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The bay cat in Kalimantan, new information from recent sightings


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Through the use of camera traps we present new information on the distribution of bay cats Catopuma badia in Kalimantan including two new confirmed locations. Nine sites were surveyed between 2011-2014 across Central and East Kalimantan. All new photographs were taken during daylight hours and only 1 of 4 cats was captured near water. We consider the presence and non-detection of bay cats in different forest types and at different elevations noting that the photos were obtained from cameras placed at or higher than the average altitude of the whole camera grid at each site and all from disturbed forest. The distribution of cameras is not believed to affect detection of bay cats as long as all micro-habitat types are surveyed. We highlight the priority of peat-swamp forests for additional survey effort.
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CATnews 62 Spring 2015
original contribution
The bay cat in Kalimantan,
new information from recent
Through the use of camera traps we present new information on the distribution of
bay cats Catopuma badia in Kalimantan including two new confirmed locations.
Nine sites were surveyed between 2011-2014 across Central and East Kalimantan.
All new photographs were taken during daylight hours and only 1 of 4 cats was
captured near water. We consider the presence and non-detection of bay cats in dif-
ferent forest types and at different elevations noting that the photos were obtained
from cameras placed at or higher than the average altitude of the whole camera grid
at each site and all from disturbed forest. The distribution of cameras is not believed
to affect detection of bay cats as long as all micro-habitat types are surveyed. We
highlight the priority of peat-swamp forests for additional survey effort.
Description and taxonomy
The bay cat is endemic to the island of Bor-
neo and is the worlds least studied felid
(Sunquist & Sunquist 2002). Alfred Russel
Wallace collected the first specimen in 1855,
which was sent to the British Museum and
arrived in a poor state of preservation (Gray
1874). Originally, this specimen was cata-
logued as a flat-headed cat Prionailurus pla-
niceps, although there remained doubt in its
proper identification (Sunquist et al. 1994)
and it was not until 1874 that J. E. Gray de-
scribed this specimen as a new species (Gray
1874). By 1928 eight pelts of the bay cat had
been collected but scientists had to wait until
1992 before an adult female was caught by
trappers on the Sarawak/Indonesia border
(Sunquist et al. 1994). This female specimen,
which was brought to the Sarawak Museum,
gave some clues that the bay cat appeared
to be smaller but morphologically related to
the Asiatic golden cat Catopuma temminckii
(Sunquist et al. 1994).
Mohd.-Azlan & Sanderson (2007) mapped 15
locations in Kalimantan, Sarawak and Sabah
where the bay cat has been recorded. Many
more records have been published as camera
trapping becomes more widely used, though
these are predominantly from Sabah and Sa-
rawak (e.g. Yasuda et al. 2007, Mohamed et
al. 2009, Brodie & Giordano 2010, Mathai et
al. 2010, Rustam et al. 2012, Mohd.-Azlan &
Engkamat 2013, Wearn et al. 2013, Bernard
et al. 2014). Our research adds two new loca-
tions within East Kalimantan; Kutai National
Park and Wehea Protection Forest and con-
firms the persistence of the bay cat in Sungai
Wain Protection Forest (SOM T1). We also
present data on locations where the bay cat
was surveyed for but not detected.
The bay cat is so elusive, that its habits are
scarcely known. As all previous sightings
have been near bodies of water, such as ri-
vers and mangroves, it has been suggested
that the bay cat may be associated with such
habitat (Mohd.-Azlan & Sanderson 2007).
Another possibility, raised by Sunquist & Sun-
quist (2002), is that this reflects the routes
used by researchers to travel through dense
forests more than the felids’ preference. Fur-
ther, most camera trap studies focus on ani-
mal activity on the forest floor, offering little
insight into the use of the canopy. Anecdotal
records from Ulu Sarikei strengthen this idea,
where hunters claimed to have seen a bay cat
1 m above the ground on a branch (Mohd.-
Azlan & Sanderson 2007). Clearly, the more
arboreal the bay cat, the more it will be un-
derrepresented in camera trap studies. There
is uncertainty as to the diet of the bay cat and
no knowledge on its breeding behavior, since
live-caught specimens have all died before
there had been an opportunity to study them
(Sunquist & Sunquist 2002, Mohd.-Azlan &
Sanderson 2007)
New records
We report two new sites in Wehea and Ku-
tai, and the confirmed continued presence of
the bay cat in Sungai Wain, all in East Kali-
mantan (Table 1). All photographs were taken
during daylight hours. The bay cat caught on
camera in the Sungai Wain Protection Forest
was found crossing a log over a river (SOM
F1). However, both records from the Kutai
National Park were from regenerating, previ-
ously burned forest and more than 2 km from
the nearest body of water (SOM F2). Both
records from Wehea Forest were along old
logging roads in regenerating forest and were
not near any bodies of water (Fig. 1, Table 2).
