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The organisation as artist’s palette: Arts-based interventions

Authors:

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to focus on arts-based interventions as a management tool for personal, team and organisational development. How have management teams implemented art in their organisations, and toward what end? The literature has focused predominantly on a single case, creating many possibilities of constructing arts-based interventions. Yet, a typology is still missing. This paper examines various arts-based interventions and their underlying principles from a business perspective. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a systematic review of the literature in English and German, with special consideration for articles and books within the field of business. Findings – The typology presented in this paper, based on a mapping of the field, should contribute to a more coherent understanding of arts-based interventions. My goal is to provide researchers with a more structured perspective for approaching this academic area. Furthermore, the findings suggest that over and above the various types of arts that can be introduced to organisations, there are three basic principles for the achievement of this goal. Research limitations/implications – This paper presents a mapping of the cases in literature on arts-based interventions and presents a coherent understanding of ways of bringing art into organisations. Practical implications – The three underlying principles presented in this paper should assist practitioners in designing arts-based interventions for specific problems. Originality/value – This paper provides assistance to consultants, business executives, leaders, managers, researchers and students for understanding the basics of arts-based interventions. Furthermore, it provides a structure for the body of literature on cases of arts-based interventions.
Article Title Page
Arts-Based Interventions: Bringing the Arts into Organisations
Author Details:
Dr. Claudia Schnugg
Copenhagen Business School
Department for Management Politics and Philosophy
Fredriksberg, Denmark
Johannes Kepler University
Institute for Organization and Global Management Education
Linz, Austria
Corresponding author: Claudia Schnugg (please note new email address from 2016 on: mail@claudiaschnugg.com)
csc.lpf@cbs.dk, claudia.schnugg@jku.at
Please check this box if you do not wish your email address to be published
NOTE: affiliations should appear as the following: Department (if applicable); Institution; City; State (US only); Country.
No further information or detail should be included
Acknowledgments (if applicable):
I am grateful to my PhD supervisor Robert Bauer for helpful advice and discussions during the research process, and Ariane
Berthoin Antal, Steven S. Taylor, and Donna Ladkin for helpful comments on an earlier draft of this contribution.
Biographical Details (if applicable):
Dr. Claudia Schnugg is a Visiting Researcher at Copenhagen Business School, Institute for Management, Politics and Philosophy.
Her research interest lies in organizational aesthetics and arts-based initiatives in companies.
Structured Abstract:
Purpose This paper focuses on arts-based interventions as a management tool for personal, team, and organizational
development. How have management teams implemented art in their organizations, and toward what end? The literature has
focused predominantly on single case. creating many possibilities of constructing for arts-based interventions. Yet, a typology is still
missing. This paper examines various of arts-based interventions and their underlying principles from a business perspective.
Design/methodology/approach The paper is based on a systematic review of the literature in English and German, with special
consideration for articles and books within the field of business.
Findings The typology presented in this paper, based on a mapping of the field, should contribute to a more coherent
understanding of arts-based interventions. My goal is to provide researchers with a more structured perspective for approaching this
academic area. Furthermore, the findings suggest that over and above the various types of arts that can be introduced to
organizations, there are three basic principles for the achievement of this goal.
Research limitations/implications: This paper presents a mapping of the cases in the literature on arts-based interventions and
presents a coherent understanding of ways of bringing art into organizations.
Practical implications: The three underlying principles presented in this paper should assist practitioners in designing arts-based
interventions for specific problems.
Originality/value This paper provides assistance to consultants, business executives, leaders, managers, researchers, and
students for understanding the basics of arts-based interventions. Furthermore, it provides a structure for the body of literature on
cases of arts-based interventions.
