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Foundations of Human-resource Development (2nd ed.)

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... Although "experts" have been studied by researchers over a long period, there appears to be a limited consensus on what exactly constitutes expertise (Baker et al., 2006;Shanteau et al., 2002). The following components of expertise can be commonly observed in the work of various researchers (Baker et al., 2006;Shanteau et al., 2002;Swanson and Holton, 2001): ...
... Following Baker et al. (2006) and Swanson and Holton (2001), for this study, expertise was defined as being comprised of the following two components: ...
Article
(Purpose) : Manufacturing supply chains (SCs) across the world have become increasingly vulnerable to disruptions due to the increasing fragmentation of business functions and tasks across many firms located within the country and abroad. Despite the numerous instances of SC disruptions being reported in the literature, the study of SC vulnerability lacks adequate conceptual and empirical support. This study aims to address this research gap. (Design/methodology/approach) : The concept of SC vulnerability was examined considering the outcome and contextual models of vulnerability, which are well established in extant multi-disciplinary vulnerability literature. An exploratory Delphi study was then conducted to understand the extent of vulnerability of various manufacturing SCs in India, drivers of this vulnerability and the key hazards exploiting this vulnerability. (Findings) : The study confirms the increasing vulnerability of manufacturing SCs in India. It also highlights the lack of top management commitment to risk mitigation as the key vulnerability driver and frequent changes in government laws and regulations as the key hazard being faced by the manufacturing SCs in India. (Originality/value) : This study highlights the utility of outcome and contextual models of vulnerability as conceptual frameworks for understanding SC vulnerability. These conceptual insights along with the key manufacturing SC vulnerability drivers and hazards identified in the study should provide a basis for SC redesign for vulnerability reduction and the selection of SC risk mitigation strategies.
... The report further stated that the SA developmental agenda acknowledges the need to enhance the quality of education which will ultimately result in developing a competitive national workforce, improved quality of life and feasible economic growth which actively involves the citizens. The strategic investments in HCD at both national and organisational levels have the potential of enhancing the competitiveness and productivity of the nation and organisation's workforce, respectively (Swanson, 2021). The achievement of this goal can be hindered by the lack of investment in HCD interventions by education institutions such as universities, colleges and schools (Musakuro & De Klerk, 2021). ...
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Orientation: Human capital development (HCD) initiatives are crucial in the education sector to improve the delivery of quality education. At the centre of quality teaching and learning are educators and lecturers who are competent and well-equipped to adapt to the changing environment.Research purpose: To explore whether HCD was the key responsibility of line managers in the South African (SA) education sector.Motivation of the study: Line managers are expected to continuously develop the competencies of educators and lecturers by implementing HCD interventions. There is limited empirical evidence that explored HCD responsibilities performed by line managers in the SA education sector.Research approach/design and method: This study adopted a qualitative research method underpinned by the interpretivist paradigm. Semistructured interviews were conducted with n = 12 purposively selected participants. The data collected were analysed using thematic analysis.Main findings: The findings of this article indicated that line managers are responsible for identifying training gaps, implementing HCD interventions and monitoring performance. The study also found that support from key stakeholders is imperative for line managers to effectively implement HCD activities. Furthermore, the study revealed that line managers do not utilise evaluation models to determine the effectiveness of HCD interventions.Practical/managerial implications: The study proposed reciprocal support for HCD stakeholders’ model that can assist policymakers, line managers and HCD professionals within the education sector. The model provides for the division and allocation of HCD tasks.Contributions/value-add: This study contributes to the body of knowledge in HCD within the SA education sector. In the practical context, this article proposed a reciprocal support for HCD stakeholders’ model to improve the effectiveness of HCD initiatives implemented by line managers.
... "Training and development is defined as a process of systematically developing work-related knowledge and expertise in people for the purpose of improving performance" (Swanson & Holton, 2001). ...
Article
Training and development is one of the most essential activities in human resource development since it affects employee performance while also increasing an organization's efficiency and effectiveness. The purpose of the study was to know the opinions of library staff regarding training & development; compare the training & development practices among male and female, among different age group, among different designations, and among nature of job of library employees. Current investigation is mostly based on primary data collected from the employees working in different agricultural university libraries (regular & deemed) of northern Indian states. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. A sample of 96 male and female library professionals in selected agricultural libraries of northern Indian states was selected for the present study. Statistical techniques like Percentage, Mean, SD, ‘t’ test and ANOVA were used to analyze the data. the analysis of the study showed that majority of the library employees were found satisfied with the training and development practices among their institutions, while gender has no impact on training & development of employees. Both male and female were equally satisfied with training & development practices. Further, it was concluded that the professionals over the age of 50 yrs. were found more satisfied with training & development practice than the respondents of lower age groups. All employees with different designations differ significantly with training and development practices concluding that skilled professionals and semi-skilled employees were found more satisfied than technical expert employees. Whereas nature of job also has an impact on training and development practices. Permanent employees were found more satisfied with training & development practices as compared to part-time and ad-hoc basis employees.
... A Model of Human Capital Theory dari (Swanson & Holton III, 2008) ...
