Article

A Deficit in Familiarity-Driven Recognition in a Right-Sided Mediodorsal Thalamic Lesion Patient

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Abstract

According to a still-controversial view of recognition, projections between the perirhinal cortex and the medial subdivision of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (mMDT) support the mnemonic processes underlying familiarity, whereas a separate extended hippocampal system is critical for the recollection of episodic details during recognition. In this study, we examined item recognition, familiarity, and recollection for faces and words in a patient (OG) with a right-sided lesion centered on the mMDT, which encroached on the central medial midline nucleus and may have resulted in partial disconnection of the mammillothalamic tract. On the basis of OG's neuropathology, the dual-process signal-detection (DPSD) high-threshold theory and the material-specific hypothesis of long-term memory together predicted a material-specific impairment in familiarity for novel facial memoranda, with a lesser decline in recollection of novel faces at short retention intervals. No abnormalities in either familiarity- or recollection-driven recognition of verbal memoranda were expected. Comparing the performance of OG and that of a group of 10 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched healthy controls, the remember-know procedure revealed the dissociations predicted by the material-specific and DPSD hypotheses: With recognition of previously novel faces, OG showed a deficit in familiarity-driven recognition that was significantly greater than the insignificant reduction in his recollection. All components of his word recognition were, however, preserved. A memory profile, marked by a dissociation between familiarity and recollection, fits naturally with the DPSD model and is incompatible with the idea that these kinds of memories reflect different degrees of trace strength. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

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... Recent studies using more refined imaging approaches to localize lesions have corroborated the idea that MD damage results in a recollection deficit (Pergola et al., 2012;Tu et al., 2014). By contrast, Edelstyn et al. (2016) described in a case study a patient with right MD damage who had a more pronounced deficit of familiarity than of recollection. This study followed two fMRI studies by the same group, which had evidenced activation of the MD in relation to familiarity (Montaldi et al., 2006;Kafkas and Montaldi, 2014). ...
... Aggleton et al. (2011) stressed that this hypothesis remained unproven, even though two previous studies had suggested that there was no clear evidence of impaired familiarity following MD lesions (Zoppelt et al., 2003;Soei et al., 2008). However, a recent single-case study did report impaired familiarity following MD damage (Edelstyn et al., 2016). Using a task based on subjective report (Remember-Know paradigm), the authors found a dissociation between recollection and familiarity in patient OG. ...
... This leaves open the question of why the patients with damage to both the MD and the MTT exhibited impaired familiarity, whereas those with MD damage alone did not. Interestingly, the only other patient to be described in the literature as displaying impaired familiarity following MD damage also had an MTT lesion (Edelstyn et al., 2016), thus supporting our findings. Consequently, combined MTT and MD lesions may impair familiarity. ...
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Models of recognition memory have postulated that the mammillo-thalamic tract (MTT) / anterior thalamic nucleus (AN) complex would be critical for recollection while the Mediodorsal nucleus (MD) of the thalamus would support familiarity and indirectly also be involved in recollection (Aggleton et al., 2011). 12 patients with left thalamic stroke underwent a neuropsychological assessment, three verbal recognition memory tasks assessing familiarity and recollection each using different procedures and a high-resolution structural MRI. Patients showed poor recollection on all three tasks. In contrast, familiarity was spared in each task. No patient had significant AN lesions. Critically, a subset of 5 patients had lesions of the MD without lesions of the MTT. They also showed impaired recollection but preserved familiarity. Recollection is therefore impaired following MD damage, but familiarity is not. This suggests that models of familiarity, which assign a critical role to the MD, should be reappraised.
... Despite evidence supporting a degree of functional specialization within the thalamus, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have produced conflicting findings Montaldi 2012, 2014;Pergola et al. 2012Edelstyn et al. 2016;Danet et al. 2017). In particular, the majority of neuropsychological evidence shows that the MDt supports familiarity memory (Edelstyn et al. 2016;Newsome et al. 2018); nevertheless, some evidence that it supports both familiarity and recollection also exists (Danet et al. 2017). ...
... Despite evidence supporting a degree of functional specialization within the thalamus, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have produced conflicting findings Montaldi 2012, 2014;Pergola et al. 2012Edelstyn et al. 2016;Danet et al. 2017). In particular, the majority of neuropsychological evidence shows that the MDt supports familiarity memory (Edelstyn et al. 2016;Newsome et al. 2018); nevertheless, some evidence that it supports both familiarity and recollection also exists (Danet et al. 2017). The apparent similarity between the MTL and MDt patterns of specialization suggests that strong interplay is likely; however, to date, there is no direct evidence of a functional interplay, or coupling, between MDt and the MTL cortices when participants make recognition (or familiarity) decisions. ...
... Human lesion studies have provided mixed results with respect to the selectiveness of the MDt in supporting familiarity memory (Zoppelt et al. 2003;Cipolotti et al. 2008;Soei et al. 2008;Pergola et al. 2012), probably owing to the fact that most patients have damage that spreads into other thalamic nuclei or into parts of the extended recollection network, which may obscure selective familiarity deficits. A recent study, however, reported a face familiarity deficit with spared recollection in a patient with right MDt damage (Edelstyn et al. 2016). Yet another recent neuropsychological study reported both recollection and familiarity deficits for word stimuli in a group of MDt patients (Danet et al. 2017). ...
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The neural basis of memory is highly distributed, but the thalamus is known to play a particularly critical role. However, exactly how the different thalamic nuclei contribute to different kinds of memory is unclear. Moreover, whether thalamic connectivity with the medial temporal lobe (MTL), arguably the most fundamental memory structure, is critical for memory, remains unknown. We explore these questions using an fMRI recognition memory paradigm that taps familiarity and recollection (i.e., the two types of memory that support recognition) for objects, faces and scenes. We show that the mediodorsal thalamus (MDt) plays a material-general role in familiarity, while the anterior thalamus plays a material-general role in recollection. Material-specific regions were found for scene familiarity (ventral posteromedial and pulvinar thalamic nuclei) and face familiarity (left ventrolateral thalamus). Critically, increased functional connectivity between the MDt and the parahippocampal (PHC) and perirhinal cortices (PRC) of the MTL underpinned increases in reported familiarity confidence. These findings suggest that familiarity signals are generated through the dynamic interaction of functionally connected MTL-thalamic structures. https://academic.oup.com/cercor/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cercor/bhz345/5709022
... However, whether these neuropathologies result directly and solely from atrophy of midbrain dopaminergic structures remains uncertain (e.g., Laakso, et al., 1996). Whatever the source of dysfunctionality of the hippocampus, the dual process view proposes that this structure's impaired efficiency disrupts recollection and other kinds of recall selectively, leaving familiarity intact, and recognition intact to the extent that it is supported by familiarity (see Aggleton & Brown, 1999;Edelstyn, Grange, Ellis, & Mayes, 2015;. There is also longstanding evidence that amnesic patients' impaired recognition memory improves to the same extent as that of their controls when they are given precise elaborative encoding instructions rather than encode in a spontaneous way (e.g., Mayes, Meudell, & Neary, 1980). ...