Keywords: Arts, Arts-based intervention, management tool, typology, organizational development, personal
development
Article Classification: Literature Review (please note: based on my PhD thesis. Though the thesis is in
German, I can provide you with the updated figures used for this publication in English)
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For internal production use only
Running Head: How to bring the arts into organizations
Arts-Based Interventions: Bringing the Arts into Organisations
In today’s rapidly changing society, innovation is a fundamental capability of individuals and organisations
compelled to keep up with the new demands of the environment. Thus, for instance, open-mindedness,
original thinking, critique, and flexibility as preconditions of innovation are critical resources for creating
successful businesses. Scholars in innovation and organisational creativity have turned to the artistic realm
where innovation and critique are constitutive components and the artists serve as objects of study. Yet much
evidence shows that abstract knowledge about artistic processes may help in restructuring research and
development processes, and expose employees to new practices and different perspectives, while especially
‘creative’ role models are even more effective. According to a long tradition in thinking about education
represented, for example, by the German artist and art theorist Joseph Beuys (1975), practicing and dealing
with the arts is a necessary precondition for personal development, holistic thinking, and employment skills.
Therefore, well-planned and thoroughly considered human resource activities using the arts can help
employees acquire necessary abilities.
However, arts can be brought into organisations not only as a response to new demands on individuals within
organisations, but also as interventions to benefit team and organisational development, as well as external
communication. Depending on the design of an organisation’s engagement with the arts, it is possible to
target these other goals above human resource development. Team events or a carefully thought out artistic
portrait of the organisation’s identity and visions can, in particular, help facilitate organisational change, the
identification of problems, or the enhancement of a sense of community. These effects are based on the
understanding that the arts address ideas and problems in an aesthetic way, stimulate audiences and enhance
their experiences, and lead to processes of self-reflection.
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Beyond discussing pragmatic ways of bringing the arts into organisations, such as using the arts in external
communication, sponsoring art events, or investing in artworks, as a review of arts-based interventions, this
article considers the many possibilities of bringing the arts into organisations in order to keep up with the
demands of an uncertain and fast-changing environment. In the following section, cases of arts-based
interventions in companies will reflect the different ‘kinds’ of arts-based interventions that can be found in
the literature. Yet it is not possible to copy such interventions accurately and reach the same goals in different
organisational settings. Practitioners therefore need to understand the basic underlying principles of arts-
based interventions in order to develop arts-based interventions to address the needs of their companies.
The sources for this concept were collected in a systematic review of arts-based interventions, which
followed a structured review protocol, applying explicit strategies for selecting relevant literature. The search
in English and German databases revealed 119 relevant publications of which the majority is empirical and
case-based, often focussing on just one arts-based intervention in one company. These cases were in
publications ranging from diverse books and practitioners’ literature to state-of-the-art academic journals.
The categorisation of the cases followed certain guidelines to stay true to the original observation on the one
hand, and to organise and interpret data efficiently on the other hand. First, the cases were sorted by
descriptions of different methods that organisations use to bring elements from the art world into the
organisational realm. This step led to the following list of 12 ‘kinds’ of the arts-based intervention
phenomenon; to these, new published cases can easily be added. Second, this approach was complemented
by identifying patterns, commonalities, and differences among these kinds. This step concluded that the
current repertoire of arts-based interventions can be understood as creating organisational influence through
the import of artworks, artistic capabilities, or art practices as metaphors.
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Possibilities for Bringing Art into Organisations
Technically speaking, each kind of arts-based intervention is a category that represents a set of highly similar
and exemplary cases documented in the literature. Thus, the following overview demonstrates the variety of
‘techniques’ by which the arts have been brought into organisations in the past.
1. Provide Tickets for Art Events: Companies give tickets for public art events (e.g., theatre performances,
concerts, and art shows) to various stakeholders or most often employees as incentive. This is also done
for inspirational and educational reasons, thereby providing employees with opportunities to experience
art. For instance, as part of the corporate art programme Catalyst, Unilever offered its employees tickets
for selected art events, including contemporary theatre plays and exhibitions which the Catalyst team
considered beneficial yet challenging experiences that employees were likely to miss without their
intervention (Darsø, 2004).
2. Organise Art Events: Companies engage in organising, staging, and hosting art events that are either
restricted to invited organisational audiences or open to the public. For instance, Mercedes-Benz Center
Stuttgart regularly organises both private and public art events in the main car exhibition building
(including Hip Hop concerts, stand-up comedy, private views of local visual artists’ works, and the
Haydn Symphony Orchestra performing all 107 Haydn symphonies; Blanke, 2002).