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Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia di era globalisasi saat ini sangat penting bagi organisasi karena merupakan bagian dari keberhasilan para pimpinan dalam mengatur, mengelola, dan melaksanakan, serta mengawasi para pegawai, pekerja maupun pegawai dalam bekerja sesuai tujuan dan sasaran yang diinginkan oleh suatu organisasi sehingga produktivitas dan kinerjanya dapat lebih meningkat. Manajemen sumber daya manusia adalah proses menangani berbagai masalah dalam lingkup semua pegawai, manajer, dan/atau semua organisasi, lembaga, atau organisasi pendukung dalam semua kegiatan untuk mencapai tujuan yang telah ditetapkan. Departemen sumber daya manusia (SDM) adalah bagian yang mengelola SDM dan memberikan pengetahuan tentang organisasi, peralatan yang diperlukan, pelatihan, layanan administrasi, konseling, nasihat hukum, pengawasan, dan manajemen bakat. Semua itu diperlukan untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi. Tidak hanya itu, bagian ini juga memiliki kewajiban dan tanggung jawab untuk mengembangkan organisasi dengan menerapkan seluruh nilai dan budaya organisasi. Pada saat yang sama, pastikan bahwa organisasi memiliki tim yang sangat baik dan stabil serta memahami pemberdayaan pegawai. Selanjutnya penulis memaparkan dalam Buku ini mengenai konsep, perencanaan, dan strategi manajemen sumber daya manusia, rekrutmen dan pengembangan manajemen sumber daya manusia, kinerja dan pendukung kinerja, pensiun dan pemutusan kerja, kepemimpinan dan perilaku kepemimpinan, motivasi pelayanan publik, dan kualitas layanan, pengkajian manajemen sumber daya manusia dengan teori, konsep-konsep mutakhir dalam manajemen sumber daya manusia dan lain sebagainya khususnya yang berhubungan dengan manajemen sumber daya manusia. Dalam buku ini menggunakan pegawai yang menggambarkan sebagai pegawai atau tenaga kerja atau karyawan pada organisasi profit dan pegawai pada organisasi publik. Selanjutnya, untuk perusahaan, atau instansi pemerintah diwakili dengan kata organisasi, hal ini kami lakukan agar ada keseragaman pemahaman dalam tulisan ini.
... The" human resources development" in environmental organizations is concerned with developing and expanding knowledge, learning patterns and long-term results related to environmental work at the individual level and accomplish this task, the development of effective human resources in an organization needs great attention to "training and development" Marsick & Watkins, (1990). According to Swanson and Holton (2001) effective human resource development, advanced systematic process towards obtaining both the development of employees' professional knowledge, abilities, and skills in order to improve their performance. ...
... Support from supervisors for such developmental activities enhances employee motivation. According to Swanson & Holton (2001) the critical objective of training transfer is full utilization of new knowledge, skills, and aptitudes to enhance group and individual employee performance within an organizational workplace. Such supervisory support will make employees motivated to attend the training program and this will result in the process of transferring knowledge and aptitudes learned to the workplace (Sabir et al., 2014). ...
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... According to (Aguinis & Kraiger, 2009), "Training activities can also be beneficial regarding other outcomes at both the individual and team level (e.g., attitudes, motivation, and empowerment)". According to Swanson and Holton (2001) connoted training and development as "a process of systematically developing work-related knowledge and expertise in people for the purpose of improving performance". Besides that, various authors also described the training to acquire and improve skills, knowledge, behaviour, and attitude by employees to perform their assigned work effectively (Goldstein, 1980;Tannenbaum, 1992;Latham, 2011;Noe, 2018). ...
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The aim of this paper is to explore the influence of training and development on employee's performance through different dimensions. Moreover, this study proposes a model in the area of human resource development to be used for testing and improving the performance of employees in the Indian travel and tourism sector. An integrated model was developed highlighting the relationship between the training and development and employee performance. Using the sample of 146 employees , structural equation modelling (SEM) was employed to validate the hypothesized relationship by evaluating the responses of employees working in the Indian travel agencies. The findings of this study demonstrate a strong relationship between training and development and employee performance in the travel industry and also can be used by managers and HR professionals for organizing exclusive training programs for improving employee's performance based on the dimensions used in this paper. The present study provides an empirical and theoretical explanation of different dimensions associated with training and development and employee performance, especially in the Indian tourism industry.
... Menurut Klosters (2014), kinerja hebat dihasilkan oleh orang-orang yang berpengetahuan luas di industri mereka. Richard and Swanson (2009) Sumber: Data primer diolah tahun 2020 yang diharapkan, sehingga kinerjanyapun belum sesuai dengan yang diharapkan. ...