... Unlike the prefrontal cortex/organizational hypothesis, which cannot explain PD familiarity deficits if they are indeed disruptions of a largely automatic kind of memory, the medial temporal lobe/amnesia-like hypothesis can explain a PD familiarity impairment, provided the hypothesis is extended so as to exploit the full neuroanatomical development of the dual process view. The full dual process view also proposes that item familiarity memory is critically mediated by the perirhinal cortex (e.g., Aggleton, et al., 2005;Bowles et al., 2007;Montaldi, Spencer, Roberts, & Mayes, 2006) and its connection to the medial subdivision of the mediodorsal thalamus (Edelstyn, et al., 2015; see also Kaftas & Montaldi, 2014 for a review). Therefore, the medial temporal lobe/amnesia-like hypothesis proposes that, although the hippocampus typically becomes dysfunctional first in PD, the perirhinal cortex eventually will do so also typically later in the disease as have argued. ...
Article
Medicated, non-dementing mild-to-moderate Parkinson's disease (PD) patients usually show recall/recollection impairments but have only occasionally shown familiarity impairments. We aimed to assess two explanations of this pattern of impairment. Recollection typically improves when effortful planning of encoding and retrieval processing is engaged. This depends on prefrontally-dependent executive processes, which are often disrupted in PD. Relative to an unguided encoding and retrieval of words condition (C1), giving suitable guidance at encoding alone (C2) or at encoding and retrieval (C3) should, if executive processes are disrupted, improve PD recollection more than control recollection and perhaps raise it to normal levels. Familiarity, being a relatively automatic kind of memory, whether impaired or intact, should be unaffected by guidance. According to the second explanation, PD deficits are amnesia-like and caused by medial temporal lobe dysfunction and although poorer recollection, which is caused by hippocampal disruption, may be improved by guidance, it should not improve more than control recollection. Familiarity impairment will also occur if the perirhinal cortex is disrupted, but will be unimproved by guidance. Without guidance, recollection/recall was impaired in thirty PD patients relative to twenty-two healthy controls and remained relatively equally impaired when full guidance was provided (C1 vs C3), both groups improving to broadly the same extent. Although impaired, and markedly less so than recollection, familiarity was not improved by guidance in both groups. The patients showed elevated rates of subclinical depressive symptoms, which weakly correlated with recall/recollection in all three conditions. PD executive function was also deficient and correlated with unguided/C1 recollection only. Our results are consistent with a major cause of the patients' recall/recollection impairments being hippocampal disruption, probably exacerbated by subclinical depressive symptoms. However, the results do not exclude a lesser prefrontal cortex contribution because patient executive functions were impaired and correlated solely with unguided overall recollection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... In initial network models (Aggleton & Brown 1999), the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus has been considered as a node within the familiarity system. However, its critical involvement remains unclear because of the divergence of findings relative to a selective impairment of familiarity following lesion to the dorsomedial thalamus (Danet et al. 2017;Edelstyn et al. 2016). Theoretical positions about the role of this region currently diverge. ...
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Despite highlighting the role of the attribution system and proposing a coherent large-scale architecture of declarative memory, the integrative memory model would be more “integrative” if the temporal dynamics of the interactions between its components was clarified. This is necessary to make predictions in patients with brain injury and hypothesize dissociations.
... In initial network models (Aggleton & Brown 1999), the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus has been considered as a node within the familiarity system. However, its critical involvement remains unclear because of the divergence of findings relative to a selective impairment of familiarity following lesion to the dorsomedial thalamus (Danet et al. 2017;Edelstyn et al. 2016). Theoretical positions about the role of this region currently diverge. ...
Article
The integrative memory model formalizes a new conceptualization of memory in which interactions between representations and cognitive operations within large-scale cerebral networks generate subjective memory feelings. Such interactions allow to explain the complexity of memory expressions, such as the existence of multiples sources for familiarity and recollection feelings and the fact that expectations determine how one recognizes previously encountered information.
... In initial network models (Aggleton & Brown 1999), the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus has been considered as a node within the familiarity system. However, its critical involvement remains unclear because of the divergence of findings relative to a selective impairment of familiarity following lesion to the dorsomedial thalamus (Danet et al. 2017;Edelstyn et al. 2016). Theoretical positions about the role of this region currently diverge. ...
Article
The ventral lateral parietal cortex (VLPC) shows robust activation during episodic retrieval, and is involved in content representation, as well as in the evaluation of memory traces. This suggests that the VLPC has a crucial contribution to the quality of recollection and the subjective experience of remembering, and situates it at the intersection of the core and attribution systems.
... In initial network models (Aggleton & Brown 1999), the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus has been considered as a node within the familiarity system. However, its critical involvement remains unclear because of the divergence of findings relative to a selective impairment of familiarity following lesion to the dorsomedial thalamus (Danet et al. 2017;Edelstyn et al. 2016). Theoretical positions about the role of this region currently diverge. ...
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The syndrome of semantic dementia represents the “other side of the coin” to Alzheimer's disease, offering convergent evidence to help refine Bastin et al.’s integrative memory model. By considering the integrative memory model through the lens of semantic dementia, we propose a number of important extensions to the framework, to help clarify the complex neurocognitive mechanisms underlying recollection and familiarity.
... One typical example is the butcher-on-the-bus phenomenon In initial network models (Aggleton & Brown 1999), the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus has been considered as a node within the familiarity system. However, its critical involvement remains unclear because of the divergence of findings relative to a selective impairment of familiarity following lesion to the dorsomedial thalamus (Danet et al. 2017;Edelstyn et al. 2016). Theoretical positions about the role of this region currently diverge. ...
Article
Humans can recollect past events in details (recollection) and/or know that an object, person or place has been encountered before (familiarity). During the last two decades, there has been intense debate about how recollection and familiarity are organized in the brain. Here, we propose an Integrative Memory model which describes the distributed and interactive neurocognitive architecture of representations and operations underlying recollection and familiarity. In this architecture, the subjective experience of recollection and familiarity arises from the interaction between core systems storing particular kinds of representations shaped by specific computational mechanisms and an attribution system. By integrating principles from current theoretical views about memory functioning, we provide a testable framework to refine the prediction of deficient versus preserved mechanisms in memory-impaired populations. The case of Alzheimer's disease is considered as an example because it entails progressive lesions starting with limited damage to core systems before invading step-by-step most parts of the model-related network. We suggest a chronological scheme of cognitive impairments along the course of Alzheimer's disease, where the inaugurating deficit would relate early neurodegeneration of the perirhinal/anterolateral entorhinal cortex to impaired familiarity for items that need to be discriminated as viewpoint-invariant conjunctive entities. The Integrative Memory model can guide future neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies aiming to understand how such a network allows humans to remember past events, to project into the future and possibly also to share experiences.
... A distinction was also drawn between the parvocellular MD, which may be involved in recollection (due to their dense connectivity with the PFC), and the magnocellular MD, whose role remains more elusive [102]. Subsequent studies, including those with more refined imaging approaches to localize lesions, appeared in agreement with these proposals [36,37,51], leaving the purported role of the MD in familiarity unsubstantiated with the exception of a single case study [103] and fMRI studies [74][75][76]. Recently, a single case study assessed the impact of MD damage sustained at birth on the Forced Choice Corresponding test, which requires subjects to recognize stimuli among similar foils. ...