3. Sponsor Art Events, Artists, or Art Institutions: Companies engage in art or cultural sponsoring as part of
their marketing and social responsibility activities. Basically, the practice of art sponsoring has been
known since the Renaissance: in order to instill a sense of dignity and success, trade dynasties like the
House of Medici hired artists to produce impressive artworks and paint coats of arms on buildings they
owned or sponsored (e.g., churches). Similarly, today's companies support artists, art events, or art
institutions in exchange for having their name and logo displayed on artistic publications, on posters
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announcing art events, in arts buildings (e.g., museums and concert halls) or even on the stage (Blanke,
2002). For instance, all German manufacturers of premium cars (BMW, Mercedes-Benz, Volkswagen,
and Audi) sponsor ‘highbrow’ cultural events (e.g., classical music festivals and contemporary art
exhibitions and museums; Schwaiger et al., 2010).
4. Buy and Collect Artworks: Companies buy selected artworks or systematically build corporate
collections. For example, the EA-Generali Foundation in Vienna, a foundation by the Austrian insurance
company Generali, collects artworks (predominantly work by Austrian artists and paper drawings) and
organises exhibitions within a company-owned museum. Furthermore, renowned artist Andrea Fraser
was hired to create events that bring employees in closer contact with the company-owned artworks
(Fraser, 1995).
5. Commission Artworks: Companies commission artworks, often in connection with a specific event.
Mercedes-Benz, for instance, asked Andy Warhol to produce artworks for the company’s 100th
anniversary. He chose a series of visually remarkable Mercedes cars for an artistic statement on the
company’s history (Becker, 1994). Similarly, Siemens purchased Farbfeld 845/91, a monochrome shrill
red painting by Ruprecht Geiger that measures 1.2 by 7.5 metres, and mounted it in the main staff
restaurant at its headquarters in Munich during a major reorganisation of the company. This triggered
considerable controversy, which in turn led to a series of meetings between employees and managers that
provided a forum for open discussion of corporate identity and culture, concerns regarding the
restructuring of Siemens, and pressing issues otherwise difficult to present to management (Wagner,
1999).
6. Offer Seminars about Art: Companies offer seminars about art (e.g., music, painting, and theatre) as part
of their human resource programmes. For instance, renowned German art theorist Max Imdahl held
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seminars on abstract, nonfigurative, and contemporary visual artworks for Siemens employees.
Participants were encouraged to perceive visual material, employing multiple observational strategies
such as spotting single parts, seeing the whole picture, having a brief or a close look, seeing between
drawn lines, and exploring optical illusions (Wagner, 1999).
7. Employ Artists as Designers: Companies employ artists for (re-)designing corporate image, buildings,
products, events, or even organisational processes. Best Markets hired the artist and architect group SITE
to turn the buildings that hosted their markets into artworks. The redesigned Best showrooms succeeded
as artworks (“reflected the uncertainty and precariousness of society and were definitely the early
stirrings of Deconstructivism”) and were instrumental in establishing a strong distinctive brand: “in the
end SITE and Best had branded the idea so distinctly that it couldn’t be transferred to another retailer
when the company went bankrupt” (McCown, 2003: p. 1).
8. Employ Artists as Consultants: Companies employ artists as management consultants to use their artistic
capabilities for organising material, solving problems, and creating expression beyond language in
coping with team or organisational problems. In addition, artists are hired as project advisers to support
discussions and problem solving with their artistic capabilities. For instance, German artist Mathis
Neidhart works as an artistic project advisor and as part of product development teams in which he
contributes an ‘artistic perspective’ on problem solving, and visually documents and expresses other
team members’ ideas (Neidhart, 2003).
9. Invite Artists-in-Residence: Companies invite artists-in-residence to pursue art projects within the
company, hoping that the process of artistic creation or the resulting artworks (be it their content,
material, or production method) will provide inspiration for the corporation. Xerox PARC (Palo Alto
Research Center), for example, conducted an artist-in-residence programme called PAIR (PARC Artist-
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in-Residence) in which artists and scientists working on similar ideas (e.g., user interface design) or with
similar methods (e.g., specific materials or software) were paired to inspire each other’s work (Harris,
1999).