Article
The purpose of this research is to see how work environment and competency affect performance of workers, with Behavior of an individual as an intervening variable. The data for this study was gathered using quantitative methods such as questionnaires. The participants in this study were all 87 employees of the Pasuruan Regency Transportation Office. Census technique was employed in the research sample. Smart PLS 3.0 was used to evaluate the data. The findings revealed that: (1) Work environment variables influenced performance of workers in a positive and significant way; (2) Behavior of an individual is influenced by the work environment in a positive and significant way; (3) Employee performance is influenced by competence in a favorable and meaningful way; (4) Individual conduct is influenced by competence in a positive and significant way; (5) Behavior of an individual has a positive and significant environmental impact; (6) The work environment has a positive and major impact on performance of workers through individual behavior, and competence has a positive and significant impact on employee performance through individual conduct; (7) Behavior of an individual is mediated by competence, This has a big and beneficial effect on performance of workers. Behavior of an individual has an impact on performance of workers due to competence. According to the findings, competency has the biggest impact on performance of workers e, therefore increasing employees' knowledge, abilities, and attitudes is necessary to support activities at the workplace. Workplace, competence, individual conduct, and performance of workers are some When thinking about the workplace, these are some of the terms that spring to mind. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk melihat bagaimana lingkungan kerja dan kompetensi mempengaruhi kinerja karyawan, dengan perilaku individu sebagai variabel intervening. Metode kuantitatif melalui kuesioner digunakan untuk mengumpulkan data dalam penelitian ini. Semua Karyawan Dinas Perhubungan Kabupaten Pasuruan yang berjumlah 87 karyawan adalah populasi dalam penelitian ini. Sampel penelitian menggunakan sampel jenuh. Smart PLS 3.0 digunakan untuk mengevaluasi data. Temuan mengungkapkan bahwa: (1) pengaruh positif dan signifikan lingkungan kerja terhadap kinerja karyawan; (2) perilaku individu dipengaruhi oleh lingkungan; (3) pengaruh positif dan signifikan kompetensi terhadap kinerja karyawan; (4) pengaruh positif dan signifikan lingkungan kerja terhadap perilaku individu; (5) pengaruh positif dan signifikan perilaku individu terhadap kinerja karyawan; (6) melalui perilaku individu, pengaruh positif dan signifikan lingkungan kerja terhadap kinerja karyawan; (7) dimediasi oleh perilaku individu, kompetensi mempunyai pengarus positif dan signifikan terhadap kinerja karyawan. Pengaruh total antara kompetensi dengan kinerja karyawan dan perilaku individu sebagai variabel intervening merupakan hubungan partial mediation. Implikasi penelitian menunjukkan bahwa diperlukan peningkatan pengetahuan, keterampilan, atau sikap bagi karyawan upaya meningkatkan kinerja organisasi karena kompetensi memiliki pengaruh paling besar terhadap kinerja karyawan.
... Similar to learning, unlearning takes place at multiple levels in organizations including individual, team/group, and organizational levels (Hislop et al., 2014;Klammer & Gueldenberg, 2019). Learning activities in organizations including introducing new knowledge and practices are core functional roles of human resource development (HRD) in the form of training and development, career development, and organization development including formal and informal learning (Dixon, 1992;Swanson & Holton, 2001;Watkins & Marsick, 2003). Given that unlearning also involves learning in organizations, developing and implementing a variety of HRD interventions need to be considered to better cope with changes facing organizations. ...
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In the fast‐changing world of business, organizations including individuals and groups/teams need to unlearn old knowledge and learn new knowledge and routines to stay competitive. The purpose of this study is to review the current studies on unlearning in organizations and to integrate the findings to provide insights on how to better manage and facilitate the process of unlearning. We reviewed 37 empirical and related studies to reveal the current research perspectives on unlearning in the workplace. We also identified 30 antecedents promoting unlearning and 44 outcomes of unlearning at the individual, group, and organizational levels. These antecedents and outcomes related to learning, knowledge, and innovation are key HRD research topics. Discussion, implications, and recommendations for future research are presented.
... The global pandemic was unpredictable, and most notably, difficult to control, leading to catastrophic impacts on health and wellbeing, economic systems, and the education enterprise worldwide. Chaos theory has been used to understand the phenomena of social sciences in subject areas such as education, economics, psychology, organizational studies, and crisis communication and management (Kiel & Elliott, 1996;Levy, 1994;Swanson & Holton, 2009). Thus, Chaos theory was determined to be a viable analytical lens for assessing the ripple effects of the Texas DAE's actions in response to the pandemic. ...
Article
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The COVID‐19 pandemic drastically impacted the Texas Division of Adult Education. As a result, Texas's grant‐funded adult education and literacy (AEL) programs transitioned to remote instruction. There was a need to understand how this unfolded. Thus, the purpose of this case study was to explore how the Texas Division of Adult Education guided AEL programs in the transition to remote services. Several published records were collected and analyzed using document and content analysis. The research findings revealed effective crisis management strategies and professional development interventions implemented by state leadership. This study also highlights the challenges and potential advantages of remote learning. These outcomes are helpful because they could guide other state agencies in incorporating remote learning courses. Ultimately, professional development training evaluations indicated the need for further program support to foster training transfer. This article concludes with implications for AEL programs and suggestions for future research.
... (d) Working conditions: staffing and posting, job and workload description, promotions and career mobility, incentives, mode and level of remuneration, other conditions of service, management of personnel and labor relations. Human resource development (HRD) is a process of developing and unleashing human expertise through organization development (OD) and personnel training and development (T&D) for the purpose of improving performance (Swanson & Holton, 2001): HRD is a series of activities that support behavioral change and learning opportunities for employees (Haslinda, 2009). HRD activities aim to develop employee skills and resilience to the current and future demands of the organization. ...
... Users' perceived expertise could be considered as one of the most influential individual differences in building effective adaptation and personalization systems and services, but also one of the most difficult factors to assess. Although the importance of its quantification has long been recognized, its inherent structure refers to domain-specific, subjective and qualitative measures that relate to the skills of individuals and their consistent optimum behaviour of actions in terms of efficiency during execution and effectiveness of their results [17]. Hence, perceived expertise may be regarded as a relevant human factor (i.e., relevant-expertise, that its performance does not necessarily need to be assessed in terms of an accuracy measure relative to a ground truth [23]) that differs across individuals and in relation to the application field they function. ...