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The function of the human mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) has so far eluded a clear definition in terms of specific cognitive processes and tasks. Although it was at first proposed to play a role in long-term memory, a set of recent studies in animals and humans has revealed a more complex, and broader, role in several cognitive functions. The MD seems to play a multifaceted role in higher cognitive functions together with the prefrontal cortex and other cortical and subcortical brain areas. Specifically, we propose that the MD is involved in the regulation of cortical networks especially when the maintenance and temporal extension of persistent activity patterns in the frontal lobe areas are required. Nevertheless, Euryclea, take his bed outside the bed chamber that he himself built. Odyssey, Book XXIII, verses 177-178. Butler translation. The Mediodorsal Nucleus: A Reappraisal When faced with the prospect of welcoming a stranger as her long-missing husband, and unable to recognize him, Penelope resorted to her 'thalamus' with the words reported above-the bed had roots in the foundation of the house and could not be moved, a detail her husband would certainly know. Initially entering the scene as something instrumental to recognition, the thalamus (see Glossary) in the Odyssey becomes the center of the scene in the last two books. Likewise, in neuroscience, the investigation of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) is gaining momentum. Until recently, the function of the MD has been mapped onto specific cognitive domains, such as memory or executive function. An influential model on a role of the MD in recognition memory for instance suggested it might play a role in familiarity [1]. However, abundant evidence indicates that this view is limited and that the role of the MD in human cognition must be reconsidered. For example, clinicians have known for a long time that the MD and its brain networks are involved in several neurological and psychiatric conditions in which the cognitive deficits are not restricted to memory functions [2]. Neuroimaging and neurophysi-ology studies of the human MD in vivo further support this view change. This review evaluates the latest evidence in humans and aims at formulating hypotheses to elucidate the cognitive functions of the human MD in future studies. We argue that the MD is involved in regulating activity patterns in the frontal lobe that are key to perform cognitive functions characterized by persistent thalamocortical interactions for long delays, in the face of Highlights The mediodorsal thalamic nucleus is involved in the cognitive deficits observed in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. The long-standing belief in a role of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus mainly in long-term memory is now being reconsidered. Recent studies emphasize its function in many cognitive tasks related to the prefrontal cortex. The mediodorsal thalamic nucleus is required for the rapid and accurate performance of cognitive tasks and temporally extends the efficiency of cortical networks involving the prefron-tal cortex. We propose that the common ground of multiple lines of evidence from human studies points to a role of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus in regulating prefrontal activity patterns. These hypotheses can be tested by developing specific neuropsychologi-cal tasks, parceling the thalamus with high-resolution MRI, and using intra-cranial recordings in humans.
... A distinction was also drawn between the parvocellular MD, which may be involved in recollection (due to their dense connectivity with the PFC), and the magnocellular MD, whose role remains more elusive [102]. Subsequent studies, including those with more refined imaging approaches to localize lesions, appeared in agreement with these proposals [36,37,51], leaving the purported role of the MD in familiarity unsubstantiated with the exception of a single case study [103] and fMRI studies [74][75][76]. Recently, a single case study assessed the impact of MD damage sustained at birth on the Forced Choice Corresponding test, which requires subjects to recognize stimuli among similar foils. ...
Article
Full-text available
Highlights The mediodorsal thalamic nucleus is involved in the cognitive deficits observed in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. The long-standing belief in a role of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus mainly in long-term memory is now being reconsidered. Recent studies emphasize its function in many cognitive tasks related to the prefrontal cortex. The mediodorsal thalamic nucleus is required for the rapid and accurate performance of cognitive tasks and temporally extends the efficiency of cortical networks involving the prefrontal cortex. We propose that the common ground of multiple lines of evidence from human studies points to a role of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus in regulating prefrontal activity patterns. These hypotheses can be tested by developing specific neuropsychological tasks, parceling the thalamus with high-resolution MRI, and using intracranial recordings in humans.
... Recollection is associated with a subjective experience of remembering the previous episode and involves bringing to mind information from the encoding event that was not present at test, while familiarity is a feeling that the event seems familiar in the absence of being able to generate any additional information from the encoding event. The distinction between the memory processes underlying recollection and familiarity is supported by a number of lines of evidence, including effects in both brain damaged (e.g., Aggleton & Brown, 2006;Edelstyn, Grange, Ellis, & Mayes, 2016) and intact human observers (e.g., Ameen-Ali, Norman, Eacott, & Easton, 2017;Yonelinas, 1994). To date, the contribution of recollection and familiarity to the location updating effect has not been investigated. ...
Article
Previous research has reported that walking through a doorway to a new location makes memory for objects and events experienced in the previous location less accurate. This effect, termed the location updating effect, has been used to suggest that location changes are used to mark boundaries between events in memory: memories for objects encountered within the current event are more available than those from beyond an event boundary. Within a computer‐generated memory task, participants navigated through virtual rooms, walking through doorways, and interacting with objects. The accuracy and their subjective experience of their memory for the objects (remember/know and confidence) were assessed. The findings showed that shifts in location decreased accurate responses associated with the subjective experience of remembering but not those associated with the experience of knowing, even when considering only the most confident responses in each condition. These findings demonstrate that a shift in location selectively impacts recollection and so contributes to our understanding of boundaries in event memory.
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Past research has demonstrated a relationship between déjà vu and the entorhinal cortex in patients with wider medial temporal lobe damage. The aim of the present research was to investigate this crucial link in a patient (MR) with a selective lesion to the left lateral entorhinal cortex to provide a more direct exploration of this relationship. Two experiments investigated the experiences of déjà vécu (using the IDEA questionnaire) and déjà vu (using an adapted DRM paradigm) in MR and a set of matched controls. The results demonstrated that MR had quantitatively more and qualitatively richer recollective experiences of déjà vécu. In addition, under laboratory-based déjà vu conditions designed to elicit both false recollection (critical lures) and false familiarity (weakly-associated lures), MR only revealed greater memory impairments for the latter. The present results are therefore the first to demonstrate a direct relationship between the entorhinal cortex and the experience of both déjà vu and déjà vécu. They furthermore suggest that the entorhinal cortex is involved in both weakly-associative false memory as well as strongly-associative memory under conditions that promote familiarity-based processing.
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Identifying the neurocognitive mechanisms that lead individuals remembering to execute an intention at the right moment (prospective memory, PM) and how such mechanisms are influenced by the features of that intention is a fundamental theoretical challenge. In particular, the functional contribution of subcortical regions to PM is still unknown. This study was aimed at investigating the role of the medial subdivision of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (mMDT) in PM, with particular focus on the processes that are mediated by the projections from/to this structure. We analyzed the performance of a patient (OG) with a right-sided lesion involving the mMDT in a series of PM tasks that varied for focality (i.e., overlapping of processes for the PM and ongoing tasks) and emotional valence of the stimuli, comparing the patient’s performance with that of a control group. We found that the mMDT damage led to deficits in PM that were modulated by focality and emotional valence. OG indeed showed: a greater cost in the ongoing performance when a nonfocal PM task was added; a slowing down in retrieving the intentions, in particular when these were associated with focal PM cues; an abnormal performance in the task with positive PM cues. Our findings provide evidence of a contribution of mMDT to PM and suggest a modulation of prefrontal-dependent strategic monitoring and a possible interaction with the limbic structures in the integration of emotion and PM processes. They also give support to the still controversial idea that connections with the perirhinal cortex mediate familiarity-based recognition.