10. Offer Artistic Workshops: Companies offer artistic workshops to develop their employees’ artistic
abilities. In these workshops, employees or managers work to create artworks, learn about artistic
processes, and engage in expressing themselves through artistic media. For instance, Boston Consulting
Group used acting courses in which consultants were trained to appear on stage and interact with the
audience (including talking, gestures, mime, and reading the audience’s reactions; Buswick, 2005).
Furthermore, art therapeutic methods are used in some artistic workshops to draw out and address
unconscious problems (Westwood, 2007).
11. Use Art Practices as Metaphors: Art practices can be used as models or metaphors that potentially
inform organisational practices, as seen in the training method of Bang & Olufsen’s international sales
staff, who utilised intimate knowledge about theatre production specifically the relationship and
interaction between director, actor, and audience to shift sales talks from rational conversations
focussed on technical data and price to customer interaction. This process enabled a pleasant aesthetic
experience for both customers and sales persons during retail interactions (Darsø, 2004).
12. Suggest Art Practices as Metaphors: There is a significant body of literature that does not analyse
empirical cases of arts-based interventions. Instead, art practices are suggested as potentially useful
models and metaphors for organisational processes, developments, or problems. For instance, authors
reinterpret managers as artists (Dégot, 1987) or show what managers and organisations could learn from
art ensembles, such as jazz bands or theatre companies (e.g., Weick, 1998). Moreover, authors refer to art
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history or specific art works as inspirational sources for general or case-specific organisational analyses
(e.g., Watkins and King, 2002).
The Underlying Principles of Arts-Based Interventions
After reading the overview of how arts-based interventions have been conducted in the past, managers,
consultants, and scholars may find it helpful to understand the underlying principles of arts-based
interventions. As the list of 12 kinds of arts-based interventions presented above treats each kind as a unique
phenomenon in its own right, without revealing underlying rules, this approach will now be complemented
by identifying patterns, commonalities, and differences among the various kinds of arts-based interventions.
Therefore, the second analysis of the cases proposes the following three principles that structure the kinds of
arts-based interventions and link them to underlying mechanisms. Arts-based interventions create
organisational influence through the import of three types of artistic elements: artworks, artistic capabilities,
and art and art practices as metaphors.
1. Artworks in Organizational Contexts: Organisational actors, most importantly managers, can create
organisational influence by exposing stakeholders (primarily employees or customers) to artworks. Some
arts-based interventions include invitations to art events (see kinds 1 Provide Tickets for Art Events, 2
Organise Art Events, and 3 Sponsor Art Events), and adding purchased or commissioned artworks to the
organisation’s appearance, typically by displaying artworks in the work environment (see kinds 4 Buy and
Collect Artworks and 5 Commission Artworks). Arts-based interventions bring artworks into
organisational contexts to create aesthetic communication, generating an experience that ranges from
fairly casual entertainment (e.g., decorative art and mainstream music) to deeply touching encounters with
personal perspectives, ideals, and ways of thinking. Therefore, engaging with artworks in organisations
may lead to important individual as well as team development processes. In addition, organisations
engaged in such arts-based interventions send a twofold message: first, they signal support for the arts (see
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kinds 1 to 6), which, through varying degrees of publicity, often counts as a sign of good corporate
citizenship; and second, their choice of artwork conveys the organisations’ values (e.g., conservative vs.
progressive) and their assumed or desired position in society (e.g., elitist vs. popular).
2. Artistic Capabilities in Organisational Constexts: Successful artists are commonly credited with
possessing exceptional capabilities that enable the creation of artworks, but their capabilities are not
always restricted to purely artistic use. Examples include unconventional thinking and acting
(‘originality’), reaching people through communication ‘beyond language’ (i.e., by means of images,
objects, and sounds arranged in space and time or by texts that speak ‘between the lines’), making
appearances with high (stage) presence and charisma, and pursuing goals with exceptional determination
and resilience. Arguably, such capabilities are generally useful in organisations if used carefully with
respect to the right time, place, and application. Arts-based interventions rely on two mechanisms to bring
these capabilities into organisations. First, artists participate temporarily in organisational activities that
may (see kinds 7 Employ Artists as Designers and 8 Employ Artists as Consultants) or may not (see kind 9
Invite Artists-in-Residence) include the production of artworks. Second, artists or educators train
organisational members to develop further their artistic capabilities (see kind 10 Offer Artistic Workshops
and, to a lesser extent, kind 6 Offer Seminars about Art), a technique which assumes that everybody
possesses some (dormant) artistic qualities which can be drawn out and expanded upon.