Conference Paper
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The business data analytics domain exhibits a particularly diversified and demanding field of interaction for the end-users. It entails complex tasks and actions expressed by multidimensional data visualization and exploration contents that users with different business roles, skills and experiences need to understand and make decisions so to meet their goals. Many times this engagement is proven to be overwhelming for professionals, highlighting the need for adaptive and personalized solutions that would consider their level of expertise towards an enhanced user experience and quality of outcomes. However, measuring adequately the perceived expertise of individuals using standardized means is still an open challenge in the community. As most of the current approaches employ participatory research design practices that are time consuming, costly, difficult to replicate or to produce comparable, unbiased, results for informed interpretations. Hence, this paper proposes a systematic alternative for capturing expertise through a Perceived Expertise Tool (PET) that is devised based on grounded theoretical perspectives and psychometric properties. Preliminary evaluation with 54 professionals in the data analytics domain showed the accepted internal consistency and validity of PET as well as its significant correlation with other affiliated theoretical and domain-specific concepts. Such findings may suggest a good basis for the standardized modeling of users’ perceived expertise that could lead to effective adaptation and personalization.
... This notion emphasizes the intrinsic quality of humans, which allows him to submit a performance" [22, p.3]. b) An underlying characteristic of a person which results in an effective and/or superior performance in a job" and set that the competency includes "a motive, trait, skill, aspect of one's self-image or social role, or a body of knowledge which he/she uses [23]. c) Emerging behavior within a specialized domain in the shape of consistently demonstrated actions of an individual which are both minimally efficient in their fulfillment and effective in their results [24]. The competency model depends largely on the certainty that the other side is really qualified and highly credible, and looking at the competency model from the perspective that the (trustee) has a deep knowledge and the necessary experience and the skills required to fulfill the needs of the (trustor), when the confidence of individuals grows, they believe that the other party will act According to their expectations and thus will fulfill his commitment. ...
Article
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span style="font-size: 9pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">Covid-19 has dramatically spread globally and dramatically made several effects in almost all sectors. Electronic commerce and electronic payment systems are important sectors which affected directly by the Covid-19 pandemic. Online markets and electronic payment systems have been recognized as one of the fastest-growing technology in the last decade even within normal situations. However, several factors may influence such growth, which many consider as barriers or enablers of using the electronic payment system. This study aims to shed the light on the influence of Covid-19 on the electronic payment system from trust and competence perspectives. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative methodological approaches for data collection and analysis. The data was collected from 31 semi-structured interviews, 718 surveys, and annual reports. NVivo, Microsoft Visio, and Microsoft power business intelligence were used for the data analysis process. As a part of this study, a proposed framework has been developed which includes both technical and managerial parts.</span
... One of the essential roles of HRD is to help individuals create a sense of meaning in their work [17]. This role could be at least partially fulfilled through the shared consciousness created among employees who are supportive of one another. ...
Conference Paper
Employee relations is one of the main concerns in Organizational Development (OD) where OD is one of the pillars in the field of Human Resource Development (HRD). Although previous literature on employee relations has often focused on the relationship between employers and employees, discussion on the relationship among employees has been scarce. In the workplace, compared to the time spent working with superiors, employees spend most of their time with their co-workers and tend to develop closer relationships with their co-workers than their superiors. As their relationship develops, employees will need support from their co-workers. Therefore, co-workers play an important role in strengthening employee relations in the workplace as well as to enhance employee wellbeing. Previous studies have shown that co-worker support brings about influences in various ways such as enhancing job performance, reducing stress and boosting organizational commitment. This paper presents a review of the definitions of co-worker support, the influences of co-worker support and the roles of employees and organization in fostering co-worker support.
... The field of organizational research has yielded many studies of organizational commitment (OC), job satisfaction (JS), and turnover or turnover intentions (TI), but the models explaining the relationships between the variables proposed by the researchers differ or contradict one another sometimes. For example, Swanson and Holton (2001) have considered OC, JS, and TI as outcome variables similar to job performance and organizational effectiveness. Other scholars, however (e.g., Mowday, Porter, Steers, 1982;Price, Mueller, 1986), have identified OC as an outcome variable influenced by JS. ...
Article
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the mediating effects of three types of organizational commitment (affective, continuance, and normative) on the structural relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intentions. The structural relationship between job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention was established through literature review. Data was collected from 336 office employees at four production plants located in South Korea. The results of the data analysis indicate that affective commitment has a full mediating effect on the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intentions, whereas continuance and normative commitment do not. Drawing on these results, this study suggests academic and practical implications for researchers and practitioners.
... Training Effectiveness Swanson and Holton (2001), defined training as a systematic approach of developing work-related knowledge and expertise among employees in an organization for the purpose of improving their performance. As for training effectiveness, it is fundamentally an evaluation that inspects the level to which training enhanced the employee's skills, knowledge, and behaviour in the organization. ...
Article
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Employee training and development are essential tools for anorganization’s continuing growth and productivity. Training and development provide benefits to both the individual and organization as a whole that make the cost and time a worthwhile investment. Thus, thesuccess of employee training and development in an organization can only be quantified in a financial term as return on investment (ROI). The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of employee commitment and satisfaction on training effectiveness. This study utilized quantitative approach in gathering the data. A total of 100 public sector employees participated in this study. The data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS Statistics software. The findings indicate the existence of a significant relationship between employee satisfaction and training effectiveness but there was no significant relationship between employee commitment and training effectiveness. The findings also indicate that there was a significant difference between employee satisfaction and training effectiveness in relation to gender and working experience. However, there was no significant difference between employee satisfaction and trainingeffectiveness in relation to marital status, age, race and education level. From these findings of the study, organizations will be able to identify employee needs for training and development. Organizations will also find this study useful in formulating their internal policies for training and development to gauge training effectiveness and of course, increase return on investment.