All photos were taken at locations with an
altitude of more than 50 m and five sightings
were above 100 m (Table 1). All photos of the
bay cats were at or higher than the average
altitude of the whole camera grid at each
site. Four of the five photos were taken du-
ring the day. Cameras were placed randomly
across the landscape. For Kutai and Sungai
Wain cameras were placed in undisturbed fo-
rest and forest which has recovered/is reco-
vering from forest fire (burnt areas). In Wehea
the whole area has been logged at various
times in the past so all cameras were in pre-
viously logged/recovering forest. We do not
believe that the placement of the cameras
in the micro-habitat areas disproportionately
affected capture rates as bay cats were cap-
tured in both previously burnt and previously
logged forest.
Table 1. Details of new bay cat sightings from this study
Location Date Time Proximity to river Elevation Min camera asl Mean camera asl Max camera asl
Kutai NP Photo 1 08.01.2013 08:41h N 158 41 152 246
Kutai NP Photo 2 16.02.2013 18:39h N 206 41 152 246
Sungai Wain 10.07.2012 13:13h Y 69 35 69 86
Wehea Photo 1 04.03.2012 12:57h N 400 181 362 485
Wehea Photo 2 02.03.2013 12:49h N 329 230 281 390
CATnews 62 Spring 2015
bay cat in Kalimantan
Distribution of bay cats
Povey et al. (2009) looked at 11 sites in In-
donesian Borneo and provided concrete evi-
dence for bay cat presence in four of these
(Table 4). Our study looked at nine sites and
found evidence in three: Only Sungai Wain
was included in both the 2009 review and
this study; Kutai National Park and Wehea
are new locations (Table 3). The bay cat is
reported across all Indonesian Borneo provin-
ces except South Kalimantan, likely due to a
lack of camera trap survey effort in this region
(Povey et al. 2009). With over 7 years of long-
term camera trap surveying in the Sabangau
catchment, the bay cat has not been de-
tected. If peat-swamp forests are not suitable
habitat for bay cats they will be restricted to
dry forests and more montane areas.
Conservation status and threats
The bay cat is fully protected over most of its
range, and hunting and trade are prohibited.
In Indonesia it is protected under the flora and
fauna protection law (PP 7, 1999). The IUCN
lists the bay cat on its Red List as Endanger-
ed and CITES lists it on Appendix II. The high
value placed on the cat puts enormous pres-
sure on its survival. Local trappers and animal
dealers are well aware that foreign zoos and
breeding facilities will pay U.S. $ 10,000 or
more for a live specimen (Sunquist & Sun-
quist 2002). The fact that this felid appears
to avoid human settlements, may mean that
it is facing particularly severe habitat loss due
to the logging of pristine forest (Hearn et al.
2008). While absence of evidence does not
constitute evidence of absence, the lack of re-
cords from peat-swamp forest may represent
a further restriction on the options open to bay
cats, which may be absent from the 68,000
peat-swamp forests in Kalimantan.
The Robertson Foundation provided funding for the
majority of the work through collaboration with the
Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, Department
of Zoology, University of Oxford. The fieldwork
was possible through the collaboration of many
individuals, organizations and universities: the Ou-
Trop-CIMTROP multi-disciplinary research project,
Balai Lingkungan Hidup in Purak Cahu, Pak Herry
Mulyadi Tuwan, Pak Purwanto, Pak Agusdin, Stan
Lhota, Gabriella Fredriksson, The Nature Conser-
vancy, Yayorin, the Bupati of Lamandau Regency,
Wehea Management Body, Lembaga Adat of Ne-
has Liah Bing, Dr. Chandradewana Boer, Dr Yaya
Rayadin, Dr Suwido H. Limin, Indonesian Ministry
of Science and Technology (RISTEK) and Director
General of Nature Conservation (PHKA). Additio-
nal financial support was provided by the Vanier
Canada Graduate Scholarship, Pierre Elliot Tru-
deau Foundation, LUSH Cosmetics, The Clouded
Leopard Project/Point Defiance Zoo and Aquarium,
Disney Worldwide Conservation Fund, Integrated
Conservation, International Animal Rescue, The
Barito River Initiative for Nature Conservation and
Communities (BRINCC), the Orangutan Foundation
UK and The Rufford Small Grants Foundation.