3. Art and Art Practices as Organisational Metaphors: Drawing on the arts as an autonomous institutional
field, arts-based interventions can use knowledge about the arts to inform organisational practices. This
refers to all 12 kinds of arts-based interventions discussed above, as art practices may inform employees
about new processes through any encounter with the arts. In particular, the analytical 11th and 12th kinds
(Use Art Practices as Metaphors and Suggest Art Practices as Metaphors) point precisely to this idea. For
instance, treating organisational practices as if they were art practices as Bang & Olufsen did (Darsø,
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2004) can provide a basis for applying additional knowhow about (customer) communication, which can
serve as a defamiliarisation technique (Schein, 2001) that enables a ‘fresh look’, a new perspective on
what is done within the organisation, and, in turn, facilitates organisational change and flexibility.
Be Aware of
As shown above, arts-based interventions take various forms in terms of how they are realised in
organisations and how they influence organisations and organisational actors. As the review above shows,
there is great potential in bringing the arts into organisations. It also underlines that, before engaging with the
arts, it is essential to be aware of the necessary critical and reflective process that is fundamental to every
kind of arts-based intervention. Arts-based interventions are tools with a lasting impact that may lead to
major changes and innovations. Therefore, the first step of planning an arts-based intervention is to define the
problem that should be addressed within the organisation: does the intervention aim at human resource
development, organisational development, or external communication? Second, how can the chosen goal be
achieved? Is it through holistic learning and acquiring new perspectives? Or is it by learning specific
processes and contents? Is it through shock effect and provocation to make people speak up within the
organisation? Or is it about the organisation’s or a team’s identity? Only when these two fundamental aspects
are clear, will it be possible to set up a successful arts-based intervention that draws on artworks, capabilities,
art practices, or a combination of these features.
Conclusion
Artistic products and skills, as well as knowledge about the arts are meaningful and legitimate in the art
world, yet uncommon, if not alien, in the organisational realm. Arts-based interventions employ artworks,
artistic capabilities, and metaphorically applied knowledge about the arts to infuse art-specific difference into
the organisational realm. The process through which organisations cope with this difference provides the
basis for creating organisational influence on various aggregational levels of the organisation. If, for
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example, we consider a provocative painting hung where many employees or customers are able to see it,
Geiger’s painting in Siemens’ main canteen demonstrates that organisational influence does not necessarily
emanate from the painting itself, but rather from the initial reactions to the painting, further organisational
responses to these reactions, and so forth. Therefore, arts-based interventions can be considered as successful
as long as they are thoroughly planned, guided, and reflected upon by all participating parties (i.e., managers,
artists, and employees). To enable this process, it may also be useful to consider an intermediary to guide the
arts-based intervention someone who is able to translate between the different languages of management,
art, and employees (as in the case of EA-Generali who hired artist Andrea Fraser as an intermediary between
the then newly established art collection and the employees). In short, arts-based interventions consist of the
release of an initial stimulus and the process of its dissemination throughout an organisation, which is subject
to various ways and degrees of facilitation, guidance, or governance.
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Watkins, C. and King, I. (2002), “Organizational performance: a view from the arts”, Tamara: Journal of
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... Since the end of the '90s, arts-based or artistic interventions respectively have established themselves in organizational and personnel development. In their most widespread form, artists have company staff pass through a creative process based on the visual arts, the performing arts, music or poetry [10,16,17]. The different approaches usually aim at improving problem-solving skills and the development of key competencies particularly with regard to social skills. ...
... Art Thinking has not been conceptualized yet but it is characterized by "its focus on options, not outcomes; on possibilities, not certainty" [85] (p. 16). ...
