situation trait relevance ratings provided by 26 proficient judges; CSCs in intentions (45 correlations per trait) were correlated with an index of shared trait relevance in situation pairs. In support of trait activation, (a) trait–intention relations for three traits were higher in more relevant situations (e.g., second-order r = .66 for risk taking) and (b) CSCs were higher in scenarios jointly high in targeted trait relevance (e.g., second-order r = .55 for risk taking). Discussion highlights applications of trait activation in diverse research domains.
Article
Full-text available
This research uses item response theory methods to evaluate the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988). Analyses using the 2-parameter logistic model were conducted on the total score and the Corry, Merritt, Mrug, and Pamp (2008) and Ackerman et al. (2011) subscales for the NPI. In addition to offering precise information about the psychometric properties of the NPI item pool, these analyses generated insights that can be used to develop new measures of the personality constructs embedded within this frequently used inventory.
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we present TripleR, an R package for the calculation of social relations analyses (Kenny, 1994) based on round-robin designs. The scope of existing software solutions is ported to R and enhanced with previously unimplemented methods of significance testing in single groups (Lashley & Bond, 1997) and handling of missing values. The package requires only minimal knowledge of R, and results can be exported for subsequent analyses to other software packages. We demonstrate the use of TripleR with several didactic examples.
Article
Full-text available
Four studies implemented a componential approach to assessing self-enhancement and contrasted this approach with 2 earlier ones: social comparison (comparing self-ratings with ratings of others) and self-insight (comparing self-ratings with ratings by others). In Study 1, the authors varied the traits being rated to identify conditions that lead to more or less similarity between approaches. In Study 2, the authors examined the effects of acquaintance on the conditions identified in Study 1. In Study 3, the authors showed that using rankings renders the self-insight approach equivalent to the component-based approach but also has limitations in assessing self-enhancement. In Study 4, the authors compared the social-comparison and the component-based approaches in terms of their psychological implications; the relation between self-enhancement and adjustment depended on the self-enhancement approach used, and the positive-adjustment correlates of the social-comparison approach disappeared when the confounding influence of the target effect was controlled.
Article
Full-text available
Do narcissists have insight into the negative aspects of their personality and reputation? Using both clinical and subclinical measures of narcissism, the authors examined others' perceptions, self-perceptions, and meta-perceptions of narcissists across a wide range of traits for a new acquaintance and close other (Study 1), longitudinally with a group of new acquaintances (Study 2), and among coworkers (Study 3). Results bring 3 surprising conclusions about narcissists: (a) they understand that others see them less positively than they see themselves (i.e., their meta-perceptions are less biased than are their self-perceptions), (b) they have some insight into the fact that they make positive first impressions that deteriorate over time, and (c) they have insight into their narcissistic personality (e.g., they describe themselves as arrogant). These findings shed light on some of the psychological mechanisms underlying narcissism.
Article
Full-text available
A new method for assessing situations is employed to examine the association between situational similarity, personality, and behavioral consistency across ecologically representative contexts. On 4 occasions across 4 weeks, 202 undergraduate participants (105 women, 97 men) wrote descriptions of a situation they had experienced the previous day. In addition, they rated its psychological features using the recently developed Riverside Situational Q-Sort (RSQ) Version 2.0 (Wagerman & Funder, 2009) and their behavior using the Riverside Behavioral Q-Sort (RBQ) Version 3.0 (Funder, Furr, & Colvin, 2000; Furr, Wagerman, & Funder, 2010). Independent judges also rated the situations using the RSQ, on the basis of the participants' written descriptions. Results indicated (a) participants' ratings of their behavior were impressively consistent across the 4 situations; (b) the 4 situations experienced by a single participant tended to be described more similarly to each other than to situations experienced by different participants; (c) situational similarity, especially from the individual's own point of view, strongly predicted behavioral consistency; and (d) personality characteristics predicted behavioral consistency even after controlling for situational similarity. Relatively consistent persons described themselves as ethically consistent, conservative, calm and relaxed, and low on neuroticism. These results imply that behavioral consistency in daily life stems from multiple sources, including situation selection and the distinctive influence of personality, and further suggest that tools for situational assessment such as the RSQ can have wide utility.
Article
Two studies addressed parallel questions about the correlates and consequences of self-enhancement bias. Study 1 was conducted in a laboratory context and examined self-enhancing evaluations of performance in a group-interaction task. Study 2 assessed students' illusory beliefs about their academic ability when they first entered college and then followed them longitudinally to test claims about the long-term benefits of positive illusions. Both studies showed that self-enhancement bills was related to narcissism. ego involvement, self-serving attributions, and positive affect. Study 2 found that self-enhancement was associated with decreasing levels of self-esteem and well-being as well as with increasing disengagement front the academic context. Self-enhancement did not predict higher academic performance or higher graduate rates. Thus, the findings suggest that self-enhancing beliefs may be adaptive in the short term but not in the long term.
Book
The Handbook of Narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder is the definitive resource for empirically sound information on narcissism for researchers, students, and clinicians at a time when this personality disorder has become a particularly relevant area of interest. This unique work deepens understanding of how narcissistic behavior influences behavior and impedes progress in the worlds of work, relationships, and politics.
Article
Impression management, the process by which people control the impressions others form of them, plays an important role in interpersonal behavior. This article presents a 2-component model within which the literature regarding impression management is reviewed. This model conceptualizes impression management as being composed of 2 discrete processes. The 1st involves impression motivation-the degree to which people are motivated to control how others see them. Impression motivation is conceptualized as a function of 3 factors: the goal-relevance of the impressions one creates, the value of desired outcomes, and the discrepancy between current and desired images. The 2nd component involves impression construction. Five factors appear to determine the kinds of impressions people try to construct: the self-concept, desired and undesired identity images, role constraints, target's values, and current social image. The 2-component model provides coherence to the literature in the area, addresses controversial issues, and supplies a framework for future research regarding impression management.
Chapter
In this chapter we review the trait correlates of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), grandiose narcissism, and vulnerable narcissism derived from comprehensive models of general personality such as the Five Factor Model. Both NPD and grandiose narcissism are marked by correlations with traits related to interpersonal antagonism; grandiose narcissism is also associated with higher levels of traits related to extraversion such as dominance and reward seeking. Alternatively, vulnerable narcissism is primarily related to increased negative emotionality and interpersonal distrust.
Article
Historically, personality psychology has not focused on the social realm, and social psychology has mostly neglected the influence of individual differences. This has, however, begun to change in the past two decades. Recent years have brought an explosion in creative research programmes on the social consequences of personality. In this paper, we offer a (highly subjective) view on how research on the social consequences of personality should move forward. We note that the existing literature is focused heavily on: traits (at the expense of other personality characteristics), a narrow set of social outcomes (e.g. romantic relationship satisfaction) and effects of personality on one's own outcomes (rather than taking a dyadic/interpersonal perspective). In addition, little attention has been paid to the complex dynamic processes that might account for the links between personality and social outcomes. Based on this, we outline six suggestions for future research on the social consequences of personality: (1) examine a wide range of personality variables and integrate findings across domains; (2) take a broader and more integrative view on social outcomes, including different relationship types, phases and transitions; (3) analyse personality effects on social outcomes from different social perspectives (e.g. self, other and dyad); (4) search for processes that explain the associations between personality and social outcomes; (5) collect rich, multi-method, longitudinal, behavioural datasets with large samples and (6) carefully evaluate the implications of personality effects on social outcomes. We invite researchers to embrace a more collaborative and slower scientific approach to answer the many open questions about the social consequences of personality. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Personality Psychology