... Kareem (2019) found that human resource development has a positive correlation with the effectiveness of the organization. Moreover, human resource development also contributes to better organizational performance (Swanson, 2001;Ezeanokwasa, 2014) and better financial performance (Rath & Harter, 2010;Bakker, 2011;Szabowska-Walaszczyk, Zawadzka., & Brzozowski, 2013). Collins and Clark (2003) found that human resource development contributes to capacity building, new potentials, and attitudes to employees that enable them to perform better in achieving organizational goals. ...
Article
This research would like to examine the impacts of human resource development on job motivation, employee engagement, and organizational effectiveness. The questionnaire was employed to collect data from 489 employees of a private company in Bangkok, Thailand. The data were analyzed using the structural equation modeling technique. The results indicated that human resource development has a positive impact on employee engagement, job motivation and organizational effectiveness. Job motivation and employee 1 Doctoral student, Ramkhamhaeng University. engagement also had a positive relationship with organizational effectiveness. The authors proposed that organization should initiate HRD activities to increase employee engagement and job motivation since these will enhance organizational effectiveness.
... The relationship between nodes forms connections through which parts of the system influence another. Social network theory and analysis (SNT/A), has been applied in studies of individual, group, and organizational outcomes such as leadership, workplace morale, productivity, collaboration, innovation, human resource development, and health (Balkundi & Harrison, 2006;Kabo et al., 2015;Parnell & Robinson, 2018;Swanson & Holton, 1997;Valente & Pitts, 2017). Social network analysis (SNA) offers significant potential to elicit an advanced understanding of the network ties of military nurse scientists who must collaborate across complex organizational structures, and geographic distance. ...
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Background Military nurse scientists are embedded in service-affiliated branches (Army, Navy, Air Force) with different missions, but with the singular purpose of generating and disseminating research impacting the health and well-being of DoD beneficiaries. Purpose This project examines collaboration among TriService Nursing Research Program (TSNRP) members, seeking opportunities to strengthen, diversify, and expand research collaboration. Method Social network analysis (SNA) is the empirical inquiry of relations among social actors at different levels of analysis. An electronic SNA assessment and total enumerative sampling were used to explore current collaborations among PhD-prepared military nurse scientists (N = 136). Findings The TSNRP collaboration network has a complex service-driven structure with high status actors whose advice, knowledge, or skills are sought by others, and who function as connectors or bridges across service branches. Discussion For military scientists, SNA is instrumental in identifying influential individuals, visualizing opportunities for intraservice mentoring, designing responsive policy, and directing career opportunities for novice scientists.
... Multinational Corporations (MNCs) and international organizations allot strategic investments in Human Resource Development (HRD), intending to bring to the success equation by value creation, strive for efficiency, improving the human assets and organizational performances achievement (Chapman et al. 2018;Swanson et al., 2001) through the formation of Human resource shared service centres (HRSSC). HRSSC is a hybrid organizational unit that functions as an internal outsourcing semi-autonomous business unit within the organizational boundaries (Maatman & Bondarouk, 2014, 2010 International Journal of Human Resource Studies ISSN 2162-3058 2022, Vol. 12, No. 3 Farndale et al., 2010, 2006Jansen & Joha, 2007, 2006Cooke, 2006). ...
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Workplace bullying has shown a steep rise globally in the last three decades, reporting its pervasiveness among various sectors and industries. It is universally recognized as a significant work stressor causing severe health, well-being, and psychosocial problems for employees, the economy, and society. The claim comes as no surprise with the contemporary debate among organizations, especially MNCs HRSSC, striving to succeed globally and stay competitive through cost savings and increased productivity. However, SSC formation has swayed the HRD professions’ to strategic HR roles to focus on the organization’s profit-making goal, eventually at the expense of employees’ well-being by indirectly condoning workplace bullying. For these reasons, the present study investigates the prevalence of workplace bullying at MNC HRSSC in Malaysia to find out how the Western countries that pioneered the studies reveal the severity of workplace bullying manages organizations in Asian countries that are still at the early stage comparatively of recognizing the phenomenon. The study will examine the prevalence, the experience level of role stressors, namely role ambiguity and role conflict, which are relatable to the MNC HRSSC setup, and their consequent representation as antecedents to workplace bullying. A cross-sectional study was adopted to conduct descriptive and inferential statistical analysis with n=460. The descriptive statistical analysis used IBM SPSS (v24.0) to determine the prevalence of workplace bullying by adopting a two-step cluster analysis and the strict operational definition criterion and the role stressors experiences level. At the same time, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to determine the correlation and influence between the predetermined organizational antecedents (role ambiguity and role conflict) and workplace bullying. Data were collected using a 14-items Role Questionnaire (RQ) and 22-item Negative Act Questionnaires-Revised (22-items NAQ-R). Findings show a high prevalence rate of workplace bullying (66.7%), a high level of role ambiguity (72.6%), and role conflict (70.2%), resulting in a positive & significant relationship with workplace bullying. Thus, these results autonomously conclude that workplace bullying is prevalent among MNC HRSSC with a high level of role ambiguity and role conflict experience, which are significant antecedents based on the General Strain Theory (Agnew, 1992) underpinning theory. Therefore, the study recommends that local HRD professionals and policymakers review employees’ job descriptions to determine one’s role and set KPI accordingly. Global Business Services representing the MNC and the local HRSSC management team must develop and implement robust anti-bullying policies and programs and sustain them in practice to curtail the negative consequences.