Bernard H., Baking E. L., Giordano A. J., Wearn O.
R & Hamid A. A. 2014. Small, Terrestrial mam-
mal species richness and composition in three
forest patches within an oil palm landscape in
Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Mammal Study 39,
Brodie J. & Giordano A. 2010. Small carnivores of
the Maliau Basin, Sabah, Borneo, including a
new locality for Hose’s Civet Diplogale hosei.
Small Carnivore Conservation 44, 1-6.
Gray J. E. 1874. Description of a new species of
cat (Felis badia) from Sarawak. Proceedings of
the Zoological Society of London 42, 322-325.
Hearn A., Sanderson J., Ross J., Wilting A. & Su-
narto S. 2008. Pardofelis badia. IUCN 2013.
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version
2013.1. <>. Accessed on
17 August 2013.
Mathai J., Hon J., Juat N., Peter A. & Gumal M.
2010. Small carnivores in a logging concession
in the Upper Baram, Sarawak, Borneo. Small
Carnivore Conservation 42, 1-9.
Mohamed A., Samejima H. & Wilting A. 2009.
Records of five Bornean cat species from Dera-
makot Forest Reserve in Sabah, Malaysia. Cat
News 51, 12-15.
Mohd.-Azlan J. & Engkamat J. 2013. Camera trap-
ping and conservation in Lambir Hills National
Park, Sarawak. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 52,
Mohd.-Azlan J. & Sanderson J. 2007. Geographic
distribution and conservation status of the bay
cat Catopuma badia, a Bornean endemic. Oryx
41, 394-394.
Povey K., Howard J.G., Sunarto, Priatna D., Ngo-
prasert D., Reed D., Wilting A., Lynam A., Hai-
dai I., Long B., Johnson A., Cheyne S. M., Brei-
tenmoser C., Traylor-Holzer K. & Byers O. 2009.
Clouded Leopard and Small Felid Conservation
Summit Final Report. IUCN/SSC Conservation
Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN.,
Bangkok, Thailand. 171 pp.
Rustam, Yasuda M. & Tsuyuki S. 2012. Comparison
of mammalian communities in a human-distur-
bed tropical landscape in East Kalimantan, In-
donesia. Mammal Study 37, 299-311.
Sunquist M. E., Leh C., Sunquist F., Hills D. M. &
Rajaratnam R. 1994. Rediscovery of the Borne-
an bay cat. Oryx 28, 67-70.
Sunquist M. & Sunquist F. 2002. Wild cats of the
world. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
462 pp.
Fig. 1. Bay cat pictured in Wehea Forest, Kalimantan.
Table 2. Camera placing and sightings of bay cats in relation to micro-site charac-
teristics. Number in brackets is the number of images of bay cats.
% cameras in
% cameras
in logged
% cameras in
sites which have
% cameras
in plantation
of bay cat
Kutai 31 (0) 0 69 (2) 0 2
77 (0) 0 23 (1) 0 1
Wehea 0 77 (2) 0 0 2
CATnews 62 Spring 2015
Sastramidjaja et al.
Wearn O. R., Rowcliffe J. M., Carbone C., Bernard
H. & Ewers R.M. 2013. Assessing the Status of
Wild Felids in a Highly-Disturbed Commercial
Forest Reserve in Borneo and the Implications
for Camera Trap Survey Design. PLoS One 8.
Yasuda M., Matsubayashi H., Rustam, Numata S.,
Rafiah J. A. S. & Abu Bakar S. 2007. Recent cat
records by camera traps in Peninsular Malay-
sia and Borneo. Cat News 47, 12-14.
Supporting Online Material SOM Table T1 and Fig-
ures F1-F2 are available at
Orang-utan Tropical Peatland Project, Jalan
Semeru No. 91, Bukit Hindu, Palangka Raya, In-
Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive,
Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada V5A 1S6
Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU),
Department of Zoology, Oxford University, The
Recanati-Kaplan Centre, Tubney House, Abing-
don Road, Tubney, OX13 5QL, UK.