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... These initiatives are designed for the specific needs of an organization or team and thus value creation is not limited to a small range of specific effects. Unlike sports activities that are often used as team building exercises, arts-based initiatives may aim at goals like development, change, inspiration, or innovation on different organizational levels: individuals, products, groups and teams or the whole organization (BERTHOIN ANTAL/STRAUß 2016;SCHNUGG 2014;DARSØ 2004) as studies on the formats and possible effects of arts-based initiatives show. These meta-studies as well as reflections on specific formats of arts-based initiatives aim at an understanding of underlying mechanisms of these activities for better theoretical understanding. ...
... The field is fast growing and there are effects attributed to arts-based initiatives. For illustration: A systematic literature review I conducted in 2009 (SCHNUGG 2010), and repeated in the beginning of 2013 (SCHNUGG 2014) with an expanded pool of publications, already shows the diversity of arts-based initiatives. To give a rough impression, the conducted two-step content analysis of these already 119 books and papers aimed at how managers and consultants bring elements from the arts world into the organizational realms, and which effects are described. ...
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Art is brought into organizations under the concept of artistic intervention in order to achieve a variety of effects: creating new values, initiating learning processes, supporting restructuring processes, or fostering innovation. Several methods and practices have been developed for this purpose, in which art or artistic workshops create spaces that promote precisely these effects. Such learning spaces, experimental spaces and memory spaces represent great potential for personnel and organisational development, in that, e.g., new ideas can be developed and internalised. Based on this idea of these spaces created by artistic interventions, this article theoretically takes up the idea of "interspaces" as a "liminality". This theoretical angle helps to fathom the effects experienced in artistic interventions which are difficult to evaluate. In this way, the situation in which employees find themselves in artistic interventions can be grasped to better understand processes of change and the opening for exploration of ideas. In addition, liminality is linked to the anthropological view of rites of passage (transition rites), which are supportive in times of change and mark – or even constitute – transitions.
... These initiatives are designed for the specific needs of an organization or team and thus value creation is not limited to a small range of specific effects. Unlike sports activities that are often used as team building exercises, arts-based initiatives may aim at goals like development, change, inspiration, or innovation on different organizational levels: individuals, products, groups and teams or the whole organization (BERTHOIN ANTAL/STRAUß 2016;SCHNUGG 2014;DARSØ 2004) as studies on the formats and possible effects of arts-based initiatives show. These meta-studies as well as reflections on specific formats of arts-based initiatives aim at an understanding of underlying mechanisms of these activities for better theoretical understanding. ...
... The field is fast growing and there are effects attributed to arts-based initiatives. For illustration: A systematic literature review I conducted in 2009 (SCHNUGG 2010), and repeated in the beginning of 2013 (SCHNUGG 2014) with an expanded pool of publications, already shows the diversity of arts-based initiatives. To give a rough impression, the conducted two-step content analysis of these already 119 books and papers aimed at how managers and consultants bring elements from the arts world into the organizational realms, and which effects are described. ...
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This is a chapter of my book "Creating ArtScience Collaboration - Bringing Value to Organizations" Find the book here: https://www.palgrave.com/gp/book/9783030045487 Artists and scientists like to refer to artscience collaboration to a space for exploration and experiments that is not bound to other organizational restrictions or where they can talk freely about unique ideas. The formats of artscience collaboration often are not bound to organizational structures; these projects are neither part of routines nor are they standard projects. They break formal structures and open up spaces for learning and idea development without predefined rules, for example, like interaction structures or scientific, corporate, and artistic goals. Such spaces can be used individually for personal development, exploration, creation of experimental work, playful testing of new ideas, and much more, without being bound to former rules, hierarchies, or evaluation by peers. In anthropology these states have first been named as “liminal”, spaces on a threshold and in-between (Van Gennep 1909; Turner 1966). Such space is not always constructed and signified by physical room, but by social practice. Liminal spaces are rather cognitive and experiential phases to break out from the “normal” spaces of routine life.
... There are many ways in which artists can get involved and improve a business organization, for more see:Schnugg, 2014. ...