... Mishandling crises can be detrimental and can negatively impact organizations longterm reputation (James and Wooten 2005), however, leaders generally lack the training and experience to lead organizations through turbulent times (Wooten and James 2008). Human resource development (HRD) professionals are tasked to unleash the expertise of individuals, teams, and organizations through training and organization development (Swanson and Holton 2001) and can play a key role in preparing leaders to manage crises. In this study, we explore the responses of hotel leaders towards the COVID-19 pandemic in medium-to large-sized hotels across India and Jamaica -two developing nations. ...
... Educational institutions are one of the most important instruments for all nations in the world in developing their human resources (Anwar, 2017). Empirical facts show that all advanced civilized nations are always supported by quality human resources (Darmadi, 2018;Pan, 2016;Swanson, 2022). ...
Article
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This study aims to explore, analyse, and describe the implications of children dropping out of school for their future in West Nusa Tenggara Indonesia. The research was conducted in West Lombok Regency using a qualitative method. Interviews, observation, and documentation were conducted to collect the data. Meanwhile, to analyse the data, the researcher used Miles Huberman model of qualitative data analysis. The results of this study indicate that the implications of children who have dropped out of school for their children's future are; inferior in relationships, children become lazy, and less open to develop themselves. It also has implications for families and communities such as; children become unemployed, work odd jobs, create problems in society, and produce new poor families. Given that fact, the implications of dropping out of school for children's future are quite crucial, the local government together with the community have an obligation to solve the problem thoroughly from various perspectives, so that the right formulation can be found to handle it with the appropriate policies.
... Training and development are defined as a process of systematically developing work-related knowledge and expertise in people to improve performance (Swanson & Holton, 2008). Training and development are some of the main factors for creating the ongoing process for the organization. ...
Article
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In the fiercely, overcrowded competitive business environment, the most valuable assets for the organization to adapt and survive are well-trained and developed employees who have skill, knowledge, and a positive attitude. Talent Training and development is vital to achieving a long-term competitive advantage and organizations are trying to improve employee performance by investing in employee training and development. This study aims to analyze the impact of training and development on employee performance in the Myanmar internet service provider industry. A descriptive research method was used, and a sample size of 250 employees was taken for the study representing 25% of the entire population. Disproportionate stratified random sampling is used to divide and examine the groups within the population. A structured questionnaire was delivered to employees of Stream Best Net ISP Co., Ltd. and Global Welink ISP Co., Ltd. to collect the data. Quantitative and qualitative research approaches are used to gather the primary data and to design the questionnaire. For data analysis, SPSS version 25 was used. Percentages, means, frequency, and standard deviations were computed. Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was used to define the relationship between independent and independent variables. The result showed that there is a positive correlation between training and development and employee performance.
... Supporting enhanced task performance and citizenship behaviours are considered core objectives of human resource development (HRD) practices (Swanson and Holton 2001). This is because individual role performance and extra effort on the job are considered important pathways through which organisational objectives and effectiveness can be achieved (Hernaus, Černe, and Škerlavaj 2021). ...
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... I percorsi di Faculty Development svolgono un ruolo rilevante nella promozione dell'apprendimento on the job, fondamentale per sostenere i percorsi di carriera e lo sviluppo professionale dei docenti universitari (Hassan et al., 2021;Lee et al., 2018). I percorsi di formazione dei docenti dedicati al miglioramento nella didattica e nella valutazione possono infatti essere considerati forme di sviluppo delle risorse umane: sia in relazione allo sviluppo individuale (il singolo docente che cresce professionalmente), sia secondo una combinazione di sviluppo individuale e organizzativo (Phuong et al., 2020;Swanson et al., 2001). Quando il riferimento è allo sviluppo individuale, le iniziative formative si centrano sul miglioramento delle «conoscenze, abilità e comportamenti come docenti e formatori, leader e manager, e ricercatori e studiosi» (Steinert, 2014, p. 4). ...
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This chapter studies the emergence of the education models of corporate universities in higher education in many industries and many countries of the world. This chapter explores the reasons behind the rise of corporate universities and their challenges for the conventional university system. The chapter emphasizes upon the university board and management to analyze the implications associated with the emergence of the corporate universities for conventional universities, and at the same time look for strategic and preemptive actions to maintain a competitive edge over corporate universities. One such strategic and preemptive action could be that the conventional universities worldwide and across the board should lead the learning innovation and ensure the provision of quality and affordable education programs and services to their learners, whether formal or informal. Otherwise, because of their unique operational models, business purposes, and resourcefulness, the corporate university can easily outcompete and outmaneuver the conventional university model.