The bay cat which is endemic to Borneo and
listed as Endangered under the IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species Version 2014.3 (Hearn
et al. 2008) is considered one of the rarest and
least known felids in the world (Azlan & San-
derson 2007). It has been recorded with two
colour phases, a reddish bay coat and bla-
ckish grey coat, the latter morph is thought to
be the rarer of the two (Kitchener et al. 2004,
Azlan & Sanderson 2007). It has been recor-
ded in a range of habitats including primary
forest (Yasuda et al. 2007) and regenerating
logged forest (Hearn & Bricknell 2003, Hon
2011), though not in monoculture plantations
(McShea et al. 2009, Ross et al. 2010).
Little is known about the ecology, popu-
lation biology and principle threats of the
bay cat (Mohamed et al. 2009). In Sarawak,
it has only been recorded in the northern
part in Mulu National Park (Dinets 2003)
and Pulong Tau National Park (Brodie &
Giordano 2012), and in the central part in
Lanjak Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary (Azlan
et al. 2003). The bay cat was also recorded
in a logging concession in the Anap Muput
Forest Management Unit (Hon 2011). Here,
we report images of a black morph bay cat
recorded from the Gunong Pueh Forest Re-
serve (GPFR) in the most western part of
Sarawak (Fig. 1).
Study area
In general, Gunong Pueh Forest Reserve
(GPFR) comprises of steep to very steep slo-
pes, scattered with boulders from the foot to
the peaks. Gunong Kanyi is the highest peak
recorded at 1600 m a.s.l. The mixed diptero-
carp forest is dominant while the montane
forest occurred close to and at the peak. The
GPFR was logged from the 1970s until the
late 1980s with most of the logged areas now
particularly in the middle range, and areas at
the peak have undergone new regeneration.
Between 2010 and 2014, logging activity was
carried out again but concentrated in the cen-
tral part. Even though, logging was carried
out twice in GPFR, not all areas are logged
because some areas are reserved as water
catchment. In some cases boulders naturally
prevent logging activity.
The study is a preliminary study on the ecolo-
gy of wild cat’s species in Sarawak. Reconyx
5.0MP (7 units) and Scout guard (10 units)
camera traps were used and randomly placed
on animal trails on the slopes and ridges from
350 m to 1150 m All camera traps were
running from January 2013 until August 2014
with an average distance between stations of
400 m to 3 km. Camera height from the ground
An interesting morph of the
Borneo bay cat in Sarawak,
Malaysian Borneo
A black morph Borneo bay cat Catopuma badia was recorded at Gunong Pueh
Forest Reserve, located in the most western part of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo.
This is the first record of a black morph from a survey effort totalling 10,066 trap
nights in which the species coloration recorded had either a reddish bay coat or
a blackish grey coat.
Table 3. 17 areas with information on Borneo bay cat in Indonesian Borneo from a
workshop in 2009 (Povey et al. 2009) and this study. NP = National Park, PF = Protection
Forest. FFI = Flora and Fauna International
Forest Patch Region Povey et al. 2009 This study (2011-2014)
Barito Ulu Central Kalimantan Detected 2003
Batu Beruk East Kalimantan Unknown
Bawan Central Kalimantan Not included Not detected
Belantikan Central Kalimantan Not included Not detected
Bukit Baka Bukit Raya NP Central and West
Bukit Soeharto East Kalimantan Unknown
FFI Area West Kalimantan Unknown
Gunung Palung NP West Kalimantan Detected 1996
Kelian PF East Kalimantan Unknown
Kutai NP East Kalimantan Not included Detected 2013
Lesan East Kalimantan Not included Not detected
Mungku Baru Central Kalimantan Not included Not detected
Murung Raya Central Kalimantan Not included Not detected
Sabangau Catchment Central Kalimantan Unknown Not detected
Sungai Wain PF East Kalimantan Detected 2005 Detected 2012
Tanjung Puting NP Central Kalimantan Detected ca. 1986
Wehea PF East Kalimantan Unknown Detected 2012 and 2013
... Although various methods are used to study wildlife populations, each method varies from others in terms of advantages and limitations in their applications (Wilson and Delahay 2001, Davison et al. 2002, Hoeven 2007, Boitani and Powell 2012, Mathai et al. 2013, Mills 2013, Buckland et al. 2015. Conventional methods predominantly used to study different aspects of wildlife populations such as population size, abundance and densities include transect and point count survey based on distance sampling techniques, and camera trap surveys following the SECR method (Arendt et al. 1999, Simon et al. 2002, Riley 2003, Lee and Marsden 2008, Sastramidjaja et al. 2015, Paddock et al. 2020. As with any wildlife survey methodology, these methods require researchers to follow standard protocols and assumptions, which if violated leads to misleading measurements that further results in erroneous inferences about population under study (Pollock et al. 2002, Lee and Marsden 2008, Foster and Harmsen 2012, Mathai et al. 2013. ...