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Globalization and socio-economic development consequently affect rapid changes in the business environment. Therefore, the existing business models inevitably have to adapt to the new reality. This would, among other things, imply incorporating creativity and innovation into business processes that are seen as drivers of economic development and competitive advantage. At the same time, many artistic and cultural organizations are facing a reduction in financial support that is affecting their prospects of survival and development. Therefore, they are faced with a need to introduce market-oriented management and apply financial management principles. Accordingly, both the business and cultural sector face business challenges and seek effective way to respond to global changes. The business sector investments in culture and they are most often manifested in a form of donations and sponsorships, which is considered an obsolete principle. A new trend that has emerged is the establishment of creative partnerships, which manifests either as the development of innovative approaches in business organizations or as the development of joint cultural and artistic projects, which are financially and otherwise supported by business partners. The paper analyzes and compares the concepts of sponsorship and creative partnership, and discusses the benefits and changes that arise from these collaborations, both at the organizational and individual level, and it provides an overview of recent literature review, thus revealing the emerging concept of creative partnerships. The results indicate the importance of creative partnerships for the development of both cooperating sectors (business sector and arts and culture sector). Likewise, it emphasizes inevitability of the creative partnerships in the new global economy where creative partnerships are becoming an essential element of economic and social development.
... Methods organizations use in their interactions with art, the artistic process, and the artists were clustered into formats ranging from events to consultancy, workshops, and artist-in-residence programs 26 Artist-in-residence programs are a convenient opportunity to initiate collaboration Within the limits of this text I will give a taste of these programs and examine the most important preconditions for this popular intervention to bear fruit However, artistic residencies do not automatically imply collaboration processes; collaboration must be facilitated and given enough space and time from the organization's side Artistic residencies are a basic mechanism in 25 Schnugg et al (2020) 26 i e Berthoin Antal et al (2013), Schnugg (2014) Challenging Organisations and Society the artistic community, just like visiting research opportunities in the scientific world They imply the opportunity for the artist to be hosted by an institution, organization, or place, providing space and time to work on their artistic project Here are major aspects that influence the procedure of an artist-in-residence project: ...
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Artists explore new territories in their work by exploring new media, imagining new futures, contextualizing ideas, creating aesthetic investigations into new environments, or posing questions and leading theoretical discussions. Interaction among art, science and technology can contribute to the creation of future societies – of future realities – on many levels, e.g., it can contribute to communication, create experience, enrich discussions, feed into scientific processes and support personal learning. Especially when it comes to something influential like current developments in Artificial Intelligence, contributions of artscience collaboration can be essential for designing a positive future reality for our society. Supporting collaborations in organizations through well-structured formats in the organization supports the realization of elaborate art on the topic that contributes to important developments in the organization as well as to an informed discussion with broad audiences and shareholder groups.
... Various theoretical angles have been used to analyze ABIs and their effects in organizations [e.g., [6][7][8]. Various forms of ABIs have been explored in organizational settings: it is possible to bring in the artwork, bring in the artist for direct collaboration or as consultant, or learn from and employ the artistic process [9]. ...
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Cilja rada je prikazati pojam i ulogu storytellinga u marketingu s naglaskom na automobilskoj industriji. Od teorijskog dijela koji je ključan za shvaćanje važnosti storytellinga i kako on nije pomodni novokreirani pojam bez ikakvog konkretno definiranog značenja, već alat kojim se čovječanstvo služi od davnina. Preko teorijske podloge i kriterija rad se proteže na konkretne primjere unutar automobilske industrije stavljajući fokus na primjere iz prakse jedne od najpoznatijih i najuspješnijih automobilskih kompanija današnjice, Mercedes - Benza. Komparativnom analizom te metodom dubinskoga intervjua u radu donosi se jasan zaključak kako danas kada se prodaju iskustva, a ne proizvodi, ništa ne može proći bez izvrsne marketinške komunikacije, a dio te komunikacije je marketinški alat storytelling.