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The efficiency of the memory system lies not only in its readiness to detect and retrieve old stimuli but also in its ability to detect and integrate novel information. In this review, we discuss recent evidence suggesting that the neural substrates sensitive to detecting familiarity and novelty are not entirely overlapping. Instead, these partially distinct familiarity and novelty signals are integrated to support recognition memory decisions. We propose here that the mediodorsal thalamus is critical for familiarity detection, and for combining novelty signals from the medial temporal lobe cortex with the relative familiarity outputs of computations performed in other cortical structures, especially the prefrontal cortex. Importantly, we argue that the anterior hippocampus has a prominent role in detecting novelty and in communicating this with midbrain and striatal structures. We argue that different types of novelty (absolute or contextual) engage different neurotransmitter systems that converge in the hippocampus. We suggest that contextual or unexpected novelty triggers dopaminergic hippocampal-midbrain coupling and noradrenergic-mediated pupil dilation. In contrast, absolute novelty triggers cholinergic-mediated hippocampal encoding accompanied by diminished pupil dilation. These two, distinct hippocampal encoding mechanisms both lead to later recollection but are sensitive to different types of novelty. We conclude that this neurotransmitter-mediated hippocampal encoding establishes the hippocampus in an encoding mode that briefly prevents the engagement of retrieval.
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The remember/know (RK) procedure is the most widely used method to investigate recollection and familiarity. It uses trial-by-trial reports to determine how much recollection and familiarity contribute to different kinds of recognition. Few other methods provide information about individual memory judgements and no alternative allows such direct indications of recollection and familiarity influences. Here we review how the RK procedure has been and should be used to help resolve theoretical disagreements about the processing and neural bases of components of recognition memory. Emphasis is placed on procedural weaknesses and a possible confound of recollection and familiarity with recognition memory strength. Recommendations are made about how to minimise these problems including using modified versions of the procedure. The proposals here are important for improving behavioural and lesion research, and vital for brain imaging work.
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Both clinical investigations and studies with animals reveal nuclei within the diencephalon that are vital for recognition memory (the judgment of prior occurrence). This review seeks to identify these nuclei and to consider why they might be important for recognition memory. Despite the lack of clinical cases with circumscribed pathology within the diencephalon and apparent species differences, convergent evidence from a variety of sources implicates a subgroup of medial diencephalic nuclei. It is supposed that the key functional interactions of this subgroup of diencephalic nuclei are with the medial temporal lobe, the prefrontal cortex, and with cingulate regions. In addition, some of the clinical evidence most readily supports dual-process models of recognition, which assume two independent cognitive processes (recollective-based and familiarity-based) that combine to direct recognition judgments. From this array of information a "multi-effect multi-nuclei" model is proposed, in which the mammillary bodies and the anterior thalamic nuclei are of preeminent importance for recollective-based recognition. The medial dorsal thalamic nucleus is thought to contribute to familiarity-based recognition, but this nucleus, along with various midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei, is also assumed to have broader, indirect effects upon both recollective-based and familiarity-based recognition.
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In humans lacunar infarcts in the mesial and anterior regions of the thalami are frequently associated with amnesic syndromes. In this review paper, we scrutinized 41 papers published between 1983 and 2009 that provided data on a total of 83 patients with the critical ischemic lesions (i.e. 17 patients with right-sided lesions, 25 with left-sided lesions and 41 with bilateral lesions). We aimed to find answers to the following questions concerning the vascular thalamic amnesia syndrome: (i) Which qualitative pattern of memory impairment (and associated cognitive and behavioral deficits) do these patients present? (ii) Which lesioned intrathalamic structures are primarily responsible for the amnesic syndrome? (iii) Are the recollection and familiarity components of declarative memory underlain by the same or by different thalamic structures? Results of the review indicate that, similar to patients with amnesic syndromes due to mesio-temporal lobe damage, patients with vascular thalamic amnesia display a prevalent deficit of declarative anterograde long-term memory, a less consistent deficit of declarative retrograde long-term memory and substantially spared short-term and implicit memory. Unlike mesio-temporal lobe patients, however, vascular thalamic amnesics often present dysexecutive and behavioral deficits similar to those observed in patients with frontal damage. The presence of an amnesic syndrome in patients with thalamic lacunar infarcts is strongly predicted by involvement of the mammillo-thalamic tract, which connects the anterior nuclei complex to the hippocampus proper via the fornix and the mammillary bodies. Finally, data reported in a few single cases provide support for the hypothesis that thalamic regions connected to distinct areas of the mesio-temporal lobe play differential roles in recollection and familiarity processes. The mammillo-thalamic tract/anterior nuclei axis seems primarily implicated in recollective processes, whereas the ventroamygdalofugal pathway/medio-dorsal axis primarily underlies familiarity processes.
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It is increasingly common for group studies in neuropsychology to report effect sizes. In contrast this is rarely done in single-case studies (at least in those studies that employ a case-controls design). The present paper sets out the advantages of reporting effect sizes, derives suitable effect size indexes for use in single-case studies, and develops methods of supplementing point estimates of effect sizes with interval estimates. Computer programs that implement existing classical and Bayesian inferential methods for the single case (as developed by Crawford, Garthwaite, Howell, and colleagues) are upgraded to provide these point and interval estimates. The upgraded programs can be downloaded from www.abdn.ac.uk/~psy086/dept/Single_Case_Effect_Sizes.htm.
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The dual-process theory of recognition memory holds that recognition decisions can be based on recollection or familiarity, and the remember/know procedure is widely used to investigate those 2 processes. Dual-process theory in general and the remember/know procedure in particular have been challenged by an alternative strength-based interpretation based on signal-detection theory, which holds that remember judgments simply reflect stronger memories than do know judgments. Although supported by a considerable body of research, the signal-detection account is difficult to reconcile with G. Mandler's (1980) classic "butcher-on-the-bus" phenomenon (i.e., strong, familiarity-based recognition). In this article, a new signal-detection model is proposed that does not deny either the validity of dual-process theory or the possibility that remember/know judgments can-when used in the right way-help to distinguish between memories that are largely recollection based from those that are largely familiarity based. It does, however, agree with all prior signal-detection-based critiques of the remember/know procedure, which hold that, as it is ordinarily used, the procedure mainly distinguishes strong memories from weak memories (not recollection from familiarity).
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To understand recognition memory, the detection of stimulus repetition, it first is necessary to resolve the debate between 2 fundamentally different models of recognition. Contemporary single-process models assume that recognition memory relies solely on the neural system required for the recall of prior events. Dual-process models assume that recognition comprises 2 independent forms of memory: one supports recall, and the other detects repeated stimuli by signaling their familiarity, the feeling of previous occurrence without the recall of any associated information. These 2 models were contrasted in patients who had undergone surgical removal of a colloid cyst, a condition associated with memory loss when accompanied by fornix and/or mammillary body atrophy. Comparisons were made between 2 groups of 9 patients that differed only with respect to the extent of mammillary body atrophy. Only the more atrophied group was impaired on tests of recall, but both groups showed normal recognition levels on a task that equates recall and recognition performance in normal participants. To explore the nature of this spared recognition, we estimated recall-based recognition and familiarity-based recognition using 3 distinct methods: self-report, receiver operating characteristics, and structural equation modeling. All 3 methods showed impaired recall-based recognition accompanied by intact familiarity in the most atrophied group, as predicted only by dual-process models. When structural equation modeling was applied to all 62 colloid cyst patients, the recall/familiarity dual-process model best explained the patients' memory pattern. The convergent evidence that mammillary body atrophy impairs recall but spares familiarity-based recognition appears irreconcilable with single-process models.