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Each teacher can experience it every day: students come to science courses with prior knowledge which can act both as building blocks and as obstacles for new learning. It is widely acknowledged that preconceptions are present at both pre-university and university level, in particular in general physics education. These preconceptions may constitute important obstacles to learning since, successfully used in past experiences and contexts, they are considered as a priori ’always true’ by their owners and are then really difficult to overcome. As engineering teachers at university level, our practices in electricity, electromagnetism and electronics have offered many opportunities (questions in class, lab sessions, exam marking, etc) to realise that our specific context was not immune to this phenomenon. Despite our intuitive efforts and questionings about our teaching approach and material, we have been each year facing repetitive unexpected ‘mistakes’ from students in the context of electricity courses dedicated to second-year engineering students at Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB). Frustrated that we were not able to get the messages across effectively to students and motivated by the scarcity of published works in our specific niche, we decided to investigate areas in science education related to the teaching situations and issues we used to face. This thesis was the opportunity to explore the field (model-based learning, conceptual change, epistemological obstacle and pre/misconception) with the aim to improve our understanding, practices and teaching material. One intuitive ’to-be-tested’ idea acted as a starting point: switching the focus from the models themselves, i.e. the substances and subjects we use to learn and teach, to another central concept around which this whole piece of research is gravitating: what we call the domains of validity associated with those models, i.e. the range of situations in which they can be appropriately used and applied regarding the related context and desired outcomes. By embracing a two-component view of knowledge (considered as the association of a model and a DoV), we propose a new theoretical framework: the Domain of Validity Framework (or DoV framework). This framework explains the obstacle to learning as an overgeneralised DoV. It is specifically designed for developing teaching strategies and for use in the field, with the aim of helping teachers to trigger the overcoming of students’ preconceptions. The instructional techniques derived from this practice-oriented framework confront students with a paradoxical situation so that the student realises the limits of the original DoV and subsequently both searches for a new model and reduces the domain of validity of the original model. This instructional model also emphasises the importance of teaching not just models, but their domains of validity and, then, also means being explicit about the two components of knowledge. A series of studies integrated to a mixed methods research design has been built to assess the usefulness and effectiveness of our ideas and new framework to help teachers both diagnosing students’ learning obstacles and conceiving teaching strategies, methods and tools to help students to overcome such obstacles. Those studies include analyses of past examinations (summative assessments) and lab tests (formative assessments), the conception and impact analysis of new exercises and lab sessions with pre/post-tests research design, a qualitative inquiry based on student’s interviews, a case study based on the history of Maxwell’s discoveries and an autonomous educational web app aiming to help students overcome their preconceptions in electricity and in basic mechanics. Wherever we tested it, the implementation of the DoV framework through studies have shown interesting results. Investigating the implications of the concept of Domain of Validity (or DoV) regarding the literature, we have demonstrated the integrative power of our theory in relation to other scientific constructs related to prior knowledge, firstly by resolving apparent oppositions between these constructs, and secondly by redefining (or at least linking with our model) known terms using a small set of precisely defined terms. We have shown that engineering students at university level make mistakes in electricity partly on account of preconceptions they experience in that field, but also highlighted that their preconceptions are mostly different than those provided by the literature. Characterised by its ability to help teachers develop new techniques, the DoV framework has also proven to be a useful and ready-to-use tool for teachers to diagnose difficult-to-overcome students’ learning barriers, to build effective teaching strategies and methods as well as to reconsider the chronological sequence of the contents to be taught. As experiences and results have been gained, the framework has continued to evolve through iterations and exchanges between the theoretical and on-the-field levels, progressively integrating incremental enhancements opening new doors, new understanding and new applications. It also unveiled some unexpected, interesting and surprising concerns and questions we tried to address, such as the transposition of the DoV framework from a conceptual to a methodological level or the seemingly high interconnectedness existing between our ease to overcome a learning obstacle and our ability to diversify and switch between different modes of representation we use to describe phenomena or situations. Although we claim that our theory has high integrative power and applicability, it has its own domain of validity like any other model. It does not address all the issues related to prior knowledge and conceptual change. While we have given an example from and tested the theory in our field of electrical engineering, further research is needed to demonstrate its broad applicability across fields of science, the effectiveness of different teaching strategies based on the theory, the relationship with other theories, and the socio-cultural, emotional and affective dimensions of overcoming DoV-based preconceptions.
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The exploratory study examined the role of teamwork quality on team effectiveness and individual team member's success. There is another variable interpersonal skill is identified as affecting teamwork quality. A total of 21 items are clustered into 4 basic competencies by using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) in SPSS: Interpersonal skill (IPS), Teamwork Quality (TWQ), Team effectiveness (TEF), Individual team member's success (IMS). Nurses are invited to participate and 200 data was collected successfully manually and also in Google doc. from five multispecialty hospitals of Bhubaneswar and Cuttack, Odisha. Regression analyses found support for the hypotheses that team effectiveness and individual member's success depends upon teamwork quality and there are some effects of interpersonal skills on teamwork quality, team effectiveness and individual team member's success. This study examined the relationship between different variables by utilizing the Teamwork Quality Model (TWQ Model) and other various conceptual theories of teamwork and team effectiveness with the primary data analysis. It analyses how interpersonal skills impact team effectiveness along with the mediating effect of teamwork quality, in efforts to develop a more elaborated and theoretical ground to understand the Teamwork Quality Processes.
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The biblical mandate for Christians to renew their minds in Romans 12:1–2 impacts not only how Christians think, but how Christian leaders interact with their organizations. This chapter uses socio-rhetorical criticism to examine the pericope. The data from the textual analysis combine with psychological literature on metacognition to show how thinking with a renewed mind is rooted in a Christian’s primary identity, tied to their actions, and nested with their individual growth. Subsequent implications for leading with a renewed mind include humility, growth, alignment, and development.