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... Murung Raya is also likely to support all five felids. The flat-headed cat is a habitat-restricted species requiring wetlands (Wilting et al., 2010(Wilting et al., , 2016 and the bay cat has never been recorded in peat-swamp forest (Sastramidjaja et al., 2015) thus absence of these cats is not necessarily related to habitat disturbance. ...
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Using camera traps at eight grids across Indonesian Borneo we show how mammalian species assemblages can provide reliable information about how disturbance affects a forest. This enables us to use the large mammal community structure at each site to assess the impacts of human disturbance and habitat variables. Occupancy ranged from 0.01–0.77 with pig-tailed macaques, muntjac, orang-utans, sun bears, bearded pigs and common porcupines consistently having an occupancy of >0.5. These large mammals were generally making use of the whole forest surveyed and avoided the forest edge in only a few grids. A General Linear Model with general contrasts and survey effort as a covariate was performed to assess the impact of different variables. Logging and hunting were positively associated with low species number (F=6.3, p=0.012 and F=5.4, p=0.003 respectively). Logging and hunting contributed to a low % of carnivorous species (F=1.5, p=0.021 and F=4.8, p=0.041 respectively) and a higher % of IUCN Endangered and Vulnerable species (F=5.9, p=0.044 and F=5.0, p=0.044 respectively). The presence of burnt areas within the study grids was positively associated with reduced species numbers (F=5.3, p=0.018) and reducted % of carnivorous species (F=6.8, p=0.023) but not the % of IUCN Endangered and Vulnerable species. This is likely a result of burnt areas reducing the area of suitable habitat for many mammals. The proximity of the grids to roads, villages, rivers and presence of logging camps have been proposed as suitable parameters to indicate disturbance. In our study none of these parameters significantly affected the total species numbers, % of carnivores, and % of IUCN concern (Endangered and Vulnerable), nor did the protected status of the forest. We have identified 4 species as specific indicators whose presence or absence can help determine the type and/or extent of forest disturbance and/or be a proxy indicator for the presence of other species. Leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) and pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina, generalists); sambar deer (Rusa unicolour, large, wide-ranging herbivores) and clouded leopards (Neofelis diardi) as a proxy for at least 2 of the smaller felid species.
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Sarawak is the largest state in the megadiverse country of Malaysia. Its rich biodiversity is threatened by land-use change and hunting, with mammalian carnivores particularly affected. Data on the ecology, occurrence and distribution of small carnivores are crucial to inform their effective conservation, but no large-scale assessments have previously been conducted in Sarawak. Here we examine the status of the five species of felids in Sarawak based on data from camera-trap studies over 17 years (May 2003–February 2021) across 31 study areas, including protected areas of various sizes, production forests and forest matrix within oil palm plantations. Felids were detected at 39% of 845 camera stations. The marbled cat Pardofelis marmorata and Sunda clouded leopard Neofelis diardi had higher probabilities of occurrence in protected than unprotected areas, and vice versa for the leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis and bay cat Catopuma badia . The marbled and bay cats were mostly diurnal, and the leopard cat was predominantly nocturnal; activity patterns did not substantively differ between protected and unprotected sites. The probabilities of occurrence of marbled and bay cats increased with greater distance from roads. The leopard cat and flat-headed cat Prionailurus planiceps were more likely, and the clouded leopard less likely, to occur near rivers. Flat-headed cats preferred peat swamp forest, bay cats lowland forest, and marbled cats and clouded leopards occurred in both lowland and montane forest. Felids may tolerate higher elevations to avoid anthropogenic disturbance; therefore, it is critical to preserve lowland and mid-elevation habitats that provide refugia from climate change and the destruction of lowland habitat.
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The main achievements in applying modern reproductive technologies to the banking of the genetic resources of the Felidae family are reviewed. The classification of felids at the level of species and subspecies is revised in the light of recent molecular data. Special emphasis is made on such mainstream technologies as semen collection and cryopreservation followed by artificial insemination, as well as on in vitro maturation and fertilization of oocytes combined with the culture of in vitro-derived felid embryos.