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Participants in recognition memory studies are now often asked to partition recognized items into ones that are accompanied by some recollective experience (those they remember) and ones that are not so accompanied (but which they know were previously encountered). Rather than detecting separate memory systems, such attempts to distinguish between remembering and knowing are better understood as a division of positive recognition responses into those that lie above a second decision criterion (remember) and those that do not (know). As such, the amount of memory associated with knowing is strongly dependent on the placement of the decision criteria. A meta-analysis of published data and a simple experiment tested predictions from the decision process analysis of remember/know responses.
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Evidence is presented that recognition judgments are based on an assessment of familiarity, as is described by signal detection theory, but that a separate recollection process also contributes to performance. In 3 receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) experiments, the process dissociation procedure was used to examine the contribution of these processes to recognition memory. In Experiments 1 and 2, reducing the length of the study list increased the intercept (d') but decreased the slope of the ROC and increased the probability of recollection but left familiarity relatively unaffected. In Experiment 3, increasing study time increased the intercept but left the slope of the ROC unaffected and increased both recollection and familiarity. In all 3 experiments, judgments based on familiarity produced a symmetrical ROC (slope = 1), but recollection introduced a skew such that the slope of the ROC decreased.
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Recollection and familiarity are two distinct forms of recognition memory that differ in terms of the associative richness of the memory experience. In recollection, exposure to a previously encountered item cues the recollection of a number of contextual, temporal and other associative information. In the case of familiarity, instead, the item is recognized as previously encountered, but it does not cue any associative information. According to the dual-process theory, the memory processes that underlie recollection and familiarity are qualitatively different and this distinction is reflected in the existence of different neural substrates underlying the two processes. Thus far, research has primarily focused on distinct regions of the medial temporal lobe as implicated mostly in recollection (hippocampus) or familiarity (perirhinal cortex). Aggleton and Brown (1999) suggested extending the neuroanatomical distinction to other cortical and subcortical areas of the brain, including the thalamus. In particular, they proposed the existence of two reciprocally independent neural circuits for recollection and familiarity. The former would include the hippocampus, the fornix, the mammillary bodies and the anterior thalamic nuclei. The second would involve the mesial magnocellular portion of the mediodorsal nucleus connected to the perirhinal cortex through the ventroamygdalofugal pathway. Here we review neuropsychological evidence in experimental animals and brain-damaged individuals and functional neuroimaging evidence in healthy humans that supports Aggleton and Brown's model at the level of the thalamus. The evidence substantially supports the functional relationship between recollection processes and integrity of the thalamic anterior nuclei. Additional evidence, not predicted by the model, has been provided in favour of the reliance of recollection on the integrity of the lateral portion (parvocellular) of the mediodoral nucleus. Finally, there is sparse and controversial evidence in support of the reliance of familiarity on the integrity of the mesial portion of the mediodorsal nucleus, possibly due to neuroimaging methodological limits which did not satisfactorily distinguish between the medial and lateral portions of the mediodorsal nucleus.
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Hippocampal damage has been thought to result in broad memory impairment. Recent studies in humans, however, have raised the possibility that recognition memory for faces might be spared. In five experiments we investigated face recognition in patients with hippocampal lesions (H) or large medial temporal lobe (MTL) lesions, including patients where neurohistological information was available. Recognition of novel faces was unequivocally intact in H patients but only at a short retention interval. Recognition memory for words, buildings, inverted faces, and famous faces was impaired. For MTL patients, recognition memory was impaired for all materials and across all retention intervals. These results indicate that structures other than the hippocampus, perhaps the perirhinal cortex, can support face recognition memory in H patients under some conditions. The fact that the faces were novel when recognition memory was intact does not fully account for our findings. We propose that the role of the hippocampus in recognition memory is related to how recognition decisions are accomplished. In typical recognition tasks, participants proceed by forming an association between a study item and the study list, and the recognition decision is later made based on whether participants believe the item was on the study list. We suggest that face recognition is an exception to this principle and that, at short retention intervals, participants can make their recognition decisions without making explicit reference to the study list. Important features of faces that might make face recognition exceptional are that they are processed holistically and are difficult to verbally label.
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PurposeTo optimize the white-matter-nulled (WMn) Magnetization Prepared Rapid Gradient Echo (MP-RAGE) sequence at 7 Tesla (T), with comparisons to 3T.Methods Optimal parameters for maximizing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) efficiency were derived. The effect of flip angle and repetition time (TR) on image blurring was modeled using simulations and validated in vivo. A novel two-dimensional (2D) -centric radial fan beam (RFB) k-space segmentation scheme was used to shorten scan times and improve parallel imaging. Healthy subjects as well as patients with multiple sclerosis and tremor were scanned using the optimized protocols.ResultsInversion repetition times (TS) of 4.5 s and 6 s were found to yield the highest SNR efficiency for WMn MP-RAGE at 3T and 7T, respectively. Blurring was more sensitive to flip in WMn than in CSFn MP-RAGE and relatively insensitive to TR for both regimes. The 2D RFB scheme had 19% and 47% higher thalamic SNR and SNR efficiency than the 1D centric scheme for WMn MP-RAGE. Compared with 3T, SNR and SNR efficiency were higher for the 7T WMn regime by 56% and 41%, respectively. MS lesions in the cortex and thalamus as well as thalamic subnuclei in tremor patients were clearly delineated using WMn MP-RAGE.Conclusion Optimization and new view ordering enabled MP-RAGE imaging with 0.8–1 mm3 isotropic spatial resolution in scan times of 5 min with whole brain coverage. Magn Reson Med, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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It has long been assumed that familiarity- and novelty-related processes fall on a single continuum drawing on the same cognitive and neural mechanisms. The possibility that familiarity and novelty processing involve distinct neural networks was explored in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study (fMRI), in which familiarity and novelty judgments were made in contexts emphasizing either familiarity or novelty decisions. Parametrically modulated BOLD responses to familiarity and novelty strength were isolated in two separate, non-overlapping brain networks. The novelty system involved brain regions along the ventral visual stream, the hippocampus, and the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices. The familiarity system, on the other hand, involved the dorsomedial thalamic nucleus, and regions within the medial prefrontal cortex and the medial and lateral parietal cortex. Convergence of the two networks, treating familiarity and novelty as a single continuum was only found in a fronto-parietal network. Finally, the orbitomedial prefrontal cortex was found to be sensitive to reported strength/confidence, irrespective of stimulus' familiarity or novelty. This pattern of results suggests a dual-route mechanism supported by the existence of two distinct but interacting functional systems for familiarity and novelty. Overall, these findings challenge current assumptions regarding the neural systems that support the processing of novel and familiar information, and have important implications for research into the neural bases of recognition memory. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Novel MR image acquisition strategies have been investigated to elicit contrast within the thalamus, but direct visualization of individual thalamic nuclei remains a challenge because of their small size and the low intrinsic contrast between adjacent nuclei. We present a step-by-step specific optimization of the 3D MPRAGE pulse sequence at 7T to visualize the intra-thalamic nuclei. We first measured T1 values within different sub-regions of the thalamus at 7T in 5 individuals. We used these to perform simulations and sequential experimental measurements (n=17) to tune the parameters of the MPRAGE sequence. The optimal set of parameters was used to collect high-quality data in 6 additional volunteers. Delineation of thalamic nuclei was performed twice by one rater and MR-defined nuclei were compared to the classic Morel histological atlas. T1 values within the thalamus ranged from 1400ms to 1800ms for adjacent nuclei. Using these values for theoretical evaluations combined with in vivo measurements, we showed that a short inversion time (TI) close to the white matter null regime (TI=670ms) enhanced the contrast between the thalamus and the surrounding tissues, and best revealed intra-thalamic contrast. At this particular nulling regime, lengthening the time between successive inversion pulses (TS=6000ms) increased the thalamic signal and contrast and lengthening the α pulse train time (N*TR) further increased the thalamic signal. Finally, a low flip angle during the gradient echo acquisition (α=4°) was observed to mitigate the blur induced by the evolution of the magnetization along the α pulse train. This optimized set of parameters enabled the 3D delineation of 15 substructures in all 6 individuals; these substructures corresponded well with the known anatomical structures of the thalamus based on the classical Morel atlas. The mean Euclidean distance between the centers of mass of MR- and Morel atlas-defined nuclei was 2.67mm (±1.02mm). The reproducibility of the MR-defined nuclei was excellent with intraclass correlation coefficient measured at 0.997 and a mean Euclidean distance between corresponding centers of mass found at first versus second readings of 0.69mm (±0.38mm). This 7T strategy paves the way to better identification of thalamic nuclei for neurosurgical planning and investigation of regional changes in neurological disorders.