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This study explores the nature and challenges of sport management training during the PyeongChang Winter Olympics through the lived experiences of sports managers. Using a qualitative case study, eight sports managers involved in the 2018 PyeongChang Olympic Games (PCOG) were purposely selected and interviewed as the research participants. Their lived experiences address the gap between the external and internal realities of PCOG within human resource management. Specifically, they point to a lack of (1) sufficient pre-training, (2) a standardized program, (3) a training program for specialists, and (4) practical experience in sport management training. Additionally, their shared experiences indicate two challenges pertaining to the necessity of (1) a standardized program and (2) general and professional programs, which must be resolved for sustainable sport management training in all sport organizations.
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The recent global pandemic, COVID-19, has compelled the higher education sector to resort to virtual mode of teaching from the traditional methods of classroom teaching thereby causing a huge paradigm shift. In order to make online learning a more positive and meaningful learning experience teachers must resort to reflective teaching. Reflective teaching is a skilled procedure that requires teachers to take logical decisions on their own teaching pedagogy, actions and provide meaningful guidance to students for better learning outcomes. Conscious lean educational leadership can holistically transform and enhance the leadership aptitude and responsibilities of academic communities virtually. The purpose of this chapter is to integrate reflective teaching as an innovative strategy in virtual mode for the development of conscious lean educational leadership in higher education. The findings yield that conscious lean educational leadership can serve as a great means to boost teachers’ morale and enrich their understanding during worldwide crisis. Reflective teaching can assist teachers to effectively contribute to virtual academic workplace through online educational tools. This chapter complements to extant literature on the amalgamation of conscious lean educational leadership by exploring how reflective teaching can assist to achieve the desired organizational goals in the virtual academic workplace.
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In complex and chaotic contexts, technical approaches to organizational change fail to produce desired results. This chapter explores how leaders can foster developmental relationships at the individual and group levels by using dialogue-centric methods to help individuals and groups identify emergent solutions. We integrate the literature on dialogic organization development (OD) and psychological safety to develop a perspective for developmental relationships in emergent contexts where groups cannot find clear solutions. The chapter culminates with an overview of three families of methodologies for fostering developmental relationships through dialogue at the group level: Technology of Participation (ToP), Liberating Structures, and Design Thinking. We provide real-life case examples of each from our own practice. Although not widely written about in the OD literature, each of these families of methods offers multi-faceted approaches for organizational change in contexts calling for dialogue and exploration rather than identifying technical solutions Most importantly, these widely-used methods demystify the process of fostering developmental relationships among teams through dialogue in emergent contexts.
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The purpose of the study was to assess the role of human resource development on employee performance in the Ministry of Public Service. The specific objectives of the study were to establish the contribution of training on employee performance in the Ministry of Public Service, to establish the contribution of performance management on employee performance in the Ministry of Public Service and to establish the contribution of leadership development on employee performance in the Ministry of Public Service. A cross sectional study design was adopted. Both quantitative and qualitative techniques were used to analyse data collected. In this study, 122 respondents out the targeted sample of 151 respondents participated in responding to questions in the questionnaire and interview guide. Analysis involved descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages, and inferential statistics such as Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, coefficient of determination and regression. Findings revealed a significant positive moderate correlation (rho = .409, p = .000) between training and employee performance whereby better training contributed to better employee performance and less training activity contributed to lesser employee performance. There was a significant positive moderate correlation (rho = .582, p = .000) between performance management and employee performance and a significant positive moderate correlation (rho = .597, p = .000) between leadership development and employee performance. It was concluded that human resource development measured in terms of training, performance management and leadership development had an important role in enhancing employee performance. Thus, it was recommended that these measures of human resource development have to be improved to help employees perform better at work.
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This book is the product of the committed work of researchers belonging to the ITET (Institute of Labor, Economy and Territory) of the Río Gallegos Academic Unit of the National University of Southern Patagonia (UARG_UNPA). This research team has been developing its activities since 2015 through PID 29 to 350 “A characterization of SMEs in the city of Río Gallegos, the application of strategic management, the role of human resources and Technological Innovation”. Within the framework of this project, in 2019, the book Las SMEs santacruceñas y riogalleguenses, contributions for its study and problems related to its management, was published. Then, the line of work of SMEs continued through the current PID, still in force until the end of 2022, on 29 A 429-1 "The management of human talent based on innovation and influenced by the corporate organizational culture . The case of the Río Gallegos SMEs ”, a project from which this material is generated to make it available to society in general and to the different economic agents that work in the society of Santa Cruz. The corporate culture in our society, the product of years of statism, suffered exile, as well as its more virtuous procedures (risk taking, competition, the preparation of human talent for performance, creativity and innovation, character innovator and the predisposition to change of societies). This process was decisive for local entrepreneurs to go back years in terms of organizational culture, knowledge, customs, procedures and others, in order to focus on their survival. As a consequence, knowledge and opportunities were wasted, a good part of the available human resource was underministered and demotivated, generating low productivity performances in said resource, but also the entrepreneurial function that existed in Santa Cruz decades ago was weakened. Today we know the weak multiplier effect in the provincial and local economy of public spending and transfers to municipalities of the Provincial State, which, on the other hand, did nothing more than provide very poor actions in order to make our capitals more competitive , our companies and our territories. In this context, this book tries to delve into the behaviors and procedures of the managers of SMEs that operate in Río Gallegos, in relation to the management of human talent, taking into account the organizational culture of the firm, which many times It is built on decades of experience and the behavior of the company within the framework of the society to which it belongs.