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Small and highly degraded forest patches are usually scattered across oil palm plantation landscapes and often exist as permanent features. By using a combination of camera-trapping and line-transect methods, we evaluated the usefulness of three such forest patches (< 30 ha) for terrestrial mammal species conservation in a mature oil palm plantation located near (< 1.7 km) a large continuous tract of logged forest in eastern Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Of the 29 terrestrial mammal species recorded in this study, 28 were found in the continuous logged forest habitat including six species that are either large-bodied, wide ranging, locally rare or are of high conservation concern. In comparison, 18 species were recorded across the three forest patches collectively; consisting mostly of species that are widespread, well-adapted to living in highly modified habitats and of low conservation concern. The presence of small forest patches within the oil palm habitat matrix seemed to be useful to some extent for some mammal species. However, many of the species were likely only transient in this habitat. The maintenance of large continuous tracts of natural forest is critical to the continued survival of many terrestrial mammal species on Borneo, particularly for species that are of high conservation value.
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The proliferation of camera-trapping studies has led to a spate of extensions in the known distributions of many wild cat species, not least in Borneo. However, we still do not have a clear picture of the spatial patterns of felid abundance in Southeast Asia, particularly with respect to the large areas of highly-disturbed habitat. An important obstacle to increasing the usefulness of camera trap data is the widespread practice of setting cameras at non-random locations. Non-random deployment interacts with non-random space-use by animals, causing biases in our inferences about relative abundance from detection frequencies alone. This may be a particular problem if surveys do not adequately sample the full range of habitat features present in a study region. Using camera-trapping records and incidental sightings from the Kalabakan Forest Reserve, Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, we aimed to assess the relative abundance of felid species in highly-disturbed forest, as well as investigate felid space-use and the potential for biases resulting from non-random sampling. Although the area has been intensively logged over three decades, it was found to still retain the full complement of Bornean felids, including the bay cat Pardofelis badia, a poorly known Bornean endemic. Camera-trapping using strictly random locations detected four of the five Bornean felid species and revealed inter- and intra-specific differences in space-use. We compare our results with an extensive dataset of >1,200 felid records from previous camera-trapping studies and show that the relative abundance of the bay cat, in particular, may have previously been underestimated due to the use of non-random survey locations. Further surveys for this species using random locations will be crucial in determining its conservation status. We advocate the more wide-spread use of random survey locations in future camera-trapping surveys in order to increase the robustness and generality of inferences that can be made.
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To examine the impact of human disturbance on mammalian community in a human-disturbed tropical landscape in Borneo, we conducted a baited camera trapping study in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, from 2005 to 2010. Along a gradient of habitat degradation, we established four camera trapping sites within a 20-km radius, one in Sungai Wain Protection Forest and three in Bukit Soeharto Grand Forest Park. From the camera trapping carried out for 1,017 camera-days, we obtained 3,753 images of 29 mammal species, including an alien species, the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris). The trapping efficiency and species composition of mammals recorded differed between the two kinds of bait (banana and shrimp). The number of species decreased, and the species composition changed along the gradient of habitat degradation, suggesting that human-mediated habitat degradation has a significant effect on the mammalian communities. Our results suggest that forest cover is essential for at least 14 out of 29 recorded mammal species to survive, and that the forest fires and habitat isolation strongly affect particular species, i.e. Lariscus insignis and Trichys fasciculata (Rodentia) and Arctogalidia trivirgata (Carnivora)
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Despite being one of the rarest felids in the world the Endangered Bornean bay cat Catopuma badia has received little conservation attention. Most information consists of historical records, morpholo- gical descriptions, and anecdotes from various sources. During 2003-2006 we undertook surveys using camera trapping, interviews and field observations, to determine the species' distribution and document any threats to its persistence. We also examined museum specimens and completed a thorough literature review, collecting 15 additional geographic records throughout Borneo. Our results show that opportunistic hunting and land use changes are the main threats to the bay cat, and we make recommendations for its conservation.
The bay cat Catopuma badia has been rediscovered in Borneo, where it is endemic and where there have been no confirmed sightings since 1928. In November 1992 an adult female, which had been captured by native trappers on the Sarawak-Indonesian border and kept in captivity for some months, was brought into the Sarawak Museum on the point of death. It was only the seventh known specimen and the first of a whole animal. In appearance it bears a striking resemblance to Temminck's cat C. temminckii, although it is much smaller. Genetic analysis of blood and tissue samples will assist in clarifying its taxonomic status.