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This paper describes a computerised database of psycholinguistic information. Semantic, syntactic, phonological and orthographic information about some or all of the 98,538 words in the database is accessible, by using a specially-written and very simple programming language. Word-association data are also included in the database. Some examples are given of the use of the database for selection of stimuli to be used in psycholinguistic experimentation or linguistic research. © 1981, The Experimental Psychology Society. All rights reserved.
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,Ther ei sdisagreemen tabou twhethe rselectiv ehippocampal lesion si nhuman scaus eclea rite mrecognitio na swel la srecal ldeficits. Wherea sRee dan dSquir e(Beha vNeurosc i1997;111:667‐775 )foun dthat patient swit hadult-onse trelativel yselectiv ehippocampa llesion sshowed clea rite mrecognitio ndeficits ,Vargha-Khade me tal .(Scienc e1997;277: 376‐380 ,So cNeurosc iAbst r1998;24:1523 )foun dtha t 3patient swho suffere dselectiv ehippocampa ldamag ei nearl ychildhoo dshowe dclear recal ldeficits ,bu tha drelativel ynorma lite mrecognition .Mann san dSquire (Hippocampu s1999;9:495‐499 )argued ,however ,tha tite mrecognition ma yhav ebee nspare di nthes epatient sbecaus eth eearl yonse to ftheir patholog yallowe dcompensator ymechanism st odevelop .Therefore ,t ode- termin ewhethe rearl ylesio nonse ti scritica lfo rth erelativ esparin go fitem recognitio nan dt odetermin ewhethe rit soccurrenc ei sinfluence db ytask factors ,w eextensivel yexamine dite mrecognitio ni npatien tY.R. ,wh ohas patholog yo fadult-onse trestricte dt oth ehippocampus .Lik eth edevelop- menta lcases ,sh eshowe dclea rfre erecal ldeficit so n3 4tests ,bu the ritem recognitio no n4 3test swa srelativel yspared ,an dmarkedl yles sdisrupted tha nhe rrecall .He rite mrecognitio nperformanc erelativ et otha to fher control swa sno tsignificantl yinfluence db ywhethe rtest stappe dvisua lor verba lmaterials ,ha da yes/n oo rforced-choic eformat ,containe dfe wor man yitems ,ha don eo rsevera lfoil spe rtarge titem ,use dshor to rver ylong delays ,o rwer edifficul to reas yfo rnorma lsubjects .Interestingly ,YR’s bilatera lhippocampa ldestructio nwa sgreate rtha na tleas t2 o fth e3 patients o fMann san dSquir e(Hippocampu s1999;9:495‐499) .Th epossibl ereasons wh yite mrecognitio ndiffer sacros spatient swit hrelativel yselectiv ehip-
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Several suggestions for a class of theories of recognition memory have been proposed during the past decade. These models address predictions about judgments of prior occurrence of an event, not the identification of what it is. The history and current status of one of these models is discussed. The model postulates the detection of familiarity and the utilization of retrieval mechanisms as additive and separate processes. The phenomenal experience of familiarity is assigned to intraevent organizational integrative processes; retrieval depends on interevent elaborative processes. Other current theoretical options are described, and relevant supportive data from the literature are reviewed. New tests of the model involving both free recall and word pair paradigms are presented. The dual process model is extended to the word frequency effect and to the recognition difficulties of amnesic patients. (68 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The record blank enables the examiner to conduct the test without consulting the manual except for scoring and norms, and to record the responses for each item. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes laboratory and clinical attempts to relate different memory systems (procedural, semantic, and episodic) to corresponding varieties of consciousness (anoetic, noetic, and autonoetic). The case of a young adult male amnesic patient is described. The S suffered a closed head injury that left him without autonoetic consciousness. This deficit is manifested in his amnesia for personal events and his impaired awareness of subjective time. Two simple experiments investigated recall and recognition by a total of 89 normal undergraduates to further examine autonoetic consciousness as the necessary correlate of episodic memory. Results show that the distinction between knowing and remembering previous occurrences of events is meaningful to people, that people can make corresponding judgments about their memory performance, and that these judgments vary systematically with the conditions under which retrieved information takes place. (French abstract) (71 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study reports a patient, OG, with a unilateral right-sided thalamic lesion. High resolution 3T magnetic resonance imaging revealed damage to the parvicellular and magnocellular subdivisions of the dorsomedial thalamus (DMT), the central lateral intralaminar nucleus (also known as the paralamellar DMT), the paraventricular and the central medial midline thalamic nuclei. According to the neuropsychological literature, the DMT, the midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei influence a wide array of cognitive functions by virtue of their modulatory influences on executive function and attention, and this is particularly indicated under conditions of low arousal or high cognitive demand. We explored this prediction in OG, and compared his performance on a range of low and high demand versions of tests that tapped executive function and attention to a group of 6 age- and IQ-matched controls. OG, without exception, significantly underperformed on the high-demand attention and executive function tasks, but performed normally on the low-demand versions. These findings extend and refine current understanding of the effects of thalamic lesion on attention and executive function.
Code
This corpus contains ASCII versions of the CELEX lexical databases of English (Version 2.5), Dutch (Version 3.1) and German (Version 2.0). CELEX was developed as a joint enterprise of the University of Nijmegen, the Institute for Dutch Lexicology in Leiden, the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics in Nijmegen, and the Institute for Perception Research in Eindhoven. Pre-mastering and production was done by the LDC.
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ABSTRACT– A self-assessment scale has been developed and found to be a reliable instrument for detecting states of depression and anxiety in the setting of an hospital medical outpatient clinic. The anxiety and depressive subscales are also valid measures of severity of the emotional disorder. It is suggested that the introduction of the scales into general hospital practice would facilitate the large task of detection and management of emotional disorder in patients under investigation and treatment in medical and surgical departments.