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This study examines the various dimensions of the incorporation of arts in advertising from a Jordanian perspective. Conducted qualitatively, semi-structured interviews are held with a number of practitioners from the private sector. These interviews are translated and analyzed through constant comparison theory (CCT). Findings of this study suggest a congruency with the theory regarding the commonalities of art and marketing, as both are concerned in communicating a message. The employment of artists in the promotion of products and brands generate a further alignment. Furthermore, cultural observations are also generated in this study, including the local population’s preferred tendencies towards mainstream art and their evident preferences of music, images, and animation as the most used art form in marketing. Moreover, calligraphy is deemed a favored art element across various segments due to historical and cultural considerations. In the same vein, capitalizing on patriotism via local arts resonate positively with various market segments. Fine arts are correlated with upper markets and luxury brands, while mainstream art and parody-advertising are more in line with commoners. The same applies to emotional appeals that align with social and psychological utility seekers, as opposed to rational appeals that influence functional and financial utility seekers. Product-placement is considered influential but lacks consistency of adoption due to the high costs involved. Contributions to this study reveal the significance synergy that must be present between the incorporated art/artist and the brand. Findings also indicate the infusion and reference of art in a digitalized context, due to the explosive emergence of digital and social media channels. Moreover, a satisfactory level of awareness in regards to the importance of art in marketing appears to be possessed by marketing managers in Jordan. Observations further reveal a lack of systemization in approaching arts-advertising, as art endorsement tends to be random. Moreover, the findings reveal a scattered knowledge of art terminologies, which obstructs astute selection of art elements. Key words: Arts, Advertising art, Art Tools
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Today it is customary to speak of the collaborative potential of culture and business to achieve benefits in one’s cultural and professional lives. Making sense of the involvement of culture in firms, however, requires a better understanding of the link between cultural practices and projects and the development of business models. This paper focuses on companies that place culture at the core of their respective production practices and business models, with particular reference to those offering culture-based products. For these kinds of products, the creation, preservation, enhancement and transmission of a specific culture all play vital roles in embedding particular aesthetic and symbolic content in their unique consumption experiences. In order to explore the integration of cultural and commercial strategies that culture-based products seem to drive, we propose an early study through the investigation of a set of brands competing in the same field.
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This article examines whether exposure to a company's sponsorship of cultural activities such as “high-brow” arts—including classical music, literature, art exhibitions, and museums—provides a long-term increase in the general public's assessment of corporate reputation. As corporate reputation has been found by previous studies to be composed of two primary dimensions (i.e., the likeability of the firm, the competence of the firm), it is of particular interest to examine whether sponsorship of cultural events affects one or both of these dimensions. A two-dimensional model of image transfer is used as the theoretical basis for a study of more than 3,000 German consumers conducted in collaboration with 10 major multinational companies (e.g., BMW Group and Siemens). Results show that some significant effects of culture-sponsoring activities can be demonstrated for the likeability dimension of corporate reputation and some of its antecedents. However, no significant link between culture sponsorships and consumer perceptions of firm competence is found.
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Purpose – To convey the potential of hidden benefits in well-selected arts-based training – in this particular instance, theatrically-based training. Design/methodology/approach – A leading international consultancy put numerous vice presidents through training with The Actors Institute (TAI) over about ten years. This paper is an interview with a leading consultant who frequently gives presentations that had been consistently rated highly by his audiences before he began attending. After ten years, he still periodically returns to TAI for assistance. Findings – The original intent was to improve presentations. In fact, participants gained a better sense for dealing with all kinds of audiences, extending to client engagements and personal situations. Practical implications – Many executives don't feel the need for training when they hit a certain level. When the training is based on developmental skills and is over an extended period rather than a brief one-time experience, and the training organization wisely chosen, there can be long-term benefits that go beyond expectations. Originality/value – George Stalk is highly respected. He has not previously spoken out on this topic. His first-hand experiences can influence many other businesspeople to potential benefits of arts-based training that they had not recognized.
Als Künstler kann man in anderen Systemen freier operieren
  • M Neidhart
Neidhart, M. (2003), "Als Künstler kann man in anderen Systemen freier operieren", in Heid, K. and John, R. (Eds.), Transfer: Kunst Wirtschaft Wissenschaft, [sic!] Verlag, Coesfeld, pp. 139-152.
Art for the sake of the corporation
  • M Schwaiger
  • M Sarstedt
  • C Taylor
Schwaiger, M., Sarstedt M. and Taylor, C. (2010), "Art for the sake of the corporation", Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 3, pp. 77-90.
Picturing organizations: a visual exploration of the unconscious at work
  • J Westwood
Westwood, J. (2007), "Picturing organizations: a visual exploration of the unconscious at work", Tamara: Journal of Critical Postmodern Organization Science, Vol. 6 No. 1, pp. 36-57.