Article
To account for dissociations observed in recognition memory tests, several dual-process models have been proposed that assume that recognition judgments can be based on the recollection of details about previous events or on the assessment of stimulus familiarity. In the current article, these models are examined, along with the methods that have been developed to measure recollection and familiarity. The relevant empirical literature from behavioral, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging studies is then reviewed in order to assess model predictions. Results from a variety of measurement methods, including task-dissociation and process-estimation methods, are found to lead to remarkably consistent conclusions about the nature of recollection and familiarity, particularly when ceiling effects are avoided. For example, recollection is found to be more sensitive than familiarity to response speeding, division of attention, generation, semantic encoding, the effects of aging, and the amnestic effects of benzodiazepines, but it is less sensitive than familiarity to shifts in response criterion, fluency manipulations, forgetting over short retention intervals, and some perceptual manipulations. Moreover, neuropsychological and neuroimaging results indicate that the two processes rely on partially distinct neural substrates and provide support for models that assume that recollection relies on the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, whereas familiarity relies on regions surrounding the hippocampus. Double dissociations produced by experimental manipulations at time of test indicate that the two processes are independent at retrieval, and single dissociations produced by study manipulations indicate that they are partially independent during encoding. Recollection is similar but not identical to free recall, whereas familiarity is similar to conceptual implicit memory, but is dissociable from perceptual implicit memory. Finally, the results indicate that recollection reflects a thresholdlike retrieval process that supports novel learning, whereas familiarity reflects a signal-detection process that can support novel learning only under certain conditions. The results verify a number of model predictions and prove useful in resolving several theoretical disagreements.
Article
In three recognition memory experiments, subjects studied a list of randomly generated geometric shapes, followed by a recognition test in which old items were either size congruent (same size at study and test) or size incongruent. In Experiment 1, the process dissociation procedure (Jacoby, 1991) showed that changing the size of the items led to a decrease in both recollection and familiarity. In Experiment 2, the remember/know procedure (Tulving, 1985) showed that recollection, as indexed by the proportion of "remember" responses, decreased with size incongruence, but familiarity, as indexed by the proportion of "know" responses, increased. The latter effect along with other problems with the remember/know procedure were found to arise because of the procedure′s underlying assumption that recollection and familiarity are mutually exclusive. When an independence assumption was combined with the remember/know data (IRK), results agreed with those of the process dissociation procedure. In Experiment 3, receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) were examined using the remember/know procedure and showed that familiarity was well described by a signal detection process that was independent of recollection.
Article
This paper begins by considering problems that have plagued investigations of automatic or unconscious influences of perception and memory. A process dissociation procedure that provides an escape from those problems is introduced. The process dissociation procedure separates the contributions of different types of processes to performance of a task, rather than equating processes with tasks. Using that procedure, I provide new evidence in favor of a two-factor theory of recognition memory; one factor relies on automatic processes and the other relies on intentional processes. Recollection (an intentional use of memory) is hampered when attention is divided, rather than full, at the time of test. In contrast, the use of familiarity as a basis for recognition memory judgments (an automatic use of memory) is shown to be invariant across full versus divided attention, manipulated at test. Process dissociation procedures provide a general framework for separating automatic from intentional forms of processing in a variety of domains; including perception, memory, and thought.
Article
Neuropsychological findings suggest material-specific lateralization of the medial temporal lobe's role in long-term memory, with greater left-sided involvement in verbal memory, and greater right-sided involvement in visual memory. Whether material-specific lateralization of long-term memory also extends to the anteromedial thalamus remains uncertain. We report two patients with unilateral right (OG) and left (SM) mediodorsal thalamic pathology plus probable correspondingly lateralized damage of the mammillo-thalamic tract. The lesions were mapped using high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging and schematically reconstructed. Mean absolute volume estimates for the mammillary bodies, hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, and ventricles are also presented. Estimates of visual and verbal recall and item recognition memory were obtained using the Doors and People, the Rey Complex Figure Test, and the Logical Memory subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scales. Each patient's performance was compared to a group of healthy volunteers matched for demographic characteristics, premorbid IQ, and current levels of functioning. A striking double dissociation was evident in material-specific long-term memory, with OG showing significant impairments in visual memory but not verbal memory, and SM showing the opposite profile of preserved visual memory and significantly impaired verbal memory. These impairments affected both recall and item recognition. The reported double dissociation provides the strongest evidence yet that material-specific lateralization of long-term memory also extends to the anteromedial thalamus. The findings are also discussed in relation to proposals that distinct anatomical regions within the medial temporal lobe, anteromedial thalamus, and associated tracts make qualitatively different contributions to recall and item recognition.
Article
A review of medial temporal lobe connections reveals three distinct groupings of hippocampal efferents. These efferent systems and their putative memory functions are: (1) The 'extended-hippocampal system' for episodic memory, which involves the anterior thalamic nuclei, mammillary bodies and retrosplenial cortex, originates in the subicular cortices, and has a largely laminar organisation; (2) The 'rostral hippocampal system' for affective and social learning, which involves prefrontal cortex, amygdala and nucleus accumbens, has a columnar organisation, and originates from rostral CA1 and subiculum; (3) The 'reciprocal hippocampal-parahippocampal system' for sensory processing and integration, which originates from the length of CA1 and the subiculum, and is characterised by columnar, connections with reciprocal topographies. A fourth system, the 'parahippocampal-prefrontal system' that supports familiarity signalling and retrieval processing, has more widespread prefrontal connections than those of the hippocampus, along with different thalamic inputs. Despite many interactions between these four systems, they may retain different roles in memory which when combined explain the importance of the medial temporal lobe for the formation of declarative memories.
Article
Neuroimaging and lesion studies have seemed to converge on the idea that the hippocampus selectively supports recollection. However, these studies usually involve a comparison between strong recollection-based memories and weak familiarity-based memories. Studies that avoid confounding memory strength with recollection and familiarity almost always find that the hippocampus supports both recollection and familiarity. We argue that the functional organization of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is unlikely to be illuminated by the psychological distinction between recollection and familiarity and will be better informed by findings from neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. These findings indicate that the different structures of the MTL process different attributes of experience. By representing the widest array of attributes, the hippocampus supports recollection-based and familiarity-based memory of multiattribute stimuli.
Article
There is currently an intense debate about the nature of recognition memory and about the roles of medial temporal lobe subregions in recognition memory processes. At a larger level, this debate has been about whether it is appropriate to propose unified theories to explain memory at neural, functional, and phenomenological levels of analysis. Here, I review findings from physiology, functional imaging, and lesion studies in humans, monkeys, and rodents relevant to the roles of medial temporal lobe subregions in recognition memory, as well as in short-term memory and perception. The results from these studies are consistent with the idea that there is functional heterogeneity in the medial temporal lobes, although the differences among medial temporal lobe subregions do not precisely correspond to different types of memory tasks, cognitive processes, or states of awareness. Instead, the evidence is consistent with the idea that medial temporal lobe subregions differ in terms of the kind of information they process and represent, and that these regions collectively support episodic memory by binding item and context information.
Article
The components of the medial temporal lobes (MTL) receive different kinds of input. The perirhinal cortex receives primarily object/item information, the parahippocampal cortex receives contextual information, and the hippocampus receives high-level inputs that include object/item, context, and other information. Critically, the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices have similar cytoarchitectonics, which differ considerably from that of the hippocampus and suggest that these cortices process their inputs differently from the way that the hippocampus processes its inputs. Much evidence indicates that the hippocampus is designed to rapidly bind together pattern-separated representations that support recall/recollection well. In contrast, the newer MTL cortices rapidly create poorly pattern-separated memories that support familiarity well, but recall/recollection very poorly. For over a decade, there has been disagreement about whether recall/recollection is primarily mediated by the hippocampus and familiarity by the evolutionarily newer MTL cortices or whether the MTL mediates these kinds of memory in an integrated, homogeneous fashion. Common misconceptions about familiarity, recollection, item, and associative memory are discussed as are methodological problems with MTL lesion and functional imaging research. The possible confound of familiarity with weaker memory and recollection with stronger memory is discussed and the implications of the Montaldi et al. (2006) functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study, which matched memory strength between strong familiarity and recollection, finding that only recollection activated the hippocampus, are discussed. A suggestion is made about how the long-running conflict of findings in the human hippocampal lesion literature may be resolved.
Article
Although it is well established that the integrity of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is critical for declarative memory, the functional organization of the MTL remains a matter of intense debate. One issue that has received little consideration so far is whether the hippocampus can function normally in the presence of a lesion to perirhinal cortex that produces noticeable memory impairments. This question is intriguing as the MTL forms a hierarchical system, in which perirhinal cortex represents one of the critical nodes in the reciprocal projections between neocortical association areas and the hippocampus. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether NB, an individual who underwent surgical resection of the left anterior temporal lobe that included large aspects of perirhinal and entorhinal cortex but spared the hippocampus, exhibits intact hippocampal novelty responses to auditory sentences. Our results revealed such evidence in NB's left and right hippocampus. They complement previous behavioral work in NB, indicating that recollective processes considered to rely on hippocampal integrity are also preserved. Further analyses revealed intact novelty responses in structures that provide neuroanatomical input to the hippocampus, including remaining perirhinal cortex and surgically spared parahippocampal cortex. These findings point to viable neuroanatomical mechanisms as to how functional integrity in the hippocampus may be maintained in the face of widespread, but incomplete removal of its input structures.
Article
It is well accepted that recognition memory reflects the contribution of two separable memory retrieval processes, namely recollection and familiarity. However, fundamental questions remain regarding the functional nature and neural substrates of these processes. In this article, we describe a simple quantitative model of recognition memory (i.e., the dual-process signal detection model) that has been useful in integrating findings from a broad range of cognitive studies, and that is now being applied in a growing number of neuroscientific investigations of memory. The model makes several strong assumptions about the behavioral nature and neural substrates of recollection and familiarity. A review of the literature indicates that these assumptions are generally well supported, but that there are clear boundary conditions in which these assumptions break down. We argue that these findings provide important insights into the operation of the processes underlying recognition. Finally, we consider how the dual-process approach relates to recent neuroanatomical and computational models and how it might be integrated with recent findings concerning the role of medial temporal lobe regions in other cognitive functions such as novelty detection, perception, implicit memory and short-term memory.
Article
Dual process theories of recognition memory posit that recollection and familiarity represent dissociable processes. Animal studies and human functional imaging experiments support an anatomic dissociation of these processes in the medial temporal lobes (MTL). By this hypothesis, recollection may be dependent on the hippocampus, while familiarity appears to rely on extrahippocampal MTL (ehMTL) structures, particularly perirhinal and lateral entorhinal cortices. Despite these findings, the dual process model and these anatomic mappings remain controversial, in part because the study of patients with lesions to the MTL has been limited and has revealed predominantly single dissociations. We examined measures of recollection and familiarity in three groups (normal older adults, amnesic-mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease) in which these memory measures and the relative integrity of MTL structures are variable, thus enhancing our power to detect MTL-memory relationships. Recollection and familiarity and volumes of hippocampus and ehMTL, defined as a region including entorhinal/perirhinal cortices and parahippocampus, were measured. Regression analyses revealed a stronger relationship of recollection with the hippocampus compared to ehMTL, while familiarity was more highly related to ehMTL compared to hippocampus. These results are consistent with a division of labor in the MTL and the dual process model.
Article
Book description: Any thorough assessment of cognitive problems following neurological damage should include tests measuring executive functions, yet there are few tests available that are specifically designed for clinical use. For this reason the authors have developed the Hayling and Brixton Tests, with the needs of both clinicians and researchers in mind, enabling measurement of some of the consequences of the dysexecutive syndrome.
Article
Results from imaging and lesion studies of item recognition memory have suggested that the hippocampus supports memory for the arbitrary associations that form the basis of episodic recollection, whereas the perirhinal cortex (PRc) supports familiarity for individual items. This view has been challenged, however, by findings showing that PRc may contribute to associative recognition, a task thought to measure relational or recollective memory. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we demonstrate that PRc activity is increased when pairs of items are processed as a single configuration or unit and that this activity predicts subsequent familiarity-based associative memory. These results explain the discrepancy in the literature by showing that novel associations can be encoded in a unitized manner, thereby allowing PRc to support associative recognition based on familiarity.
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This article has two purposes. The first is to describe four theoretical models of yes-no recognition memory and present their associated measures of discrimination and response bias. These models are then applied to a set of data from normal subjects to determine which pairs of discrimination and bias indices show independence between discrimination and bias. The second purpose is to use the indices from the acceptable models to characterize recognition memory deficits in dementia and amnesia. Young normal subjects, Alzheimer's disease patients, and parkinsonian dementia patients were tested with picture recognition tasks with repeated study–test trials. Huntington's disease patients, mixed etiology amnesics, and age-matched normals were tested by Butters, Wolfe, Martone, Granholm, and Cermak (1985) using the same paradigm with word stimuli. Three major points are emphasized. First, any index of recognition memory performance assumes an underlying model. Second, even acceptable models can lead to different conclusions about patterns of learning and forgetting. Third, efforts to characterize and ameliorate abnormal memory should address both discrimination and bias deficits.
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The origin and termination of fibers to the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, especially those to the medial, magnocellular part of the nucleus (MDm), have been studied using anterograde and retrograde axonal tracing methods, as well as electrophysiological recording. The results indicate that in addition to its well-known connections to and from the prefrontal cortex, MDm receives fibers from many parts of the basal forebrain, including the ventral pallidum and other parts of the substantia innominata, the amygdaloid complex, the primary olfactory cortex, entorhinal and perirhinal cortex, and the cortex at the pole of the temporal lobe. Lighter projections arise in the subiculum, the ventral insula, and the superior and inferior temporal gyri.
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Reports experiments designed to explore the relationship between the more aware autobiographical form of memory that is measured by a recognition memory test and the less aware form of memory that is expressed in perceptual learning. Ss were 247 undergraduates. Variables such as the level of processing of words during study influenced recognition memory, but not subsequent perceptual recognition. In contrast, variables such as the number and the spacing of repetitions produced parallel effects on perceptual recognition and recognition memory. It is suggested that there are 2 bases for recognition memory. If an item is readily perceived so that it seems to "jump out" from the page, the S is likely to judge that it has been seen in the experimental situation. The 2nd basis for recognition memory involves elaboration of a word's study context and depends on such factors as level of processing during study--factors not important for perceptual recognition of isolated words. Effects of study on perceptual recognition appear to be totally due to memory for physical or graphemic information. Results are also relevant to theories of perceptual learning. Effects of study on perceptual recognition partly depend on the same variables as do effects on more standard memory tests. (59 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
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Evidence is presented that recognition judgments are based on an assessment of familiarity, as is described by signal detection theory, but that a separate recollection process also contributes to performance. In 3 receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) experiments, the process dissociation procedure was used to examine the contribution of these processes to recognition memory. In Experiments 1 and 2, reducing the length of the study list increased the intercept (d') but decreased the slope of the ROC and increased the probability of recollection but left familiarity relatively unaffected. In Experiment 3, increasing study time increased the intercept but left the slope of the ROC unaffected and increased both recollection and familiarity. In all 3 experiments, judgments based on familiarity produced a symmetrical ROC (slope = 1), but recollection introduced a skew such that the slope of the ROC decreased.